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Ku Klux Klan
Klan-in-gainesville.jpg
Ku Klux Klan rally, 1923.
In Existence
1st Klan 1865–1870s
2nd Klan 1915–1944
3rd Klan1 since 1946
Members
1st Klan 550,000
2nd Klan between 3 and 6 million[1] (peaked in 1920-1925 period)
Properties
Origin United States of America
Political ideology White supremacy
White nationalism
Political position Far right
Religion Protestant Christian
1The 3rd Klan is decentralized, with approx. 179 chapters.
.Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as The Klan, is the name of several past and present far right hate groups[2] in the United States whose avowed purpose is to protect the rights and further the interests of White Americans of Protestant faith by violence and intimidation.^ The Ku Klux Klan is going to make this a white man's country.

^ After the breakup of the second Klan, the name "Ku Klux Klan" began to be used by several independent groups.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ku Klux Klan Violence in Georgia, 1871.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.The first such organizations originated in the Southern states and eventually grew to national scope.^ The first was an organization of white Southern males.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He first states for whom the Klan is organized.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second Klavern group had a formal membership organization, with a national and state structure, that paid thousands of men to organize local chapters all over the country.
  • KKK KU KLUX KLAN & Christian Socialism, the Hooked Cross, theCrooked Cross, Hakenkreuz, swastika image http://rexcurry.net/hooked-cross.jpgKu Klux Klan photograph http://rexcurry.net/kkk-ku-klux-klan2.jpg JosephGoebbels Nazi-Sozi, Francis Bellamy, Edward Bellamy, Pledge of Allegiance,Holocaust 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC rexcurry.net [Source type: Original source]
  • KARL MAY & ADOLF HITLER : Swastikas, the KU KLUX KLAN (KKK)& Christian Socialism, the Hooked Cross, the Crooked Cross, Hakenkreuz,swastika Karl May image http://rexcurry.net/swastika-socialism-karl-may.jpgand Karl May photograph http://rexcurry.net/kkk-ku-klux-klan-karl-may.jpg 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC rexcurry.net [Source type: Original source]

.They developed iconic white costumes consisting of robes, masks, and conical hats.^ To complete the ghoulish identity, Lester said they donned a white mask for the face [a] fantastic cardboard hat, so constructed as to increase the wearers height [and] a gown.
  • STORM FLASH 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the Klan wore white robes and conical shaped white masks covering their faces.
  • Resistance against the Catholic Regime 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.students.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ They themselves, dressed in flowing white sheets, their faces covered with white masks, and with skulls at their saddle horns, posed as spirits of the Confederate dead returned from the battlefields.
  • Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The KKK has a record of using terrorism,[3][4] violence, and lynching to murder and oppress African Americans, Jews and other minorities and to intimidate and oppose Roman Catholics and labor unions.^ These organizations have often used terrorism, violence, and acts of intimidation, such as cross burning and lynching , to oppress African Americans and other social or ethnic groups.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These organizations have often used terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as cross burning to oppress African Americans and others.

^ These organizations have often promoted the use of terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as cross burning to oppress African American s and others.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, a large majority of sources consider the Klan to be a "subversive or terrorist organization".[5][6][7][8] In 1999, the city council of Charleston, South Carolina passed a resolution declaring the Klan to be a terrorist organization.^ It is the biggest Klan organization in America today.

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ A group called Can the Klan had organized the major counterrally on the Capitol mall, and some disagreements broke out over who controlled the podium set up on the mall.
  • STORM FLASH 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .A similar effort was made in 2004 when a professor at the University of Louisville began a campaign to have the Klan declared a terrorist organization so it could be banned from campus.^ A Klan member in 2004 can expect to be hated, condemned, and possibly victimized by violent opposition if he (or she) is known publicly to be part of that organization.
  • CNN.com - The Ku Klux Klan v. the NYPD - Dec 17, 2004 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ Circular (undated) also comments on Al Smith, the Klans political lobbying efforts, interracial marriage, and the NAACP and other African American political action organizations.
  • KU KLUX KLAN No. 3 BATON ROUGE RECORDS 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .In April 1997, FBI agents arrested four members of the True Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Dallas for conspiracy to commit robbery and to blow up a natural gas processing plant.^ Ku Klux Klan 1915 Biography .

^ "Forever hereafter it shall be known as Knights of the Ku Klux Klan."
  • The KKK in Athens county, Ohio 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.ohgen.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan - 673 results .
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[11]
.The first Klan was founded in 1865 by Tennessee veterans of the Confederate Army.^ The first Klan was founded in 1866 by veterans of the Confederate Army.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]

^ The Klan was originally founded by six young Confederate veterans in Pulaski Tennessee.
  • Was the Ku Klux Klan a Logical Offshoot of the Civil War? - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert Chambliss, a former member of the Ku Klux Klan, was found guilty of first degree murder and sentence to life imprisonment .

.Klan groups spread throughout the South.^ Consequently its appeal was not sectional, and, aided after 1920 by the activities of professional promoters Elizabeth Tyler and Edward Y. Clarke, it spread rapidly throughout the North as well as the South.
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The newly revived Klan groups were responsible for violent attacks against blacks and civil-rights workers in cities throughout the South, including Jacksonville and St. Augustine, Fla., Birmingham and Montgomery, Ala., and Meridian, Miss.
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Old Klan chapters have been revived and new ones started throughout the South, historically the heart of the group, and in other places such as Michigan, Iowa and New Jersey, says the report, which was scheduled for official release Tuesday.
  • Tom Tancredo, FOX, Lou Dobbs, and Pat Buchanan: These Nazis Are Saluting YOU | Democrats.com 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.democrats.com [Source type: News]

.The Klan's purpose was to restore white supremacy in the aftermath of the American Civil War.^ Its purpose was to restore white supremacy in the aftermath of the American Civil War.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a bit of trivia, I believe Nathan Bedford Forrest, one of the founders of the Klan, was the only soldier to go from private to general during the civil war.
  • Arkansas Blog: Shed a tear for the KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arktimes.com [Source type: General]

^ It also corresponds to Pike and the Klan's influence over the regular court system and the legal profession in the post-civil War southern states.
  • Albert Pike and the Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Proof that Freemasonry is lieing aboutAlbert Pike and the Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.freemasonrywatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Klan resisted Reconstruction by assaulting, murdering and intimidating freedmen and white progressives within the Republican Party.^ The republicans under Lincoln were the “progressive” party.
  • Think Progress » Dingell says town hall mobs remind him of the Ku Klux Klan. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Klan, [30] although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freedmen’s Bureau records provided a detailed recounting of beatings and murders of freedmen and their white allies by Klansmen.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1870 and 1871 the federal government passed the Force Acts, which were used to prosecute Klan crimes.^ Laws passed in 1870 and 1871 caused the decline of the Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kovels.com [Source type: General]

^ Under the Klan Act, Federal troops were used for enforcement, and Klansmen were prosecuted in Federal court.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1870 and 1871 the Ku Klux Klan Acts were passed.
  • STORM FLASH 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prosecution of Klan crimes and enforcement of the Force Acts suppressed Klan activity.^ From 1870 to 1872, the Ku Klux Klan has been acting as a guerrilla military force (White Resistance and Redemption, Out of Many pp 335).
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ No hate crimes have been reported to the Sheriff's Office and no other significant signs of Klan activity have been seen, he said.
  • Washington Parish authorities believe KKK group tied to killing was not extensive organization | New Orleans Metro Real Time News - - NOLA.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Klan was being used more and more often as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against it.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1874 and later, however, newly organized and openly active paramilitary organizations such as the White League and the Red Shirts started a fresh round of violence aimed at suppressing Republican voting and running Republicans out of office.^ White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, which tracks hate groups, > the UDC is a neo-Confederate organization which is affiliated with such > white supremacist groups as the Council of Conservative Citizens and the > League of the South.
  • Organizing for America | Posts with the tag KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC my.barackobama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Klan, although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.

.These contributed to white conservative Democrats regaining political power in the Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.^ Details close link between Klan and late 19th century and early 20th century Democratic Party.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were outlandish claims made, such as Georgian B.H. Hill stating “that some of these outrages were actually perpetrated by the political friends of the parties slain.” .
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were outlandish claims made, such as Georgian B.H. Hill stating "that some of these outrages were actually perpetrated by the political friends of the parties slain."
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1915, the second Klan was founded.^ When was the second Ku Klux Klan founded?
  • Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1915, the second Klan was founded.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]

^ This coin was to commemorate the founding of  the Second Klan on Thanksgiving Day, 1915.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It grew rapidly in a period of postwar social tensions, where industrialization in the North attracted numerous waves of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and the Great Migration of Southern blacks and whites.^ After WWI, many Americans coped with booming growth rates in major cities, where numerous waves of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and the Great Migration of Southern blacks and whites were being absorbed.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]

^ The Steel Workers organized immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It grew rapidly in another period of postwar social tensions.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]
  • ForumPlanet - Topic - The Ku Klux Klan, Your Thoughts 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC forums.gamespy.com [Source type: General]

.The second KKK preached racism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism, nativism, and anti-Semitism.^ The second KKK typically preached racism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism , nativism, and anti-Semitism, and some local groups took part in lynchings .
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second KKK typically preached racism , anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism , nativism, and anti-Semitism, and some local groups took part in lynchings and other violent activities.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, was and is an organization that has promotes white supremacy, anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism, racism, homophobia, anti-Communism and nativism.
  • Pulaski Tennessee Birthplace Of Klu Klux Klan - Topix 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some local groups took part in lynchings, attacks on private houses, and carried out other violent activities.^ The second KKK typically preached racism , anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism , nativism, and anti-Semitism, and some local groups took part in lynchings and other violent activities.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second KKK typically preached racism , anti-Catholicism, nativism, and anti-Semitism, and some local groups took part in lynchings and other violent activities.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second KKK typically preached Racism, anti-Catholicism, nativism, and anti-Semitism and some local groups took part in lynchings and other violent activities.

.The Klan committed most of its murders and acts of violence in the South, which had a tradition of lawlessness.^ Murders and violence by the Klan were most numerous in the South, which had a tradition of lawlessness.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Control over local Dens was not as complete as this organization would seem to indicate, and reckless and even lawless local leaders sometimes committed acts that the leaders could not countenance.
  • Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The White Knights and local Klan organizations in other states were responsible for numerous acts of intimidation, violence, and murder against civil rights activists and supporters.
  • Inventory of the Ku Klux Klan Collection (MUM00254) The Department of Archives and Special Collections. The University of Mississippi Libraries 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.olemiss.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Inventory of the Ku Klux Klan Collection (MUM00254) The Department of Archives and Special Collections. The University of Mississippi Libraries 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC www.olemiss.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.The second Klan was a formal fraternal organization, with a national and state structure.^ The second Klan was a formal fraternal organization, with a national and state structure.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gordon also stated that the Klan was a peaceful organization.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second KKK was a formal fraternal organization , with a national and state structure, that paid thousands of men to organize local chapters all over the country.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At its peak in the mid-1920s, the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population, approximately 4–5 million men.^ Millions joined, and at its peak in the 1920s the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At its peak in the mid-1920s its membership was estimated at 4 million to 5 million.
  • Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Millions joined and at its peak in the 1920s the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population.

[13] .Internal divisions and external opposition brought about a sharp decline in membership, which had dropped to about 30,000 by 1930. The Klan's popularity fell further during the Great Depression and World War II.^ Its popularity fell during the Great Depression , and membership fell further during World War II , due to scandals resulting from prominent members' crimes and support of the Nazis .
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Klan’s popularity fell rapidly during the Great Depression, and membership fell further during World War II. .
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Klan's popularity fell rapidly during the Great Depression, and membership fell further during World War II. .
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.The name Ku Klux Klan has since been used by many independent groups opposing the Civil Rights Movement and desegregation, especially in the 1950s and 1960s.^ After the breakup of the second Klan, the name Ku Klux Klan began to be used by a number of independent groups.

^ Ku Klux Klan (ca,tr) .
  • EMM News Explorer: Klu Klux Klan 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ After the breakup of the second Klan, the name "Ku Klux Klan" began to be used by several independent groups.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this period, they often forged alliances with Southern police departments, as in Birmingham, Alabama; or with governor's offices, as with George Wallace of Alabama.^ During this period, they often acted with impunity by alliances with Southern police departments, as during the reign of Bull Connor in Birmingham, Alabama; or governor’s offices, as with George Wallace of Alabama.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period, they often acted with impunity by alliances with Southern police departments, as during the reign of Bull Connor in Birmingham, Alabama; or governor's offices, as with George Wallace of Alabama.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several times during the reporting period, we received calls from individuals saying they had found KKK publications in their yards or driveways.
  • 2007 Hate Incident Report 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC bloomington.in.gov [Source type: News]

[15] .Several members of KKK groups were convicted of murder in the deaths of civil rights workers and children in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham[16], the assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers[17], and the murder of three civil rights workers.^ Several members of KKK-affiliated groups were convicted of manslaughter and murder in the deaths of civil rights workers and children in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama, the assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers, and the murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | BlueNC 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC bluenc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama , which killed four children.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these groups committed acts of murder and manslaughter against Civil Rights workers and children (such as in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama ).
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Today, researchers estimate that there may be approximately 150 Klan chapters[19] with 5,000[7]–8,000 members nationwide.^ Today, researchers estimate there may be more than 150 Klan chapters with 5,000-8,000 members nationwide.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan » Town Called Dobson 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.towncalleddobson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, it is estimated that there are as many as 150 Klan chapters with up to 8,000 members nationwide.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an 1868 newspaper interview,[13] Forrest boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of 550,000 men, and that although he himself was not a member, he was "in sympathy" and would "cooperate" with them, and could himself muster 40,000 Klansmen with five days' notice.

[citation needed]

Contents

First Klan 1865–1874

Creation

.
A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers.
^ A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbagger s, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor , 1868 .
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868 A political cartoon depicting the KKK and the Democratic party as continuations of the Confederacy Nathan Bedford ForrestAt the end of the U.S Civil War radical members of Congress attempted to destroy the white power structure of the Rebel states.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbagger s, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor , 1868 A political cartoon depicting the KKK and the Democratic party as continuations of the Confederacy Nathan Bedford Forrest Creation .
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From the Independent Monitor, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1868.
.Six middle-class Confederate veterans from Pulaski, Tennessee, created the original Ku Klux Klan on December 24, 1865, in the immediate aftermath of the American Civil War.^ Ku Klux Klan 1915 Biography .

^ Ku Klux Klan - 673 results .
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The original Ku Klux Klan was created after the end of the Civil War in December 1865, by six educated, middle-class Confederate veterans [1] who were bored with postwar routine from Pulaski, Tennessee]].
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The origin of the group's name became the subject of speculation by the media and opponents in their early years, with theories ranging from Mexican mythology to one popularly held idea - still circulated - that the words "ku" and "klux" were onomatopoetic words for the sounds of loading and locking a bolt-action rifle.^ Ku Klux Klan year membership .
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After tinkering with the sound for a while, group settled on the "Ku Klux Klan."
  • Klu Klux Klan: A Hundred Years of Terror: Report from the Southern Poverty Law Center 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC vlib.iue.it [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a > stupid idea that the name came from a bolt action > rifle.
  • Ku Klux Klan and the proper regulation of society in Wars in History Channel 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .In truth, the name was formed by combining the Greek kyklos (κυκλος, circle) with clan.^ The name came from the greek word for circle.
  • Ku Klux Klan and the proper regulation of society in Wars in History Channel 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group took its name from the Greek word kyklos, meaning circle, and the English word clan.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The name combines the Greek word for circle (kyklos) with the Gaelic word clan.
  • Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - Andrew Glass - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] Indeed, the group was known for a very short time as the "Kuklux Clan." .The Ku Klux Klan was one among a number of secret, oath-bound organizations using violence, including the Southern Cross in New Orleans (1865), and the Knights of the White Camellia (1867) in Louisiana.^ Ku Klux Klan (ca,tr) .
  • EMM News Explorer: Klu Klux Klan 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ Ku Klux Klan 1915 Biography .

^ The Ku Klux Klan is going to make this a white man's country.

[23]
.Historians generally see the KKK as part of the postwar violence related not only to the high number of veterans in the population, but also to their effort to control the dramatically changed social situation by using extrajudicial means in order to restore white supremacy.^ Violence and white supremacy was not their original intention.
  • Free Ku Klux Klan Essays 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free KKK Essays 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historians generally see the KKK as part of the postwar violence related not only to the high number of veterans in the population, but also to their effort to control the dramatically changed social situation by using extrajudicial means in order to restore white supremacy.
  • Ku Klux Klan and the proper regulation of society in Wars in History Channel 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For other uses, see KKK (disambiguation) .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1866, Mississippi Governor William L. Sharkey reported that disorder, lack of control and lawlessness were widespread; in some states armed bands of Confederate soldiers roamed at will.^ The tide was turned in favor of the bill by the governor of South Carolina's appeal for federal troops, and by reports of a riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi, courthouse, which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.

^ The soldiers remained about thirty minutes when one of them came up to the officer and reported that they had found some broken arms and boxes east of the depot; the officer replied that they must have gotten on the station east of No.
  • Why the Ku Klux - Wikisource 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State newspapers reported the events at Rosewood in bold headlines and some took large liberties in describing what was happening.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Klan used public violence against blacks as intimidation.^ Additionally, while the Klan was terrorizing blacks, the Union was waging a genocidal war against the Native Americans.
  • Ku Klux Klan and the proper regulation of society in Wars in History Channel 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Klan was often able to achieve its aims by terror alone, whippings and lynchings were also used, not only against blacks but also against the so-called carpetbaggers and scalawags .
  • Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over in Tennessee, a black Democratic attorney who used race and religion as her main tools against a Jewish opponent, suffered a resounding electoral defeat yesterday .
  • Race Infiltrates Political Races, KKK Sees Benefits of Obama 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.tressugar.com [Source type: General]

.They burned houses, and attacked and killed blacks, leaving their bodies on the roads.^ They casually attacked and killed blacks whose bodies were left on the roads.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We could see where they were burning the houses....We could see the balls of black smoke."
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One photograph was of a burning black residence in Rosewood and the other portrayed a group of white men, women, and children standing by three graves of blacks who had been killed.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
A political cartoon depicting the KKK and the Democratic Party as continuations of the Confederacy
.In an 1867 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, Klan members gathered to try to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters eventually reporting up to a national headquarters.^ In an 1867 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, Klan members gathered to try to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters reporting eventually up to national headquarters.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A general organization of the local Klans was effected in Apr., 1867, at Nashville, Tenn.
  • Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In an 1867 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, an unsuccessful effort was made to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters reporting to county leaders, counties reporting to districts, districts reporting to states, states reporting to a national headquarters.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They elected Brian A. Scates to be the Leader and President of this organization.^ Usually, the Imperial Wizard appoints State leaders like Grand Klaliff, Grand Titan, etc., or they are elected.

^ Some people will say well he has the President of the NAACP in interviews, but the NAACP is not listed as a known U.S. terrorist organization, they are an advocate of peace and equality and help all minorities.

^ Guest what they fail to realise is that it is 2009 and the leader of the free world is black...MY PRESIDENT IS BLACK AND YOURS IS TOO...GET OVER IT AND GET SOME BUISNESS/EDUCATION ABOUT YOURSELVES!!!
  • Video: Disgrace: 2 KKK Members In Lakeland, Florida Are Mad About Obama's Inauguration As They Flash Their Guns & Knives Saying They Should Do Something Bad To African Americas & More! "The South Will Rise Again" [Updated] 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldstarhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since most of the Klan's members were veterans, they were used to the hierarchical structure of the organization, but in fact the Klan never operated under this structure.^ Apparently stolen, based on the fact they appear to have never been used.
  • Wonkette : Defend This Atlanta Man’s Right To Free Racist Joke Speech! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC wonkette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Klan was never well organized.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Klan, they used a subterfuge of the prohibition.
  • Interview with Alban Smith October 10, 1978 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mclib.org [Source type: Original source]

.Former Confederate Brigadier General George Gordon developed the Prescript, or Klan dogma.^ The proposals, in a document called the "Prescript," were written by George Gordon , a former Confederate brigadier general.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an 1867 convention held in Nashville, the Klan was formalized as a national organization under a "Prescript" written by George Gordon, a former Confederate brigadier general.

^ Former Confederate Brigadier General George Gordon put the proposals together in what was called the "Prescript."
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Prescript suggested elements of white supremacist belief.^ The Prescript suggested elements of white supremacy belief.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And know this, with absolute certainty, the white supremacists want that world of authoritative hatred against their beliefs.
  • This Highway Adoped By the Ku Klux Klan | MetaFilter 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PM - ( Suggest Removal ) I am a member of a rather obscure offshoot of the KKK. We are known as the KGK, as we are white gay supremacists.
  • Residents say Ku Klux Klan targeting Greeneville neighborhood - Kingsport Times-News Online 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.timesnews.net [Source type: General]

.For instance, an applicant should be asked if he was in favor of "a white man's government", "the reenfranchisement and emancipation of the white men of the South, and the restitution of the Southern people to all their rights."^ For instance, an applicant should be asked if he was in favor of "a white man's government", "the reenfranchisement and emancipation of the white men of the South, and the restitution of the Southern people to all their rights."
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are you in favor of a white man's government in this country?

^ Berry : Equal rights for all people.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

[25] .The latter is a reference to the Ironclad Oath, which stripped the vote from white persons who refused to swear that they had not borne arms against the Union, although in practice only a minority of whites were disenfranchised.^ So who is the person they interviewed?

^ I know there is so much negative media against the Klan, but I also know that it is well-educated person who studies issues from substantial sources before forming opinions.
  • kkk rally mississippi - Stormfront 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Negro members of the league often went armed to meetings, drilled and marched in formation, and practiced terrorist methods against both whites and hesitant Negroes."
  • Was the Ku Klux Klan a Logical Offshoot of the Civil War? - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gordon supposedly told former slave trader and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis, Tennessee, about the Klan.^ According to one oral report, Gordon went to former slave trader and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis, Tennessee , and told him about the new organization, to which Forrest replied, "That's a good thing; that's a damn good thing.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nathan Bedford Forrest was a master tactician.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ According to one oral report, Gordon went to former slave trader and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis and told him about the new organization, and, a few weeks later, Forrest was selected as Grand Wizard, the Klan's national leader.

.Forrest allegedly responded, "That's a good thing; that's a damn good thing.^ According to one oral report, Gordon went to former slave trader and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis and told him about the new organization, to which Forrest replied, "That's a good thing; that's a damn good thing.

^ According to one oral report, Gordon went to former slave trader and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis, Tennessee , and told him about the new organization, to which Forrest replied, "That's a good thing; that's a damn good thing.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to one oral report, Gordon went to former slave trade r and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis and told him about the new organization, to which Forrest replied, "That's a good thing; that's a damn good thing.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

We can use that to keep the niggers in their place."[26] A few weeks later, Forrest was selected as Grand Wizard, the Klan's national leader, although he always denied his leadership.
.In an 1868 newspaper interview, Forrest stated that the Klan's primary opposition was to the Loyal Leagues, Republican state governments, people like Tennessee governor Brownlow and other carpetbaggers and scalawags.^ In other words, it is a government for the people and by the people.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And also we have other people who are secret members of the Klan who are in City and State government.

^ He stated that the Klan did not see blacks as its enemy as much as the Loyal Leagues, Republican state governments like Tennessee governor Brownlow's, and other carpetbaggers and scalawags.

