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State of Kuwait
دولة الكويت
Dawlat al-Kuwait
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAl-Nasheed Al-Watani
(and largest city)
Kuwait City
29°22′N 47°58′E / 29.367°N 47.967°E / 29.367; 47.967
Official language(s) Arabic,English spoken widely
Demonym Kuwaiti
Government Constitutional hereditary emirate[1]
 -  Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
 -  Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah
 -  First Settlement 1613 
 -  Bani Utbah tribe foundation 1705 
 -  Anglo-Ottoman Convention 1913 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 19 June 1961 
 -  Total 20,000 km2 (157th)
6,880 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
 -   estimate 2,985,000[2] (137th)
 -  Density 167.5/km2 (68th)
433.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $137.450 billion[3] (56th)
 -  Per capita $38,875[3] (11th)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $114.878 billion[3] (51st)
 -  Per capita $32,491[3] (17th)
HDI (2007) 0.916[4] (very high) (31st)
Currency Kuwaiti dinar (KWD)
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) (not observed) (UTC+3)
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .kw
Calling code 965

The State of Kuwait (Arabic: دولة الكويت‎, dawlat al-kuwayt) is a sovereign Arab emirate situated in the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and Iraq to the north and lies on the northwestern shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the Arabic "akwat", the plural of "kout", meaning fortress built near water.[5] The emirate covers an area of 20,000 square kilometres (6,880 sq mi) and has a population of about 3.0 million.

Historically, the region was the site of Characene, a major Parthian port for trade between India and Mesopotamia. The Bani Utbah tribe were the first permanent Arab settlers in the region and laid the foundation of the modern emirate. By 19th century, Kuwait came under the influence of the Ottoman Empire and after the World War I, it emerged as an independent sheikhdom under the protection of the British Empire. Kuwait's large oil fields were discovered in the late 1930s. After it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1961, the nation's oil industry saw unprecedented growth. In 1990, Kuwait was invaded and annexed by neighboring Iraq. The seven month-long Iraqi occupation came to an end after a direct military intervention by United States-led forces. Nearly 773 Kuwaiti oil wells were set ablaze by the retreating Iraqi army resulting in a major environmental and economic catastrophe.[6] Kuwait's infrastructure was badly damaged during the war and had to be rebuilt.[7]

Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, with Kuwait City serving as the country's political and economic capital. The country has the world's fifth largest oil reserves[8] and petroleum and petroleum products now account for nearly 95% of export revenues, and 80% of government income.[9] Kuwait is the eleventh richest country in the world per capita and has the highest human development index (HDI) in the Arab world.[10] Kuwait is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and is designated as a major non-NATO ally of the United States.[11]


History of Kuwait

In the 4th century B.C., the ancient Greeks colonized an island off Kuwait's coast, now known as Failaka, and named it "Ikaros".[12] By 123 B.C., the region came under the influence of the Parthian Empire and was closely associated with the southern Mesopotamian town of Charax.[13] In 224 A.D., the region fell under the control of Sassanid Empire and came to be known as Hajar.[14] By 14th century, the area comprising modern-day Kuwait became a part of the Islamic caliphate.[15]

The first permanent settlers in the region came from Bani Khalid tribe of Nejd and established the state of Kuwait.[15] In 1756, the people elected Sabah I bin Jaber as the first Amir of Kuwait.[16] The current ruling family of Kuwait, al-Sabah, are descendants of Sabah I. During the rule of the Al-Sabah, Kuwait progressively became a center of trade and commerce. It now served as a hub of trade between India, the horn of Africa, the Nejd, Mesopotamia and the Levant. Up until the advent of Japanese pearl farming, Kuwait had one of the largest sea fleets in the Persian Gulf region and a flourishing pearling industry. Trade consisted mainly of pearls, wood, spices, dates and horses.

