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Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, as of June 2009, where dark green indicates the countries that have signed and ratified the treaty, grey is not yet decided and red is no intention to ratify.
.The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming.^ Sovereignty: Is the Kyoto Protocol consistent with national sovereignty?
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases that cause climate change.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]

The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would minimize dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."[1]
.The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of November 2009, 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol.^ Events marking the Kyoto Protocol's entry into force .
  • The Kyoto Protocol will enter into force on 16 February 2005 : SDNP Bangladesh 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.sdnbd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush has stated he will not ratify the Kyoto treaty.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Accord 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Protocol entered into force February 16, 2005.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Under the Protocol, 37 industrialized countries (called "Annex I countries") commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them, and all member countries give general commitments.^ The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide , methane, nitrous oxide , sulfur hexafluoride , hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons - averaged over the period of 2008-2012.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Annex A lists the greenhouse gases it covers: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, as well as the sectors/source categories that emit them.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is especially true of such key "greenhouse gases" as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O).
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Annex I countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level.^ As of January 2008, and running through 2012, countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% below their 1990 levels.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%".
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions .
  • OAG Chapter 2�Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.oag-bvg.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping, but are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.^ This is because CFCs are being phased out under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE Montreal protocol, the ground-breaking deal to save the ozone layer .
  • Strengthened Ozone Treaty Provides Five Times Kyoto Treaty in 9 October 2009 8:53 UTC www.unep.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Montreal Protocol is successfully assisting in the repair and recovery of the ozone layer.
  • Strengthened Ozone Treaty Provides Five Times Kyoto Treaty in 9 October 2009 8:53 UTC www.unep.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The benchmark 1990 emission levels were accepted by the Conference of the Parties of UNFCCC (decision 2/CP.3) were the values of "global warming potential" calculated for the IPCC Second Assessment Report.^ CO 2 1990 emissions by UNFCCC Annex I parties.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three years after the Climate Change Convention was adopted at the Rio Earth Summit, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its second major assessment of climate change research.
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate change and agriculture · Economics of global warming · Glacier retreat · National Assessment on Climate Change · Mass extinction · Ozone depletion · Ocean acidification · Sea level rise · Season creep · Shutdown of thermohaline circulation .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .These figures are used for converting the various greenhouse gas emissions into comparable CO2 equivalents when computing overall sources and sinks.^ Monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions .
  • OAG Chapter 2�Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.oag-bvg.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolute emissions the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (in carbon dioxide equivalents).
  • OAG Chapter 2�Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.oag-bvg.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 36 developed C.G. countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries), with three more countries intending to participate.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Protocol allows for several "flexible mechanisms", such as emissions trading, the clean development mechanism (CDM) and joint implementation to allow Annex I countries to meet their GHG emission limitations by purchasing GHG emission reductions credits from elsewhere, through financial exchanges, projects that reduce emissions in non-Annex I countries, from other Annex I countries, or from annex I countries with excess allowances.^ Joint implementation (JI) projects will offer "emissions reduction units" for financing projects in other developed countries.
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Djibouti speaks up for developing countries at Montreal Protocol meeting .
  • Strengthened Ozone Treaty Provides Five Times Kyoto Treaty in 9 October 2009 8:53 UTC www.unep.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each Annex I country is required to submit an annual report of inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals from sinks under UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.^ Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC art.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the UNFCCC articles 4 and 12, Annex I Parties are required to communicate to the COP a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, the Act and the Kyoto Protocol require reporting against historical emission levels.
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.These countries nominate a person (called a "designated national authority") to create and manage its greenhouse gas inventory.^ Of these, 36 developed C.G. countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries), with three more countries intending to participate.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the Annex I economies have established Designated National Authorities to manage their greenhouse gas portfolios under Kyoto.
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^ Virtually all of the Non-Annex I countries have also set up their own Designated National Authorities to manage the Kyoto process (and specifically the "CDM process" whereby these host government entities decide which Greenhouse Gas Projects they do or do not wish to support for accreditation by the CDM Executive Board).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Countries including Japan, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain and others are actively promoting government carbon funds, supporting multilateral carbon funds intent on purchasing carbon credits from non-Annex I countries,[4] and are working closely with their major utility, energy, oil and gas and chemicals conglomerates to acquire greenhouse gas certificates as cheaply as possible.^ Annex I entities want Carbon Credits as cheaply as possible, whilst Non-Annex I entities want to maximize the value of Carbon Credits generated from their domestic Greenhouse Gas Projects.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These government organizations are working closely with their major utility, energy, oil & gas and chemicals conglomerates to try to acquire as many Greenhouse Gas Certificates as cheaply as possible.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the U.S. does not support the split between Annex I countries and others.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Virtually all of the non-Annex I countries have also established a designated national authority to manage its Kyoto obligations, specifically the "CDM process" that determines which GHG projects they wish to propose for accreditation by the CDM Executive Board.^ All the Annex I economies have established Designated National Authorities to manage their greenhouse gas portfolios under Kyoto.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virtually all of the Non-Annex I countries have also set up their own Designated National Authorities to manage the Kyoto process (and specifically the "CDM process" whereby these host government entities decide which Greenhouse Gas Projects they do or do not wish to support for accreditation by the CDM Executive Board).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CDM projects produce Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), and JI projects produce Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), each equivalent to one AAU. Kyoto CERs are also accepted for meeting EU ETS obligations, and ERUs will become similarly valid from 2008 for meeting ETS obligations (although individual countries may choose to limit the number and source of CER/JIs they will allow for compliance purposes starting from 2008).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Background