.He argued that many southerners believed that blacks were voting for the Republican Party because they were being hoodwinked by the Loyal Leagues.^ Many white southerners believed, for example, that blacks were voting for the Republican Party only because they had been hoodwinked by the Loyal Leagues.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are they republicans or just southern baptists?
  • Daily Kos: KKK Gathering Tonight In Mississippi 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They'd be called The Republican party.
  • On Hannity & Colmes , Rev. Peterson compared Obama's church to KKK | Media Matters for America 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .One Alabama newspaper editor declared "The League is nothing more than a nigger Ku Klux Klan."^ Ku Klux Klan 1915 Biography .

^ Ku Klux Klan - 673 results .
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ku Klux Klan--Personal narratives .
  • Ku Klux Klan: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Despite Gordon's and Forrest's work, local Klan units never accepted the Prescript and continued to operate autonomously.^ Despite the work that came out of the 1867 meeting, the Prescript was never accepted by any of the local units.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ku Klux Klan, Organization and Principles, 1868 [ http://www.albany.edu/faculty/gz580/his101/kkk.html ] Despite the work that came out of the 1867 meeting, the Prescript was never accepted by any of the local units.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ku Klux Klan, Organization and Principles, 1868 http://www.albany.edu/faculty/gz580/his101/kkk.html Despite the work that came out of the 1867 meeting, the Prescript was never accepted by any of the local units.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were never hierarchical levels or state headquarters.^ There were never hierarchical levels or state headquarters.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an 1867 meeting in Nashville , an effort was made to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters reporting to county leaders, counties reporting to districts, districts reporting to states , and states reporting to a national headquarters.

^ In an 1867 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee , an effort was made to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters reporting to county leaders, counties reporting to districts, districts reporting to states , and states reporting to a national headquarters.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Klan members used violence to settle old feuds and local grudges, as they worked to restore white dominance in the disrupted postwar society.^ The Klan, they used a subterfuge of the prohibition.
  • Interview with Alban Smith October 10, 1978 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mclib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the local level, however, old feuds and grudges were the cause of numerous attacks, and Klan members worked for their own dominance in the disrupted postwar society.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the oldest White's Right group in the world, members of the Ku Klux Klan face much criticism from the rest of society and are constantly trying to break down the negative stereotypes and connotations that...
  • Free Ku Klux Klan Essays 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free KKK Essays 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historian Elaine Frantz Parsons commented on the make up of the membership:
.Lifting the Klan mask revealed a chaotic multitude of antiblack vigilante groups, disgruntled poor white farmers, wartime guerrilla bands, displaced Democratic politicians, illegal whiskey distillers, coercive moral reformers, sadists, rapists, white workmen fearful of black competition, employers trying to enforce labor discipline, common thieves, neighbors with decades-old grudges, and even a few freedmen and white Republicans who allied with Democratic whites or had criminal agendas of their own.^ As historian Elaine Frantz Parsons discovered]: "Lifting the Klan mask revealed a chaotic multitude of antiblack vigilante groups, disgruntled poor white farmers, wartime guerrilla bands, displaced Democratic politicians, illegal whiskey distillers, coercive moral reformers, bored young men, sadists, rapists, white workmen fearful of black competition, employers trying to enforce labor discipline, common thieves, neighbors with decades-old grudges, and even a few freedmen and white Republicans who allied with Democratic whites or had criminal agendas of their own.

^ It does not matter if they are black or white, Republicans or Democrats.
  • Hank Johnson should apologize — or, at least, retract | Cynthia Tucker 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ "Lifting the Klan mask revealed a chaotic multitude of anti-black vigilante groups, disgruntled poor white farmers, wartime guerrilla bands, displaced Democratic politicians, illegal whiskey distillers, coercive moral reformers, bored young men, sadists, rapists, white workmen fearful of black competition, employers trying to enforce labor discipline, common thieves, neighbors with decades-old grudges, and even a few freedmen and white Republicans who allied with Democratic whites or had criminal agendas of their own.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.^ Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.” .
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]

[29]
Historian Eric Foner observed:
.In effect, the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the Democratic party, the planter class, and all those who desired restoration of white supremacy.^ In many ways the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the Democratic Party, the planter class, and those who desired the restoration of white supremacy.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE KU KLUX KLAN was created after the end of the American Civil War on December 24, 1865, by six educated, middle-class Confederate veterans from Pulaski, Tennessee, as a military force to serve the interests of the Democratic Party, the planter class, and those who desired the restoration of white supremacy.
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In many ways the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the Democratic party, the planter class, and those who desired the restoration of white supremacy.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its purposes were political, but political in the broadest sense, for it sought to affect power relations, both public and private, throughout Southern society.^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The new Klan differed from the original one in that while the first Klan had been Southern, the new Klan was influential throughout the United States, with major political influence on politicians in several states.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secret clubs were established with the intent of raising the ex-slaves into political power over the Southern Whites.
  • A Brief History of Ku Klux Klan and Their Flag of Hate by Jeffrey ToddMcCormack 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.pointsouth.com [Source type: Original source]

.It aimed to reverse the interlocking changes sweeping over the South during Reconstruction: to destroy the Republican party's infrastructure, undermine the Reconstruction state, reestablish control of the black labor force, and restore racial subordination in every aspect of Southern life.^ During Reconstruction, the South was undergoing drastic changes to its social and political life.

^ The Ku Klux Klan soon spread into nearly every southern state, launching a "reign of terror" against Republican leaders both black and white.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was at first a humorous social club centering on practical jokes and hazing rituals but soon spread into nearly every Southern state, launching a "reign of terror" against Republican leaders both black and white.

[30]
.To that end they worked to curb the education, economic advancement, voting rights, and right to keep and bear arms of blacks.^ In effect, the Klan defended the interest of the planter class and Democratic Party by working to curb the education, economic advancement, voting rights, and right to keep and bear arms of blacks.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Specifically, it attempted to curb black education, economic advancement, voting rights, and the right to bear arms.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Specifically, it attempted to curb black education, economic advancement, voting rights , and the right to bear arms .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .The Ku Klux Klan soon spread into nearly every southern state, launching a "reign of terror" against Republican leaders both black and white.^ The Ku Klux Klan is going to make this a white man's country.

^ It has to deal with the Ku Klux Klan, and what happens when they move into the Northern States.
  • Witness (Paperback) by Karen Hesse - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Not only were the blacks misrepresented, but also the Ku Klux Klan.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

Those political leaders assassinated during the campaign included Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds, three members of the South Carolina legislature, and several men who served in constitutional conventions."[31]

Activities

Three Ku Klux Klan members arrested in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, September 1871, for the attempted murder of an entire family.
.Klan members adopted masks and robes that hid their identities and added to the drama of their night rides, their chosen time for attacks.^ Klan members adopted masks and robes that hid their identities and added to the drama of their night rides, their chosen time for attacks.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To hide their identity, Klan terrorists wore robes and hoods, draped sheets over their horses, and rode at night.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of the Klan wore white robes and conical shaped white masks covering their faces.
  • Resistance against the Catholic Regime 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.students.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.Many of them operated in small towns and rural areas where people otherwise knew each other's faces, and sometimes still recognized the attackers.^ I also found it sad that our community, our country, still has people who espouse such hatred and violence toward others.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As an employee of the Seaboard Air Line railroad he knew Aaron Carrier, a World War I veteran, and many other people in Rosewood and Sumner.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not many diversed churchs; but hey, it is a small town next to a larger city.
  • Tulsa World: KKK will return in Oklahoma, former Klan leader says 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.tulsaworld.com [Source type: General]

."The kind of thing that men are afraid or ashamed to do openly, and by day, they accomplish secretly, masked, and at night."^ "The kind of thing that men are afraid or ashamed to do openly, and by day, they accomplish secretly, masked, and at night."
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is but one reason why any man or party of men should go about at night masked, and that is to avoid responsibility for his or their acts.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One day people will see that African-Americans are beautiful people, and will be ashamed of how they were treated.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.With this method both the high and the low could be attacked.^ With this method both the high and the low could be attacked.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .The Ku Klux Klan night riders "sometimes claimed to be ghosts of Confederate soldiers so, as they claimed, to frighten superstitious blacks.^ Not only were the blacks misrepresented, but also the Ku Klux Klan.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Ku Klux Klan vocabulary .
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan scenes.
  • Footage Farm: KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Few freedmen took such nonsense seriously."[33]
.The Klan attacked black members of the Loyal Leagues and intimidated southern Republicans and Freedmen's Bureau workers.^ The Klan raided black members of the Loyal Leagues and intimidated southern Republicans and Freedmen's Bureau workers.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Black members of the Loyal Leagues were also the frequent targets of Klan raids.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan - The Colorado History Project 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC thecoloradohistoryproject.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan, although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.

.When they killed black political leaders, they also took heads of families, along with the leaders of churches and community groups, because people had many roles.^ There were many that tried to kill and imprison as many blacks as they could.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Many of the people who were hanged were black.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A. We don't kill black people.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

.Agents of the Freedmen's Bureau reported weekly assaults and murders of blacks.^ Above: The Freedmen's Bureau was created by the Radical Republicans in Congress to give the newly freed Blacks political power over the conquered southern Whites.
  • originalKKK 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.kkklan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast, in 2007, the Australian Bureau of Statistics reports, 255 people were murdered in Australia.
  • Australia slam Indian paper's Ku Klux Klan cartoon - Democratic Underground 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ False media stories: The FBI's documents expose collusion by reporters and news media that knowingly published false and distorted material prepared by Bureau agents.
  • COINTELPRO Revisited: Spying & Disruption By Brian Glick 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Armed guerilla warfare killed thousands of Negroes; political riots were staged; their causes or occasions were always obscure, their results always certain: ten to one hundred times as many Negroes were killed as whites."^ "The negro" only killed one klansman?

^ "Armed guerilla warfare killed thousands of Negroes; political riots were staged; their causes or occasions were always obscure, their results always certain: ten to one hundred times as many Negroes were killed as whites."
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Negro members of the league often went armed to meetings, drilled and marched in formation, and practiced terrorist methods against both whites and hesitant Negroes."
  • Was the Ku Klux Klan a Logical Offshoot of the Civil War? - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.Masked men shot into houses and burned them, sometimes with the occupants still inside.^ Masked men shot into houses and burned them, sometimes with the occupants still inside.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A carload of men drove down the quiet street and stopped, engine still running, in front of their house.

^ Still another photograph was of a burning house with three whites wielding shotguns and crouched in the bushes a few feet away.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They drove successful black farmers off their land.^ They drove successful black farmers off their land.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The film showed that blacks were much better off than they were during the slavery era.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ It was a time when the Ku Klux Klan in Orange County sought to run coloured farmers off their land, and Grandmother's isolated cabin in the woods was an easy target.

.Generally, it can be reported that in North and South Carolina, in 18 months ending in June 1867, there were 197 murders and 548 cases of aggravated assault.^ General Canby reported that in North and South Carolina, in 18 months ending in June 1867, there were 197 murders and 548 cases of aggravated assault.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have three in Indiana [one in Butler], one in Illinois, two in South Carolina, one in North Carolina, one in Kentucky, two in Pennsylvania, one in California, and one in Arkansas.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ De-segregation was NOT a particularly popular cause- North or South - and there WERE plenty of rascists in BOTH parties.
  • Byrd's KKK Alibi Comes Unraveled 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]
.Klan violence worked to suppress black voting.^ Klan violence worked to suppress black voting.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In effect, the Klan defended the interest of the planter class and Democratic Party by working to curb the education, economic advancement, voting rights, and right to keep and bear arms of blacks.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although destroyed, the Klan achieved many of its goals, such as suppressing suffrage for Southern blacks and driving a wedge between poor whites and blacks.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

As the following examples indicate, over 2,000 persons were killed, wounded and otherwise injured in Louisiana within a few weeks prior to the Presidential election of November 1868. Although St. Landry Parish had a registered Republican majority of 1,071, after the murders, no Republicans voted in the fall elections. .White Democrats cast the full vote of the parish for Grant's opponent.^ For example, in the April, 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1222 votes for Democrat Rufus Bullock, but in the November presidential election, the county cast only one vote for Republican candidate Ulysses Grant.

^ The suggestions of the shrewdest Democratic papers have proved unavailing in controlling the votes of the loyal whites and blacks of the South.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Democratic party’s liberal leanings on race don’t make it a comfortable place from which to cast their votes.
  • Michelle Malkin » Dirty race-card tricks in Mississippi: The KKK ploy; Update: Neck and neck; Update: Democrat wins dirty; NRCC licks its wounds: “We came up short” 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: Original source]

.The KKK killed and wounded more than 200 black Republicans, hunting and chasing them through the woods.^ The KKK is not gone any more than the Nazi's.

^ The KKK killed and wounded more than 200 black Republicans, hunting and chasing them through the woods.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Riots in New Orleans killed 34 Blacks and wounded 200.
  • STORM FLASH 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thirteen captives were taken from jail and shot; a half-buried pile of 25 bodies was found in the woods.^ Thirteen captives were taken from jail and shot; a half-buried pile of 25 bodies was found in the woods.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If, as the newspapers reported, Carter's body was found on the road or if he was hanged and shot in Rosewood, as the black families contend, a coroner's jury was called on Tuesday to review his death.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some bodies were hidden in the woods or thrown in the river; others buried before state and Federal troops arrived.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

.The KKK made people vote Democratic and gave them certificates of the fact.^ The KKK made people vote Democratic and gave them certificates of the fact.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m a liberal Democrat through and through, and member of the ACLU. I am proud of the fact that I can put things in perspective and understand historical contaxt of people’s actions.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I heard Fred Edmunds say that no colored people should vote at Calhoun Mills except they voted the Democratic ticket.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.In the April 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1, 222 votes for Republican Rufus Bullock.^ For example, in the April 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1,222 votes for Republican Rufus Bullock , but in the November presidential election , the county cast only one vote for Republican candidate Ulysses Grant.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in the April 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1,222 votes for Republican Rufus Bullock, but in the November presidential election, the county cast only one vote for Republican candidate Ulysses Grant .
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in the April 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County voters cast 1,222 votes for Republican Rufus Bullock.
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the November presidential election, however, Klan intimidation led to suppression of the Republican vote and only one person voted for Ulysses S. Grant.^ By the November presidential election, voting declined drastically.
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one voter in the county dared to vote for the Republican candidate Ulysses S. Grant.
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vote, however, was not a Klan victory.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.Klansmen killed more than 150 African Americans in a county in Florida, and hundreds more in other counties.^ Klansmen killed more than 150 African Americans in a county in Florida, and hundreds more in other counties.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other violence, Klansmen killed more than 150 African Americans in a single county in Florida, and hundreds more in other counties.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other violence, Klansmen killed more than 150 African Americans in a single county in Florida , and hundreds more in other counties.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Freedmen's Bureau records provided a detailed recounting of beatings and murders of freedmen and their white allies by Klansmen.^ Freedmen's Bureau records provided a detailed recounting of beatings and murders of freedmen and their white allies by Klansmen.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agents of the Freedmen's Bureau reported weekly assaults and murders of blacks.
  • Black History: The Ku Klux Klan | The Bilerico Project 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2007, according to India's National Crime Records Bureau, 32,318 people were murdered in India.
  • Australia slam Indian paper's Ku Klux Klan cartoon - Democratic Underground 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
Milder encounters also occurred. In Mississippi, according to the Congressional inquiry[38]
.One of these teachers (Miss Allen of Illinois), whose school was at Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County, was visited ...^ In a typical episode in Mississippi, according to the Congressional inquiry One of these teachers (Miss Allen of Illinois), whose school was at Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County, was visited ...

^ One of these teachers (Miss Allen of Illinois), whose school was at Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County, was visited ...

^ One of these teachers (Miss Allen of Illinois ), whose school was at Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County , was visited ...
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

between one and two o'clock in the morning on .March 1871, by about fifty men mounted and disguised.^ March, 1871, by about fifty men mounted and disguised.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that point in her deposition, Lee Ruth added a puzzling story about marching past men wearing uniforms of green and armed with rifles.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maria Carter testified that about forty to fifty men came for John Walthall.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.Each man wore a long white robe and his face was covered by a loose mask with scarlet stripes.^ Each man wore a long white robe and his face was covered by a loose mask with scarlet stripes.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the Klan wore white robes and conical shaped white masks covering their faces.
  • Resistance against the Catholic Regime 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.students.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ To complete the ghoulish identity, Lester said they donned a white mask for the face [a] fantastic cardboard hat, so constructed as to increase the wearers height [and] a gown.
  • STORM FLASH 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She was ordered to get up and dress which she did at once and then admitted to her room the captain and lieutenant who in addition to the usual disguise had long horns on their heads and a sort of device in front.^ She was ordered to get up and dress which she did at once and then admitted to her room the captain and lieutenant who in addition to the usual disguise had long horns on their heads and a sort of device in front.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Abolitionists and others who had condemned the system and demanded instant emancipation did not arrive to set up schools and job training and employment bureaus.

^ Ends up Ted did have a 3 year paid sex relationship with the escort and is a meth-head as well.
  • Think Progress » Leader of Michigan Initiative To End Affirmative Action Welcomes Ku Klux Klan Support 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The lieutenant had a pistol in his hand and he and the captain sat down while eight or ten men stood inside the door and the porch was full.^ The lieutenant had a pistol in his hand and he and the captain sat down while eight or ten men stood inside the door and the porch was full.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jack stood and attempted to retrieve his sandwich, that is until he saw Turk staring icily at him, whereupon he sat back down.
  • Excerpts from "Jack Draggen: The Dumbest Klansman" 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC stellbread0.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.They treated her "gentlemanly and quietly" but complained of the heavy school-tax, said she must stop teaching and go away and warned her that they never gave a second notice.^ They need to go to school.â€?

^ They treated her "gentlemanly and quietly" but complained of the heavy school-tax, said she must stop teaching and go away and warned her that they never gave a second notice.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So busy were they, they stopped going to church.

.She heeded the warning and left the county.^ She heeded the warning and left the county.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1868, two years after the Klan's creation, its activity was beginning to decrease.^ By this time, only two years after the Klan's creation, its activity was already beginning to decrease Horn, 1939, p.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1868 interview with Forrest: Interview with Nathan Bedford Forrest By this time, only two years after the Klan's creation, its activity was already beginning to decrease and, as Gordon's proclamation shows, to become less political and more simply a way of avoiding prosecution for violence.

^ By 1868, only two years after the Klan's creation, its activity was already beginning to decrease [14] and, as Gordon's proclamation shows, to become less political and more simply a way of avoiding prosecution for violence.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Members were hiding behind Klan masks and robes as a way to avoid prosecution for free-lance violence.^ "Public disapproval, strong police enforcement, prosecution by the U.S. Justice Department, and juries who were not afraid to convict Klan members put the Klan out of business.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To hide their identity, Klan terrorists wore robes and hoods, draped sheets over their horses, and rode at night.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of the Klan wore white robes and conical shaped white masks covering their faces.
  • Resistance against the Catholic Regime 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.students.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.Many influential southern Democrats feared that Klan lawlessness provided an excuse for the federal government to retain its power over the South, and they began to turn against it.^ Many influential southern Democrats were beginning to see it as a liability, an excuse for the federal government to retain its power over the South.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By failing to use its unprecedented national wealth to provide the newly free--and indeed all citizens in the ravaged land--with the tools for success, the federal government consigned the black southerner to another kind of slavery, the slavery of the unskilled outsider.

[40] .There were outlandish claims made, such as Georgian B. H. Hill stating "that some of these outrages were actually perpetrated by the political friends of the parties slain."^ Georgian B.H. Hill went so far as to claim "that some of these outrages were actually perpetrated by the political friends of the parties slain."
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also evidence that in certain states, such as Alabama, the KKK was not a mere hate group and showed a genuine desire for political and social reform.
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are still some bad feelings on the part of these groups about how they were treated.
  • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[39]

Resistance

.Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama, organized 'the anti-Ku Klux.'^ White Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama, organized 'the anti-Ku Klux,' which put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama , organized 'the anti-Ku Klux,' which put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LITTLE ROCK -- American Civil Liberties Union lawyers ((will)) represent a Ku Klux Klan group seeking to participate in a state Adopt-A-Highway anti-litter program .
  • Ku Klux Klan: News & Videos about Ku Klux Klan - CNN.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Ku Klux Klan: News & Videos about Ku Klux Klan - CNN.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.They put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools.^ White Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama, organized 'the anti-Ku Klux,' which put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A black church, school, Masonic Lodge, and meeting hall are burned.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama , organized 'the anti-Ku Klux,' which put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Armed blacks formed their own defense in Bennettsville, South Carolina and patrolled the streets to protect their homes.^ Armed blacks patrolled the streets of Bennettsville, South Carolina, to prevent Klan assaults."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armed blacks patrolled the streets of Bennettsville, South Carolina , to prevent Klan assaults."
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, the arming and training of black soldiers in the South heightened fears among white natives.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.National sentiment gathered to crack down on the Klan, even though some Democrats at the national level questioned whether the Klan really existed or believed that it was just a creation of nervous Southern Republican governors.^ Even though many Democrats at the national level questioned whether the Klan even existed, or was a creation of nervous Republican governors in the South.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was also a national movement to crack down on the Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He really believes the silliness of the Democrat mantra.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Wilkerson awaiting Klan - Politico.com 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[42] .Many southern states began to pass anti-Klan legislation.^ To stem the increasing frequency of the group's crimes in 1871, Congress passed legislation authorizing the president to use federal troops against the Klan.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mississippi has passed so many laws governing what abortion clinics can and cannot do that it is virtually impossible to open a second clinic without breaking state law.
  • Anti-Abortion Movement Borrows Tactics from the KKK | | AlterNet 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The bill passed the House, but Southerners in the Senate organized a filibuster that prevented a vote, resulting in the measure's failure and leaving the states to deal with the lynching problem.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In January 1871, Pennsylvania Republican Senator John Scott convened a Congressional committee which took testimony from 52 witnesses about Klan atrocities.^ In January 1871, Pennsylvania Republican senator John Scott convened a committee which took testimony from 52 witnesses about Klan atrocities.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1871, Pennsylvania Republican Senator John Scott convened a committee which took testimony from 52 witnesses about Klan atrocities.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1871, Pennsylvania Republican senator John Scott convened a committee which took testimony from 52 witnesses about Klan atrocities.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They accumulated 12 volumes of horrifying testimony. .In February, former Union General and Congressman Benjamin Franklin Butler of Massachusetts introduced the Ku Klux Klan Act.^ Next Sunday we're gonna have the Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan come preach for you."
  • ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 93: Johnny Lee Clary (05/09/2005) 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ White, Kloran, Knights Of The Ku Klux Klan, K-uno, 1916, 56 Pages .
  • Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kovels.com [Source type: General]

^ YES , The Ku Klux Klan IS a Christian organization .
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

.This added to the enmity that southern white Democrats bore toward him.^ The figures whom Bartlett covers were not only Democrats but Southerners, and it will be no surprise to contemporary readers that white Southerners tended to be open bigots back in the day.
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this made the Democratic Party more clearly "black" in Southern states, thus further alienating white voters from the Democratic Party.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.” .
  • The KKK Wing of the US Democrat Party « What Do You Believe? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC brianakira.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[43] .While the bill was being considered, further violence in the South swung support for its passage.^ Now, sir, I have presented a few of the manifold proofs that, did time allow, I could at once present in support of the facts warranting the passage of this bill.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Governor of South Carolina appealed for federal troops to assist his efforts in keeping control of the state.^ That they were going to continue to keep them out of the State of South Carolina.
  • Miami Police Informant Information on Joseph Milteer November 26, 1963 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cuban-exile.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Woodlawn’s revival was in its final days on November 2 when the States’ Rights Democratic Party, with South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond at its head, won only 4 states in the presidential elections: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina.
  • The Carter-Klan Documentary Project | Thomas Hamilton 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.carter-klan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tide was turned in favor of the bill by the Governor of South Carolina's appeal for federal troops, and by reports of a riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi , courthouse, from which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi, courthouse were reported, from which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.^ The tide was turned in favor of the bill by the Governor of South Carolina's appeal for federal troops, and by reports of a riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi , courthouse, from which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tide was turned in favor of the bill by the governor of South Carolina 's appeal for federal troops, and by reports of a riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi courthouse, which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tide was turned in favor of the bill by an appeal from the governor of South Carolina for federal troops, and by reports of a riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi courthouse, from which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant signed Butler's legislation.^ Radical Republicans in Congress such as Benjamin Butler urged President Ulysses S. Grant to take action against the Ku Klux Klan.