By late 19th century, much of the Arabian Peninsula came under the influence of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans acknowledged the autonomy of al-Sabah dynasty but still claimed sovereignty over Kuwait.[17] In the year 1899, Kuwait entered into a treaty with the United Kingdom that gave the British extensive control over the foreign policy of Kuwait in exchange for protection and annual subsidy.[18] This treaty was primarily prompted by fears that the proposed Berlin-Baghdad Railway would lead to an expansion of German influence in the Persian Gulf. After the signing of the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, then Amir of Kuwait, Mubarak Al-Sabah, was diplomatically recognized by both the Ottomans and British as the ruler of the autonomous caza of the city of Kuwait and the hinterlands.[19] However, soon after the start of World War I, the British invalidated the convention and declared Kuwait an independent principality under the protection of the British Empire.[17] The 1922 Treaty of Uqair set Kuwait's border with Saudi Arabia and also established the Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone, an area of about 5,180 km² adjoining Kuwait's southern border.

On 19 June 1961, Kuwait became fully independent following an exchange of notes between the United Kingdom and the then Amir of Kuwait, Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah.[19] The Gulf rupee, issued by the Reserve Bank of India, was replaced by the Kuwaiti dinar. The discovery of large oil fields, especially the Burgan field, triggered a large influx of foreign investments into Kuwait. The massive growth of the petroleum industry transformed Kuwait from a poor pearl farming community into one of the richest countries in the Arabian Peninsula and by 1952, the country became the largest exporter of oil in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Egypt and India.

Kuwait settled its boundary disputes with Saudi Arabia and agreed on sharing equally the neutral zone's petroleum reserves, onshore and offshore. After a brief stand-off over boundary issues, Iraq formally recognized Kuwait's independence and its borders in October 1963. During the 1970s, the Kuwaiti government nationalized the Kuwait Oil Company, ending its partnership with Gulf Oil and British Petroleum.

In 1982, Kuwait experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash and decrease in oil price.[20] However, the crisis was short-lived as Kuwait's oil production increased steadily to fill the gap caused by decrease in Iraq's and Iran's oil production levels following the events of the Iran–Iraq War. In 1983, a series of six bomb explosions took place in Kuwait killing five people. The attack was carried out by Shiite Dawa Party to retaliate Kuwait's financial support to Iraq during its war with Iran.[21]

USAF aircraft (F-16, F-15C and F-15E) fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Kuwait had heavily funded Iraq's eight year-long war with Iran. After the war ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt.[22] An economic warfare between the two countries followed after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent.[23] Tensions between the two countries increased further after Iraq alleged that Kuwait was slant drilling oil from its share of the Rumaila field.[23]

On 2 August, 1990 Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. Saddam Hussein, then President of Iraq, deposed the Amir of Kuwait, Jaber Al-Sabah, and installed Ali Hassan al-Majid as the new governor of Kuwait.[24] During the Iraqi occupation, about 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed and more than 300,000 residents fled the country.[25] After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States-led coalition of thirty-four nations fought the Persian Gulf War to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait. On February 26, 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces, restoring the Kuwaiti Amir to power.[26] Kuwait paid the coalition forces US$17 billion for their war efforts.[26]

During their retreat, the Iraqi armed forces carried out a scorched earth policy by damaging 737 oil wells in Kuwait, of which approximately 600 were set on fire.[27] It was estimated that by the time Kuwait was liberated from Iraqi occupation, about 5 to 6 million barrels (950,000 m3) of oil was being burned in a single day because of these fires.[28] Oil and soot accumulation had affected the entire Persian Gulf region and large oil lakes were created holding approximately 25 to 50 million barrels (7,900,000 m3) of oil[29] and covering 5% of Kuwait's land area.[27] In total, about 11 million barrels (1,700,000 m3) of oil was released into the Persian Gulf[30] and an additional 2% of Kuwait's 96 billion barrels (1.53×1010 m3) of crude oil reserves were burned by the time the oil fires were brought under control.[31] The fires took more than nine months to extinguish fully and it took Kuwait more than 2 years and US$50 billion in infrastructure reconstruction to reach pre-invasion oil output.[32] Kuwait has since largely recovered from the socio-economic, environmental, and public health effects of the Persian Gulf War.


