Kurram Agency: Wikis

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Kurram Agency
Map of Federally Administered Tribal Areas with {{{district}}} highlighted
District map of FATA and NWFP - Districts of FATA are shown shown in blue.
Area 3,310 km²
Population (1998)
 • Density
448,310
 • /km²
Headquarters {{{headquarters}}}
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Established
 • Political Agent
 • Number of Tehsils

 • 1
 • 2
Main language(s) Pashto, Urdu, Persian/Dari, and English.
Website [1]

Karam/Kurram (Urdu: کرم ) tribal agency is located in the FATA area of Pakistan.Geographically it covers Kurram Valley (Urdu: وادی کُرم) which is a beautiful valley in the northwestern part of Pakistan neighboring Afghanistan.

Until the year 2000, when divisions were abolished, Kurram District used to be part of the Peshawar Division of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.The name Kurram comes from the river Kurram which flows along the valley. The valley in the north is surrounded by white mountains (the safed Koh) which also forms the natural border with Afghanistan.

The Kurram River drains the southern flanks of the Safed Koh mountain range, and enters the Indus plains north of Bannu. It flows west to east and crosses the Paktia Province Afghan-Pakistan border at Coordinates: 33°49′N 69°58′E / 33.817°N 69.967°E / 33.817; 69.967 about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad, and joins the Indus near Isa Khel after a course of more than 320 km (200 miles). The district has an area of 3,310 km² (1,278 sq. miles); the population according to the 1998 census was 448,310[1]. It lies between the Miranzai Valley and the Afghan border, and is inhabited by the Pashtun Turis, a tribe of Turki and Pathan origin on the western and central side who are supposed to have subjugated the Bangash Pashtun about six hundred years ago. The language of the tribe is Pashto, but unlike majority of the Pashtuns they are Shias. Eastern portion of the valley is now inhabited mostly by Sunni Pashtuns mostly Mangals, Paras and the remnants of the Bangash.

Contents

History

The Kurram Valley in ancient times offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez. The route crossed the Peiwar Kotal Pass 3,439 m (11,283 ft) high, just over 20 km west of modern Parachinar, but was blocked by snow for several months of the year.

The valley is highly irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh. The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mughal emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan. According to the Gazetteer of Kurram, the richness of the land gradually weaned the Turks from their nomadic life. Sections built villages and settled permanently; they ceased to be Kuchi and became Kothi this abandonment of their nomadic habits by the majority of the resulted, as it was bound to do, in a contraction of the area in effective possession. The upper Kurram plain was safe as their head-quarters, but hills and slopes below the Safed Koh and Mandher over which their graziers had kept an efficient watch, now afforded a menace as a place in which an encroaching tribe could established itself. To guard against this settlements of Mangales and Muqbols were half invited half allowed to push themselves in conditions of vassalage, and on promise to afford a buttress against any enemy aggression. In the lower Kurram, where for climatic reasons candidates for settlements were fewer, the problem was not easily solved. The Chardi Turis seem to have been the first to abandon their nomadic life.As the numbers who went down to graze every year became less,the area under control contracted. Sangroba and Hadmela were left far behind and as the Turis receded the Watizai Zaimushts gradually pushed in, until all that was left was a settlement at and about Alizai. On the western side the Saragallas retained, and still largely retain their habits. They too put in settlements around Biliamin and after much intervening warfare had finally to admit Bangashes brother not as vassals, but for the rest they retain unimpaired the rights on the western bank which they acquirerd at the time the conquest.

With Chardis this was for from being the course left unsupported by their Kuchis they maintained a precarious existence at Alizai until even then they had to give three-fifths of their land to the Watizai Zaimushts in return for their assistance in a feud they had entered upon with Bilyamin. Consequently the hills and the grazing grounds passed from the Turizun to the Zaimushtzun and as the other Zaimushts section being unopposed had settled themselves on the left bank below Sadda.

In the early 19th century the Kurram Valley was under the government of Kabul, and every five or six years a military expedition was sent to collect the revenue, the soldiers living meanwhile at free quarters on the people. It was not until about 1848 that the Turis were brought directly under the control of Kabul, when a governor was appointed, who established himself in Kurram. The Turis, being Shiah Muslims, never liked the Afghan rule.

During the second Afghan War, when Sir Frederick Roberts advanced by way of the Kurram Valley and the Peiwar Kotal to Kabul, the Turis lent him every assistance in their power, and in consequence their independence was granted them in 1880.

The administration of the Kurram Valley was finally rendered to British authorities, at the request of the Turis themselves, in 1890. Technically it ranked, not as a British district, but as an agency or administered area.