^ Benjamin Franklin Butler wrote the 1871 Klan Act.In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant signed Butler's legislation, the Ku Klux Klan Act, which was used along with the 1870 Force Act to enforce the civil rights provisions of the Constitution.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant signed Butler's legislation, the Ku Klux Klan Act , which was used along with the 1870 Force Act to enforce the civil rights provisions of the constitution.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ku Klux Klan Act was used by the Federal government together with the 1870 Force Act to enforce the civil rights provisions for individuals under the constitution.^ Do I mean that the Ku Klux Klan has such sway over the government?
  • Albert Pike, Freemasonry, and the Ku Klux Klan - Topix 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Scottish Rite's KKK Project 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.theforbiddenknowledge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan (ca,tr) .
  • EMM News Explorer: Klu Klux Klan 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ Benjamin Franklin Butler wrote the 1871 Klan Act.In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant signed Butler's legislation, the Ku Klux Klan Act, which was used along with the 1870 Force Act to enforce the civil rights provisions of the Constitution.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the Klan Act, Federal troops were used for enforcement, and Klansmen were prosecuted in Federal court.^ Under the Klan Act, federal troops were used rather than state militias, and Klansmen were prosecuted in national court, where juries were often predominantly black.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the Klan Act, federal troops were used rather than state militias, and Klansmen were prosecuted in federal court, where juries were often predominantly black.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Public disapproval, strong police enforcement, prosecution by the U.S. Justice Department, and juries who were not afraid to convict Klan members put the Klan out of business.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More African Americans served on juries in Federal court than were selected for local or state juries, so they had a chance to participate in the process.^ His appeals failed (Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented, condemning the intimidation of the jury as failing to provide due process of law).
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His appeals, taken all the way to the United States Supreme Court, ultimately failed (although Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented, condemning the intimidation of the jury as failing to provide due process of law).
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though it’s no more “racist” than the NAACP or the Organization of Chinese Americans.
  • Think Progress » Former Klansman David Duke Rips Limbaugh For ‘KKK’ Comparison, Says Sotomayor Is The Racist 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[45] .In the crackdown, hundreds of Klan members were fined or imprisoned.^ Hundreds of Klan members were fined or imprisoned, and habeas corpus was suspended in nine counties in South Carolina.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At state meetings each Klan will have one vote for each one hundred members or fraction thereof.” .
  • TBO Forums | The Ku Klux Klan in Tallahassee area from 1949 to 1955 - News Forums - from TBO.com 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.tboforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In South Carolina, habeas corpus was suspended in nine counties.^ Hundreds of Klan members were fined or imprisoned, and habeas corpus was suspended in nine counties in South Carolina.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am here to deny this, and to illustrate, I will say that in the State of South Carolina there is no disturbance of an alarming character in any one of the counties in which the Republicans have a majority.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the act, nine South Carolina counties were placed under martial law.
  • Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - Andrew Glass - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Klan declines and is superseded by other groups

.Although Forrest boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of 550,000 men and that he could muster 40,000 Klansmen within five days' notice, as a secret or "invisible" group, it had no membership rosters, no chapters, and no local officers.^ In an 1868 newspaper interview, [17] Forrest boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of 550,000 men, and that although he was not a member, he was "in sympathy" and would "cooperate" with them, and he could muster 40,000 Klansmen with five days' notice.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forrest boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of 550,000 men, and that although he himself was not a member, he was "in sympathy" and would "cooperate" with them, and could himself muster 40,000 Klansmen with five days' notice.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He added that he could raise 40,000 men in four days.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

It was difficult for observers to judge its actual membership. It had created a sensation by the dramatic nature of its masked forays and because of its many murders.
.One Klan official complained that his, "so-called 'Chief'-ship was purely nominal, I having not the least authority over the reckless young country boys who were most active in 'night-riding,' whipping, etc., all of which was outside of the intent and constitution of the Klan..."^ One Klan official complained that his own "so-called 'Chief'-ship was purely nominal, I having not the least authority over the reckless young country boys who were most active in 'night-riding,' whipping, etc., all of which was outside of the intent and constitution of the Klan..."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also called on all young people present to live pure lives.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One Klan official complained that his own "so-called 'Chief'-ship was purely nominal, I having not the least authority over the reckless young country boys who were most active in 'night-riding,' whipping, etc., all of which was outside of the intent and constitution of the Klan" Forrest ordered the Klan to disband in 1869, stating that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace."
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.In 1870 a federal grand jury determined that the Klan was a "terrorist organization".[46] It issued hundreds of indictments for crimes of violence and terrorism.^ Hundreds of indictments for crimes of violence and terrorism were issued.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a federal grand jury in 1869 determined that the Klan was a "terrorist organization."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The secret terrorist organization, the Ku Klux Klan was part of the violent white reaction to Reconstruction.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.Klan members were prosecuted, and many fled from areas that were under federal government jurisdiction, particularly in South Carolina.^ Klan members were prosecuted, and many fled jurisdiction, particularly in South Carolina.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Public disapproval, strong police enforcement, prosecution by the U.S. Justice Department, and juries who were not afraid to convict Klan members put the Klan out of business.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the leadership of Milwaukee insurance broker William Wieseman, the Klan grew throughout Wisconsin, though Milwaukee continued to have the highest number of members.

[47] .Many people not formally inducted into the Klan had used the Klan's costume for anonymity, to hide their identities when carrying out acts of violence.^ Gordon warned that some people had been carrying out violent acts in the name of the Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was true that many people who had not been formally inducted into the Klan found the Klan's uniform to be a convenient way to hide their identities when carrying out acts of violence.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stephenson and the other salesmen and office seekers who maneuvered for control of Indiana's Invisible Empire lacked both the ability and the desire to use the political system to carry out the Klan's stated goals.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forrest ordered the Klan to disband in 1869, stating that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace".[48] Historian Stanley Horn writes "generally speaking, the Klan's end was more in the form of spotty, slow, and gradual disintegration than a formal and decisive disbandment".[49] A reporter in Georgia wrote in January 1870, "A true statement of the case is not that the Ku Klux are an organized band of licensed criminals, but that men who commit crimes call themselves Ku Klux".[50]
Gov. William Holden of North Carolina.
.While people used the Klan as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against them.^ Although the Klan was being used more often as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against it.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Klan was being used more and more often as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against it.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To stem the increasing frequency of the group's crimes in 1871, Congress passed legislation authorizing the president to use federal troops against the Klan.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.African Americans were kept off juries.^ This upset members of the local Ku Klux Klan who believed that the reason for this was that some members of the jury were African Americans.

^ Comments Off The struggle for equality for Americans of African descent continues despite significant advances made during the 1950’s and 1960’s.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Comments Off This essay on ‘African-American Civil Rights Movement’ is no longer hosted on OnlineEssays.com .
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.In lynching cases, all-white juries almost never indicted Ku Klux Klan members.^ Ku Klux Klan (ca,tr) .
  • EMM News Explorer: Klu Klux Klan 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ The Ku Klux Klan is going to make this a white man's country.

^ In lynching cases, whites were almost never indicted by all-white coroner's juries, and even when there was an indictment, all-white trial juries were unlikely to vote for conviction.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When there was a rare indictment, juries were unlikely to vote for a conviction.^ In lynching cases, whites were almost never indicted by all-white coroner's juries, and even when there was an indictment, all-white trial juries were unlikely to vote for conviction.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In lynching cases, whites were almost never indicted by all-white coroner's juries, and even when there was an indictment, all-white trial juries were extremely unlikely to vote for conviction.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even on the rare occasions they were arrested for serious crimes, Klansmen were unlikely to be convicted by local Southern juries.

.In part, jury members feared reprisals from local Klansmen.^ This upset members of the local Ku Klux Klan who believed that the reason for this was that some members of the jury were African Americans.

^ Even on the rare occasions they were arrested for serious crimes, Klansmen were unlikely to be convicted by local Southern juries.

.Others may have agreed with lynching as a way of keeping dominance over black men.^ This occurred as the other, more industrial, interests of the broad based party dominated their platform; leaving the blacks to face the wrath of the Southerners.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (CHNM.edu) The blacks were not only persecuted and degraded in conventional ways but were subject to racism in the media such as books, movies, music, and any other public medium.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Black men of all social classes yearned for white women, including those of lower and upper class, such as Gus and Lynch.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.In many states, officials were reluctant to use black militia against the Klan out of fear that racial tensions would be raised.^ In many states, there were fears that the use of black militiamen would ignite a race war.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many states there were fears that the use of black militiamen would ignite a race war.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

[45] .When Republican Governor of North Carolina William Woods Holden called out the militia against the Klan in 1870, it added to his unpopularity.^ When Republican Governor of North Carolina William Woods Holden called out the militia against the Klan in 1870, the result was a backlash that lost him the upcoming election.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William Holden of North Carolina attempted to use the state militia against the Klan and was removed from office.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William Holden of North Carolina attempted to use the state militia against the Klan, and was voted out of office.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Combined with violence and fraud at the polls, the Republicans lost their majority in the state legislature.^ By the late 1950s, the major Klan network was rooted in nine Southern states, and almost two dozen smaller Klan units competed with them, sparking violence...
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am here to deny this, and to illustrate, I will say that in the State of South Carolina there is no disturbance of an alarming character in any one of the counties in which the Republicans have a majority.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Ku Klux Klan was the first major, violence-prone group in the United States to be organized according to racism in general and a belief in white supremacy in particular.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disaffection with Holden's actions led to white Democratic legislators' impeaching Holden and removing him from office, but their reasons were numerous.^ William Holden of North Carolina attempted to use the state militia against the Klan and was removed from office.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HE WON IOWA! So the whites put him in office.
  • The Ku Klux Klan DOES NOT endorse Barack Obama for president | Train Wreck Politics 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC trainwreckpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Republican Governor of North Carolina William Woods Holden called out the militia against the Klan in 1870, the result was a backlash that led to Republicans losing their majority in the legislature, and ultimately, to his own impeachment and removal from office.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
.The Klan was destroyed in South Carolina[52] and decimated throughout the rest of the South, where it had already been in decline.^ These efforts were so successful that the Klan was destroyed in that state and decimated throughout the rest of the country, where it had already been in decline for several years.
  • Ku Klux Klan! 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These efforts were so successful that the Klan was destroyed in South Carolina [27] and decimated throughout the rest of the country, where it had already been in decline for several years.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These efforts were so successful that the Klan was destroyed in South Carolina [29] and decimated throughout the rest of the country, where it had already been in decline for several years.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attorney General Amos Tappan Ackerman led the prosecutions.^ Prosecutions were led by Attorney General Amos Tappan Ackerman .
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prosecutions were led by Attorney General Amos Tappan Akerman .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 4, 1910) This Oregon Senator, prosecuted Klansmen while Federal Attorney General.
  • Albert Pike did not found the Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC freemasonry.bcy.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Albert Pike did not found the Ku Klux Klan 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC www.freemasonry.bcy.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.In some areas, other local paramilitary organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs continued to intimidate and murder black voters.^ White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Klan threatened, beat, and murdered many blacks and their white sympathizers in the South.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most other interviewees who had some familiarity with local history and Klan activities had no knowledge of such boycotts in Noblesville.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]
.In 1874, organized white paramilitary groups formed in the Deep South to replace the faltering Klan: the White League in Louisiana and the Red Shirts in Mississippi, North and South Carolina.^ White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, which tracks hate groups, > the UDC is a neo-Confederate organization which is affiliated with such > white supremacist groups as the Council of Conservative Citizens and the > League of the South.
  • Organizing for America | Posts with the tag KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC my.barackobama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1867, there were enough separate groups to hold a convention, which declared that the fundamental goal of the Klan was the maintenance of the supremacy of the white race in this country.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They campaigned openly to turn Republicans out of office, intimidated and killed black voters, tried to disrupt organizing and suppress black voting.^ There were many that tried to kill and imprison as many blacks as they could.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Posted By: But they kick the crap out of republicans with college voters .
  • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Klan, [28] although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were out in force during the campaigns and elections of 1874 and 1876, contributing to the conservative Democrats regaining power in 1876, against a background of electoral violence.^ The Ku Klux Klan will make war on Jack Walton, democratic nominee for governor of Oklahoma.The klan will have speakers in Oklahoma during the campaign to oppose Walton.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s an ugly “business” that involves people who are being forced to do the most horrendous thing in the world: sell their bodies against their will under threat of violence.
  • What's More Important – Craigslist or South Carolina? A TechCrunch Poll 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ The violence comes, not with the shifting of power, but when the 'counter-revolutionaries' try to regain the power which inevitably and almost without their knowing it passed from their grasp.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

Shortly after, in United States v. .Cruikshank (1875), the Supreme Court ruled that the Force Act of 1870 did not give the Federal government power to regulate private actions, but only those by state governments.^ Not in the current state of our federal government.
  • Organizing for America | Posts with the tag KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC my.barackobama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution only restricts actions of the government, not private individuals.
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the Supreme Court ruled in United States vs. Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional , saying that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to private conspiracies.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result was that as the century went on, African Americans were at the mercy of hostile state governments that refused to intervene against private violence and paramilitary groups.^ Today, the United States is engaged in a war against domestic and international terrorism, and, it is argued, one important weapon is informants who will penetrate terrorist groups and help prevent future violence.
  • WNYC - Books: The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Description: One of your viewers submitted this video from youtube of 2 KKK members showing hate against African Americans.
  • Video: Disgrace: 2 KKK Members In Lakeland, Florida Are Mad About Obama's Inauguration As They Flash Their Guns & Knives Saying They Should Do Something Bad To African Americas & More! "The South Will Rise Again" [Updated] 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldstarhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The African American soldiers when upon returning to the United States were as lost as all the other soldiers were.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whereas the number of indictments across the South was large, the number of cases leading to prosecution and sentencing was relatively small.^ There are also a large number of regular 'Blue' lodges named after Pike in small and big town U.S.A..
  • Albert Pike and the Ku Klux Klan 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The overloaded federal courts were not able to meet the demands of trying such a tremendous number of cases, a situation that led to selective pardoning.^ The courts of justice seem paralyzed when they have to meet such issues as this.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So the ACLU took on our case and filed suit in the federal district court, and it took a year.
  • VCU Libraries Digital Collections : Item Viewer 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC dig.library.vcu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They were afraid that my parents were going to get there and demand to know where I was, and tossed me out before such a stressful situation landed in thier lap again.
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.By late 1873 and 1874, most of the charges against Klansmen were dropped although new cases continued to be prosecuted for several more years.^ Infiltration and disruption of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and prosecution of its national leaders on false charges (Florida, 1971-74); .
  • COINTELPRO Revisited: Spying & Disruption By Brian Glick 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though an FBI investigation at the time turned up several suspects, no one was prosecuted in the case.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They explicitly repudiated both the Boy Scouts' discrimination against the GLBT community and their discrimination against atheists several years ago.
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most of those sentenced had either served their terms or been pardoned by 1875. The Supreme Court of the United States eviscerated the Ku Klux Act in 1876 by ruling that the federal government could no longer prosecute individuals although states would be forced to comply with federal civil rights provisions.^ In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I beat it in courts across the United States.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If I could, I would file suit today in State court to make it unconstitutional for them to be anywhere near a high school campus anywhere in VA. Mark It all happens in the Heartland of Virginia .
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Republicans passed a second civil rights act (the Civil Rights Act of 1875) to grant equal access to public facilities and other housing accommodations regardless of race.^ In 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and the Reconstruction Act, which dissolved all governments in the former Confederate states, with the exception of Tennessee, and divided the South into five military districts to protect the rights of the newly freed blacks.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ It took the hard work of Republican Senate Minority Leader Everett Dirksen and Republican Whip Thomas Kuchel to pass the Civil Rights Act (Dirksen was presented a civil rights accomplishment award for the year by the head of the NAACP in recognition of his efforts).
  • Hank Johnson should apologize — or, at least, retract | Cynthia Tucker 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Such things weren't supposed to happen almost 30 years after the Supreme Court declared "separate but equal'' unconstitutional, and nearly 20 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

.Ironically, the Klan during this period served to further Northern reconstruction efforts, as Ku Klux violence provided the political climate needed to pass civil rights protections for blacks.^ Ku Klux Klan Violence in Georgia, 1871.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Not only were the blacks misrepresented, but also the Ku Klux Klan.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Ku Klux Klan vocabulary .
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the Ku Klux Act of 1871 dismantled the first Klan, Southern whites formed other, similar groups that kept blacks away from the polls through intimidation and physical violence.^ The Ku Klux Klan is going to make this a white man's country.

^ Ku Klux Klan Violence in Georgia, 1871.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Not only were the blacks misrepresented, but also the Ku Klux Klan.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.Reconstruction ended with the election of President Rutherford B. Hayes, who suspended the federal military occupation of the South; yet blacks still found themselves without the basic civil liberties that Congressional Republicans had sought to secure.^ After the civil war blacks still had it rough.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ After the disputed Presidential election of 1876 between Democratic governor of New York, Samuel J. Tilden and Republican governor of Ohio, Rutherford B. Hayes, an agreement between Democratic and Republican factions were negotiated upon resulting in the Compromise of 1877.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and the Reconstruction Act, which dissolved all governments in the former Confederate states, with the exception of Tennessee, and divided the South into five military districts to protect the rights of the newly freed blacks.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

[55]
In 1882, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. .Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional.^ In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the Supreme Court ruled in United States vs. Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional , saying that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to private conspiracies.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It ruled that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to the right to regulate against private conspiracies.^ Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional , saying that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to private conspiracies.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in United States vs. Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional, saying that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to private conspiracies.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the Supreme Court ruled in United States vs. Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional , saying that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to private conspiracies.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
.Klan costumes, also called "regalia", disappeared by the early 1870s (Wade 1987, p. 109).^ Klan "costumes or regalia" had disappeared by the early 1870's (Wade, p.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan, Wade, 1987, p.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan "costumes or regalia" had disappeared by the early 1870s (Wade, p.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fact that the Klan did not exist for decades was shown when Simmons's 1915 recreation of the Klan attracted only two aging "former Reconstruction Klansmen."^ That the Klan was entirely nonexistent for a period of decades is shown by the fact that in 1915, Simmons's refounding of the Klan was attended by only two aging "former Reconstruction Klansmen" (Wade, p.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ku Klux Klan was reformed in 1915 by William J. Simmons, a preacher influenced by Thomas Dixon's book, The Ku Klux Klan (1905) and the film of the book, Birth of a Nation , directed by D.W. Griffith .

^ In 1915, William J. Simmons, a former Methodist clergyman, organized a new Klan in Atlanta, Ga., as a patriotic, Protestant fraternal society.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

.All other members were new.^ Forrest WAS an original member of the KKK, but he and several of the other original members took out an add in a newspaper renouncing all ties to the KKK when it became an instrument of violence towards blacks.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Klan members all take an oath not to reveal the identity of other Klan members.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rowe thought everything was all right until one Klansman looked him in the eye, moved on to the other new member, and then suddenly turned around as if to challenge Rowe’s suitability for membership.
  • WNYC - Books: The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] .By 1872, the Klan was broken as an organization.^ A PBS web page (accessed February 19, 2006) states that "By 1872, the Klan as an organization was broken."
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is sometimes overlooked is that by then Stephenson, often credited with building the Indiana Klan into a potent force, had broken with the Evans organization.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A PBS web page (retrieved August 12, 2005) states that "By 1872, the Klan as an organization was broken."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Nonetheless, the goals that the Klan had failed to achieve itself, such as suppressing suffrage for Southern blacks and driving a wedge between poor whites and blacks, were largely accomplished by the 1890s by militant Southern whites.^ Have their been fights between the black communities and the Klan?
  • STR † THE FREEDOM BLOG© » The Ku Klux Klan : Missunderstood Culture of Christian America 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC shelleytherepublican.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1867, there were enough separate groups to hold a convention, which declared that the fundamental goal of the Klan was the maintenance of the supremacy of the white race in this country.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan, [28] although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lynchings of African Americans, far from being ended by the Klan's disintegration, instead peaked in 1892 with 161 deaths.^ Forrest ordered the Klan to disband in 1869, stating that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historian Stanley Horn writes that "generally speaking, the Klan's end was more in the form of spotty, slow, and gradual disintegration than a formal and decisive disbandment."
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the period from 1918 to 1927, lynch mobs took the lives of 454 persons, of whom 416 were African American.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]

The second Klan: 1915–1944

Refounding in 1915

.
Movie poster for The Birth of a Nation.
^ This occurred in 1915, and sparked membership growth of the Klan, but now in the late 1920’s what are the appealing factors that draw people to the Klan, and movies like birth of a nation.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Movies such as Birth of a Nation “harassed” people of color to join the war effort to prove their loyalist to America (Staiger 205).
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It highlights the importance of the 1915 film version of The Clansman , D.W. Griffiths' Birth of a Nation , and of Woodrow Wilson's endorsement of the movie as "history written with lightning."
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

It has been widely noted for reviving the Ku Klux Klan.
An illustration from The Clansman: "Take dat f'um yo equal—"
Three closely linked events occurred in 1915:
.
  • The film The Birth of a Nation was released, mythologizing and glorifying the first Klan.
  • Leo Frank, a Jewish man whose controversial death sentence for the rape and murder of a young white girl named Mary Phagan had been commuted, was lynched near Atlanta against a backdrop of media frenzy.
  • The second Ku Klux Klan was founded at Stone Mountain, Georgia, supplementing its original anti-black ideology with a new anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, Prohibitionist and anti-Semitic agenda.^ In keeping with its origins in the Leo Frank lynching, the reorganized Klan had a new anti-Jewish , anti-Catholic , anti-immigrant and strong anti-Communist slant.
    • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The second Ku Klux Klan was founded with a new anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, and anti-Semitic agenda.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the movie the motives of the Ku Klux Klan was to basically be the savior of the whites.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    .The bulk of the founders were from an Atlanta-area organization calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan that had organized around Leo Frank's trial.^ The bulk of the founders were from an organization calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan, and the new organization emulated the fictionalized version of the original Klan presented in The Birth of a Nation .
    • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The governor then commuted his sentence to life imprisonment, but a mob calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan kidnapped Frank from the prison farm and lynched him.
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    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In sensationalistic newspaper accounts, Frank was accused of fantastic sexual crimes and of the murder of a Mary Phagan, a girl employed at his factory.
    • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The new organization emulated the fictionalized version of the Klan presented in The Birth of a Nation.

