Kutná Hora: Wikis

  
  
  

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Kutná Hora
Town
Flag
Coat of arms
Country  Czech Republic
Region Central Bohemian
District Kutná Hora
Commune Kutná Hora
River Vrchlice
Elevation 254 m (833 ft)
Coordinates 49°57′N 15°16′E / 49.95°N 15.267°E / 49.95; 15.267
Area 33.05 km2 (12.76 sq mi)
Population 21,142
Density 640 /km2 (1,658 /sq mi)
Founded 13th century
Mayor Ivo Šalátek
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 284 01
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Name Historical Town Centre with the Church of St. Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec
Year 1995 (#19)
Number 732
Region Europe and North America
Criteria ii, iv
Location in the Czech Republic
Location in the Czech Republic
Wikimedia Commons: Kutná Hora
Statistics: statnisprava.cz
Website: www.kutnahora.info

Kutná Hora (Czech pronunciation: [ˈkutnaː ˈɦora]  ( listen); medieval Czech: Hory Kutné; German: Kuttenberg) is a city in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic in the Central Bohemian Region.

Contents

History

The town began in 1142 with the settlement of the first Cistercian Monastery in Bohemia, Kloster Sedlitz, brought from the reichsunmittelbar Cistercian Imperial Waldsassen Abbey. By 1260 German miners began to mine for silver in the mountain region, which they named Kuttenberg, and which was part of the monastery property. The name of the mountain is said to have arrived from the miners workclothes garb (the Kutten). Under Abot Heinrich Heidenreich the territory greatly advanced due to the silver mines which gained importance during the economic boom of the 13th century.

The earliest traces of silver have been found dating back to the 10th century, when Bohemia already was in the crossroads of long-distance trade for many centuries. Silver dinars have been discovered belonging to the period between 982-995 in the settlement of Malín, which is now a part of Kutná Hora.

From the 13th to 16th centuries the city competed with Prague economically, culturally and politically.[1] Since 1995 the city center has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2]

In 1300 when King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia issued the new royal mining code Ius regale montanorum. This was a legal document that specified all administrative as well as technical terms and conditions necessary for the operation of mines.[3] The city developed with great rapidity, and at the outbreak of the Hussite Wars in 1419 was next to Prague the most important in Bohemia, having become the favourite residence of several Bohemian kings. It was here that, on January 18, 1409, Wenceslaus IV signed the famous Decree of Kutná Hora, by which the Czech university nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other nations.

In 1420 Emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites during the Hussite Wars; Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) was taken by Jan Žižka, and after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites. Žižka nonetheless took the place, and under Bohemian auspices it awoke to a new period of prosperity.

Along with the rest of Bohemia, Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) passed to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. In 1546 the richest mine was hopelessly flooded; in the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I the city lost all its privileges; repeated visitations of the plague and the horrors of the Thirty Years' War completed its ruin. Half-hearted attempts after the peace to repair the ruined mines failed; the town became impoverished, and in 1770 was devastated by fire. The mines were abandoned at the end of the 18th century.

At Kuttenberg (Kutna Hora) Prague groschen were minted until 1547.

Kuttenberg became part of the Austrian Empire in 1806 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1866. The city became part of Czechoslovakia after World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Kutná Hora was incorporated into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany from 1939-1945, but was restored to Czechoslovakia after World War II. The city became part of the Czech Republic in 1993 during the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.

Architecture

Kutná Hora and the neighboring town of Sedlec are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the most important buildings in the area are the Gothic, five-naved St. Barbara's Church, begun in 1388, and the Italian Court, formerly a royal residence and mint, which was built at the end of the 13th century. The Gothic Stone Haus, which since 1902 has served as a museum, contains one of the richest archives in the country. The Gothic St. James's Church, with its 86 metre tower, is another prominent building. Sedlec is the site of the Gothic Cathedral of Our Lady and the famous Ossuary.

Main sights

  • Cathedral of Our Lady (Chrám Nanebevzetí Pany Marie)
  • St. Barbara Church (Kostel Svaté Barbory)
  • Sedlec Ossuary (Kostnice Sedlec)
  • Church of St. James (Kostel sv. Jakuba)
  • Church of St. John Nepomuk (Kostel sv. Jana Nepomuckého)
  • Church of Ursuline Convent (Kostel Kláštera Voršilek)
  • Jesuit College (Jezuitská kolej)
  • Italian Court (Vlašský dvůr)
  • Marian column (Morový sloup)

Gallery

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Kutná Hora is twinned with:

See also

References

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Simple English

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this name.








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