.The prevailing international scientific opinion on climate change is that human activities resulted in substantial global warming from the mid-20th century, and that continued growth in greenhouse gas concentrations caused by human-induced emissions would generate high risks of dangerous climate change.^ Debate:Global warming, human-caused?
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such, the Kyoto Protocol is an important tool in the fight against human-caused greenhouse gas emissions and global warming.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global warming is chiefly human-caused, making Kyoto important.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted an average global rise in temperature of 1.4°C (2.5°F) to 5.8°C (10.4°F) between 1990 and 2100.[5]

Ratification process

.The Protocol was adopted by COP 3 on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.^ After negotiations that were described as tough, grueling and long, [32] the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in December, 1997, at COP-3 .
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 11 1997 in Kyoto, Japan .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is what happened in 1997 with the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was opened on 16 March 1998 for signature by parties to UNFCCC.
.Article 25 of the Protocol specifies that the Protocol enters into force "on the ninetieth day after the date on which not less than 55 Parties to the Convention, incorporating Parties included in Annex I which accounted in total for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the Annex I countries, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession."^ Entering into force: Article 25 of the Protocol provides two conditions that must be satisfied before the Protocol could enter into force: First, at least 55 Parties to the Convention must ratify, accept, approve, or accede to the Protocol, of which there must be enough Annex I Parties to have accounted for at least 55 % of carbon dioxide emissions in 1990.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Protocol entered into force February 16, 2005.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EU and its Member States ratified the Protocol in May 2002.[6] Of the two conditions, the "55 parties" clause was reached on 23 May 2002 when Iceland ratified the Protocol.^ Of the two conditions, the "55 parties" clause was reached on May 23 2002 when Iceland ratified.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of May 2008, 182 parties had ratified the protocol.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any Party may propose amendments to this Protocol.
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]

.The ratification by Russia on 18 November 2004 satisfied the "55%" clause and brought the treaty into force, effective 16 February 2005, after the required lapse of 90 days.^ The ratification by Russia on 18 November 2004 satisfied the "55%" clause and brought the treaty into force, effective February 16, 2005.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue of Russian ratification was particularly closely watched in the international community, as the accord was brought into force 90 days after Russian ratification (February 16, 2005).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Protocol entered into force February 16, 2005.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of November 2009, 186 countries and one regional economic organization (the EC) have ratified the agreement, representing over 63.9% of the 1990 emissions from Annex I countries.^ As of November 2007, a total of 175 countries and other governmental entities have ratified the agreement (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 36 developed C.G. countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries), with three more countries intending to participate.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 36 developed countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries) [1] [2] , with three more countries intending to participate [3] .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .The most notable non-party to the Protocol is the United States, which is a party to UNFCCC and was responsible for 36.1% of the 1990 emission levels of Annex I countries.^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention are primarily developing countries.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CO 2 1990 emissions by UNFCCC Annex I parties.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Protocol can be signed and ratified only by parties to UNFCCC, (Article 24) and a country can withdraw by giving 12 months notice.^ Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Protocol, by ratifying, accepting, approving, or acceding to it.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All parties to the UNFCCC can sign or ratify the Kyoto Protocol, while non-parties to the UNFCCC cannot.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary reasons the Senate gave for the U.S. not to sign included the protocols exemption of all 129 developing country parties from any obligations under the protocol.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Article 27)