The Birth of a Nation

.Director D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation glorified the original Klan.^ Permalink to Comment D.W. Griffiths film, Birth of A Nation, poorly portrays both the roles of the Klu Klux Klan and the African Americans.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ D. W. Griffith 's The Birth of a Nation glorified the original Klan, which was by then a fading memory.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Permalink to Comment In the movie Birth of a Nation the Klan is portrayed as heroes.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

His film was based on the book and play The Clansman and the book The Leopard's Spots, both by Thomas Dixon, Jr.. Dixon said his purpose was "to revolutionize northern sentiment by a presentation of history that would transform every man in my audience into a good Democrat!" The film created a nationwide Klan craze. .At the official premier in Atlanta, members of the Klan rode up and down the street in front of the theater.^ LS Massive number of Klan members in white robes down Pennsylvania Avenue w/ Capitol in the BG. Street level, Klansmen march in formation w/ American flags w/ Capitol in BG. MCU Klansmen marching more informally without flags.
  • Footage Farm: KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

^ At a preview in Los Angeles , actors dressed as Klansmen were hired to ride by as a promotional stunt, and real-life members of the newly reorganized Klan rode up and down the street at its later official premiere in Atlanta .
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.Much of the modern Klan's iconography, including the standardized white costume and the lighted cross, are derived from the film.^ Much of the modern Klan's iconography, including the standardized white costume and the burning cross, are imitations of the film, whose imagery was itself based on Dixon's romanticized concept of old Scotland as portrayed in the novels and poetry of Sir Walter Scott rather than on the Reconstruction Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their dramatic fall in popularity, the Klan and Klan-related tropes (white hoods, cross burnings etc.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ceremonies were much like patriotic gatherings of veterans on July 4th, with large crowds of whites cheering Klan members.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its imagery was based on Dixon's romanticized concept of old Scotland, as portrayed in the novels and poetry of Sir Walter Scott.^ Much of the modern Klan's iconography, including the standardized white costume and the burning cross, are imitations of the film, whose imagery was itself based on Dixon's romanticized concept of old Scotland as portrayed in the novels and poetry of Sir Walter Scott rather than on the Reconstruction Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The film does not portray the Ku Klux Klan accurately, because it was based on false conceptions of that time.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.The film's influence and popularity were enhanced by a widely reported endorsement by historian and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.^ The film even had full support from the current President, Woodrow Wilson.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ However, their attempts were unsuccessful and President Woodrow Wilson approved the film.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The film's popularity and influence were enhanced by a widely reported endorsement of its factual accuracy by historian and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson (see below, under Political Influence) as a favor to an old friend.
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President Wilson
.The Birth of a Nation included extensive quotations from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People, as if to give it a stronger basis.^ As inaccurate as The Birth of a Nation is, it is a piece of American history.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Even President Woodrow Wilson endorsed the film, claiming that "It is like writing history with lightning and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Birth of a Nation includes extensive quotations from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People , http://www.geocities.com/emruf5/birthofanation.html , retrieved July 7, 2005.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After seeing the film in a special White House screening, Wilson allegedly said, "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."[61] Given Wilson's views on race and the Klan, his statement was taken as supportive of the film. .In later correspondence with Griffith, Wilson confirmed his enthusiasm.^ Later correspondence with Griffith, the film's director, confirms Wilson's enthusiasm about the film.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The comment was relayed to the press by Griffith and widely reported, and in subsequent correspondence, Wilson discussed Griffith's filmmaking in a highly positive tone, without challenging the veracity of the statement.
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.Wilson's remarks immediately became controversial.^ Wilson's remarks were widely reported and immediately became controversial.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Wilson tried to remain aloof, but finally, on April 30, he issued a non-denial denial.^ Wilson tried to remain aloof from the controversy, but finally, on April 30 , he issued a non-denial denial .
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[62] Historian Arthur Link quotes Wilson's aide, Joseph Tumulty: "the President was entirely unaware of the nature of the play before it was presented and at no time has expressed his approbation of it."[63]

Leo Frank

.Another event that influenced the Klan was sensational coverage of the trial, conviction and lynching of a Jewish factory manager from Atlanta named Leo Frank.^ The lynching of Leo Frank In the same year, an important event in the coalescence of the second Klan was the lynching of Leo Frank , a Jewish factory manager.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lynching of Leo Frank In the same year, an important event in the coalescence of the second Klan was the lynching of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory manager.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the same year, an important event in the coalescence of the second Klan was the lynching of Leo Frank , a Jewish factory manager.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In lurid newspaper accounts, Frank was accused of the rape and murder of Mary Phagan, a girl employed at his factory.^ In sensationalistic newspaper accounts, Frank was accused of fantastic sexual crimes and of the murder of Mary Phagan, a girl employed at his factory.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sensationalistic newspaper accounts, Frank was accused of fantastic sexual crimes and of the murder of a Mary Phagan, a girl employed at his factory.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leo Frank , a Jewish man accused of the rape and murder of a young white girl named Mary Phagan, was lynched against a backdrop of media frenzy.
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The lynching of Leo Frank
.After a trial in Georgia in which a mob daily surrounded the courtroom, Frank was convicted.^ He was convicted of murder after a questionable trial in Georgia (the judge asked that Frank and his counsel not be present when the verdict was announced due to the violent mob of people surrounding the court house).
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^ He was convicted of murder after a questionable trial in Georgia (the judge asked that Frank and his counsel not be present when the verdict was announced because of the violent mob of people surrounding the court house).
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the presence of the armed mob, the judge asked Frank and his counsel to stay away when the verdict was announced.^ He was convicted of murder after a questionable trial in Georgia (the judge asked that Frank and his counsel not be present when the verdict was announced due to the violent mob of people surrounding the court house).
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Frank's appeals failed. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented from other justices and condemned the mob's intimidation of the jury as the court's failing to provide due process to the defendant. .After the governor commuted Frank's sentence to life imprisonment, a mob calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan kidnapped Frank from prison and lynched him.^ The governor then commuted his sentence to life imprisonment, but a mob calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan kidnapped Frank from the prison farm and lynched him.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leo Frank , a Jewish man accused of the rape and murder of a young white girl named Mary Phagan, was lynched against a backdrop of media frenzy.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The bulk of the founders were from an organization calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan, and the new organization emulated the fictionalized version of the original Klan presented in The Birth of a Nation .
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The Frank trial was used skillfully by Georgia politician and publisher Thomas E. Watson, the editor for The Jeffersonian magazine.^ The Frank trial was used skillfully by Georgia politician and publisher Thomas E. Watson , the editor for The Jeffersonian magazine at the time and later a leader in the reorganization of the Klan who was later elected to the U.S. Senate.
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^ This is an original November 1934 Official magazine published by the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Incorporated and printed in Atlanta, Georgia for national distribution.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an original January 1935 Official magazine published by the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Incorporated and printed in Atlanta, Georgia for national distribution.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was a leader in recreating the Klan and was later elected to the U.S. Senate.^ A few weeks later, Forrest was selected as Grand Wizard , the Klan's national leader.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Frank trial was used skillfully by Georgia politician and publisher Thomas E. Watson , the editor for The Jeffersonian magazine at the time and later a leader in the reorganization of the Klan who was later elected to the U.S. Senate.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1925 the Klan was a powerful political force in the state, and played a pivotal role in electing members to the Alabama governorship, the U.S. Senate, and the attorney general's office in state elections.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new Klan was inaugurated in 1915 at a meeting led by William J. Simmons on top of Stone Mountain.^ The new Klan was inaugurated in 1915 at a meeting led by William J. Simmons on top of Stone Mountain , and attended by aging members of the original Klan, along with members of the Knights of Mary Phagan.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1915, William J. Simmons, a former Methodist clergyman, organized a new Klan in Atlanta, Ga., as a patriotic, Protestant fraternal society.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Civil Rights Act of 1871 essentially destroyed the KKK. In 1915, a second group using the same name was founded by William Joseph Simmons.

.A few aging members of the original Klan attended, along with members of the self-named Knights of Mary Phagan.^ The new Klan was inaugurated in 1915 at a meeting led by William J. Simmons on top of Stone Mountain , and attended by aging members of the original Klan, along with members of the Knights of Mary Phagan.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The governor then commuted his sentence to life imprisonment, but a mob calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan kidnapped Frank from the prison farm and lynched him.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marie [origin of place name] St. Marie, Town of, Green Lake Co.

.Simmons stated that he had been inspired by the original Klan's Prescripts, written in 1867 by Confederate veteran George Gordon in an attempt to create a national organization.^ Simmons found inspiration for this second Klan in the original Klan's "Prescripts," written in 1867 by George Gordon (a former Confederate brigadier general) in an attempt to give the original Klan a sense of national organization.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simmons found inspiration for this second Klan in the original Klan's "Prescripts," written in 1867 by George Gordon in an attempt to give the original Klan a sense of national organization.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gordon also stated that the Klan was a peaceful organization.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were never adopted by the Klan, however.^ In later interviews, however, Forrest denied the leadership role and stated that he never had any effective control over the Klan cells.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These marginal men had risen to the top of the hooded order because, until it became a political force, the Klan had never required strong, dedicated leadership.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few small Klan groups have wrongly adopted its use, however the banner is the legal trademark of The Knights.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

[64] .The Prescript stated the Klan's purposes in idealistic terms, hiding the fact that its members committed acts of vigilante violence and murder from behind masks.^ Forrest ordered the Klan to disband in 1869, stating that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace."
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Klans in other states, the Wisconsin KKK did not resort to violence, choosing instead secret and extralegal actions.

^ The second Klan's constitution and preamble, reprinted in Quarles book, states that the second Klan was indebted to the original Klan's Prescripts.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Social factors

.The second Klan arose during the nadir of American race relations, in response to urbanization and industrialization.^ So, while the film provides the viewer with events of the Reconstruction, it also provides us a picture of race relations during 1915.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ This is done by the distortion of the portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan, the representation of the colored and white populations, and by the representation of white women as victims of race relations.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Escalating racial confrontations and rumors during the war years portended ill for race relations during the postwar period.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Massive immigration from the largely Catholic countries of eastern and southern Europe led to friction with America's longer-established Protestant worshipers.^ He had proven his ``Southern-ness'' by running racial hysteria campaigns against Arkansas's handful of freed blacks and against America's Catholic immigrants.
  • Albert Pike, Freemasonry, and the Ku Klux Klan - Topix 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why is it that America is still the NUMBER ONE country that people want to immigrate to either legally or illegally?
  • Multimedia - First Look: Health care opponents protest in Raleigh | newsobserver.com blogs 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.newsobserver.com [Source type: General]

^ In South Dakota, the Klan appealed to rising Protestant fears and its publicity and violence was aimed at Catholics, mostly Eastern European, and not so much at African Americans here.

.The Great Migration of African Americans to the North stoked racism by whites in Northern industrial cities; thus the second Klan would achieve its greatest political power not in any Southern state, but in Indiana.^ To deny it or to justify white or black/African American racism is complete B.S. .
  • Hank Johnson should apologize — or, at least, retract | Cynthia Tucker 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ One was the "Great Migration" of African Americans to northern cities.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ African American Political Pundit says: .
  • Think Progress » Leader of Michigan Initiative To End Affirmative Action Welcomes Ku Klux Klan Support 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The migration of African Americans and whites from rural areas to Southern cities further increased tensions.^ One was the "Great Migration" of African Americans to northern cities.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The white Southerners had effectively disenfranchised the African American by the turn of the century.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Klan also gained a firm foundation in parts of the North and West where industrial changes, as well as the increased migration of African Americans from the South, had begun to make some less affluent whites increasingly insecure about their jobs...
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Klan grew most rapidly in cities which had high growth rates between 1910 and 1930, such as Detroit, Memphis, Dayton, Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston.^ Most other interviewees who had some familiarity with local history and Klan activities had no knowledge of such boycotts in Noblesville.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, the Klan grew most rapidly during the early years of the 1920s boom, in 1923 and 1924.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The 1920s was an important Klan growth period, as its nationwide membership expanded to between 4 and 5 million individuals.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] Stanley Horn, a Southern historian sympathetic to the first Klan, was careful in an oral interview to distinguish it from the later "spurious Ku Klux organization which was in ill-repute — and, of course, had no connection whatsoever with the Klan of Reconstruction days".[66]
William J. Simmons founded the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915.
.In an era without Social Security or widely available life insurance, it was common for men to join fraternal organizations such as the Elks or the Woodmen of the World in order to provide for their families in case they died or were unable to work.^ The men's scheme of organization provided the model.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Grand Wizard Hiram Evans sold the organization in 1939 to James Colescott and Samuel Green, but they were unable to staunch the exodus of members.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without some local foundation of racism, religious prejudice, and nativism, therefore, it is unlikely that an organization such as the Klan could have attained a high level of support.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The founder of the new Klan, William J. Simmons, was a member of twelve different fraternal organizations.^ In 1915, William J. Simmons, a former Methodist clergyman, organized a new Klan in Atlanta, Ga., as a patriotic, Protestant fraternal society.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ Ku Klux Klan Imperial Wizard William J. Simmons appears before a Congressional Committee around large table.
  • Footage Farm: KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He recruited for the Klan with his chest covered with fraternal badges, and consciously modeled the Klan after those organizations.^ In 1915, William J. Simmons, a former Methodist clergyman, organized a new Klan in Atlanta, Ga., as a patriotic, Protestant fraternal society.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

^ There are still many unresolved issues that surround the phenomenal success of the Klan of the twenties, including the motives of those who joined and then left the organization.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
.Klan organizers, called "Kleagles", signed up hundreds of new members, who paid initiation fees and bought KKK costumes.^ Organizers signed up hundreds of new members, who paid initiation fees and bought KKK costumes.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William Gibbs McAdoo against New York Governor Al Smith , who drew the opposition of the group because of his Catholic faith.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Public disapproval, strong police enforcement, prosecution by the U.S. Justice Department, and juries who were not afraid to convict Klan members put the Klan out of business.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The organizer kept half the money and sent the rest to state or national officials.^ The organizer kept half the money and sent the rest to state or national officials.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an 1867 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee , an effort was made to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters reporting to county leaders, counties reporting to districts, districts reporting to states , and states reporting to a national headquarters.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, millions joined, and at its peak in the 1920s the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population [46] and had chapters across the United States.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the organizer was done with an area, he organized a huge rally, often with burning crosses and perhaps presented a Bible to a local Protestant minister.^ When the organizer was done with an area, he organized a huge rally, often with burning crosses and perhaps a ceremonial presentation of a Bible to a local Protestant minister.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He attended seminary in Evergreen, Colorado at the Soldiers of the Cross Bible Institute on scholarship where he received a Bachelor of Theology degree and was ordained a Baptist minister.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ On the altar, the escorts stated, was the Holy Bible and a sword, and behind the altar was a burning cross.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then left town with the money.^ He left town with all the money.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The local units operated like many fraternal organizations and occasionally brought in speakers.^ The local units operated like many fraternal organizations, occasionally bringing in speakers.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These groups, with operations in separated small local units, are considered extreme hate group s.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just like we treat prior members of the IRA, PRI and many other so-called terrorist organizations.
  • This Highway Adoped By the Ku Klux Klan | MetaFilter 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Klan's growth was also affected by mobilization for World War I and postwar tensions, especially in the cities where strangers came up against each other more often.^ But no challenge occurred, the lights came up, and he received a membership card or “passport” into his new world.
  • WNYC - Books: The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of various Klan groups have often been featured sensationally on The Jerry Springer Show and other talk shows, often featuring personal conflicts of their members.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though I more often get called an “upity city girl.” .
  • Wonkette : Defend This Atlanta Man’s Right To Free Racist Joke Speech! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC wonkette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Southern whites resented the arming of black soldiers.^ The KKK especially appealed to whites who resented both special programs designed to help blacks and job competition from blacks and recent immigrants.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rumors also circulated in the United States in 1918 that black soldiers had been warmly received in Europe and had had their way with white women in France.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the second day, two armed camps had formed and whites assaulted the black residential area on the south side of the city.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Black veterans did not want to go back to second class status, and some were lynched, still in uniform, on returning from overseas.^ During his Attorney Generalship, he had disregarded the lynching of 29 blacks and did the same when another 21 were lynched during his governorship.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one scene the movie shows a high class citizen dress up in his KKK costume to go an ambush a group of black soldiers.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Once you go black you never go back so your red neck honky ass wont be able to fuck any of your cousins.
  • Video: Disgrace: 2 KKK Members In Lakeland, Florida Are Mad About Obama's Inauguration As They Flash Their Guns & Knives Saying They Should Do Something Bad To African Americas & More! "The South Will Rise Again" [Updated] 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldstarhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]

Activities

.In reaction to social changes, the Klan adopted anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist and anti-immigrant slants.^ In keeping with its origins in the Leo Frank lynching, the reorganized Klan had a new anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist and anti-immigrant slant.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In keeping with its origins in the Leo Frank lynching, the reorganized Klan had a new anti-Jewish , anti-Catholic , anti-immigrant and strong anti-Communist slant.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ineligible for Klan membership himself because of his immigrant status, Kosto perhaps felt it wise, due to economic and social pressures, not to alienate his Klan neighbors.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Klan groups lynched and murdered black soldiers returning from World War I while they were still in military uniforms.^ In addition, Klan groups also took part in lynchings, even going so far at to murder Black soldiers returning from World War I while they were still in their military uniforms.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Klan groups also took part in lynchings , even going so far at to murder Black soldiers returning from World War I while they were still in their military uniforms.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thompson reported that in his brief membership in the Klan, his truck was shot at, he was yelled at by black children, and a Klan rally that he attended turned into a riot when black soldiers on an adjacent military base taunted the Klansmen.
  • Ku Klux Klan - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Klan warned blacks that they must respect the rights of the white race "in whose country they are permitted to reside".[69] The number of lynchings escalated, and from 1918 to 1927, 416 African Americans were killed, mostly in the South.^ The Klan warned Blacks that they must respect the rights of the white race "in whose country they are permitted to reside."
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the white race is not supreme in this country, what race is?
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Klan warned Blacks that they must respect the rights of the white race "in whose country they are permitted to reside.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70]
.When two black men attempted to vote in November 1920 in Ocoee, Florida, the Klan attacked the black community.^ Have their been fights between the black communities and the Klan?
  • STR † THE FREEDOM BLOG© » The Ku Klux Klan : Missunderstood Culture of Christian America 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC shelleytherepublican.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to the 47 blacks who died by lynching, the Klan attacked the black community of Ocoee, Florida, in the western part of Orange County, in November 1920 and destroyed several homes when two local black citizens--Mose Norman and July Perry attempted to vote.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local Klan members were suspected of ambushing two black policemen in 1965, killing one and wounding the other.
  • America unmasked: The images that reveal the Ku Klux Klan is alive and kicking in 2009 - Americas, World - The Independent 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the ensuing violence, six black residents and two whites were killed, and twenty five black homes, two churches, and a fraternal lodge were destroyed.^ The black community of Ocoee is destroyed, 25 homes, 2 churches, and a Masonic Lodge.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately six black residents and two whites were killed in the violence, and twenty-five black homes, two churches, and a lodge were destroyed (16) At Perry, in December 1922, one month before the Rosewood incident, a white school teacher was murdered by an escaped convict.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two whites and at least five blacks are killed in Ocoee in a dispute over voting rights.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70]
Branford Clarke illustration in The Ku Klux Klan In Prophecy by Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of Fire Church in 1925 at Zarephath, NJ
.Although Klan members were concentrated in the South, Midwest and west, there were some members in New England, too.^ Most of the new members were from the Midwest.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Klan also gained a firm foundation in parts of the North and West where industrial changes, as well as the increased migration of African Americans from the South, had begun to make some less affluent whites increasingly insecure about their jobs...
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

.Klan members torched an African American school in Scituate, Rhode Island.^ The new Klan was popular as far north as New England , where it engaged in violent activities such as torching an African American school in Scituate, Rhode Island .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During that period Klan members were involved in the murder of three civil rights workers in Mississippi as well as in the deaths of four small African-American girls in Mobile, Alabama, a church bombing.
  • Adherents.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

[71]
.In the 1920s and 1930s, a violent and zealous faction of the Klan called the Black Legion was active in the Midwestern U.S. under Virgil Effinger.^ In the 1920s and 1930s a faction of the Klan called the Black Legion was very active in the Midwestern U.S. Rather than wearing white robes, the Legion wore black uniforms reminiscent of pirates.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Black Legion was the most violent and zealous faction of the Klan and were notable for targeting and assassinating communists and socialists .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1920s and 1930s a faction of the Klan called the Black Legion was very active in the Midwestern U.S. Rather than wearing white robes, the Legion wore black uniforms reminiscent of pirates .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Temperance

.
from Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty 1926 ill.
^ KKKR-04 Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty .
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

by Rev. Branford Clarke
"The End" Referring to the end of Catholic influence in the US. Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty 1926
Photograph on Page 4, February 1923 edition of The Good Citizen
Lender et al. state that the .Klan's resurgence in the 1920s was aided by the temperance movement.^ If the Klan of the 1920s was a fascist movement, how seriously are we to take the views Evans put forward?
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In Arkansas and elsewhere, the Klan opposed bootleggers, and in 1922, two hundred Klan members set fire to saloons in Union County.^ Of the twenty-four top county posts in the 1924 directory, four were filled by identified Klansmen; of the eighteen top posts listed in 1926, four Klan members appear in the records.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two other Klan members were indicted with Bowers, but one died before trial, and the other's indictment was dismissed.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proud Texan 06-13-2006, 11:46 PM he was a member of the klan for two years or so in the early 40s......
  • Klansman becomes longest serving Senator in US history! [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

.The national Klan office was finally established in Dallas, Texas, but Little Rock, Arkansas was the home of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan.^ Ku Klux Klan vocabulary .
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ku Klux Klan scenes.
  • Footage Farm: KKK 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wichita women's republican federation is opposed to the Ku Klux Klan.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first head of this auxiliary was a former president of the Arkansas WCTU.[72] One historian contends that the KKK’s "support for Prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation".[73] Membership in the Klan and other prohibition groups overlapped, and they often coordinated activities.^ They don't have a national headquarters to coordinate activity.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ The first head of this female auxiliary was a former president of the Arkansas WCTU." [42] The KKK’s "support for Prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation" (emphasis in original) [43] and there was much interaction and overlap in membership between the Klan and other prohibition supporters.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wait they were the ones who started the group (KKK).
  • Hank Johnson should apologize — or, at least, retract | Cynthia Tucker 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

.For example, Edward Young Clarke, a top leader of the Klan, raised funds for both the Klan and the Anti-Saloon League.^ For example, a top leader of the Klan, Edward Young Clarke, raised funds for both the Klan and the Anti-Saloon League .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan raises anti-immigrant clamor ] The Montgomery Advertiser , June 5, 2006, accessed June 5, 2006.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan raises anti-immigrant clamor The Montgomery Advertiser , June 5, 2006, accessed June 5, 2006.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] Clarke was indicted in 1923 for violations of the Mann Act.[75]

Blaine Amendments

.In 1921, the Klan arrived in Oregon from central California and established the state's first klavern in Medford.^ The first Klan was never centrally organized.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He first states for whom the Klan is organized.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a state with one of the country's highest percentages of white residents, the Klan attracted up to 14,000 members and established 58 klaverns by the end of 1922. Given the small population of non-white minorities outside Portland, the Oregon Klan directed attention almost exclusively against Catholics, who numbered about 8% of the population.^ Noblesville's population remains, as well, almost exclusively white.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the late 1860's white Southern voices against the Klan were in the minority.