Two expeditions in the Kurram Valley also require mention: (1) The Kurram expedition of 1856 under Brigadier-General Sir Neville Chamberlain. The Turis, on the first annexation of the Kohat district by the British, had repeatedly leagued with other tribes to infest the Miranzai valley, harbouring fugitives, encouraging resistance, and frequently attacking Bangash and Khattak villages in the Kohat district. Accordingly, in 1856 British forces numbering 4,896 troops traversed their country, and the tribe entered into engagements for future good conduct. (2) The Kohat-Kurram expedition of 5,897 under Colonel W. Hill. During the frontier risings of 1897 the inhabitants of the Kurram valley, chiefly the Massozai section of the Orakzais, were infected by the general excitement, and attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts. A force of 14,230 British troops traversed the country, and the tribesmen were severely punished. In Lord Curzon's reorganization of the frontier in 1900-1901, British troops were withdrawn from the forts in the Kurram Valley, and were replaced by the Kurram militia, reorganized in two battalions, and chiefly drawn from the Turi tribe.

In recent years the Kurram Valley has once again assumed a very strategic position and the site of intense Taliban activities. The armed forces of Pakistan extended their major offensive against Al-Qaeda and Taliban elements in FATA dubbed Operation Rah-e-Nijat to Kurram in December 2009. [2]

Archeological findings

Ahmad Hasan Dani has recorded several findings in the North Waziristan area .

The nearest Kharoshti finds are the Kurram Casket inscription of the year 20 , recovered from the Kurram Valley .[3]

Administrative division

  • Upper Kurram Agency.
  • Lower kurram Agency.
  • Central kurram Agency.

Parachinar Cantonment

Parachinar is the political head quarter of Kurram valley. It has offices of political agent, levy, and Kurram Militia, part of Frontier core (FC). It is located on the western and northern side of the valley. This makes it a part of Upper Kurram. The name of Parachinar comes from 'Para', one of the tribes of the valley and 'Chinar', the maple trees which are found in abundance in Kurram value in general and Parachinar in particular. The town of Parachinar has population around thirty thousand with Turi majority. The town has government hospital and many government schools.

Major Towns

  1. Parachinar the headquarter of kurram agency.
  2. Sadda the second large town in kurram agency.
  3. Alizai the second tehsil and third big town in kurram agency.
  4. pirqayoom
  5. sateen
  6. Karman
  7. Peiwar
  8. makhi zai
  9. Baggan
  10. Dogar
  11. Bagzai
  12. Kunj Ali Zai
  13. Tari Mangal
  14. Boshehra
  15. Malikhel

Number of Tehsils

There three tehsil in kurram agency.

  1. Parachinar
  2. Sadda
  3. Alizai

Major Dams

Maulana dam

Maulana dam is a small dam in Safed Koh north of Parachinar city. It is close to Maulana village and is famous for its scenic beauty. Lukmankhail Zeran Michay Kirman SHOBLAN

Zeran dam

Zeran dam is located on north east of Prachinar. It is also famous for its scenic beauty.

Kot Ragha Dam Malikhel

This dam is located in village Malikhel on the bank of Kurram river. It is a small dam and contains 70,000 fishes. This dam can be provide water to about 2500 km² area.

Climate

Climate of the valley is very pleasant all year around. In winters it can become slightly cold with temperature reaching -20 degree Celsius. It also snows in northern and western parts of the valley. Apart from that weather is pleasant all year around with much precipitation during spring and summer season. Autumn and winter are usually dry.

Flaura and Fauna

The valley has wide variety of plant and animal species.

Mentioned in Rigveda

In the Rigveda, the Kurrum is mentioned as Krumu.[2]

Taliban Activity

The Taliban though succeeded in establishing their rule in parts of Kurram Valley in recent years exploiting the existing secterian schism, nonetheless the area proved to be not less than a nightmare for extremist elements. On several occasions the Tribesmen especially Turis hit back at Al Qaeda and Taliban elements with considerable effectiveness. [4]

On August 31, 2008 tribesmen mostly Turis dislodged Taliban from nearly 200 villages finally Taliban headquarters at Bagzai fell to the tribesmen killing as many as 95 militants. [5] Independent sources reported that the elders of one sect have lost their authority to a band of displaced people of their sect from Parachinar and Taliban militants, mostly from other tribal regions.

Extremist Groups in Kurram Agency

In recent years, since about 1985, Kurram Agency has become increasingly victimized by sectarian violence as tensions grew between Shia and Sunni tribesmen of the Kurram Agency, the later supported by Taliban, Al-Qaeda and various other local and foreign groups. Reportedly Turi tribesmen captured and sacked more than 42 villages from the Talibans. Today several foreign armed sectarian groups are claimed to be operating (ruling) in the Kurram Agency.

 1: Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
 2: Lashkar-e-Islam [6]

Pictures

Parachinar Kurram.
Parachinar.
Dandar Boshehra Parachinar.
Mazri Forest Alizai.

See also

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  • Bowles, Gordon T. (1977). The People of Asia. London. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Scott-Moncrieff, Major-General Sir George K. "The Roads of the North-West Frontier." Blackwood’s Magazine, No. MCCCIV, Vol. CCXV, June 1924, pp. 743-757.
  • Swinson, Arthur (1967). North-West Frontier. Frederick A. Praeger, New York, Washington.