A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1991. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.

Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy and has the oldest directly elected parliament among the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The head of state is the Emir or Sheikh, a hereditary office. A council of ministers, also known as cabinet ministers, aids the Prime Minister in his task as the head of Government of Kuwait which must contain at least one elected member of the Kuwaiti parliament, known as Majlis Al-Umma (National Assembly). The National Assembly has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister or any member of cabinet through a series of constitutional procedures. All cabinet ministers are answerable to the National Assembly.[33]

The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members, who are chosen in elections held every four years. Government ministers are also granted membership in the parliament and can number up to sixteen excluding the fifty elected members. According to the Constitution of Kuwait, nomination of a new Emir or Crown Prince by the ruling Al-Sabah family has to be approved by the National Assembly. If the nominee does not win the votes of the majority of the assembly, the royal family must submit the names of three other candidates to the National Assembly, and the Assembly must approve one of them to hold the post. Any amendment to the constitution can be proposed by the Emir but it needs to be approved by more than two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly before being implemented.[34]

There have been several conflicts between the Emir, the government and the National Assembly over various policies. The National Assembly was suspended from 1976 to 1981, from 1986 to 1991 and from May 1999 to July 1999 due to irresolvable conflicts between some members of the government and the Assembly.[33] The Assembly was dissolved again in May 2009 by the Emir leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Sheik Nasser Mohammad al-Ahmad al-Sabah and the rest of the Cabinet.[35] Nationwide elections were held on May 16, 2009.[36]

More than two-thirds of those who reside in Kuwait do not hold Kuwaiti citizenship and thus cannot vote in parliamentary elections. Additionally, prior to 2005, only 15% of the Kuwaiti citizen population was allowed to vote, with all "recently naturalized" citizens (i.e. those of less than thirty years' citizenship), and members of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces excluded. On 16 May 2005, Parliament permitted women's suffrage by a 35-23 vote.

The decision raised Kuwait's eligible voter population from 139,000 to about 339,000. In 2006, Kuwaiti citizens were estimated to be more than 960,000. In 2005, the former Prime Minister Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah announced the appointment of the first women as a cabinet minister, Massouma Mubarak. She was designated the post of Planning Minister and Minister of State for Administrative Development Affairs.[37] During the 2008 parliamentary elections, 27 of the 275 candidates were women. However, none of them won.[38] In the parliamentary elections on 16 May 2009, 16 female candidates contested for 50 seats for a four-year term. Four female candidates won their seats and became Kuwait's first female lawmakers.[39]

Geography and climate

Sandstorm over Kuwait in April, 2003

Located in the north-east corner of the Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait is one of the smallest countries in the world in terms of land area. The flat, sandy Arabian Desert covers most of Kuwait. There is little difference in the country's altitude with the highest point in the country being 306 m above sea-level.[9] It has nine islands, all of which with the exception of Failaka Island are uninhabited.[40] With an area of 860 km², the Bubiyan is the largest island in Kuwait and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2,380 m long bridge.[41] The land area is considered arable[9] and sparse vegetation is found along its 499 km long coastline.[9] Kuwait City is located on Kuwait Bay, a natural deep-water harbor.

