Kstovo: Wikis


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Kstovo (English)
Кстово (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Kstovo's central Lenin Square
Map of Russia - Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast on the map of Russia
Kstovo is located in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Location of Kstovo on the map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Coordinates: 56°09′N 44°11′E / 56.15°N 44.183°E / 56.15; 44.183Coordinates: 56°09′N 44°11′E / 56.15°N 44.183°E / 56.15; 44.183
Coat of Arms of Kstovo (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Area 232 km2 (89.6 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2002 Census) 65,600 inhabitants[1]
Rank 234
- Density 283 /km2 (700/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 14th century[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 +7 83145[citation needed]
Official website http://www.kstovo-adm.ru/

Kstovo (Russian: Ксто́во) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. It is located on the right bank of the Volga River, 22 km southeast of Nizhny Novgorod. It is the administrative center of Kstovsky District. Population: 66,944 (2002 Census); 62,414 (1989 Census).



The village of Velikiy Vrag, with its 18th-century church of Our Lady of Kazan, is still safe from urban expansion

The village of Kstovo was mentioned as early as the 14th century. The place name is said to have originated from the Mordvin ksty, meaning "strawberry".[3]

With the construction of Novogorkovsky Oil Refinery (Новогорьковский нефтеперерабатывающий завод; started operations on August 18, 1958[4]) in the 1950s, a new town was built a few kilometers to the south-east of the old Kstovo village, on the high ground between the Volga and the Kudma River.

Since then, the western part of the town centered around the original Kstovo village, and still quite rural in character, has been commonly referred to as the Old Kstovo (Staroye Kstovo), while the newer eastern part, built in the 1950s, and still expanding, is known as the New Kstovo (Novoye Kstovo). As the New Kstovo expanded over the years, it completely or partially displaced several smaller villages.

Kstovo was granted urban-type settlement status in 1954 and town status in 1957.


The heat and power plant, located in the industrial area south of the city, can be seen from the windows of city apartments.

Kstovo's main industrial zone is located south of the city, on the southern side of the Kudma River. It is centered around the petrochemical plants of LUKOIL-Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez (formerly NORSI-Oil and Novogorkovsky Oil Refinery), a subsidiary of LUKOIL, which is the city's main employer in the town, and, historically, the reason for the town's existence.

Some of the technological processes developed at the oil refinery have been patented in the USSR and the USA.[5]

The "BVK" plant, which started operation in 1973 and was closed in 2003, used n-paraffins (produced by the oil refinery nearby) as feed for yeast, in order to produce the so-called "protein and vitamin concentrate" (single-cell protein) for use as animal food.[6][7]The facility was originally run by the Soviet Ministry of Microbiological Industry.[8] As of ca. 1990, it produced some 300,000 tons of its product per year.[9] The facility also produced certain pharmaceutical products, e.g. Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone-10), used as a dietary supplement.[10]

SIBUR-Neftehim, a subsidiary of Gazprom, operates an ethylene production facility EP-300 nearby, which produces 300,000 tons of ethylene annually, as well as other chemical products.[11] Belgium's Solvay is working with SIBUR on building a vinyl resins and caustic soda production facility.[12][13]

There are also a bitumen plant, a wine/liquor distillery (Russian: Мицар, Mitsar), a tire repair & recycling plant,[14] and the usual assortment of local food industry enterprises.

A cogeneration power plant (Russian: Новогорьковская ТЭЦ, Novogorkovskaya TETs) supplies electricity into the regional electric grid (305 MWt) and hot water for heating city apartment buildings. In November 2008, the local power company announced its plans to increase the power plant's electricity production capacity to 605 MWt; the new power generation unit is scheduled to be brought on-line by the end of 2011. Plans for the construction of another cogeneration plan elsewhere in Kstovsky District, namely at the site of the abandoned Gorky Nuclear Cogeneration Plan (Горьковская АСТ) near the village of Fedyakovo, are considered as well.[15]

The town has a large farmer's market, and a decent selection of supermarkets and retail stores.

Volga waterfront near Kstovo


Kstovo is served by the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod-Kazan Highway (Highway M-7), a river tanker port on the Volga, an electric railroad branch, and a number of oil and oil-product pipelines (e.g. Sever Pipeline).