External links


Kurram Agency
File:NWFP
District map of FATA and NWFP - Districts of FATA are shown shown in blue.
Area 3380 km²
Population (1998)
 • Density
448310
 • 133/km²
Headquarters {{{headquarters}}}
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Established
 • Political Agent
 • Number of Tehsils
1892
 • 1
 • 2
Main language(s) Pashtu, Urdu, English
Website [1]

Kurram (Urdu: کرم ) tribal agency is located in the FATA area of Pakistan. Until the year 2000, when divisions were abolished, Kurram District used to be part of the Peshawar Division of the North-West Frontier Province, now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, of Pakistan.

The Kurram River drains the southern flanks of the Safed Koh mountain range, and enters the Indus plains north of Bannu. It crosses the Afghan-Pakistan border about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad, and joins the Indus near Isa Khel after a course of more than 320 km (200 miles). The district has an area of 3,310 km² (1,278 sq. miles); the population according to the 1998 census was 448,310[1]. It lies between the Miranzai Valley and the Afghan border, and is inhabited by the Pashtun Turis, a tribe of Turki and Pathan origin who are supposed to have subjugated the Bangash Pashtun about six hundred years ago.The main tribes in Kurram Agency are zazai Bangash,Para,Mangal,Turi,Orakzaione of the biggest.The language of the tribes is Pashto, .

It is highly irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh. The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mogul emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan.

The Kurram River crosses the Afghan-Pakistan border about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad and in ancient times offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez, but the route crossed the Peiwar Pass 3,439 m (11,283 ft) high, just over 20 km west of Parachinar, which was blocked by snow for several months of the year.

Contents

History

According to the Gazetteer of Kurram, the richness of the land gradually weaned the Turks from their nomadic life. Sections built villages and settled permanently; they ceased to be Kuchi and became Kothi this abandonment of their nomadic habits by the majority of the resulted, as it was bound to do, in a contraction of the area in effective possession. The upper Kurram plain was safe as their head-quarters, but hills and slopes below the Safed Koh and Mandher over which their graziers had kept an efficient watch, now afforded a menace as a place in which an encroaching tribe could established itself. To guard against this settlements of Mangales and Muqbols were half invited half allowed to push themselves in conditions of vassalage, and on promise to afford a buttress against any enemy aggression. In the lower Kurram, where for climatic reasons candidates for settlements were fewer, the problem was not easily solved. The Chardi Turis seem to have been the first to abandon their nomadic life.As the numbers who went down to graze every year became less,the area under control contracted. Sangroba and Hadmela were left far behind and as the Turis receded the Watizai Zaimushts gradually pushed in, until all that was left was a settlement at and about Alizai. On the western side the Saragallas retained, and still largely retain their habits. They too put in settlements around Biliamin and after much intervening warfare had finally to admit Bangashes brother not as vassals, but for the rest they retain unimpaired the rights on the western bank which they acquirerd at the time the conquest.

With Chardis this was for from being the course left unsupported by their Kuchis they maintained a precarious existence at Alizai until even then they had to give three-fifths of their land to the Watizai Zaimushts in return for their assistance in a feud they had entered upon with Bilyamin. Consequently the hills and the grazing grounds passed from the Turizun to the Zaimushtzun and as the other Zaimushts section being unopposed had settled themselves on the left bank below Sadda.

Main Cities

Parachinar is the district headquarter of the agency. It is a big market for the people of surrounding area. It is also famous for timber and dry fruits.

Sadda has grown enormously during the past ten years due to the construction of refugees in its neighbourhood. It is bid trade market for the people of lower and central Kurram.

Dogar is a large village in central Kurram. It is an important market for locally made arms.

BAGAN.A larger village of kurram agency famous for various qulities

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

  • Bowles, Gordon T. (1977). The People of Asia. London. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Scott-Moncrieff, Major-General Sir George K. "The Roads of the North-West Frontier." Blackwood's Magazine, No. MCCCIV, Vol. CCXV, June 1924, pp. 743-757.
  • Arthur Swinson, (1967). North-West Frontier. Frederick A. Praeger, New York, Washington.

See also

External links


Simple English

Kurram or Karam (Urdu: کرم ) tribal agency is located in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) area of Pakistan. Until the year 2000, when divisions were abolished, Kurram District used to be part of the Peshawar Division of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

The Kurram River drains the southern flanks of the Safed Koh mountain range, and enters the Indus plains north of Bannu. It crosses the Afghan-Pakistan border about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad, and joins the Indus near Isa Khel after a course of more than 320 km (200 miles). The district has an area of 3,310 km² (1,278 sq. miles); the population according to the 1998 census was 448,310. It lies between the Miranzai Valley and the Afghan border, and is inhabited by the Pashtun Turis, a tribe of Turki and Pathan origin who are supposed to have subjugated the Bangash Pashtun about six hundred years ago. The language of the tribe is Pashto, but unlike majority of the Pashtuns they are Shias.

It is highly irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh. The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mogul emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan.

The Kurram River crosses the Afghan-Pakistan border about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad and in ancient times offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez, but the route crossed the Peiwar Pass 3,439 m (11,283 ft) high, just over 20 km west of Parachinar, which was blocked by snow for several months of the year.

  • Lower Kurram Tehsil
  • Upper Kurram Tehsil
  • Kurram F.R. Tehsil



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