^ The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William Gibbs McAdoo against New York Governor Al Smith , who drew the opposition of the group because of his Catholic faith.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1922, the Masonic Grand Lodge of Oregon sponsored a bill to require all school-age children to attend public schools.^ They all home school their children.

^ I would like to extend a warm welcome to all new and prospective children and parents to Merry Hill Infant School and Nursery.

^ All children attend for five morning sessions from 9.00am-11.30am , or for five afternoon sessions from 12.45pm-3.15pm .

.With support of the Klan and Democratic Governor Walter M. Pierce, endorsed by the Klan, the Compulsory Education Law was passed with a majority of votes.^ The Ku Klux Klan will make war on Jack Walton, democratic nominee for governor of Oklahoma.The klan will have speakers in Oklahoma during the campaign to oppose Walton.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is KuKlux Kismet , a 1924 Ku Klux Klan march sheet music by Mary Gue and arranged by Walter Ardell Riggs of Arkansas Pass, Texas.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though many Democrats at the national level questioned whether the Klan even existed, or was a creation of nervous Republican governors in the South.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its primary purpose was to shut down Catholic schools in Oregon, but it also affected other private and military schools.^ The local paper had an article the other day about military recuiters in high schools in the Seattle area.
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.A number of states passed Blaine Amendments, which forbid direct government aid to religious schools.^ Eliminate prayer or any phase of religious expression in the schools on the ground that it violates the principle of "separation of church and state."
  • Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - Andrew Glass - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insurrections in a State will rarely induce a federal interposition, unless the number concerned in them bear some proportion to the friends of government.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Q. If the First Amendment states there is to be a separation of church and state, how can The Knights explain their goal of a Christian government?
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

Labor and anti-unionism

.The social unrest of the postwar period included labor strikes in response to low wages and poor working conditions in many industrial cities, often led by immigrants, who also organized unions.^ Linking crime with immigrants (many of whom were Catholic), the Klan gained power in Madison by promising to maintain order in the city's Italian neighborhood, the Greenbush.

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ "It is the history of industrial strikes that many devices are employed to create an atmosphere of fear and intimidation.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Klan members worried about labor organizers and the socialist leanings of some of the immigrants, which added to the tensions.^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

^ I'm a little leery about the Internet because a met a guy claiming to be an Imperial Wizard of a Klan organization.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

They also resented upwardly mobile ethnic Catholics.[76] .At the same time, in cities Klan members were themselves working in industrial environments and often struggled with working conditions.^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ Working in a store, he had delivered ice from Sumner to Rosewood and had often observed that the people took pride in themselves and their homes.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also agree that once they freed themselves from slavery, they had even more problems to deal with, and most of the Ku Klux Klan was very unfair and brutal at times.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.In southern cities such as Birmingham, Alabama, Klan members kept control of access to the better-paying industrial jobs but opposed unions.^ He described a business owner who "was approached by a Klan member and told he had better join or his business would be destroyed."
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think white women play such a prominent role in the film and in the Klans justification for violence because the whites didnt want blacks having access to their women.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ He certainly wanted the position, he told the group, but because he had just joined the Klan in June, he thought the job should go to a more experienced member.
  • WNYC - Books: The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the 1930s and 1940s, Klan leaders urged members to disrupt the Congress of Industrial Organizations(CIO), which advocated industrial unions and was open to African-American members.^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

^ Description: One of your viewers submitted this video from youtube of 2 KKK members showing hate against African Americans.
  • Video: Disgrace: 2 KKK Members In Lakeland, Florida Are Mad About Obama's Inauguration As They Flash Their Guns & Knives Saying They Should Do Something Bad To African Americas & More! "The South Will Rise Again" [Updated] 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldstarhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With access to dynamite and skills from their jobs in mining and steel, in the late 1940s some Klan members in Birmingham began using bombings to intimidate upwardly mobile blacks who moved into middle-class neighborhoods.^ The KKK especially appealed to whites who resented both special programs designed to help blacks and job competition from blacks and recent immigrants.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Klan, [30] although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More established and experienced politicians who endorsed the Klan, or who pursued some of the interests of their Klan constituents, also accomplished little.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."By mid-1949, there were so many charred house carcasses that the area [College Hills] was informally named Dynamite Hill."^ The number 1,164 is an estimate, since there were many misspellings and typographical errors on the Klan lists, and there were a number of members who had the same common names.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Independent Klan groups remained active in Birmingham and were deeply engaged in violent opposition to the Civil Rights Movement.^ And I'd line up with you to call Helms or Thurmond on the carpet for the hideous comments they made when they were a part of this group and the obstructionism of Civil Rights they took part in.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ These protesters are becoming just like those that opposed the civil rights movement.
  • Think Progress » Dingell says town hall mobs remind him of the Ku Klux Klan. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ By the 1930's, only local Klan groups in the South remained strong.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

[77]

Urbanization

Stone Mountain, site of the founding of the second Klan in 1915
.A significant characteristic of the second Klan was that it was an organization based in urban areas, reflecting the major shifts of population to cities in both the North and the South.^ The first Klan, in short, was a paramilitary organization; the second was not.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The major made an investigation of the private box of the klan at the post office, where mail is received addressed to the "American Club," to ascertain who are members of the organization here.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second Ku Klux Klan rose to great prominence and spread from the South into the Midwest and Northern states and even into Canada.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Michigan, for instance, 40,000 members lived in Detroit, where they made up more than half of the state's membership.^ They are too wrapped up in their personal lives.
  • Think Progress » Dingell says town hall mobs remind him of the Ku Klux Klan. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Indiana's Klansmen represented a wide cross section of society: they were not disproportionately urban or rural, nor were they significantly more or less likely than other members of society to be from the working class, middle class, or professional ranks.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given an opportunity to sound off, they were more than happy when they finally got their chance and let go.
  • Think Progress » Dingell says town hall mobs remind him of the Ku Klux Klan. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Most Klansmen were lower- to middle-class whites who were trying to protect their jobs and housing from the waves of newcomers to the industrial cities: immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, who tended to be Catholic and Jewish in numbers higher than earlier groups of immigrants; and black and white migrants from the South.^ Who attacked him for trying to help the lower class blacks?
  • Michelle Malkin » Dirty race-card tricks in Mississippi: The KKK ploy; Update: Neck and neck; Update: Democrat wins dirty; NRCC licks its wounds: “We came up short” 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Steel Workers organized immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The inate racism of the old south, reinforced by the Ku-Klux-Klan, means that young Jordan is in for a sticky time, while the real culprit is protected by the good ol' boys of the town, who would prefer to hunt a young black than admit that one of their own could be that depraved.
  • KKK - Lulu.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

.As new populations poured into cities, rapidly changing neighborhoods created social tensions.^ There's nothing wrong with its belief in limited government, but the natural exclusivity of their identity politics will have to change if they ever hope to get new voters into their party.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Wilkerson awaiting Klan - Politico.com 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course it may be more of a permanant change, indicated by the enhanced temptations in these neighborhoods, for the Gods have created an enviornmet so riddled with temptation few can escape/overcome.
  • STR † THE FREEDOM BLOG© » The Ku Klux Klan : Missunderstood Culture of Christian America 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC shelleytherepublican.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the rapid pace of population growth in industrializing cities such as Detroit and Chicago, the Klan grew rapidly in the U.S. Midwest.^ Yet, the Klan grew most rapidly during the early years of the 1920s boom, in 1923 and 1924.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great Migration of blacks from the South to northern cities such as New York and Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s began to produce black-majority Congressional districts.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason I forbid such a gathering at Arkansas City was because it would menace a local situation created by the strike."
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Klan also grew in booming Southern cities such as Dallas and Houston.^ Yet, the Klan grew most rapidly during the early years of the 1920s boom, in 1923 and 1924.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the Klan no longer existed, it had achieved many of its goals, such as denying voting rights to Southern blacks.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only southern cities to have black majority districts were Atlanta, Houston, Memphis and New Orleans.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

[78]
.For some states, historians have obtained membership rosters of some local units and matched the names against city directory and local records to create statistical profiles of the membership.^ Historians in recent years have obtained membership rosters of some local units and matched the names against city directory and local records to create statistical profiles of the membership.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the fifteen top city officials listed in the 1924 city directory, only four appear in the Klan records; of the fifteen in the 1926 directory, seven can be identified from the same records.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, of the 25 officials for the Hamilton County and Arcadia klaverns listed in the aforementioned "Local Officers" list, the names of only 7 appear in the 1923–1926 local records.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Big city newspapers were often hostile and ridiculed Klansmen as ignorant farmers.^ Big city newspapers were unanimously hostile and often ridiculed the Klansmen as ignorant farmers.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Detailed analysis from Indiana showed the rural stereotype was false for that state:
.Indiana's Klansmen represented a wide cross section of society: they were not disproportionately urban or rural, nor were they significantly more or less likely than other members of society to be from the working class, middle class, or professional ranks.^ Soon they brought other members.

^ Indiana's Klansmen represented a wide cross section of society: they were not disproportionately urban or rural, nor were they significantly more or less likely than other members of society to be from the working class, middle class, or professional ranks.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please note: The items on this page are historical collectible items and are not to be construed as advocating nor supporting the positions of the organizations represented.  They are being offered and sold for the historical content only and are not intended for any use other than appropriate display.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Klansmen were Protestants, of course, but they cannot be described exclusively or even predominantly as fundamentalists.^ Klansmen were Protestants , of course, but they cannot be described exclusively or even predominately as fundamentalists .
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klansmen were Protestants , of course, but they cannot be described exclusively or even predominantly as fundamentalists .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course the professional protesters know just how far they can go, they are well schooled in what the police can or cannot do and they push every limit.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

.In reality, their religious affiliations mirrored the whole of white Protestant society, including those who did not belong to any church.^ In reality, their religious affiliations mirrored the whole of white Protestant society, including those who did not belong to any church.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will portray you as mean, sinister, revengeful, psychotic, illiterate, and filled with rage toward those who aren't white.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ A voyage into hate groups reveals a lonely existence for those who support all things white.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

[79]
.The Klan attracted people but most of them did not remain in the organization for long.^ In order to be and remain relevant the Klan MUST, be modern, up to date, able to use the best tools to reach our people and it must walk the walk.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ Did he know if they belonged to any organizations like the Ku Klux Klan?
  • WNYC - Books: The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It seemed that most Klan activity was taking place online among people who had never met."
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Membership in the Klan turned over rapidly as people found out that it was not the group they wanted.^ To lash out at their declining values they turned to the Klan.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They found a comfortable and comforting home in the Klan.
  • WNYC - Books: The Informant: The FBI, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Murder of Viola Liuzzo 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What do people want to know about The Klan?
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

.Millions joined, and at its peak in the 1920s, the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population.^ Still, millions joined, and at its peak in the 1920s the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population [46] and had chapters across the United States.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At its peak in the early 1920s, the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population, approximately 4–5 million men.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one knows for sure how many Americans joined but the best estimates are around 2 million members, some 15,000 of which were in Wisconsin.

The lessening of social tensions contributed to the Klan's decline.

The burning cross

Cross burning is said to have been introduced by William J. Simmons, the founder of the second Klan in 1915.
.The second Klan adopted a burning Christian cross as its symbol, using it as a Klan trademark.^ The Cross obviously is a symbol of Christianity.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Many have been led to believe the Klan burns the cross as an act of desecrating a Christian symbol.
  • faq 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.kkk.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ The burning cross is a symbol used by the Klan to create terror.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No such crosses had been used by the first Klan but the burning cross became a symbol of intimidation by the second Klan.^ The burning cross is a symbol used by the Klan to create terror.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for burning crosses, I am not part of the Klan.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most other interviewees who had some familiarity with local history and Klan activities had no knowledge of such boycotts in Noblesville.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80]
The practice of cross burning had been loosely based on ancient Scottish clans' practice of burning a St. Andrew's cross (an X-shaped cross) as a beacon to muster their forces for war. .In The Clansman (see above), Dixon had falsely claimed that the first Klan had used fiery crosses when rallying its men to fight against Reconstruction.^ This research establishes the importance of Thomas Dixon's romanticized view of the Klan in works like The Leopard's Spots (1902) and The Clansman (1905) in popularizing the mythology of Reconstruction as a period of misgovernment, corruption, and tyranny.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Klan was being used more often as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against it.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blindfold was then removed and it was a startling revelation to the newspaper man, the crowd of robed men who were walking about on the hill and the huge fiery cross that was burning.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

Griffith brought this image to the screen in The Birth of a Nation, adding to the confusion by mistakenly portraying the burning cross as an upright Latin cross rather than the St. Andrew's cross that the Highland clans had actually used. .Simmons adopted the burning Latin cross wholesale from the movie, prominently displaying it at the 1915 Stone Mountain meeting, and the incendiary symbol has been indelibly associated with the Ku Klux Klan ever since.^ He is often associated as the founder of the Ku Klux Klan; however, he actually was not.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan vocabulary .
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where was the Ku Klux Klan while the fighting was going on?
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

[81]

Political influence

Sheet music to "We Are All Loyal Klansmen", 1923
The Good Citizen July 1926 Published by Pillar of Fire Church
.The Klan had major political influence in several states and was influential mostly in the center of the country.^ Unsurprisingly, Tulsa was a major center of Klan influence in the 1920s.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The new Klan differed from the original one in that while the first Klan had been Southern, the new Klan was influential throughout the United States, with major political influence on politicians in several states.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the peak of the Klan's political power, several highly notable political figures in the U.S. and Canada joined the Klan or flirted with membership.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Klan spread from the South into the Midwest and Northern states, and into Canada where there was a large movement against Catholic immigrants.^ The second Ku Klux Klan rose to great prominence and spread from the South into the Midwest and Northern states and even into Canada.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were clans founded in Canada , most notably in Saskatchewan , where there was a large clan movement against Catholic immigrants.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were even clans founded in Canada , most notably in Saskatchewan , where there was a large clan movement against Catholic immigrants.
  • Ku Klux Klan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .At its peak, Klan membership exceeded four million and comprised 20% of the adult white male population in many broad geographic regions, and 40% in some areas.^ At its peak, Klan membership exceeded 4 million and comprised 20% of the adult white male population in many broad geographic regions, as high as 40% in some areas.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, millions joined and at its peak in the 1920s the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population According to the 1920 census, the population of white males 18 years and older was about 31 million, but many of these men would have been ineligible for membership because they were immigrants, Jews, or Roman Catholics.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now there are many Klan groups with four or five members each.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Most of the Klan's membership resided in Midwestern states.^ The Klan warned Blacks that they must respect the rights of the white race "in whose country they are permitted to reside.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The county's Klan membership had a strong rural component, and it would be fair to assume that many or most of these unidentified individuals were involved in farming.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the membership resided in Midwestern states.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In another well-known example from the same year, the Klan decided to turn Anaheim, California, into a model Klan city.^ In another well-known example from the same year, the Klan decided to make Anaheim, California , into a model Klan city; it secretly took over the city council, but was voted out in a special recall election.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By her teenage years, Wheatley was a well known author, reciting poems for the New England elite in homes where blacks could not even sit at the table with whites.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s a well known fact that George Bush ate kittens during his 8 years of destroying America: .
  • Think Progress » Tancredo: Sotomayor Is A Member Of The ‘Latino KKK Without The Hoods Or The Nooses’ 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.It secretly took over the City Council, but the city conducted a special recall election and Klan members were voted out.^ In another well-known example from the same year, the Klan decided to make Anaheim, California , into a model Klan city; it secretly took over the city council, but was voted out in a special recall election.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Census data also "determines how many seats each state will have in the House of Representatives as well as the redistricting of state legislatures, county and city councils, and voting districts."
  • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ William Holden of North Carolina attempted to use the state militia against the Klan, and was voted out of office.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]
.Klan delegates played a significant role at the path-setting 1924 Democratic National Convention in New York City, often called the "Klanbake Convention". The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William Gibbs McAdoo against Catholic New York Governor Al Smith.^ The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William Gibbs McAdoo against New York Governor Al Smith , who drew the opposition of the group because of his Catholic faith.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York: William Morrow (2005).
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klan delegates played a significant role at the pathsetting 1924 Democratic National Convention in New York City , often called the " Klanbake Convention" as a result.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After days of stalemates and rioting, both candidates withdrew in favor of a compromise.^ After days of stalemates and rioting, both candidates withdrew in favor of a compromise.
  • Ku Klux Klan at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Klan delegates defeated a Democratic Party platform plank that would have condemned their organization.^ Klan delegates defeated a Democratic Party platform plank that would have condemned their organization.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Democrat Party platform changed to a radical Socialist ideology, seemingly.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senator Oscar Underwood of Alabama and Governor Al Smith of New York both called upon the party to repudiate the Klan by name in the platform.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In some states, such as Alabama, the KKK worked for political and social reform.^ Although some blacks could have been unprofessional and not concerned with how they behaved in the political setting, most of the blacks involved in such meetings were active in the Union Army and therefore would be concerned about their work.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Some of them doubtless rejoice in this, because they can throw the blame, as they think, upon the administration of the State, which is in the hands of their political foes.
  • Speeches of African-American Representatives Addressing the Ku Klux Klan Bill of 1871 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www1.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some ARA groups have been associated with the skinhead and punk subcultures, and have worked with organizations such as Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP)."
  • Clowns Kicked KKK Asses - Neatorama 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

[84] .The state's Klansmen were among the foremost advocates of better public schools, effective prohibition enforcement, expanded road construction, and other "progressive" political measures.^ Indiana Klansmen were predominantly concerned with socio-political issues such as prohibition enforcement and eliminating vice and political corruption.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These, as reported in the Ledger , included the tenets of Christianity, white supremacy, separation of church and state, the limitation of foreign immigration, and protection of the public school system.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second-generation Irish-American women, on the other hand, dominated the ranks of public school teachers.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In many ways these reforms benefited lower class white people.^ In many ways these progressive political goals, which benefited ordinary and lower class white people in the state, were the result of the Klan offering these same people their first chance to install their own political champions into office.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movie also shows that many of the people that were in the KKK were of the higher upper class.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ It also describes how many middle class blacks tried to be more like a “white” person.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1925, the Klan was a political force in the state, as leaders like J. Thomas Heflin, David Bibb Graves, and Hugo Black manipulated the KKK membership against the power of Black Belt planters who had long dominated the state.^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The KKK especially appealed to whites who resented both special programs designed to help blacks and job competition from blacks and recent immigrants.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Klans in other states, the Wisconsin KKK did not resort to violence, choosing instead secret and extralegal actions.

.Black was elected senator in 1926 and later became a Supreme Court Justice.^ Black was elected senator in 1926 and became a leading supporter of the New Deal .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His appeals failed (Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented, condemning the intimidation of the jury as failing to provide due process of law).
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wonder what the previous 107 WHITE male supreme court justices would have though?
  • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.In 1926, with Klan support, a former Klan chapter head named Bibb Graves won the Alabama governor's office.^ Senator Oscar Underwood of Alabama and Governor Al Smith of New York both called upon the party to repudiate the Klan by name in the platform.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the 1926 chautauqua approached, the board solicited the support of the "entire community," and made no mention of any special role for the Klan.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He pushed for increased education funding, better public health, new highway construction, and pro-labor legislation.^ He led one of the most progressive administrations in the state's history, pushing for increased education funding, better public health, new highway construction, and pro-labor legislation.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First thing he should do is reduce the funding in Iraq and increase the funding to help rebuild New Orleans.
  • The Ku Klux Klan DOES NOT endorse Barack Obama for president | Train Wreck Politics 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC trainwreckpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because the Alabama state legislature refused to redistrict until 1972, however, even the Klan was unable to break the planters' and rural areas' hold on power.^ So she's either trolling, or unable to hold up her end in even the simplest of debates.
  • O'Reilly again asserted that "hate-filled" Daily Kos "rivals the KKK and Nazi websites" | Media Matters for America 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Census data also "determines how many seats each state will have in the House of Representatives as well as the redistricting of state legislatures, county and city councils, and voting districts."
  • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Even states like Mississippi have chosen Obama over A white woman, because they would rather have a black man in office than a white woman.
  • THADDEUSMATTHEWS.COM THE HOME OF CONTROVERSY: KKK WARNS OF DEATH THREATS AGAINST OBAMA 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC thadmatthews.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike its predecessor, which had been an exclusively partisan Democratic organization, the second Klan was courted by both Republicans and Democrats in the Midwest, and endorsed candidates from either party that supported its goals; Prohibition in particular helped the Klan and the Republicans to make common cause in the North.^ Does The Klan align itself with any particular party or candidate at the moment?
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The process was supported by both parties.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ In Republican-dominated Hamilton County, it appears that the Klan drew support from both parties.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the South, however, the Republican party was powerless; thus, the southern Klan remained Democratic, closely allied with Democratic police, sheriffs, and other functionaries of local government.^ By the 1930's, only local Klan groups in the South remained strong.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This occurred as the other, more industrial, interests of the broad based party dominated their platform; leaving the blacks to face the wrath of the Southerners.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Klan delegates defeated a Democratic Party platform plank that would have condemned their organization.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Resistance and decline

Nazi propaganda poster from 1944, showing a Ku Klux Klan hood and a lynching noose
.Many groups and leaders, including prominent Protestant ministers such as Reinhold Niebuhr in Detroit, spoke out against the Klan.^ Now there are many Klan groups with four or five members each.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1870 to 1872, the Ku Klux Klan has been acting as a guerrilla military force (White Resistance and Redemption, Out of Many pp 335).
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ There are still many unresolved issues that surround the phenomenal success of the Klan of the twenties, including the motives of those who joined and then left the organization.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response to blunt attacks against Jewish Americans and the Klan's campaign to outlaw private schools, the Jewish Anti-Defamation League was formed after the lynching of Leo Frank.^ Instead the anti-Klan's campaign of violence and intimidation succeeded.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The major made an investigation of the private box of the klan at the post office, where mail is received addressed to the "American Club," to ascertain who are members of the organization here.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The lynching of Leo Frank In the same year, an important event in the coalescence of the second Klan was the lynching of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory manager.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When one civic group began to publish Klan membership lists, the number of members quickly declined.^ Under the leadership of Milwaukee insurance broker William Wieseman, the Klan grew throughout Wisconsin, though Milwaukee continued to have the highest number of members.