The city has a history of building bypass roads to keep some of the transit traffic (either the east-west traffic on M-7, or traffic destined for the petrochemical industrial area south of the city) off the city streets, only to see the development overtake them a decade or so later, the "bypass" not being a true bypass anymore. Most recently, in 2003 a highway bypass was completed a few kilometers south of the city (cutting through a section of the Zelyony Gorod forest) both taking M-7 away from the city and providing convenient road access to the Lukoil area.

A commuter train is a rare guest in Kstovo

The Kstovo railroad branch is primarily used to serve the needs of the oil refinery. Although commuter trains from Nizhny Novgorod's Myza terminal stop not far from both the Old and the New Kstovo, the stations are not particularly conveniently located, the trains are fairly slow and only run 2-3 times a day, and are thus popular mostly with retirees and other persons eligible for free or discount fares.

Volga hydrofoil boats used to stop at Kstovo in the 1970s and 80s, but the town no longer appears in the boat schedules.[16]

Therefore, most of passenger travel between Kstovo and Nizhny Novogorod is by road. i.e. by bus or private car. Commuter buses and "passenger vans" to Nizhny Novgorod, as well as suburban buses to villages throughout Kstovksy District run from a bus station on the west side of the New Kstovo. Some long-distance buses between Nizny Novgorod and points east (Lyskovo, Cheboksary, etc) stop there as well. There are also shuttle buses from Kstovo's downtown Lenin Square to the Mega shopping mall in Fedyakovo, in the western part of Kstovsky District.[17]

Most summers, during the beach season, ferry boat service operates between Kstovo and the beach area on the north bank of the Volga.


The Military Engineering College

An Oil Industry Community College (Neftyanoy Technicum) trains skilled workers and technicians for the petrochemical industry.

Nizhny Novgorod Tehcnological University offers evening classes in Kstovo for the students studying in its Distance Education chemical engineering program.[18]

Nizhny Novgorod Military Engineering College (Russian: Нижегородское высшее военно-инженерное командное училище), founded in 1801 in Saint Petersburg and moved in 1960 to Kaliningrad, received its current name in 1995, when it was transferred to Kstovo.[19]

Culture, recreation and sports

"The World Sambo Academy" in Kstovo, the venue of many Sambo competitions

Kstovo's best known sporting venue is The World Academy of Sambo, which has hosted many national and international Sambo wrestling competitions. Its origins go back to 1964, when the first local Sambo club was formed. In October 1976, a Sambo School building was opened on the western edge of the city; in 1995, in time for the Sambo World Cup, a new, taller building was constructed next to it, the facility becoming known as the "World Academy of Sambo".[20]

The town also has a puppet theater, a palace of culture, a public library, and an active chess club.

The Church of Our Lady of Kazan in the Old Kstovo, rather eclectic in its modern appearance

The movie theater (originally named "Saturn", then "50 Let VLKSM" (i.e., "50 Years' Anniversary of Komsomol", and finally "Rus'"), was popular with the citizens during the Soviet era, but closed down after the advent of VCRs and DVDs. Part of its premises were used by an Eldorado electronics store for a few years in the early 2000s.

The spiritual needs of the Christians of the town are served by three Orthodox churches in the city and immediately adjacent villages. The Church of Our Lady of Kazan in the Old Kstovo was built in the late 19th century, closed during the Communist era, when its building was used for a printshop, and re-opened and augmented in the early 1990s. Another Church of Our Lady of Kazan is located in the village of Velikiy Vrag, just northeast of the city; it was built in 1792 and is now protected as a heritage site, owned by the federal government.[21][22] Finally, the small Church of St.Vladimir in Vishenki village, just south of the city line, is the closest to most of the city's residential neighborhoods.


