Kraken: Wikis

  
  
  

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Pen and wash drawing by malacologist Pierre Dénys de Montfort, 1801, from the descriptions of French sailors reportedly attacked by such a creature off the coast of Angola.
Kraken (pronounced /ˈkreɪkən/ or /ˈkrɑːkən/)[1] are mythical sea monsters of gargantuan size, said to have dwelt off the coasts of Norway and Iceland. The sheer size and fearsome appearance attributed to the beasts have made them common ocean-dwelling monsters in various fictional works (see Kraken in popular culture). The legend may actually have originated from sightings of real giant squid that are variously estimated to grow to 13–15 m (40–50 ft) in length, including the tentacles.[2][3] These creatures normally live at great depths, but have been sighted at the surface and reportedly have "attacked" ships.[4]
Kraken is the definite article form of krake, a Scandinavian word designating an unhealthy animal, or something twisted.[5] In modern German, Krake (plural and declined singular: Kraken) means octopus, but can also refer to the legendary Kraken.[6]
Pierre Dénys de Montfort's "Poulpe Colossal" attacks a merchant ship.

Contents

History

Even though the name kraken never appears in the Norse sagas, there are similar sea monsters, the hafgufa and lyngbakr, both described in Örvar-Odds saga as a giant spider-creature. the Norwegian text from c. 1250, Konungs skuggsjá.[7] Carolus Linnaeus included kraken as cephalopods with the scientific name Microcosmus in the first edition of his Systema Naturae (1735), a taxonomic classification of living organisms, but excluded the animal in later editions. Kraken were also extensively described by Erik Pontoppidan, bishop of Bergen, in his "Natural History of Norway" (Copenhagen, 1752–3). Early accounts, including Pontoppidan's, describe the kraken as an animal "the size of a floating island" whose real danger for sailors was not the creature itself, but the whirlpool it created after quickly descending back into the ocean. However, Pontoppidan also described the destructive potential of the giant beast: "It is said that if it grabbed the largest warship, it could manage to pull it down to the bottom of the ocean" (Sjögren, 1980). Kraken were always distinct from sea serpents, also common in Scandinavian lore (Jörmungandr for instance). A representative early description is given by the Swede Jacob Wallenberg in his book Min son på galejan ("My son on the galley") from 1781:
... Kraken, also called the Crab-fish, which [according to the pilots of Norway] is not that huge, for heads and tails counted, he is no larger than our Öland is wide [i.e. less than 16 km] ... He stays at the sea floor, constantly surrounded by innumerable small fishes, who serve as his food and are fed by him in return: for his meal, if I remember correctly what E. Pontoppidan writes, lasts no longer than three months, and another three are then needed to digest it. His excrements nurture in the following an army of lesser fish, and for this reason, fishermen plumb after his resting place ... Gradually, Kraken ascends to the surface, and when he is at ten to twelve fathoms, the boats had better move out of his vicinity, as he will shortly thereafter burst up, like a floating island, spurting water from his dreadful nostrils and making ring waves around him, which can reach many miles. Could one doubt that this is the Leviathan of Job?
According to Pontoppidan, Norwegian fishermen often took the risk of trying to fish over kraken, since the catch was so good. .If a fisherman had an unusually good catch, they used to say to each other, "You must have fished on Kraken."^ Though this item is still extremely expensive when sold through shouts I'm sure you've noticed that it's not as expensive as it used to be as are many other items.
  • Allakhazam.com: Final Fantasy XI: Item: Kraken Club 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC ffxi.allakhazam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply to this ChocoboDragoon Sage Books 382 posts Score: Good smsimps wrote: You actually can make statistics say whatever you want.
  • Allakhazam.com: Final Fantasy XI: Item: Kraken Club 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC ffxi.allakhazam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To use a more simple example, let's say you flip two coins.
  • Allakhazam.com: Final Fantasy XI: Item: Kraken Club 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC ffxi.allakhazam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pontoppidan also claimed that the monster was sometimes mistaken for an island, and that some maps that included islands that were only sometimes visible were actually indicating kraken. Pontoppidan also proposed that a young specimen of the monster once died and was washed ashore at Alstahaug (Bengt Sjögren, 1980).