^ Now there are many Klan groups with four or five members each.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After the breakup of the second Klan, the name "Ku Klux Klan" began to be used by several independent groups.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People carried on public education campaigns in order to inform people about Klan activities and lobbied against Klan abuses in Congress.^ What do people want to know about The Klan?
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Forrest ordered the Klan to disband in 1869, stating that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace."
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The film went under deep criticism of the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People for its cruel depiction against black race.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.After its peak in 1925, Klan membership began to decline rapidly in most areas of the Midwest.^ At its peak, Klan membership exceeded 4 million and comprised 20% of the adult white male population in many broad geographic regions, as high as 40% in some areas.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the peak of the Klan's political power, several highly notable political figures in the U.S. and Canada joined the Klan or flirted with membership.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The county's Klan membership had a strong rural component, and it would be fair to assume that many or most of these unidentified individuals were involved in farming.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
.In Alabama, KKK vigilantes, thinking that they had governmental protection, launched a wave of physical terror in 1927, targeting both blacks and whites who had violated racial norms and for perceived moral lapses.^ The Klan not only targeted people for violating racial norms but also for perceived moral lapses.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KKK, who the hell do you think you are!
  • The Ku Klux Klan DOES NOT endorse Barack Obama for president | Train Wreck Politics 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC trainwreckpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, as a result of these political victories, KKK vigilantes, thinking they enjoyed governmental protection, launched a wave of physical terror across Alabama in 1927, targeting both blacks and whites.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85] The state's conservative elite counterattacked. .Grover C. Hall, Sr., editor of the Montgomery Advertiser, began publishing a series of editorials and articles that attacked the Klan for its "racial and religious intolerance". Hall won a Pulitzer Prize for his crusade.^ Hall won a Pulitzer Prize for his crusade.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grover C. Hall, Sr., editor of the Montgomery Advertiser , began a series of editorials and articles attacking the Klan for their "racial and religious intolerance."
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inasmuch as this Klan circularized this community with scurrilous Seventeenth Century religious intolerance, I fail to see how it can consistently parade itself as an exemplar of religious freedom.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

[86] .Other newspapers kept up a steady, loud attack on the Klan, referring to the organization as violent and "un-American". Sheriffs cracked down.^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

^ Violent disruptions of American education were ordered by the Supreme Court for the purpose of breaking down racial barriers.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1928 presidential election, the state voted for the Democratic candidate Al Smith, although he was Catholic.^ Al Smith, the Roman Catholic presidential nominee of the Democrats in 1928, was trounced in the county returns, receiving fewer votes than any other Democratic candidate.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William Gibbs McAdoo against New York Governor Al Smith , who drew the opposition of the group because of his Catholic faith.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in the April 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1,222 votes for Republican Rufus Bullock , but in the November presidential election , the county cast only one vote for Republican candidate Ulysses Grant.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Klan membership in Alabama dropped to less than six thousand by 1930. Small independent units continued to be active in Birmingham, where in the late 1940s, members launched a reign of terror by bombing the homes of upwardly mobile African Americans.^ Description: One of your viewers submitted this video from youtube of 2 KKK members showing hate against African Americans.
  • Video: Disgrace: 2 KKK Members In Lakeland, Florida Are Mad About Obama's Inauguration As They Flash Their Guns & Knives Saying They Should Do Something Bad To African Americas & More! "The South Will Rise Again" [Updated] 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldstarhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually a lot less so than the American system.
  • Klansman becomes longest serving Senator in US history! [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The African American soldiers when upon returning to the United States were as lost as all the other soldiers were.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.KKK activism increased as a reaction against the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s.^ The KKK's right to not be discriminated against is inalienable.
  • This Highway Adoped By the Ku Klux Klan | MetaFilter 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These protesters are becoming just like those that opposed the civil rights movement.
  • Think Progress » Dingell says town hall mobs remind him of the Ku Klux Klan. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ The movement really got underway with civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X in the early 1960’s.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.
D. C. Stephenson, Grand Dragon of the Indiana Klan.
^ Unfortunately, the 2347-page transcript of the Stephenson trial is missing, and thus Lutholtz, in his detailed account, had to depend to a large degree on newspaper accounts; Lutholtz, Grand Dragon , xii.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April 1925 scandal erupted around the Indiana Klan, centered on the person of D. C. Stephenson.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M. William Lutholtz, Grand Dragon: D. C. Stephenson and the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana (West Lafayette, Ind., 1991), 45–46; Daily Ledger , January 3, 1923, 1, 6.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His conviction for murdering a young white schoolteacher in 1925 devastated the Indiana Klan.
.D. C. Stephenson, the Grand Dragon of Indiana and 22 northern states, was convicted in 1925 for second degree murder resulting from his part in the rape and subsequent death [87] of Madge Oberholtzer.^ The second Klan collapsed partly as a result of the backlash against their actions and partly as a result of a scandal involving David Stephenson (at the time a member of the Republican Party, after previous active membership in the Socialist Party and then in the Democratic Party), the Grand Dragon of Indiana and fourteen other states, who was convicted of the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer in a sensational trial (she was bitten so many times that one man who saw her described her condition as having been "chewed by a cannibal").
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grand Dragon David C. Stephenson, head of the Indiana Klan which claimed 500,000 members, kipnapped and raped a young state employee.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Another useful source is the Klan report, "Ku Klux Klan, Local Officers, Indiana Records, 1925," the result of a request by Grand Dragon Bossert that Indiana klaverns provide current membership figures in the wake of the damage created by the Stephenson trial.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After Stephenson's conviction in a sensational trial, the Klan declined dramatically in Indiana.^ In April 1925 scandal erupted around the Indiana Klan, centered on the person of D. C. Stephenson.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I n the summer of 1995 Noblesville, Indiana, site of the sensational 1925 homicide trial of Ku Klux Klan leader D. C. Stephenson, again drew national attention after the discovery of Klan records dating back to the 1920s.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Counting was also circumspect regarding the Klan's earlier presence, with a brief reference to the Stephenson trial as perhaps "the most memorable event" to have taken place in the county courthouse.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historian Leonard Moore concluded that a failure in leadership caused the Klan's collapse:
.Stephenson and the other salesmen and office seekers who maneuvered for control of Indiana's Invisible Empire lacked both the ability and the desire to use the political system to carry out the Klan's stated goals.^ Stephenson and the other salesmen and office seekers who maneuvered for control of Indiana's Invisible Empire lacked both the ability and the desire to use the political system to carry out the Klan's stated goals.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Reconstruction-era Klan used different titles; the only titles to carry over were "Wizard" (or Imperial Wizard) for the overall leader of the Klan, "Night Hawk" for the official in charge of security, and a few others, mostly for regional officers of the organization.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were uninterested in, or perhaps even unaware of, grass roots concerns within the movement.^ They were disinterested in, or perhaps even unaware of, grass roots concerns within the movement.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When charges of crime and corruption began to taint the movement, those concerned about their political futures had even less reason to work on the Klan's behalf.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps, some might even say liberal but, they would be incorrect.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

.For them, the Klan had been nothing more than a means for gaining wealth and power.^ Linking crime with immigrants (many of whom were Catholic), the Klan gained power in Madison by promising to maintain order in the city's Italian neighborhood, the Greenbush.

^ AM There was a time in US History when you couldn't get elected without the approval of the Klan, though it was more anti-immigration than flat-out racist.
  • Klansman becomes longest serving Senator in US history! [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the commies' comments are nothing more than name calling and insults.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

.These marginal men had risen to the top of the hooded order because, until it became a political force, the Klan had never required strong, dedicated leadership.^ These marginal men had risen to the top of the hooded order because, until it became a political force, the Klan had never required strong, dedicated leadership.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His political career began because he was hand-picked by Klan superiors to run for office.
  • Klansman becomes longest serving Senator in US history! [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

.More established and experienced politicians who endorsed the Klan, or who pursued some of the interests of their Klan constituents, also accomplished little.^ Most other interviewees who had some familiarity with local history and Klan activities had no knowledge of such boycotts in Noblesville.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While some residents have deep family roots in the county, many are newcomers who work in Indianapolis and have little historic attachment to the region.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recommended by: Christin , Krum , ObamaLovingExDemocrat a former Grand Dragon of the Klan who endorsed Barack Obama after the WVa primary.
  • Daily Kos: KKK Gathering Tonight In Mississippi 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Factionalism created one barrier, but many politicians had supported the Klan simply out of expedience.^ Factionalism created one barrier, but many politicians had supported the Klan simply out of expedience.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1870 to 1872, the Ku Klux Klan has been acting as a guerrilla military force (White Resistance and Redemption, Out of Many pp 335).
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The movie is portraying the Ku Klux Klan as heroes of this time, whereas when the movie came out in March 1915, there were many controversial opinions towards this film.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

When charges of crime and corruption began to taint the movement, those concerned about their political futures had even less reason to work on the Klan's behalf.:[88]
.Imperial Wizard Hiram Wesley Evans sold the organization in 1939 to James Colescott, an Indiana veterinarian, and Samuel Green, an Atlanta obstetrician, but they were unable to staunch the exodus of members.^ Imperial Wizard Virgil Griffin (Cleveland Knights KKK) was the key organizer of this event and he made a point of his support for the National Socialist Movement.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was signed and sealed at the Imperial Palace in Atlanta, Georgia by the Imperial Wizard H. W. (Hiram Wesley) Evans, and attested to by the Acting Imperial Kligrapp J. E. MacQuinn.  MacQuinn took over the duties of Imperial Kligrapp on the failing health of N. N. Furney.  Documents signed by MacQuinn date from 8 May 1926 to approximately March of 1927.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They agree that, while it was in Evans' interest to claim the greatest possible influence for his organization, he was clearly right to argue that its adherents and sympathizers numbered in the millions.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1944, the IRS filed a lien for $685,000 in back taxes against the Klan, and Colescott was forced to dissolve the organization in 1944. Local Klan groups closed over the following years.^ In 1944, the IRS filed a lien for $685,000 in back taxes against the Klan, and Colescott was forced to dissolve the organization in 1944.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William Gibbs McAdoo against New York Governor Al Smith , who drew the opposition of the group because of his Catholic faith.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Occasionally, organized groups successfully confronted the Klan.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89]
Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928
.Thanks, in part to the Klan terror directed at them five million blacks left the South for northern, midwestern and western cities from 1940 to 1970, though they found that some of the most politically powerful Klan chapters were in Indiana.^ For the most part, they live life .

^ By electing public officials, the Klan became a powerful political force throughout the South and also in many Northern and Western states, including Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Ohio, and Oregon.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Linking crime with immigrants (many of whom were Catholic), the Klan gained power in Madison by promising to maintain order in the city's Italian neighborhood, the Greenbush.

.The Ku Klux Klan rose to prominence in Indiana politics and society after World War I. It was made up of native-born, white Protestants of many income and social levels.^ Ku Klux Klan founded Dec.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus the name Ku Klux Klan was born.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ In the movie the motives of the Ku Klux Klan was to basically be the savior of the whites.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.Nationally, in the 1920s, Indiana was said to have the most powerful Ku Klux Klan.^ KKK-058 Ku Klux Klan 1920s Ring .
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indiana, and Indiana was a hotbed of  the Klan in the 1920s.

^ Where was the Ku Klux Klan while the fighting was going on?
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though it counted a high number of members statewide, its importance peaked with the 1924 election of Edward Jackson for governor.^ Under the leadership of Milwaukee insurance broker William Wieseman, the Klan grew throughout Wisconsin, though Milwaukee continued to have the highest number of members.

^ The previous peak, 1924, had also been a presidential election year.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A short time later, the scandal surrounding the murder trial of Indianana Klan official D.C. Stephenson destroyed the image of the Ku Klux Klan as upholders of law and order.^ Ku Klux Klan gun down a...'
  • Adherents.com - Religious Groups in Literature 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: General]

^ Ku Klux Klan founded Dec.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where was the Ku Klux Klan while the fighting was going on?
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1926 the Ku Klux Klan was "crippled and discredited."^ Ku Klux Klan founded Dec.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where was the Ku Klux Klan while the fighting was going on?
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ku Klux Klan will make war on Jack Walton, democratic nominee for governor of Oklahoma.The klan will have speakers in Oklahoma during the campaign to oppose Walton.
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

[90]
.After World War II, folklorist and author Stetson Kennedy infiltrated the Klan and provided information to media and law enforcement agencies.^ World War II Ships II (177) .
  • A Guide to the Bruce Roberts Photographic Archive, 1948-1989 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If we can't get law enforcement without Klan methods, then I think it is time to elect new officials."
  • [KU KLUX KLAN] 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.ausbcomp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Membership further declined World War II in reaction to its support of Nazi ideology.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also provided secret code words to the writers of the Superman radio program, resulting in episodes in which Superman took on the KKK. Kennedy's intention to strip away the Klan's mystique and trivialize the Klan's rituals and code words may have contributed to the decline in Klan recruiting and membership.^ He also provided Klan information, including secret code words, to the writers of the Superman radio program, resulting in a series of four episodes in which Superman took on the KKK. Kennedy's intention to strip away the Klan's mystique and trivialize the Klan's rituals and code words likely did have a negative impact on Klan recruiting and membership.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Klans in other states, the Wisconsin KKK did not resort to violence, choosing instead secret and extralegal actions.

^ This is an original 1940 Official KKK Membership Card lot UFK, (Probably "United Federation of Klans"), Incorporated and printed in Atlanta, Georgia for national distribution.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] .In the 1950s, Kennedy wrote a bestselling book about his experiences, which further damaged the Klan.^ Kennedy eventually wrote a book based on his experiences, which became a bestseller during the 1950s and further damaged the Klan.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most ironic thing to me about this episode was his inclusion of Goldberg who wrote the 100 people who are screwing up America book.
  • O'Reilly again asserted that "hate-filled" Daily Kos "rivals the KKK and Nazi websites" | Media Matters for America 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It dawned on me about halfway through the book that Ruby originally wrote this book in 1931.

[92]
.The following table shows the change in the Klan's estimated membership over time.^ The percentages would be somewhat rough estimates since the basis of the Indiana counties' populations was the 1920 census, and the Klan membership figures are for 1925.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, even as Evans claimed to be seeking to articulate the "half conscious impulses" of the Klan's membership, he was sounding changes on very familiar themes.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Not like the Silver Age Klan when everything changed and it got updated, refreshed for modern times and modern hating.
  • Klansman becomes longest serving Senator in US history! [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

[93] .(The years given in the table represent approximate time periods.^ (The years given in the table represent approximate time periods.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These figures, as given by the F.B.I. reports, vary somewhat from year to year but fairly represent the trend for the past decade.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is notoriously difficult to define, especially since different people experience any given period of time very differently.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

)
Year Membership
1920 4,000,000[94]
1924 6,000,000
1930 30,000
1980 5,000
2008 6,000

Later Klans, 1950 through 1960s

Soviet propaganda poster (Freedom, American style, 1950, by Nikolay Dolgorukov and Boris Efimov) showing the Ku Klux Klan lynching blacks.
.The name "Ku Klux Klan" began to be used by several independent groups.^ After the breakup of the second Klan, the name "Ku Klux Klan" began to be used by several independent groups.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name Ku Klux Klan is public domain, anyone can use it for any purpose.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan gun down a...'
  • Adherents.com - Religious Groups in Literature 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: General]

.Beginning in the 1950s, individual Klan groups began to resist the Civil Rights Movement by bombing houses in transitional neighborhoods and the houses of activists, as well as by physical violence, intimidation and assassination.^ Beginning in the 1950s, a large number of the individual Klan groups began to resist the civil rights movement .
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name "Ku Klux Klan" has since been used by many different unrelated groups, including many who opposed the Civil Rights Act and desegregation in the 1950s and 1960s, with members of these groups eventually being convicted of murder and manslaughter in the deaths of civil rights workers and children (such as in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama , the assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers, and the murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi).
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I'd line up with you to call Helms or Thurmond on the carpet for the hideous comments they made when they were a part of this group and the obstructionism of Civil Rights they took part in.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.In Birmingham, Alabama, during the tenure of Bull Connor, Klan groups were closely allied with the police and operated with impunity.^ In other words, Noblesville residents condemn the Klan as an organization but are more forbearing in assessing the motives of those who affiliated with the group during the twenties.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Reconstruction, a powerful terrorist group nationally regarded as the Ku Klux Klan sought to restore white supremacy over blacks (Faragher 335).
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.There were so many bombings of homes by Klan groups that the city's nickname was "Bombingham". In states such as Alabama and Mississippi, Klan members forged alliances with governors' administrations.^ Now there are many Klan groups with four or five members each.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Linking crime with immigrants (many of whom were Catholic), the Klan gained power in Madison by promising to maintain order in the city's Italian neighborhood, the Greenbush.

^ The name "Ku Klux Klan" has since been used by many different unrelated groups, including many who opposed the Civil Rights Act and desegregation in the 1950s and 1960s, with members of these groups eventually being convicted of murder and manslaughter in the deaths of civil rights workers and children (such as in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama , the assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers, and the murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi).
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
Many murders went unreported and unprosecuted. .Continuing disfranchisement of blacks meant that most could not serve on juries, which were all white.^ Most blacks do not hate white people, we just tend to get frustrated when some refuse to understand our experience and dismiss our complaints as "playing the victim."
  • On Hannity & Colmes , Rev. Peterson compared Obama's church to KKK | Media Matters for America 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether it be a white poster or black, these comments for the most part are just dumb.
  • The Ku Klux Klan DOES NOT endorse Barack Obama for president | Train Wreck Politics 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC trainwreckpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan is distorted as being heroes, the life of Southern blacks, and the role white women were all represented falsely.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.According to a report from the Southern Regional Council in Atlanta, the homes of forty black Southern families were bombed during 1951 and 1952. Some of the bombing victims were social activists whose work exposed them to danger, but most of them were either people who refused to bow to racist convention or were innocent bystanders, unsuspecting victims of random violence.^ Many of the people who were hanged were black.
  • Interview with The Ku Klux Klan: Jeff Berry 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.liberator.net [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a subsequent report from the Southern Regional Council in Atlanta , the homes of forty black Southern families were bombed during 1951 and 1952.
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some, like Harry Moore, were social activists whose work exposed them to danger, but most were either people who had refused to bow to racist convention or were innocent bystanders, unsuspecting victims of random white terrorism."
  • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95]
Among the more notorious murders by Klan members:
.
  • The 1951 Christmas Eve bombing of the home of NAACP activists Harry and Harriette Moore in Mims, Florida, resulting in their deaths.^ In his "Synopsis of Research: The Destruction of Rosewood, Florida," (28-29), the journalist Gary Moore puts the number of destroyed homes at eighteen.
    • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [96]
  • The 1957 murder of Willie Edwards, Jr. Klansmen forced Edwards to jump to his death from a bridge into the Alabama River.[97]
  • The 1963 assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers in Mississippi. .In 1994, former Ku Klux Klansman Byron De La Beckwith was convicted.
  • The 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which killed four African-American girls.^ The 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama , which killed four children.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1994, former Ku Klux Klansman Byron De La Beckwith was convicted of Evers' murder.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In August 2007, James Ford Seale, a reputed Ku Klux Klansman was convicted of the 1964 murder of two black teenagers, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore, based on the confession of Klansman Charles Marcus Edwards.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The perpetrators were Klan members Robert Chambliss, convicted in 1977, Thomas Blanton and Bobby Frank Cherry, convicted in 2001 and 2002. The fourth suspect, Herman Cash, died before he was indicted.
  • The 1964 murders of three civil rights workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in Mississippi.^ The murder of the civil rights workers in the 60s.

    ^ I was in Neshoba County the summer the three civil rights workers were killed.
    • Wonkette : Defend This Atlanta Man’s Right To Free Racist Joke Speech! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC wonkette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He would have been right at the great moments of international threat we faced in the 20th century.” For reference, Mr. Byrd was a Grand Kleagle of the Ku Klux Klan and fought to derail the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
    • Michelle Malkin » Dirty race-card tricks in Mississippi: The KKK ploy; Update: Neck and neck; Update: Democrat wins dirty; NRCC licks its wounds: “We came up short” 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In June 2005, Klan member Edgar Ray Killen was convicted of manslaughter.^ In June 2005, Klan member Edgar Ray Killen was convicted of manslaughter in the murders.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Klan members were Robert Chambliss, convicted in 1977, Thomas Blanton and Bobby Frank Cherry , convicted of murder in 2001 and 2002.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However sincere the convictions of millions of members, Klan leaders came from the ranks of travelling salesmen, confidence artists, and opportunists generally.
    • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [98]
  • .
  • The 1964 murder of two black teenagers, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore in Mississippi.^ In August 2007, James Ford Seale, a reputed Ku Klux Klansman was convicted of the 1964 murder of two black teenagers, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore, based on the confession of Klansman Charles Marcus Edwards.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ FBI agents were called in to investigate the murder of one black man and two Jews.
    • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The 1964 murders of civil rights workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in Mississippi.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In August 2007, based on the confession of Klansman Charles Marcus Edwards, James Ford Seale, a reputed Ku Klux Klansman, was convicted.^ A sample of the 2-inch Knights of the Ku Klux Klan seal produced by this device is shown below: It measures 10 inches high with the handle up, as shown.
    • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The film does not portray the Ku Klux Klan accurately, because it was based on false conceptions of that time.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The rear of the one validated membership card shows the embossed Chapter 133 (Pearl River, N.Y.) seal of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
    • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Seale was sentenced to serve three life sentences.^ Seale was sentenced to serve three life sentences.
    • What is Kkk? 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Seale was a former Mississippi policeman and sheriff's deputy.[99]
.
Violence at a Klan march in Mobile, Alabama, 1977
  • The 1965 Alabama murder of Viola Liuzzo.^ This is an original March 1972 Official magazine published by the Imperical Press of the UKA, United Klans of America, Incorporated and printed in Tuscalousa, Alabama for national distribution.
    • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .She was a Southern-raised Detroit mother of five who was visiting the state in order to attend a civil rights march.^ In 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and the Reconstruction Act, which dissolved all governments in the former Confederate states, with the exception of Tennessee, and divided the South into five military districts to protect the rights of the newly freed blacks.
    • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Ku Klux Klan was nothing other than extreme racists who didnt agree with giving African Americans equal rights after the Civil War.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Need I remind everbody that it was called the solid south because it was solidly DEMOCRAT. Let's not forget that it was white southern democrats that tried to fillabuster the civil rights act.
    • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    .At the time of her murder Liuzzo was transporting Civil Rights Marchers.
  • The 1966 firebombing death of NAACP leader Vernon Dahmer Sr., 58, in Mississippi.^ The murder of the civil rights workers in the 60s.

    ^ It took the hard work of Republican Senate Minority Leader Everett Dirksen and Republican Whip Thomas Kuchel to pass the Civil Rights Act (Dirksen was presented a civil rights accomplishment award for the year by the head of the NAACP in recognition of his efforts).
    • Hank Johnson should apologize — or, at least, retract | Cynthia Tucker 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The movement really got underway with civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X in the early 1960’s.
    • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In 1998 former Ku Klux Klan wizard Sam Bowers was convicted of his murder and sentenced to life.^ This is KuKlux Kismet , a 1924 Ku Klux Klan march sheet music by Mary Gue and arranged by Walter Ardell Riggs of Arkansas Pass, Texas.
    • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ White wrote this as a sequel to The Ku Klux Klan in Prophesy, the book published just prior to this volume.
    • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1942 24 year-old Byrd joined the Ku Klux Klan, which he had seen holding parades in Matoaka, West Virginia, as a child.
    • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    Two other Klan members were indicted with Bowers, but one died before trial, and the other's indictment was dismissed.
There was also resistance to Klan violence. .In a 1958 North Carolina incident, the Klan burned crosses at the homes of two Lumbee Native Americans who had associated with white people and threatened to return with more men.^ As for burning crosses, I am not part of the Klan.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two months ago my home was burned in Crystal City.
  • Think Progress » Tancredo: Sotomayor Is A Member Of The ‘Latino KKK Without The Hoods Or The Nooses’ 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ There were white men who declined to participate in the manhunt.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When they held a nighttime rally nearby, they found themselves surrounded by hundreds of armed Lumbees.^ In matters trivial and profound they found themselves threatened with being passed by.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The blacks seemed well supplied with arms and ammunition, and the bright moonlight made the attackers such easy targets that they contented themselves with a siege.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gunfire was exchanged, and the Klan was routed at what became known as the Battle of Hayes Pond.^ Larry Venable commented that the Klan became known as the Junior Order of United Mechanics after the former organization was "outlawed."
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .In 1953, newspaper publisher W. Horace Carter received a Pulitzer prize for reporting on the activities of the Klan.^ If, as the newspapers reported, Carter's body was found on the road or if he was hanged and shot in Rosewood, as the black families contend, a coroner's jury was called on Tuesday to review his death.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As reported in the newspapers, that same New Year's day the bloodhounds led a posse to Sam Carter's home.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the Freedom Riders arrived in Birmingham, Alabama, the police commissioner Bull Connor gave Klan members fifteen minutes to attack the riders before sending in the police.^ Most of the locals were members of the Ku Klux Klan and shared the same views as the judge and police.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nazi’s and Klan members began clutching their hearts as if they were about to have a heart attack."
  • Clowns Kicked KKK Asses - Neatorama 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ At this point several of the Nazi’s and Klan members began clutching their hearts as if they were about to have a heart attack.
  • Clowns Kicked KKK Asses - Neatorama 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

[15] .When local and state authorities failed to protect them, the federal government established more effective intervention.^ Federal, state, and local government employment were excluded from the law.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Free Speech" is a contract between a government (local, federal, state) and its people.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Ocoee in November 1920, and Perry in December 1922, local and state officials failed to intervene to protect black citizens, and in each incident several innocent blacks were killed and their property destroyed.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the FBI had paid informants in the Klan, for instance in Birmingham, Alabama in the early 1960s, its relations with local law enforcement agencies and the Klan were often ambiguous.^ He established the Klan in order to protect the citizenry of Alabama from what was then the oppressive federal government lax enforcement of laws.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To Andrew Lytle, Forrest's biographer, to promote local enforcement of laws and to insure some order.