Kuwait has some of the world's richest oil fields with the Burgan field having a total capacity of approximately 70 billion barrels (1.1×1010 m3) of proven oil reserves. During the 1991 Kuwaiti oil fires, more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about 35.7 km².[42] The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and south-eastern parts of Kuwait uninhabitable. Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semi-asphalt surfaces.[28] The oil spills during the Persian Gulf War also drastically affected Kuwait's marine resources.[43]

The spring season in March is warm and pleasant with occasional thunderstorms. The frequent winds from the northwest are cold in winter and spring and hot in summer. Southeasterly winds, usually hot and damp, spring up between July and October; hot and dry south winds prevail in spring and early summer. The shamal, a northwesterly wind common during June and July, causes dramatic sandstorms.[44]

Climate data for Kuwait
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °F (°C) 54
Average low °F (°C) 36
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.39
Source:[45] 2010-3-8


Map of Kuwait

Kuwait is divided into six governorates (muhafazat, sing. muhafadhah):

The governorates are subdivided into districts.

The major cities are the capital Kuwait City and Jahrah (a thirty-minute drive northwest of Kuwait City). The main residential and commercial areas are Salmiya and Hawalli. The main industrial area is Shuwaikh within the Al Asimah Governorate. The main palace is the As-Seef Palace in the old part of Kuwait City where the Emir runs the daily matters of the country whilst the government headquarters are in the Bayan Palace and the Emir lives in Dar Salwa.


Kuwait City, the main economic hub of the country.
An oil refinery in Mina-Al-Ahmadi, Kuwait.

Kuwait has a GDP (PPP) of US$157.9 billion[46] and a per capita income of US$60,800,[46] making it the 5th richest country in the world.[10] Kuwait's human development index (HDI) stands at 0.912, the second highest in Middle East after Israel, and the highest in the Arab world. With a GDP growth rate of 5.7%, Kuwait has one of the fastest growing economies in the region.[46]

According to the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom, Kuwait has the second-most free economy in the Middle East.[47] In March 2007, Kuwait's foreign exchange reserves stood at US$213 billion.[48] The Kuwait Stock Exchange, which has about 200 firms listed, is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world with a total market capitalization of US$235 billion.[49] In 2007, the Kuwaiti government posted a budget surplus of US$43 billion.[50]

Kuwait has a proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels (15 km³),[46] estimated to be 10% of the world's reserves. According to the Kuwaiti constitution, all natural resources in the country and associated revenues are government property.[51] Being a tax-free country, Kuwait's oil industry accounts for 80% of government revenue. Petroleum and petrochemicals accounts for nearly half of GDP and 95% of export revenues. Increase in oil prices since 2003 resulted in a surge in Kuwait's economy.[52]

Kuwait's current oil production of 2.8 million bpd is expected to increase to 4 million bpd by 2020.[53] To realize this production target, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation plans to spend US$51 billion between 2007 to 2012 to upgrade and expand the country's existing refineries.[54] However, the country's economy was badly affected by the global financial crisis of 2008.[55] In 2009, the Central Bank of Kuwait devised a US$5.15 billion stimulus package to help boost the economy.[56]

The headquarters of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) in Kuwait City.

Other major industries include shipping, construction, cement, water desalination, construction materials and financial services.[46] Kuwait has a well developed banking system and several banks in the country date back to the time before oil was discovered. Founded in 1952, the National Bank of Kuwait is the largest bank in the country and one of the largest in the Arab world.[57] Other prominent financial institutions based in Kuwait include the Gulf Bank of Kuwait and Burgan Bank, which is named after the largest oilfield in the country.

Kuwait's climate limits agricultural development. Consequently, with the exception of fish, it depends almost wholly on food imports. About 75% of potable water must be distilled or imported. The government is keen on decreasing Kuwait's dependence on oil to fuel its economy by transforming it into a regional trading and tourism hub. The planned US$77 billion City of Silk is the largest real estate development project in the Middle East.[48] The Central Bank issues Kuwait’s currency, the Kuwaiti dinar. In December 2007, the dinar is the highest-valued currency unit in the world.[58]

In 2007, estimated exports stood at US$59.97 billion and imports were around US$17.74 billion. Petroleum, petrochemical products, fertilizers and financial services are major export commodities. Kuwait imports a wide range of products ranging from food products and textiles to machinery. Kuwait's most important trading partners are Japan, United States, India, South Korea, Singapore, China, European Union and Saudi Arabia.[46] Japan is the largest customer of Kuwaiti oil followed by India, Singapore and South Korea.[59]


Shoppers at "The Avenues", a local mall.