Imaginary view of a gigantic squid seizing a ship.
Since the late 18th century, kraken have been depicted in a number of ways, primarily as large octopus-like creatures, and it has often been alleged that Pontoppidan's kraken might have been based on sailors' observations of the giant squid. .In the earliest descriptions, however, the creatures were more crab- like than octopus-like, and generally possessed traits that are associated with large whales rather than with giant squid.^ However, the development team would like to grant players more opportunities to obtain it.” So I believe that the drop rate remains at around 5%.
  • Allakhazam.com: Final Fantasy XI: Item: Kraken Club 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC ffxi.allakhazam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some traits of kraken resemble undersea volcanic activity occurring in the Iceland region, including bubbles of water; sudden, dangerous currents; and appearance of new islets.
In 1802, the French malacologist Pierre Dénys de Montfort recognized the existence of two kinds of giant octopus in Histoire Naturelle Générale et Particulière des Mollusques, an encyclopedic description of mollusks. Montfort claimed that the first type, the kraken octopus, had been described by Norwegian sailors and American whalers, as well as ancient writers such as Pliny the Elder. The much larger second type, the colossal octopus (depicted in the above image), was reported to have attacked a sailing vessel from Saint-Malo, off the coast of Angola.
Montfort later dared more sensational claims. He proposed that ten British warships that had mysteriously disappeared one night in 1782 must have been attacked and sunk by giant octopuses. Unfortunately for Montfort, the British knew what had happened to the ships, resulting in a disgraceful revelation for Montfort. Pierre Dénys de Montfort's career never recovered and he died starving and poor in Paris around 1820 (Sjögren, 1980). In defence of Pierre Dénys de Montfort, it should be noted that many of his sources for the "kraken octopus" probably described the very real giant squid, proven to exist in 1857.
The Kraken by Tennyson
 Below the thunders of the upper deep;
 Far far beneath in the abysmal sea,
 His ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep
 The Kraken sleepeth: faintest sunlights flee
 About his shadowy sides; above him swell
 Huge sponges of millennial growth and height;
 And far away into the sickly light,
 From many a wondrous grot and secret cell
 Unnumber'd and enormous polypi
 Winnow with giant arms the slumbering green.
 There hath he lain for ages, and will lie
 Battening upon huge seaworms in his sleep,
 Until the latter fire shall heat the deep;
 Then once by man and angels to be seen,
 In roaring he shall rise and on the surface die.
In 1830, possibly aware of Pierre Dénys de Montfort's work, Alfred Tennyson published his popular poem "The Kraken" (essentially an irregular sonnet), which disseminated Kraken in English with its long-standing superfluous the. The poem in its last three lines, also bears similarities to the legend of Leviathan, a sea monster, who shall rise to the surface at the end of days.
Tennyson's description apparently influenced Jules Verne's imagined lair of the famous giant squid in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea from 1870. Verne also makes numerous references to Kraken, and Bishop Pontoppidan in the novel.
Later developments of the Kraken image may be traced at Kraken in popular culture.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1989. 
  2. ^ O'Shea, S. 2003. "Giant Squid and Colossal Squid Fact Sheet". The Octopus News Magazine Online.
  3. ^ Boyle, Peter; Rodhouse, Paul (2005). "The search for the giant squid Architeuthis". Cephalopods: Ecology and Fisheries. Oxford, England: Blackwell. pp. 196. ISBN 0632060484. 
  4. ^ Marx, Christy (2004). Life in the Ocean Depths. New York: Rosen. pp. 35. ISBN 082393988X. 
  5. ^ Cognate with the English crook and crank.
  6. ^ Terrell (1999)
  7. ^ Or Speculum Regale, the "King's Mirror". The text describes a massive sea creature as large as an island. It is rarely seen by seamen and fishermen, and it is speculated that there are only one or two in the world. The Kraken eats by opening its massive mouth, belches up smaller fish, and eats the larger fish which come to feed upon them.

References

  • John Wyndham (1953). 'The Kraken Wakes'/'Out of the Deeps' (US). ISBN 0-14-001075-0
  • Sjögren, Bengt (1980). Berömda vidunder. Settern. ISBN 91-7586-023-6 (Swedish)
  • Terrell, Peter; et al. (Eds.) (1999). German Unabridged Dictionary (4th ed.). Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-270235-1.