^ To find the local Klan group near you or to locate the nearest declared Hate Group, you may go to the website of the Southern Poverty Law Center.

.The head of the FBI J. Edgar Hoover, appeared more concerned about Communist links to civil rights activists than about controlling Klan excesses.^ She was speaking of Shari's remarks re a non-Klan group that shares most of the views of the Klan and currently if more active than the Klan.

^ I find it quite interesting when us white males are offended that a latina believes she is more knowlegeable about menstrual cramps in latina women than a white male.
  • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm more concerned about the campaign of murder and intimidation that they waged (and still are, as far as I'm concerned) in these United States.
  • This Highway Adoped By the Ku Klux Klan | MetaFilter 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1964, the FBI's COINTELPRO program began attempts to infiltrate and disrupt civil rights groups.^ And I'd line up with you to call Helms or Thurmond on the carpet for the hideous comments they made when they were a part of this group and the obstructionism of Civil Rights they took part in.
  • 'Democrats started the KKK': The Swamp 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ With the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, there has been much hatred towards the African-Americans from many whites.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Civil Rights Act of 1871 essentially destroyed the KKK. In 1915, a second group using the same name was founded by William Joseph Simmons.

[15]
.As 20th-century Supreme Court rulings extended federal enforcement of citizens' civil rights, the long-neglected Force Act and Klan Act from Reconstruction days were revived and used by federal prosecutors as the basis for investigations and indictments in the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner;[101] and the 1965 murder of Viola Liuzzo.^ The murder of the civil rights workers in the 60s.

^ He would have been right at the great moments of international threat we faced in the 20th century.” For reference, Mr. Byrd was a Grand Kleagle of the Ku Klux Klan and fought to derail the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
  • Michelle Malkin » Dirty race-card tricks in Mississippi: The KKK ploy; Update: Neck and neck; Update: Democrat wins dirty; NRCC licks its wounds: “We came up short” 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1871, a Republican-led Congress passed the Ku Klux Act, authorizing President Ulysses Grant to use military force to suppress the terrorist group.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102] They were also the basis for prosecution in 1991 in Bray v. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic.

Since the 1970s

.Once African Americans secured federal legislation to protect civil and voting rights, the Klan shifted its focus to opposing court-ordered busing to desegregate schools, affirmative action and more open immigration.^ American History and whether the right or the left is more open minded.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ku Klux Klan has a long history of activity in the Midwest and in Michigan (in the 1970s Klansmen in Michigan used bombs to destroy school buses in order to prevent desegregation) and is probably the most well-known racist organization in the United States.

^ These protesters are becoming just like those that opposed the civil rights movement.
  • Think Progress » Dingell says town hall mobs remind him of the Ku Klux Klan. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.For instance, in 1971 Klansmen used bombs to destroy 10 school buses in Pontiac, Michigan.^ The Ku Klux Klan has a long history of activity in the Midwest and in Michigan (in the 1970s Klansmen in Michigan used bombs to destroy school buses in order to prevent desegregation) and is probably the most well-known racist organization in the United States.

Klansman David Duke was active in South Boston during the school busing crisis of 1974. Duke was leader of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan from 1974 until he resigned from the Klan in 1978.
.On November 3, 1979, the Greensboro massacre occurred in Greensboro, North Carolina, where five marchers were killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party while staging a protest, while no Klan or neo-Nazis were injured or killed.^ After the war he gained infamy as an early member of the Ku Klux Klan.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan founded Dec.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

[103] .This was the culmination of attempts by the Communist Workers Party to organize industrial workers, predominantly black, in the area.^ This occurred as the other, more industrial, interests of the broad based party dominated their platform; leaving the blacks to face the wrath of the Southerners.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Labor agents from northern industries and railroads descended on the South in search of black workers.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104]
.Jerry Thompson, a newspaper reporter who infiltrated the Klan in 1979, reported that the FBI's COINTELPRO efforts were highly successful.^ In 1922 D. C. Stephenson, who had worked with Huffington in Evansville, moved the recruiting effort northward to Indianapolis, and Klan representatives spread out statewide in a massively successful membership drive.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are still many unresolved issues that surround the phenomenal success of the Klan of the twenties, including the motives of those who joined and then left the organization.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The enemies of justice also fear the Klan for the very same reason, a criminal will never know who has seen him and reported his deeds to the authorities.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

.Rival Klan factions accused each other's leaders of being FBI informants.^ Klan leaders measured the worth of their speeches and other works by the way their intended audience responded.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bill Wilkinson of the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, was revealed to have been working for the FBI.^ This is KuKlux Kismet , a 1924 Ku Klux Klan march sheet music by Mary Gue and arranged by Walter Ardell Riggs of Arkansas Pass, Texas.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White wrote this as a sequel to The Ku Klux Klan in Prophesy, the book published just prior to this volume.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October of 2006, the United Northern and Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan distributed literature supporting the passage of Proposal 2.

[105] .During Thompson's brief membership, his truck was shot at, he was yelled at by black children and a Klan rally he attended turned into a riot when black soldiers on an adjacent military base taunted the Klansmen.^ Made during the era of Reconstruction, it portrays the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) as heroes, whose mission was to protect white society from the blacks.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ This, the Klan said, lead to the “pioneer” reluctance toward bringing more children into the world.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Supposedly, Ted Cole, an ex-soldier from Chicago had just come to Rosewood, and it was he who rallied the blacks to resist the attack on the Carrier house.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attempts by the Klan to march were often met with counter protests and sometimes with violence.^ In South Dakota, the Klan appealed to rising Protestant fears and its publicity and violence was aimed at Catholics, mostly Eastern European, and not so much at African Americans here.

^ What is sometimes overlooked is that by then Stephenson, often credited with building the Indiana Klan into a potent force, had broken with the Evans organization.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An attempt was made to verify names by checking the addresses sometimes provided in the Klan records with county directories.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1980 three Ku Klux Klansmen shot four elderly black women (Viola Ellison, Lela Evans, Opal Jackson and Katherine Johnson) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, following a KKK initiation rally.^ The Ku Klux Klan members were presented as great heroes, instead of cruel mass; blacks were incorrectly associated with a dominant group; and women’s decisions regarding lives of black people considered very important.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ In the movie, white women were exhibited as motivation of why the KKK was allowed to hurt black men.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ One photograph was of a burning black residence in Rosewood and the other portrayed a group of white men, women, and children standing by three graves of blacks who had been killed.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(A fifth woman, Fannie Crumsey, was injured by flying glass in the incident.) None of the five victims died. .Attempted murder charges were filed against the three Klansmen, two of whom - Bill Church and Larry Payne - were acquitted by an all-white jury and the other of whom - Marshall Thrash - was sentenced by the same jury to nine months on lesser charges.^ The same point goes for the whites, there were probably cruel white people during this time but that doesnt mean that all whites were mean.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bradley did so (family members would not see him again for two or three months), and the children were taken upstairs and put to bed.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whites planned to warn Carrier against further incendiary talk and to discover what he or the others knew about Hunter.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was released after three months.[106][107][108] .In 1982 a jury awarded the five women $535,000 in a civil rights trial.^ Some twenty-five thousand people gathered during the first march seeking more Civil Rights legislation for all.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[109]
After Michael Donald was lynched in 1981 in Alabama, the FBI investigated his death. .Two local Klansmen were convicted of having a role including Henry Hays who was sentenced to death.^ This film interprets the blacks as being violent and horrible people when really it was the white Klansmen who should have been playing the role of the blacks in this movie.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.With the support of attorneys Morris Dees and Joseph J. Levin at the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), Donald's mother, Beulah Mae Donald, sued the Ku Klux Klan in civil court in Alabama.^ Ku Klux Klan founded Dec.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New chapters were formed and demonstrations held throughout the country, and according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's " Intelligence Project ," three Wisconsin chapters existed as late as 2004.

^ A new member of the United Northern and Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan displays his tattoo prior to a Klan Naturalization ceremony to initiate their latest recruits into the Invisible Empire.
  • Inside The Ku Klux Klan | Anthony Karen | Features | Maxim 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.maxim.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Her lawsuit against the United Klans of America was tried in February 1987. The all-white jury found the Klan responsible for the lynching of Donald and ordered the Klan to pay $7 million USD. To pay the judgment the Klan turned over all of its assets, including its national headquarters building in Tuscaloosa.^ God help us all with Obama in charge of the United Negroe States of America!!!
  • The Ku Klux Klan DOES NOT endorse Barack Obama for president | Train Wreck Politics 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC trainwreckpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Joe Wilson would not have called a white president a liar on national televison and in front of congress.Racism is alive and well in america and is trying to infect the next generation.
  • Hank Johnson should apologize — or, at least, retract | Cynthia Tucker 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ He knew that he would be found not guilty in the 60’s with the all male, all white jury.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[110]
.After exhausting the appeals process, Hayes was executed for Donald's death in Alabama on June 6, 1997. It was the first time since 1913 that a white man had been executed in Alabama for a crime against an African American.^ It was a time for expressing the African-American culture.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Description: One of your viewers submitted this video from youtube of 2 KKK members showing hate against African Americans.
  • Video: Disgrace: 2 KKK Members In Lakeland, Florida Are Mad About Obama's Inauguration As They Flash Their Guns & Knives Saying They Should Do Something Bad To African Americas & More! "The South Will Rise Again" [Updated] 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.worldstarhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this time, Americans were only interested in benefiting White America, and were not prepared for the fact that Britons would criticize their slave policy.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[111] .Thompson, the journalist who claimed he had infiltrated the Klan, related that Klan leaders who appeared indifferent to the threat of arrest showed great concern about a series of civil lawsuits filed by the Southern Poverty Law Center for damages in the millions of dollars.^ New chapters were formed and demonstrations held throughout the country, and according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's " Intelligence Project ," three Wisconsin chapters existed as late as 2004.

^ It appears that among those coming from Gainesville were several members of the Ku Klux Klan, who had held a major rally in Gainesville on January 1, that was announced in the Gainesville Sun .
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The availability of both the 1920s Hamilton County records and the 1925 list of Klan leaders does reveal more about the type of people who joined the organization, if not about their precise motives and concerns.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were filed after Klansmen shot into a group of African Americans.^ These women embodied what all other African American women of that era did: They were strong, they took matters into their own hands, and they were very successful.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The film portrayed the Ku Klux Klan as a gallant group of men who stood against the wrong done by the African Americans at that time.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ There *is* no more KKK (in the sense of a group that actually engages in violence against Americans of African descent).

Klansmen curtailed activities to conserve money for defense against the lawsuits. The Klan itself used lawsuits as tools. They filed a libel suit to prevent publication of a paperback edition of Thompson's book.
.The present-day Ku Klux Klan is not one organization.^ Dues: The Ku Klux Klan, LLC. is a dues driven organization.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ Ku Klux Klan founded Dec.
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • POLITICO Forums:Congress: Ku Klux Klan founded Dec. 24, 1865 - POLITICO.com 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is KuKlux Kismet , a 1924 Ku Klux Klan march sheet music by Mary Gue and arranged by Walter Ardell Riggs of Arkansas Pass, Texas.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rather it is comprised of small independent chapters across the U.S.[112] The formation of independent chapters has made the KKK groups more difficult to infiltrate and researchers find it hard to estimate its numbers.^ Presently we began to find that we were dealing with strange ideas; policies that always sounded well, but somehow always made us still more uncomfortable.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that number is not nearly accurate because there are many smaller groups that have not yet made themselves known publicly.
  • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I find it hard to believe that any university set up by the KKK would ever be accredited and would therefore be ineligible for any government funds.
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.KKK members have stepped up recruitment in recent years but the organization continues to grow slowly, with membership estimated at 5,000–8,000 across 179 chapters.^ No one knows for sure how many Americans joined but the best estimates are around 2 million members, some 15,000 of which were in Wisconsin.

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

^ He should step off the edge of the 6,000 year old earth.
  • Think Progress » Tancredo: Sotomayor Is A Member Of The ‘Latino KKK Without The Hoods Or The Nooses’ 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.These latest drives have seized upon issues such as people's anxieties about illegal immigration, urban crime and same-sex marriage.^ Important people such as President Woodrow Wilson approved of the film so many people went to go see it to see what all the controversy was all about.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ These sources make it apparent that, regardless of the diverse motives that might have led individuals to join the organization, the Klan's stance on issues such as race, religion, and immigration should have been common knowledge from the onset.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same argument was made (and debunked) about interracial and gay marriage.
  • Daily Kos: Boy scouts cost Pentagon school access 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[113]
.The only known former member of the Klan to hold a federal office currently in the U.S. is Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, who said he "deeply regrets" having joined the Klan more than half a century ago, when he was about 24 years old.^ In 1942 24 year-old Byrd joined the Ku Klux Klan, which he had seen holding parades in Matoaka, West Virginia, as a child.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Democrats can have Robert Byrd [WV] as their -- as a leader in the Senate.
  • On Hannity & Colmes , Rev. Peterson compared Obama's church to KKK | Media Matters for America 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where are the people complaining about Senator Robert Bird (current US Senator from Virginia) about him being a former MEMBER of th KKK. .
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.Byrd joined as a young man in the 1940s, recruiting 150 friends and acquaintances from his small West Virginia town.^ In 1942 24 year-old Byrd joined the Ku Klux Klan, which he had seen holding parades in Matoaka, West Virginia, as a child.
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If it pleases West Virginia to send Senator Byrd back to Washington every year for the last 50, then more power to them.
  • Klansman becomes longest serving Senator in US history! [Archive] - NEWSARAMA 20 November 2009 9:09 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does this mean that no one can ever quote Democratic Senator Robert Byrd–since he was a “Kleagle” and “Exalted Cyclops” in the West Virginia KKK? .
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.He later said he was a Klan member for about a year, but contemporary newspapers carried stories about a letter of his recommending a friend as Klaneagle in 1946.[114] In 2005, when he published a memoir and was asked again about his life, Byrd said, "I know now I was wrong.^ Now he is caught off guard they asked him few questions about his personal life.
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They know that everyone knows about what has happened to them, but they dont use it to their advantage in society, and they dont ask for any special treatment.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Whenever I hear someone complaining about political correctness being awful, I ask them if they know what Brazil nuts used to be called.
  • Wonkette : Defend This Atlanta Man’s Right To Free Racist Joke Speech! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC wonkette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Intolerance had no place in America. I apologized a thousand times ... and I don't mind apologizing over and over again. I can't erase what happened."[114]
Some of the larger KKK organizations in operation include:
.
  • Bayou Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, prevalent in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and other areas of the Southeastern U.S.
  • Church of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan[115]
  • Imperial Klans of America[116]
  • Knights of the White Kamelia
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, headed by national director and self-claimed pastor Thom Robb, and based in Zinc, Arkansas.^ In the movie the motives of the Ku Klux Klan was to basically be the savior of the whites.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ A new member of the United Northern and Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan displays his tattoo prior to a Klan Naturalization ceremony to initiate their latest recruits into the Invisible Empire.
    • Inside The Ku Klux Klan | Anthony Karen | Features | Maxim 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.maxim.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This is KuKlux Kismet , a 1924 Ku Klux Klan march sheet music by Mary Gue and arranged by Walter Ardell Riggs of Arkansas Pass, Texas.
    • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [117] .It claims to be the biggest Klan organization in America today.^ Today, they're in paltry eighth place, out of 34 Klan organizations, with six chapters, none of which are in Kansas or Missouri.
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    Spokesmen refer to it as a "sixth era Klan", and it continues to be a racist group.
.Numerous smaller groups use the Klan name.^ Sadly no, at any given time there are more than 500 groups, clubs, and associations that use the name Ku Klux Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ The Civil Rights Act of 1871 essentially destroyed the KKK. In 1915, a second group using the same name was founded by William Joseph Simmons.

^ The name Ku Klux Klan is public domain, anyone can use it for any purpose.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

.Estimates are that about two-thirds of KKK members are concentrated in the South, with another third situated primarily in the lower Midwest.^ Where are the people complaining about Senator Robert Bird (current US Senator from Virginia) about him being a former MEMBER of th KKK. .
  • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1871, Maria Carter of South Carolina shared her interactions with the KKK. She explained that a lot of the members were lower class men, and the members were extremely violent towards her neighbors and family.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ My Great Grandfather, who himself was a member of the KKK, owned a farm in South Carolina, employed mostly blacks, and took VERY good care of them.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

[115][118][119]
.On November 14, 2008, an all-white jury of seven men and seven women awarded $1.5 million in compensatory damages and $1 million in punitive damages to plaintiff Jordan Gruver, represented by the Southern Poverty Law Center against the Imperial Klans of America.^ But in the late 1860's white Southern voices against the Klan were in the minority.

^ New chapters were formed and demonstrations held throughout the country, and according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's " Intelligence Project ," three Wisconsin chapters existed as late as 2004.

^ In the movie, white women were exhibited as motivation of why the KKK was allowed to hurt black men.
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

[120] The ruling found that five IKA members had savagely beaten Gruver, then 16 years old, at a Kentucky county fair in July 2006.[121]
.Many Klan groups have formed strong alliances with other white supremacist groups like Neo-Nazis.^ Why, we need to ask, was the taste of victory like that of ashes to so many "old stock" white Protestants?
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, while local klaverns of the second Klan did engage in "night riding" and other forms of vigilante activity, this was not the sole focus of the KKK of the 1920s.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1870 to 1872, the Ku Klux Klan has been acting as a guerrilla military force (White Resistance and Redemption, Out of Many pp 335).
  • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.Some Klan groups have become increasingly "Nazified" adopting the look and emblems of Nazi skinheads.^ Some ARA groups have been associated with the skinhead and punk subcultures, and have worked with organizations such as Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP)."
  • Clowns Kicked KKK Asses - Neatorama 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ Ever since the Senator for Illinois emerged as the likely Democratic presidential candidate, neo-Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups have been making racist threats.

^ The value of the Klan quilt is not as am emblem of some national virtue or vice.

[122]
.Although there are numerous KKK groups, the media and popular discourse generally refer to the Klan for expediency.^ Sadly no, at any given time there are more than 500 groups, clubs, and associations that use the name Ku Klux Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan LLC. - FAQ page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kukluxklan.bz [Source type: Original source]

^ Evans would have hardly made such an admission in an official Klan publication, although claims that Providence watched over the KKK were common in that literature.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He claimed he was new to the movement and had recently joined a ku klux klan group (which shortly there after I found out that he actually had under his assumed name).
  • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ACLU has provided legal support to various factions of the KKK in defense of their First Amendment rights to hold public rallies, parades, marches and their right to field political candidates.^ After all that's what the First Amendment is all about, right?
  • Daily Kos: KKK Gathering Tonight In Mississippi 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or called students "far-left Nazis" for using their First Amendment rights to protest Ann Coulter’s appearance at the University of Connecticut.
  • O'Reilly again asserted that "hate-filled" Daily Kos "rivals the KKK and Nazi websites" | Media Matters for America 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 11th, 2009 - Reply Such a fine line between First Amendment Rights and Absolute Racist prattle.
  • Wonkette : Defend This Atlanta Man’s Right To Free Racist Joke Speech! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC wonkette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123]

Vocabulary

Membership in the Klan is secret. .Like many fraternal organizations, the Klan has signs which members can use to recognize one another.^ No one knows for sure how many Americans joined but the best estimates are around 2 million members, some 15,000 of which were in Wisconsin.

^ Postwar fears of radicalism and disloyalty led Klan members to organize and declare themselves the defenders of Americanism.

^ The organization grew slowly until the end of WWI when Klan recruiters known as "kleagles" traveled around the country to sign up new members.

.A member may use the acronym AYAK (Are you a Klansman?^ It has the acronym for "Klan Interests Guide You" or "Klansman I Greet You" on the reverse.
  • Snyder's Treasures -- KKK Ku Klux Klan Memorabilia 28 January 2010 1:14 UTC www.snyderstreasures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) in conversation to surreptitiously identify himself to another potential member. The response AKIA (A Klansman I am) completes the greeting.[124]
Throughout its varied history, the Klan has coined many words[125] beginning with "KL" including:
  • Klabee: treasurers
  • Klavern: local organization
  • Kleagle: recruiter
  • Klecktoken: initiation fee
  • Kligrapp: secretary
  • Klonvocation: gathering
  • Kloran: ritual book
  • Kloreroe: delegate
  • Kludd: chaplain
.All of the above terminology was created by William Simmons, as part of his 1915 revival of the Klan.^ The revival of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia in 1915 reflected the racial concerns of whites both in the North and the South.
  • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historic role of Stone Mountain, Georgia, parallels that of Pulaski, for it was here on Thanksgiving eve in 1915 that William J. Simmons and a small band of followers launched the second Klan movement.
  • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Civil Rights Act of 1871 essentially destroyed the KKK. In 1915, a second group using the same name was founded by William Joseph Simmons.