As of 2007, Kuwait's population was estimated to be 3 to 3.5 million people, which included approximately 2 million non-nationals.[60] Kuwaiti citizens are therefore a minority of those who reside in Kuwait. The government rarely grants citizenship to foreigners to maintain status.[61] In 2008, 68.4% of the population consisted of expatriates.[62] The net migration rate of the country stood at 16.01, the third highest in the world.[63]

About 57% of the Kuwaiti population is Arab, 39% Asian, and 4% are classified Bidoon (stateless Arabs).[19] In 2009, more than 580,000 Indian nationals lived in Kuwait, making them the single largest expatriate community there.[64][65] In 2003, there were also an estimated 260,000 Egyptians, 100,000 Syrians and 80,000 Iranians in Kuwait.[66] After Kuwait was liberated from Iraqi occupation, most of the 400,000 Palestinians living in Kuwait were expelled because of their government's open support for the Iraqi forces.[67]

Kuwait's official language is Arabic, though English is widely spoken. Other important languages include Persian,[68] Hindi, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil, Urdu, Bengali, and Filipino.

Majority of Kuwait's population identify themselves as Muslims. Estimates of the percentage of people in Kuwait who practise Islam vary between 85%[69] and 95%.[70] Despite Islam being the state religion,[71] Kuwait has large a community of Christians (est. 300,000 to 400,000), Hindus (est. 300,000), Buddhists (est. 100,000), and Sikhs (est. 10,000).[72] Hindus account for the largest number of expatriates in Kuwait.[73] Members of religious groups not sanctioned in the Quran, such as Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists, are not allowed to build places of worship or other religious facilities.[74] However, these groups are allowed to worship privately in their homes and can engage in religious activities, including public marriage and other celebrations, without government interference.[75]


Kuwait Towers, one of the country's most famous landmarks.

The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle is prominent as well.[76] The most distinctive characteristic of local Kuwaiti culture are dewaniyas, large reception rooms used for male social gatherings attended mostly by family members and close friends. While, unlike neighboring Saudi Arabia, the Islamic dress code is not compulsory, many of the older Kuwaiti men prefer wearing dish dasha, an ankle-length white shirt woven from wool or cotton while the minority of women wear abaya, black over-garment covering most parts of the body. This attire is particularly well-suited for Kuwait's hot and dry climate.[77] Western-style clothing is also fairly popular, especially among Kuwait's youth.

Seafood has been the mainstay of the Kuwaiti diet for centuries.[78] The Arabs in the Persian Gulf region played a crucial role in the spice trade between India and Europe and spices have remained an important ingredient of Kuwaiti cuisine. Traditional Kuwaiti cuisine includes "Machboos diyay, machboos laham, maraq diyay laham" which borrows heavily from South Asian cuisine and persian cuisine. As in other Persian Gulf states, Kuwait takes part in the tradition of Qarqe'an during the month of Ramadan.

Before the discovery of oil, pearling formed a crucial part of Kuwait's economy. Pearl fishery, known as ghaus, suffered decline after the advent of Japanese pearl farming.[79] However, Kuwait's pearl industry laid the foundation of its rich maritime history. Dhows, large wooden ships made from teak wood imported from India,[79] became an indistinct part of Kuwait's maritime fleet and dhow building is still practiced in this Persian Gulf state.[80]

Kuwait's architecture is largely inspired by Islamic architecture. The most prominent landmark in country, the Kuwait Towers, were designed by Swedish architect Sune Lindström and are a unique blend of traditional minaret and modern architectural designs. The National Assembly of Kuwait, another famous landmark building, was designed by the famous Danish architect Jørn Utzon and completed in 1972.