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Kraken article)

From Wikisource

The Kraken
by Alfred Tennyson
.Below the thunders of the upper deep,
Far, far beneath in the abysmal sea,
His ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep
The Kraken sleepeth: faintest sunlights flee
About his shadowy sides; above him swell
Huge sponges of millennial growth and height;
And far away into the sickly light,
From many a wondrous grot and secret cell
Unnumber'd and enormous polypi
Winnow with giant arms the slumbering green.
^ What lies below the thunders of the upper deep?
  • The Kraken Wakes: Amazon.co.uk: John Wyndham: Books 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Below the thunders of the upper deep; Far, far beneath in the abysmal sea, His ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep The Kraken sleepeth: faintest sunlights flee About his shadowy sides: above him swell Huge sponges of millennial growth and height; And far away into the sickly light, From many a wondrous grot and secret cell Unnumbered and enormous polypi Winnow with giant arms the slumbering green.
  • Kraken - Monstropedia - the largest encyclopedia about monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.monstropedia.org [Source type: General]

^ On the side of those that fear guns: If we take away guns we won't have any problems with them anymore even though criminals don't care about the law and its ramifications.
  • TippingPoint | DVLabs | Kraken Botnet Infiltration 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC dvlabs.tippingpoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.There hath he lain for ages, and will lie
Battening upon huge sea-worms in his sleep,
Until the latter fire shall heat the deep;
Then once by man and angels to be seen,
In roaring he shall rise and on the surface die.
^ There hath he lain for ages, and will lie Battening upon huge seaworms in his sleep, Until the latter fire shall heat the deep; Then once by man and angels to be seen, In roaring he shall rise and on the surface die.
  • Kraken Hunters - The Shartak Wiki 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.shartak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There hath he lain for ages and will lie Battening open huge sea worms in his sleep, Until the latter fire shall heat the deep; Then once by man and angels to be seen, In roaring he shall rise and on the surface die.
  • Kraken - Monstropedia - the largest encyclopedia about monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.monstropedia.org [Source type: General]

^ In the game Worms Blast , there is a weapon that makes a sea monster resembling a kraken to come up from the bottom of the screen and grab an opponents boat.
  • Kraken - Monstropedia - the largest encyclopedia about monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.monstropedia.org [Source type: General]

PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.KRAKEN, in Norwegian folk-lore, a sea-monster, believed to haunt the coasts of Norway.^ To believe all that has been said of the sea-serpent, or the Kraken, would be credulity*”.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean, in Fact and Fiction -- Pirate Myths & Martime Monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC blindkat.hegewisch.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Also of note, in his book 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea the protagonist of the story has a fight with a giant octopus, the monster commonly known as the "kraken" in nautical lore.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean, in Fact and Fiction -- Pirate Myths & Martime Monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC blindkat.hegewisch.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Norwegians called the Kraken, sykraken, sjökrakjen or sea-kraken.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean, in Fact and Fiction -- Pirate Myths & Martime Monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC blindkat.hegewisch.net [Source type: Original source]

.It was described in 1752 by the Norwegian bishop Pontoppidan as having a back about a mile and a half round and a body which showed above the sea like an island, and its arms were long enough to enclose the largest ship.^ Its eight arms, or rather feet, fixed to its head, that have given the name of cephalopod to these animals, were twice as long as its body, and were twisted like the furies' hair.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean, in Fact and Fiction -- Pirate Myths & Martime Monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC blindkat.hegewisch.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The pictures in the destructions seem to show two one half inch long launch lugs.
  • EMRR's Model Rocket Review: Pemberton Technologies - Kraken 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC rocketreviews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The further assertion that the kraken darkened the water around it by an excretion suggests that the myth was based on the appearance of some gigantic cuttle-fish.^ Cuttle-fish are cephalopod of the genus Sepia or family Sepiidæ, also called ink-fish from its power of ejecting a black fluid from a bag or sac, so as to darken the water and conceal itself from pursuit.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean, in Fact and Fiction -- Pirate Myths & Martime Monsters 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC blindkat.hegewisch.net [Source type: Original source]

See J. Gibson, Monsters of the Sea (1887); A. S. Packard, "Colossal Cuttle-fishes," American Naturalist (Salem, 1873), vol. vii.; A. E. Verrill, "The Colossal Cephalopods of the Western Atlantic," in American Naturalist (Salem, 1875), vol. ix.; and "Gigantic Squids," in Trans. of Connecticut Academy (1879), vol. v.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also kraken

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
A depiction of a Kraken.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Kraken
Plural
-
Kraken
  1. (Scandinavian mythology) A colossal sea monster that attacks ships and sailors, often portrayed as an octopus or squid.

Translations


Simple English

Pierre Dénys de Montfort, 1801, from the descriptions of French sailors reportedly attacked by such a creature off the coast of Angola.]]

Kraken are legendary sea monsters of gargantuan size, said to have dwelt off the coasts of Norway and Iceland. The sheer size and fearsome appearance attributed to the beasts have made them common ocean-dwelling monsters in various fictional works. The legend may actually have originated from sightings of real giant squid that are variously estimated to grow to 13–15 m (40–50 ft) in length, including the tentacles.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Kraken, which are similar to those in the above article.








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