[126] .The Reconstruction-era Klan used different titles; the only titles to carry over were "Wizard" for the overall leader of the Klan, "Night Hawk" for the official in charge of security, and a few others, mostly for regional officers of the organization.^ Then, in reverse order of eminence, came the seven Kloranic Officers: Night Hawk, Kludd, Kourier No.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, while local klaverns of the second Klan did engage in "night riding" and other forms of vigilante activity, this was not the sole focus of the KKK of the 1920s.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, Imperial Wizard Evans and other Klan leaders sought, at least publically, to distance the organization from the "invisible government" actions of the immediate postwar years and to insist upon the Klan's reverence for established legal authority.
  • The KKK in the 1920s 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The KKK in the 1920s 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www1.assumption.edu [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ McVeigh, Rory. "Structural Incentives for Conservative Mobilization: Power Devaluation and the Rise of the Ku Klux Klan, 1915-1925". Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 4 (Jun., 1999), p. 1463
  2. ^ Some examples of the application of the term “hate group” to the KKK:
    • Axtman, Kris. "How the South outgrew the Klan." Christian Science Monitor; 5/4/2001, Vol. 93 Issue 112, p 1.
    • Levin, Brian (August 21, 2003). "Cyberhate: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists' Use of Computer Networks in America" in Perry, Barbara, editor. Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader. p. 112 p. Google Books
    • Blazak, Randy. "White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads" in Perry, Barbara, editor. Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader. p. 320. Google Books
    • Gregory M. Herek, Kevin Berrill, Kevin T. Berrill. “Hate Group activity” in Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. p. 31 Google Books
    • Barnett, Brett A. Untangling the Web of Hate: Are Online "Hate Sites" Deserving of First Amendment Protection? p. 25 Google Books
    • Cannon, Angie and Cohen, Warren. "The Church of the Almighty White Man - A Nasty New Strain of Supremacy Emerges." U.S. News & World Report July 19, 1999.
    • "Hate Springs Eternal". Harper's Magazine. March 2000, Vol. 300 Issue 1798, p. 96.
    • Dudley, J. Wayne. "Hate" Organizations of the 1940s: The Columbians, Inc. Phylon (1960-), Vol. 42, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1981), pp. 262-274.
    • Greene, Jack R., editor. The Encyclopedia of Police Science, Volume 1. pp. 613-614 Google Books
    • Goldberg, Robert A. Review of Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan by David M. Chalmers. The Wisconsin Magazine of History, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Spring, 1982), pp. 225-226.
  3. ^ "Terrorism 2002-2005". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2005. pp. 16, 34, 40, 63. http://www.fbi.gov/publications/terror/terrorism2002_2005.pdf. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  4. ^ Some examples of the use of terrorism referring to the KKK:
    • Goldberg, Robert A. "Review of Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan" by David M. Chalmers The Wisconsin Magazine of History, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Spring, 1982), pp. 225-226. The review states, "Klan decline rarely results from forces outside of the organization. Rather, Klansmen depart their Klaverns because of internal dissension, inferior leadership, loss of program salience, or as a reaction to their comrades' terrorist activities."
    • Bryant, Jonathan, M. "Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era" from The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Bryant writes, "From 1868 through the early 1870s the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) functioned as a loosely organized group of political and social terrorists."
  5. ^ "Inquiry Begun on Klan Ties Of 2 Icons at Virginia Tech". NY Times. November 16, 1997. pp. 138. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/11/16/us/inquiry-begun-on-klan-ties-of-2-icons-at-virginia-tech.html. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Lee, Jennifer (November 6, 2006). "Samuel Bowers, 82, Klan Leader Convicted in Fatal Bombing, Dies". NY Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/06/us/06bowers.html. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "About the Ku Klux Klan". Anti-Defamation League. http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  8. ^ Brush, Pete (May 28, 2002). "Court Will Review Cross Burning Ban". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/05/28/supremecourt/main510317.shtml. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  9. ^ "Klan named terrorist organization in Charleston". Reuters. October 14, 1999. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=c0wPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=J4YDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6460,2081194&dq=klan+terrorist-organization&hl=en. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  10. ^ "Ban the Klan? Professor has court strategy". Associated Press. May 21, 2004. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5030023. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  11. ^ Domestic terrorism by the Klan remained a key concern Dallas.FBI.gov
  12. ^ Jackson 1992 ed., pp. 241-242.
  13. ^ According to the 1920 census, the population of white males 18 years and older was about 31 million, but many of these men would have been ineligible for membership because they were immigrants, Jews, or Roman Catholics. Klan membership peaked at about 4-5 million in the mid-1920s. "The Ku Klux Klan, a brief biography". The African American Registry. http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/2207/The_Ku_Klux_Klan_a_brief__biography. 
  14. ^ Lay, Shawn. "Ku Klux Klan in the Twentieth Century". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Coker College. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2730. 
  15. ^ a b c d McWhorter 2001.
  16. ^ Iyoho, Charles (January 23, 2010). "Marshallite recalls King's Birmingham movement". Marshall News Messenger. http://www.marshallnewsmessenger.com/news/content/news/stories/stories/2009/012410_web_fisher.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  17. ^ Long, Genevieve (January 26, 2010). "Cold Civil Rights Cases to be Investigated". The Epoch Times. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/28674/. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  18. ^ Linder, Douglas. "The Mississippi Burning Trial (U. S. vs. Price et al.)". Univ. of Missouri-Kansas City Law School. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/Account.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  19. ^ "Illegal Immigration Fears Stimulate Ku Klux Klan Membership". Associated Press. February 12, 2007. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,251427,00.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  20. ^ Horn 1939, p. 9. The founders were John C. Lester, John B. Kennedy, James R. Crowe, Frank O. McCord, Richard R. Reed, and J. Calvin Jones
  21. ^ Chester L. Quarles, The Ku Klux Klan and Related Racialist and Antisemitic Organizations: An Overview, McFarland, 1999
  22. ^ Horn 1939, p. 11, states that Reed proposed κύκλος (kyklos) and Kennedy added clan. Wade 1987, p. 33 says that Kennedy came up with both words, but Crowe suggested transforming κύκλος into kuklux.
  23. ^ W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: 1860–1880, New York: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprint, The Free Press, 1998, pp.679-680
  24. ^ W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: 1860–1880, New York: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprint, The Free Press, 1998, p. 671-675.
  25. ^ "Ku Klux Klan, Organization and Principles, 1868". State University of New York at Albany. http://www.albany.edu/faculty/gz580/his101/kkk.html. 
  26. ^ Horn 1939. Horn casts doubt on some other aspects of the story.
  27. ^ Cincinnati 'Commercial', August 28, 1868, quoted in Wade 1987.
  28. ^ Horn 1939, p. 27.
  29. ^ Parsons 2005, p. 816.
  30. ^ a b Foner 1989, p. 425-426.
  31. ^ Foner 1989, p. 342.
  32. ^ W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: 1860–1880, New York: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprint, The Free Press, 1998, p. 677-678.
  33. ^ Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, New York: Perennial Classics, 1989; reprinted 2002, p.432
  34. ^ W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: 1860–1880, New York: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprint, The Free Press, 1998, pp.674-675
  35. ^ W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: 1860–1880, New York: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprint, The Free Press, 1998, pp.680-681
  36. ^ Bryant, Jonathan M.. "Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Southern University. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-694. 
  37. ^ The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida by Michael Newton, pp. 1-30. Newton quotes from the Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee to Enquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States. Vol. 13. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1872. Among historians of the Klan, this volume is also known as "The KKK testimony".
  38. ^ Rhodes 1920, pp. 157–158.
  39. ^ a b Horn 1939, p. 375.
  40. ^ Wade 1987, p. 102.
  41. ^ Foner 1989, p. 435.
  42. ^ Wade 1987.
  43. ^ Horn 1939, p. 373.
  44. ^ Wade 1987, p. 88.
  45. ^ a b Wormser, Richard. "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow—The Enforcement Acts (1870–1871)". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_enforce.html. 
  46. ^ White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction by Allen W. Trelease (Louisiana State University Press: 1995)
  47. ^ Trelease 1995.
  48. ^ quotes from Wade 1987.
  49. ^ Horn 1939, p. 360.
  50. ^ Horn 1939, p. 362.
  51. ^ Wade 1987, p. 85.
  52. ^ Wade, p102
  53. ^ Wade 1987, p. 109, writes that by ca. 1871–1874, "For many, the lapse of the enforcement acts was justified since their reason for being—the Ku-Klux Klan—had been effectively smashed as a result of the dramatic showdown in South Carolina".
  54. ^ Wade 1987, p. 109–110.
  55. ^ "Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871." Civil Rights in the United States. 2 vols. Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Galenet.Galegroup.com
  56. ^ Balkin, Jack M. (2002). "History Lesson" (PDF). Yale University. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/jbalkin/opeds/historylesson1.pdf. 
  57. ^ (Wade 1987, p. 144).
  58. ^ "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow: The Enforcement Acts, 1870–1871", Public Broadcast Service. Retrieved April 5, 2008.
  59. ^ "Lynching in the 1890s". Bgsu.edu. http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/lynching/lynching.html. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  60. ^ Dray 2002.
  61. ^ Dray 2002, p. 198. Griffith quickly relayed the comment to the press, where it was widely reported. In subsequent correspondence, Wilson discussed Griffith's filmmaking in a positive tone, without challenging use of his statement.
  62. ^ Wade 1987, p. 137.
  63. ^ Letter from J. M. Tumulty, secretary to President Wilson, to the Boston branch of the NAACP, quoted in Link, Wilson.
  64. ^ The Ku Klux Klan and Related American Racialist and Antisemitic Organizations: A History and Analysis by Chester L Quarles, Page 219. The second Klan's constitution and preamble, reprinted in Quarles book, stated that the second Klan was indebted to the original Klan's Prescripts.
  65. ^ Jackson 1967, p. 241.
  66. ^ An Interview with Stanley F. Horn - Oral History Interviews of the Forest History Society
  67. ^ By Friday, Apr. 09, 1965 (1965-04-09). "Nation: The Various Shady Lives Of The Ku Klux Klan". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,898581,00.html. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  68. ^ Maxine D. Rogers, et al., Documented History of Rosewood, Florida in January 1923, op.cit., pp.4-6, accessed March 28, 2008; Clarence Lusane (2003), Hitler's Black Victims, p. 89.
  69. ^ Franklin 1992, p.145
  70. ^ a b Maxine D. Rogers, et al., Documented History of Rosewood, Florida in January 1923, op.cit., p.7. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  71. ^ Smith, Robert L. (April 26, 1999). "In the 1920s, the Klan ruled the countryside". The Providence Journal. http://www.projo.com/specials/century/month4/426nw1.htm. 
  72. ^ Lender et al. 1982, p. 33.
  73. ^ Prendergast 1987, pp. 25-52, 27.
  74. ^ Barr 1999, p. 370.
  75. ^ "A Wizard's Indictment". TIME. March 10, 1923. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,846485,00.html. 
  76. ^ Maxine D. Rogers, et al., Documented History of Rosewood, Florida in January 1923, op.cit., p.6. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  77. ^ Diane McWhorter, Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama, The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution, New York: Touchstone Book, 2002, p.75
  78. ^ a b Jackson, 1992.
  79. ^ Moore 1991.
  80. ^ Greenhouse, Linda (May 29, 2002). "Supreme Court Roundup; Free Speech or Hate Speech? Court Weighs Cross Burning". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/05/29/us/supreme-court-roundup-free-speech-or-hate-speech-court-weighs-cross-burning.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  81. ^ Cecil Adams (1993-06-18). "Why does the Ku Klux Klan burn crosses?". The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1038/why-does-the-ku-klux-klan-burn-crosses. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  82. ^ Weedmark, Kevin. "When the KKK rode high across the Prairies". Moosomin World-Spectator. http://www.world-spectator.com/archives.25.html. 
  83. ^ It's been seventy years since Anaheim booted the Klan, reprinted from the Los Angeles Times
  84. ^ Feldman 1999.
  85. ^ Rogers et al., pp. 432-433.
  86. ^ Rogers et al., p. 433.
  87. ^ D. C. Stephenson manuscript collection
  88. ^ Moore 1991, p.186.
  89. ^ "Georgia Orders Action to Revoke Charter of Klan. Federal Lien Also Put on File to Collect Income Taxes Dating Back to 1921. Governor Warns of a Special Session if Needed to Enact 'De-Hooding' Measures Tells of Phone Threats Georgia Acts to Crush the Klan. Federal Tax Lien Also Is Filed". New York Times. May 31, 1946. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60D13F83B5E1B7B93C3AA178ED85F428485F9. Retrieved 2010-01-12. "Governor Ellis Arnall today ordered the State's legal department to bring action to revoke the Georgia charter of the Ku Klux Klan. ... 'It is my further information that on June 4, 1944, the Ku Klux Klan ..." 
  90. ^ "Ku Klux Klan in Indiana". Indiana State Library. 2000-11. http://www.in.gov/library/2848.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  91. ^ von Busack, Richard. "Superman Versus the KKK". MetroActive. http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/07.02.98/comics-9826.html. 
  92. ^ Kennedy 1990.
  93. ^ "The Ku Klux Klan, a brief biography". The African American Registry. http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/2207/The_Ku_Klux_Klan_a_brief__biography.  and Lay, Shawn. "Ku Klux Klan in the Twentieth Century". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Coker College. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2730. 
  94. ^ By Friday, Apr. 09, 1965 (1965-04-09). "The Various Shady Lives Of The Ku Klux Klan - Time". Time<!. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,898581-2,00.html. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  95. ^ Egerton 1994, p. 562-563.
  96. ^ "Who Was Harry T. Moore?"The Palm Beach Post, August 16, 1999
  97. ^ Cox, Major W. (March 2, 1999). "Justice Still Absent in Bridge Death". Montgomery Advertiser. http://www.majorcox.com/columns/edwards1.htm. 
  98. ^ Axtman, Kris (June 23, 2005). "Mississippi verdict greeted by a generation gap". The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0623/p01s03-ussc.html. 
  99. ^ "Reputed Klansman, Ex-Cop, and Sheriff's Deputy Indicted For The 1964 Murders of Two Young African-American Men in Mississippi; U.S. v. James Ford Seale". January 24, 2007. http://news.findlaw.com/usatoday/docs/crights/usseale12407ind.html. Retrieved March 23, 2008. 
  100. ^ Ingalls 1979; Graham, Nicholas (January 2005). "January 1958 -- The Lumbees face the Klan". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.lib.unc.edu/ncc/ref/nchistory/jan2005/jan05.html. 
  101. ^ Simon, Dennis M.. "The Civil Rights Movement, 1964–1968". Southern Methodist University. http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-CivRts2.html. 
  102. ^ "Viola Liuzzo". Spartacus Educational. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAliuzzo.htm. 
  103. ^ "Remembering the 1979 Greensboro Massacre: 25 Years Later Survivors Form Country’s First Truth and Reconciliation Commission". Democracy Now. November 18, 2004. http://www.democracynow.org/2004/11/18/remembering_the_1979_greensboro_massacre_25. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  104. ^ Mark Hand (November 18, 2004). "The Greensboro Massacre". Press Action.
  105. ^ Thompson 1982.
  106. ^ The White Separatist Movement in the United States: "White Power, White Pride!", by Betty A. Dobratz & Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile
  107. ^ Women's Appeal for Justice in Chattanooga - US Department of Justice
  108. ^ The Victoria Advocate: Bonds for Klan Upheld
  109. ^ New York Times: History Around the Nation; Jury Award to 5 Blacks Hailed as Blow to Klan
  110. ^ "Ku Klux Klan". Spartacus Educational, accessed April 22, 2008. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkkk.htm. 
  111. ^ "Ku Klux Klan". Spartacus Educational. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkkk.htm. 
  112. ^ About the Ku Klux Klan, Anti-Defamation League, 2002. According to the report, the KKK's estimated size then was "No more than a few thousand, organized into slightly more than 100 units."
  113. ^ Brad Knickerbocker (February 9, 2007). "Anti-Immigrant Sentiments Fuel Ku Klux Klan Resurgence". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0209/p02s02-ussc.html. 
  114. ^ a b Eric Pianin, "A Senator's Shame", Washington Post, June 19, 2005. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  115. ^ a b "Church of the American Knights of the KKK". Anti-Defamation League. October 22, 1999. http://www.adl.org/backgrounders/american_knights_kkk.asp. 
  116. ^ "No. 2 Klan group on trial in Ky. teen's beating". Associated Press. November 11, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27665247/. Retrieved November 22, 2008. 
  117. ^ "Arkansas Klan Group Loses Legal Battle with North Carolina Newspaper". Anti-Defamation League. July 9, 2009. http://www.adl.org/main_Extremism/Klan-vs-Rhino-Times.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  118. ^ "Active U.S. Hate Groups". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp. 
  119. ^ "About the Ku Klux Klan". Anti-Defamation League. http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp. 
  120. ^ "Jury awards $2.5 million to teen beaten by Klan members". CNN. November 14, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/11/14/klan.sued.verdict/index.html. Retrieved November 18, 2008. 
  121. ^ "Southern Poverty Law Center vs. Imperial Klans of America". Southern Poverty Law Center. July 25, 2007. http://www.splcenter.org/legal/docket/files.jsp?cdrID=69&sortID=2. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  122. ^ Ku Klux Klan - Affiliations Anti-Defamation League.
  123. ^ See, e.g., NYtimes.com (accessed August 2009); [http://www.channel3000.com/news/381962/detail.html Channel3000 com] (accessed August 2009). The ACLU claims no special preference for defending the Ku Klux Klan, but rather professes a mission to defend the constitutional rights of all groups, whether left, center, or right.
  124. ^ "A Visual Database of Extremist Symbols, Logos and Tattoos". Anti-Defamation League. http://www.adl.org/hate_symbols/acronyms_KIGY.asp. 
  125. ^ Axelrod 1997, p. 160.
  126. ^ Wade 1987, p. 142. "'It was rather difficult, sometimes, to make the two letters fit in,' he recalled later, 'but I did it somehow.'"

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    .The Ku Klux Klan: An Encyclopedia.^ Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor .
    • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1942 24 year-old Byrd joined the Ku Klux Klan, which he had seen holding parades in Matoaka, West Virginia, as a child.
    • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Ku Klux Klan is forced into action in order to save her from this gruesome fate.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    .New York & London: Garland Publishing. 
  • Parsons, Elaine Frantz (2005).^ In 1881, the lamps were installed under his supervision in New York City, Philadelphia, Montreal and London.
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan". The Journal of American History 92 (3): 811–836. 
  • Prendergast, Michael L. (1987), "A History of Alcohol Problem Prevention Efforts in the United States", in Holder, Harold D., Control Issues in Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities, Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press 
  • Rhodes, James Ford (1920).^ The film explicitly demonstrates the representation of the Ku Klux Klan as heroes and Southern blacks as villains.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Permalink to Comment D.W. Griffiths film, Birth of A Nation, poorly portrays both the roles of the Klu Klux Klan and the African Americans.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In conclusion, I want to mention that even though the movie does not explicitly depict the actual facts of the Reconstruction period, it still provides “just another opinion” on the actions of the Ku Klux Klan.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    .History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896.^ Truthfully, censorship would be hard to accomplish, especially if the President of the United States, at the time Woodrow Wilson, considered it to be like writing history with lightning (1).
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Today, “The Oprah Winfrey Show” is the highest rated talk show in T.V history, and seen by 15 to 20 million viewers a day in the United States and is in 132 countries.
    • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Filed under: History , United States of America .
    • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    7.  Winner of the 1918 Pulitzer Prize for history.
  • Rogers, William; Robert Ward, Leah Atkins and Wayne Flynt (1994). .Alabama: The History of a Deep South State.^ Every state in the Deep South -- Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina -- restricts low-income women's access to abortion.
    • Anti-Abortion Movement Borrows Tactics from the KKK | | AlterNet 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
     
  • Steinberg, Alfred (1962). The man from Missouri; the life and times of Harry S. Truman. New York: Putnam. OCLC 466366. 
  • Taylor, Joe G. (1974). Louisiana Reconstructed, 1863-1877. .Baton Rouge. 
  • Thompson, Jerry (1982).^ Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.
    • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .My Life in the Klan.^ "KKK Exposed!", or "My Secret Life in The Klan"?
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My Secret Life in the Klan .
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Trentadue wasn't interested in my life outside the Klan or in my experience.
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Putnam. ISBN 0399126953. 
  • Trelease, Allen W. (1995). .White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction.^ The film explicitly demonstrates the representation of the Ku Klux Klan as heroes and Southern blacks as villains.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In conclusion, I want to mention that even though the movie does not explicitly depict the actual facts of the Reconstruction period, it still provides “just another opinion” on the actions of the Ku Klux Klan.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In the film the Ku Klux Klan is portrayed as a group of heroes and the film justifies the treatment of blacks by the KKK. D.W. Griffith alludes that the KKK was establish to protect the women and the American Dream.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    Louisiana State University Press.
     
First published in 1971 and based on massive research in primary sources, this is the most comprehensive treatment of the Klan and its relationship to post-Civil War Reconstruction. Includes narrative research on other night-riding groups. Details close link between Klan and late 19th century and early 20th century Democratic Party.
  • Wade, Wyn Craig (1987). .The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America.^ In October of 2006, the United Northern and Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan distributed literature supporting the passage of Proposal 2.

    ^ When it was viewed, there was a lot of controversy concerning its depiction of the Ku Klux Klan and the Negro population.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ As a result, the Ku Klux Klan (Klan) was created in 1866 in Tennessee.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    New York: Simon and Schuster.
     
An unsympathetic account of both Klans, with a dedication to "my Kentucky grandmother ... a fierce and steadfast Radical Republican from the wane of Reconstruction until her death nearly a century later".

Further reading

  • Blee, Kathleen M. (1992). Women of the Klan. University of California Press. .ISBN 0-520-07876-4. 
  • "White supremacist groups flourishing".^ While in a search online, I discovered a numbered list of Klu Klux Klan, Aryan, Skinhead, and many other white supremacist groups.
    • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To date, White politicians and White supremacist groups had been fairly successful in keeping the Black voter rolls to a minimum.
    • African American | Essays & Term Papers Online 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    Associated Press. .http://www.gainesville.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070206/WIRE/702050325/-1/news. 
  • Nelson, Jack (1993).^ HELP STOP ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION.......MAKE YOUR VOICE HEARD: http://www.numbersusa.com/content/ .
    • Tancredo: La Raza is "Latino KKK" - Glenn Thrush - POLITICO.com 22 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Get a sneak peek of the all-new AOL at http://discover.aol.com/memed/aolcom30tour .

    ^ Suisman, David Teaching the Article of Exercise 2 Http://www.indiana.edu/~jah /teaching/2004_03/ex2shtml March .
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    .Terror in the Night: The Klan's Campaign Against the Jews.^ County historian Joe Burgess was unaware of any Klan boycotts implemented against Catholics or Jews.
    • Allen Safianow | 'You Can't Burn History' Getting Right with the Klan in Noblesville, Indiana | Indiana Magazine of History, 100.2 | The History Cooperative 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Simon & Schuster.^ Simon & Schuster, New York, NY Jacob, A. White Man, Think Again!
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-671-69223-2. 
  • Chalmers, David M. (2003). .Backfire: how the Ku Klux Klan helped the civil rights movement .^ He quickly became associated with hard-line resistance to Reconstruction and, secretly, he became the first leader of the national Ku Klux Klan.
    • Think Progress » Rep. Poe Quotes Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard On House Floor 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The film explicitly demonstrates the representation of the Ku Klux Klan as heroes and Southern blacks as villains.
    • HIST 120: U.S. History Survey: Movie Review: The Birth of a Nation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ It appears that among those coming from Gainesville were several members of the Ku Klux Klan, who had held a major rally in Gainesville on January 1, that was announced in the Gainesville Sun .
    • rosewood 17 September 2009 3:29 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742523101.
     

External links

.
  • The Southern Poverty Law Center information on the Klan
  • The ADL on the KKK
  • Inside Today's KKK - slideshow by Life magazine.^ "KKK Exposed!", or "My Secret Life in The Klan"?
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to Mark Potok , director of the Southern Poverty Law Center 's Intelligence Project, the National Socialist Movement is the largest neo-Nazi group operating in the country, with 81 chapters, including a group in Kansas City, Kansas.
    • Kansas City News - My Secret Life in the Klan - page 1 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pitch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At least according to the special report I've been reading by the Southern Poverty Law Center.

    April 13, 2009
  • A long interview with Stanley F. Horn, author of Invisible Empire: The Story of the Ku Klux Klan, 1866–1871