On the city beach
  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Kunde von Russland, Volume 10, 1852, p. 324, http://books.google.com/books?id=IBEaAQAAIAAJ  (German)
  4. ^ M. S. Matveev (August 1968), "Ten years of the Novogor'kii Refinery", Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils 4 (8), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p451300v04v74610/ . Translated from Khimiya i Tekhnologiya Topliv i Masel, No. 8, pp. 1–4, August, 1968
  5. ^ US Patent 4132631, "A process for petroleum refining to obtain petroleum products having a reduced content of sulphur, oxygen-and nitrogen-containing compounds which comprises introducing into the petroleum during distillation volatile and nonvolatile carbonyl compounds of transition metals selected from the group...". Inventors: Nikolai S. Nametkin, Mikhail S. Matveev, Sergei P. Gubin, Abram S. Dekhterman, Vladimir D. Tjurin, Anatoly P. Skibenko, Valentina S. Orlova, Alevtina I. Savenko, Irina P. Podolskaya, mostly from Kstovo.
  6. ^ Soviet Plant to Convert Oil to Protein for Feed; Use of Yeast Involved, By THEODORE SHABAD. the New York Times, November 10, 1973.
  7. ^ RusVinyl – Summary of Social Issues (EBRD)
  8. ^ Первенец микробиологической промышленности (Microbiological industry's first plant), in: Станислав Марков (Stanislav Markov) «Кстово- молодой город России» (Kstovo, Russia's Young City)
  9. ^ "Practitioners' forum perestroika and soviet biotechnology". Authors: Rod Greenshields; Anthony Rimmington; Harry Rothman. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Volume 2, Issue 1 1990 , pages 63 - 76. Quote: "There arc large n-paraffins-based SCP factories at various stages of construction at Angarsk, Kirishi (1 00,000 tonnes/year), Kremenchug (120,000 tonnes), Kstovo, Mozyr (300,000 tonnes), Novopolotsk (100,000 tonnes), Svetloyar (240,000 tonnes projected), arid Syzran... "
  10. ^ A. S. Koryagin, E. V. Krylova, and L. D. Luk'yanova (June 2002). "Effect of Ubiquinone-10 on the Blood System in Rats Exposed to Radiation". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (6): 562-564. doi:10.1023/A:1020225623808. ISSN 0007-4888. . Abstract: "The use of synthetic ubiquinone-10 (2 and 10 mg/kg) as a therapeutic food additive normalized the counts of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and leukocytes and the content of hemoglobin in the blood and inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes in irradiated rats (3 Gy)." Quote: "... ubiquinone-10 synthesized at the BVK Plant (Kstovo) ..."
  11. ^ Open Joint-Stock Company “SIBUR-Neftehim”
  12. ^ Solvay to buy Russian soda ash plant. Reuters, Sep 8, 2009.
  13. ^ JV for Russian vinyls production plant: First world-scale fully integrated vinyls plant to be built in Kstovo, Russia by Joint Venture, SolVin and SIBUR LLC (2007-06-30 News Release)
  14. ^ BISNIS Search For Partners, April 6, 1998
  15. ^ "Волго-Вятская генерирующая компания" намерена построить парогазовую ТЭЦ в Кстовском районе NTA Privolzhye, 12-Nov-2008. (Russian)
  16. ^ Local hydrofoil boat service schedule for the 2006 season. Volga Shipping (Accessed 2006-Oct-21) (Russian)
  17. ^ Bus schedules (Russian)
  18. ^ Nizhny Novgorod Technical University, Kstovo Branch (Accessed 2006 October 24) (Russian).
  19. ^ Colonel (retired) Boris Mikhailovoch Denisov, "Forgotten Anniversary". "Russky Pereplet" magazine, 3 November 2006 (Russian)
  20. ^ "Михаил Бурдиков: После оглушительных успехов наших самбистов иностранные журналисты долго пытались отыскать на карте мира маленький город Кстово" (An article on the history of Sambo in Kstovo) (RIA Kreml, November 2004) (Russian)
  21. ^ http://etaz.ru/?p=law&num=66916&id=&sort=&type=gov "Agreement between the Government of Russian Federation and the Administration of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast on the separation of powers in the management of state-owned historical and cultural heritage sites. June 8, 1996, No. 10"
  22. ^ [http://www.legis.ru/bases/doc.asp?id_document=2440 "Approval of the List of the Historical and Cultural Heritage Sites of National Importance" Executive Order No.176 of the President of the Russian Federation. 20 February 1995]

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