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Holocene epoch
Pleistocene
Holocene
Preboreal (10.3 ka – 9 ka),
Boreal (9 ka – 7.5 ka),
Atlantic (7.5 ka5 ka),
Subboreal (5 ka2.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka – present)
KundaCultureTools.jpg

Kunda Culture, with its roots in Swiderian culture [1] is a mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the Baltic forest zone extending eastwards through Latvia into northern Russia dating to the period 8000–5000 BC by calibrated radiocarbon dating. It is named after the Estonian town Kunda, about 110 kilometres (70 mi) east of Tallinn along the Gulf of Finland, near where the first extensively studied settlement was discovered on Lammasmäe Hill and in the surrounding peat bog.[2]

Most Kunda settlements are located near the edge of the forests beside rivers, lakes, or marshes. Elk were extensively hunted, perhaps helped by trained domestic hunting-dogs. On the coast seal hunting is represented. Pike and other fish were taken from the rivers. There is a rich bone and antler industry, especially in relation to fishing gear. Tools were decorated with simple geometric designs, lacking the complexity of the contemporary Maglemosian Culture communities to the southwest.

The Kunda Culture is succeeded by the Narva culture who use pottery and show some traces of food production. The oldest known Kunda culture settlement in Estonia is Pulli settlement.

Contents

Origin of culture

The Kunda culture appears to have undergone a transition from the Palaeolithic Swiderian culture located previously over much of the same range. One such transition settlement, Pasieniai 1C in Lithuania, features stone tools of both Late Swiderian and early Kunda. One shape manufactured in both cultures is the retouched tanged point. The final Swiderian is dated 7800-7600 BC by calibrated radiocarbon dating, which is in the Preboreal period, at the end of which time with no gap the early Kunda begins. Evidently the descendants of the Swiderians were the first to settle Estonia when it became habitable. Other post-Swiderian groups extended as far east as the Ural mountains.[3]

Locations of sites

Notes

  1. ^ Niskanen, Markku (2002). "The Origin of the Baltic-Finns". The Mankind Quarterly. http://www.mankindquarterly.org/samples/niskanenbalticcorrected.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-06.  
  2. ^ Shaw, Ian; Robert Jameson (Editors) (1999). A Dictionary of Archaeology. Blackwell Publishing. pp. page 346. ISBN 0631235833.  
  3. ^ čatavičius, Egidijus (2005). "Swiderian Culture in Lithuania". Lietuvos Archeologija 29. http://www.istorija.lt/la/satavicius2005en.html.  

See also








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