Sawt is the most prominent style of Kuwaiti music and is performed by 'ud/oud (plucked lute) and mirwas (a drum), with a violin later supplementing the arrangement. The Bedouins are known for an instrument called the rubabah, while the use of oud, tanbarah (string instrument) and habban (bagpipe) are also widespread.[81]


A highway in Kuwait City.

Kuwait has an extensive, modern and well-maintained network of highways. Roadways extended 5,749 km, of which 4,887 km is paved.[9] In 2000, there were some 552,400 passenger cars, and 167,800 commercial taxis, trucks, and buses in use. Since there is no railway system in the country, most of the people travel by automobiles.[82] The government plans to construct US$11 billion rail network which will include a city metro for its capital.[83] Bus services are provided by City Bus and state-owned Kuwait Public Transportation Corporation.[84]

There is only one civil airport in Kuwait[85].Kuwait International Airport serves as the principal hub for international air travel. State-owned Kuwait Airways is the largest airline in the country. In 2001, the airline carried 2,084,600 passengers on domestic and international flights.[82] In 2004, the first private airline of Kuwait, Jazeera Airways, was launched.[86] In 2005, the second private airline, Wataniya Airways of Kuwait was founded.

Kuwait has one of the largest shipping industries in the Persian Gulf region. The Kuwait Ports Public Authority manages and operates ports across Kuwait.[87] The country’s principal commercial seaports are Shuwaikh and Shuaiba which handled combined cargo of 753,334 TEU in 2006.[88] Mina Al-Ahmadi, the largest port in the country, handles most of Kuwait's oil exports.[89] Construction of another major port located in Bubiyan island started in 2005. The port is expected to handle 1.3 million TEU when operation starts in 2008.[90]


The 372 m tall Kuwait Telecommunications Tower (leftmost) is the main communication tower of Kuwait.

Kuwait has one of the most vocal and transparent media in the Arab World.[91] In 2007, Kuwait was ranked first in the Middle East and the Arab League in the freedom of press index.[92] Though the government funds several leading newspapers and satellite channels,[93] Kuwaiti journalists enjoy greater freedom than their regional counterparts.[91] State-owned Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) is the largest media house in the country. The Ministry of Information regulates all media and communication industry in Kuwait.[94]

In 1998, there were 15 media stations, which are 6 AM and 11 FM radio stations and 13 television stations. In 2000, there were 624 radios and 486 television sets for every 1,000 people. In 2001, there were 165,000 Internet subscribers served by three service providers.[95] Kuwait has ten satellite television channels of which four are controlled by the Ministry of Information. State-owned Kuwait Television (KTV) offered first colored broadcast in 1974 and operates five television channels.[95] Government-funded Radio Kuwait also offers daily informative programming in four foreign languages including Persian, Urdu, Tagalog and English on the AM and SW.

In 2009, Kuwait had seventeen newspapers companies in circulation. In 2002, the Arab Times was the most popular English daily, followed by the Kuwait Times. Al-Anabaa, with a circulation of 106,800 copies, was the most widely read Arabic daily.[95] Currently, there are around 15 Arabic daily newspapers besides the English newspapers. A press law forbids insulting references to God and Islamic prophet Muhammad. Another law which made leading newspaper publishers eligible for hefty fines for criticizing the ruling family was lifted in 1992. Leading newspapers continue to impose self-restraint while being critical of the emir.[96] However, no such restraint is observed while criticizing the government.[95]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace[3] Global Peace Index[97] 42 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 31 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 66 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 39 out of 133

See also


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  4. ^ "Human Development Report 2009: Kuwait". The United Nations. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
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  8. ^ Oil & Gas Journal, January, 2007
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  25. ^ The Use of Terror during Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
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  57. ^ About NBK
  58. ^ Floating exchange rate data taken from on 22 December 2007.
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External links


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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary


Proper noun

Koweït m.

  1. Kuwait

Derived terms

  • Koweïti
  • koweïtien


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