Objectives

Kyoto is intended to cut global emissions of greenhouse gases.
.The objective is the "stabilization and reconstruction of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."^ It sets an "ultimate objective" of stabilizing "greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human-induced) interference with the climate system.
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ This acknowledges that there is currently no scientific certainty about what a dangerous level would be.
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[1]
.The objective of the Kyoto climate change conference was to establish a legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions.^ The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases that cause climate change.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was supposed to commit nations to solving global warming.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saving the environment by reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and helping reverse Climate Change and Global Warming.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The target agreed upon was an average reduction of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the year 2012. Contrary to popular belief, the Protocol will NOT expire in 2012. In 2012, Annex I countries must have fulfilled their obligations of reduction of greenhouse gases emissions established for the first commitment period (2008–2012) (see Annex B of the Protocol).^ As of January 2008, and running through 2012, countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% below their 1990 levels.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Talks on targets for the second commitment period must start by 2005.
  • A BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC chemistry.beloit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proponents also note that Kyoto is a first step[7][8] as requirements to meet the UNFCCC will be modified until the objective is met, as required by UNFCCC Article 4.2(d).^ Proponents also note that Kyoto is a first step [8] [9] as requirements to meet the UNFCCC will be modified until the objective is met, as required by UNFCCC Article 4.2(d).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was in accord with Article 3 (9) of the Kyoto Protocol, that required that the COP/MOP initiate consideration of commitments for subsequent periods at least 7 years before the end of the first commitment period, which runs from 2008 to 2012.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
The five principal concepts of the Kyoto Protocol are:[citation needed]
  • commitments to reduce greenhouse gases that are legally binding for annex I countries, as well as general commitments for all member countries;
  • implementation to meet the Protocol objectives, to prepare policies and measures which reduce greenhouse gases; increasing absorption of these gases (for example through geosequestration and biosequestration) and use all mechanisms available, such as joint implementation, clean development mechanism and emissions trading; being rewarded with credits which allow more greenhouse gas emissions at home;
  • minimizing impacts on developing countries by establishing an adaptation fund for climate change;
  • accounting, reporting and review to ensure the integrity of the Protocol;
  • compliance by establishing a compliance committee to enforce commitment to the Protocol.

2012 emission targets and "flexible mechanisms"

.39 of the 40 Annex I countries have ratified the Protocol.^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of September 2006, 166 countries have either ratified, acceded to, approved of, or accepted the Protocol; see Status of Ratification .
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The figure given on the Europa Web site of an 8% reduction for the EU would appear to be accurate; the targets are different for each country or region, and are listed in Annex B of the Protocol.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these 34 have committed themselves to a reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) produced by them to targets that are set in relation to their 1990 emission levels, in accordance with Annex B of the Protocol.^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
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^ Their individual targets are found in the Protocols Annex B .
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^ While UN statistics indicate that, as a group, the 36 Kyoto signatory countries can meet the 5% reduction target by 2012, most of the progress in greenhouse gas reduction has come from the stark decline in Eastern European countries' emissions after the fall of communism in the 1990s.
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.The targets apply to the four greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, and two groups of gases, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons.^ The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide , methane, nitrous oxide , sulfur hexafluoride , hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons - averaged over the period of 2008-2012.
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^ Annex A lists the greenhouse gases it covers: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, as well as the sectors/source categories that emit them.
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^ In addition, many reports submitted to the Voluntary Reporting Program (including electric power sector reports) include reductions of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide, such as methane and nitrous oxide and the high Global Warming Potential gases such as HFCs, PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride.
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.The six GHG are translated into CO2 equivalents in determining reductions in emissions.^ CO 2 Emission Reductions and Energy Savings from EPA's Voluntary Programs, 1998 and 1999 .
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^ Participants pledged to review the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol in 2008 as required under Article 9 of the protocol to determine whether it adequately deals with increases in GHG emissions.
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^ Reported CO 2 reductions from these projects accounted for 7.5 percent of 1998 Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the generation of electric power in the United States.
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.These reduction targets are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.^ Since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, the US has achieved a 90% reduction in the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances.
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^ The Montreal Protocol is successfully assisting in the repair and recovery of the ozone layer.
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^ "Montreal Protocol" means the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, adopted in Montreal on 16 September 1987 and as subsequently adjusted and amended.
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.Under the Protocol, Annex I countries have committed themselves to national or joint reduction targets, (formally called "quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives"- Article 4.1) that range from a joint reduction of 8% for the European Union and others, to 7% for the United States (non-binding as the US is not a signatory), 6% for Japan and 0% for Russia.^ Party Quantified emission limitation or .
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^ And the United States and the European Union are at the forefront of the dispute.

^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
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.The treaty permits emission increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.^ National limitations range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.
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^ On April 27, 2007, the Climate Institute reported that Australias GHG emissions are growing at an increased rate that will make achieving its Kyoto Protocol goals unlikely.
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[10] .Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping.^ The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from aviation and marine bunker fuels, working through the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, respectively.
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^ Reduction limitations expire in 2013; Kyoto includes "flexible mechanisms" which allow Annex I economies to meet their greenhouse gas emission limitation by purchasing GHG emission reductions from elsewhere.
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^ Most provisions of the Kyoto Protocol apply to developed countries, listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC. Emission figures exclude international aviation and shipping.
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.Annex I countries can achieve their targets by allocating reduced annual allowances to major operators within their borders, or by allowing these operators to exceed their allocations by offsetting any excess through a mechanism that is agreed by all the parties to the UNFCCC, such as by buying emission allowances from other operators which have excess emissions credits.^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
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^ CO 2 1990 emissions by UNFCCC Annex I parties.
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^ It is an association of all the countries that are Parties to the Convention.
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.38 of the 39 Annex I countries have agreed to cap their emissions in this way, two others are required to do so under their conditions of accession into the EU, and one more (Belarus) is seeking to become an Annex I country.^ Steinberg noted that both countries had opposed binding limits on greenhouse emissions and that new nuclear plants would be one way "to take advantage of the fact that today we have technologies available for energy use which were not available at the time that the United States and other developed countries were going through their periods of development."
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one boy climbs into the tub, the other is far more likely to conform too.
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^ Entering into force: Article 25 of the Protocol provides two conditions that must be satisfied before the Protocol could enter into force: First, at least 55 Parties to the Convention must ratify, accept, approve, or accede to the Protocol, of which there must be enough Annex I Parties to have accounted for at least 55 % of carbon dioxide emissions in 1990.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Protocol provides for several "flexible mechanisms" which enable Annex I countries to meet their GHG emission targets by acquiring GHG emission reductions credits.^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
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^ Flexibility mechanisms enable countries that cannot meet their emissions reductions to purchase or acquire the right to emit from other countries.
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^ Kyoto emission targets are not flexible to needs of different countries.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The credits are acquired by an Annex I country financing projects that reduce emissions in non-Annex I countries or other Annex I countries, or by purchasing credits from Annex I countries with excess credits.^ Kyoto therefore allows these countries to purchase (cheaper) carbon credits on the world market instead of reducing greenhouse gas emissions domestically; and, This is seen as a means of encouraging Non-Annex I developing economies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through sustainable development, since doing so is now economically viable because of the investment flows from the sale of Carbon Credits.
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^ Of these, 36 developed C.G. countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries), with three more countries intending to participate.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries including Japan, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain and many more, are actively promoting government carbon funds and supporting multilateral carbon funds intent on purchasing Carbon Credits from Non-Annex I countries.
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.The flexible mechanisms are emissions trading, the clean development mechanism (CDM) and joint implementation.^ The sources of Kyoto credits are the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) projects.
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^ The Joint Implementation Mechanism (JI) under the Protocols article 6 is similar to the CDM; it allows developed countries to receive emissions reduction units for financing projects to mitigate climate change in other developed countries that are economies in transition, that is, formerly Communist countries.
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^ The Clinton Administration released an economic analysis in July 1998, prepared by the Council of Economic Advisors, which concluded that with emissions trading among the Annex B/Annex I countries, and participation of key developing countries in the " Clean Development Mechanism " — which grants the latter business-as-usual emissions rates through 2012 — the costs of implementing the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced as much as 60% from many estimates.
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.In practice this means that non-Annex I countries have no GHG emission restrictions, but have financial incentives to develop GHG emission reduction projects to receive "carbon credits" that can then be sold to Annex I countries, encouraging sustainable development.^ Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention are primarily developing countries.
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^ What this means in practice is that Non-Annex I economies have no GHG emission restrictions, but when a greenhouse gas emission reduction project (a "Greenhouse Gas Project") is implemented in these countries, that Greenhouse Gas Project will receive Carbon Credit which can be sold to Annex I buyers.
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^ The CDM allows the creation of new carbon credits by developing emission reduction projects in Non-Annex I countries, while JI allows project-specific credits to be converted from existing credits within Annex I countries.
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[11] .In addition, the flexible mechanisms allow annex I countries with efficient, low GHG-emitting industries, and high prevailing environmental standards to purchase carbon credits on the world market instead of reducing greenhouse gas emissions domestically.^ One of the reports conclusions is that industrialized countries will need to intensify their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
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^ The pact allows those countries to set their goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, but with no enforcement mechanism.
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^ There were fears that the cost of complying with Kyoto would be expensive for many Annex I countries, especially those countries already home to efficient, low greenhouse gas emitting industries, and high prevailing environmental standards.
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.Annex I countries typically will want to acquire carbon credits as cheaply as possible, while non-Annex I countries want to maximize the value of carbon credits generated from their domestic greenhouse gas reducing projects.^ The aim of the Putin government is to double Russia's gross domestic product (GDP) within a decade, bringing with it an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, and thus requiring costly investment if the country is to meet the Protocol goals.

^ The Carbon Mitigation Initiative is a joint project of Princeton University, BP and the Ford Motor Company to find solutions to the greenhouse and global warming problem.
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^ According to analysis by the Alliance , the greenhouse gas reductions could be equivalent to approximately 20% of the benefits projected to be achieved by the Kyoto Protocol, the world's first international treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012.
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Details of the agreement

According to a press release from the United Nations Environment Programme:
."After 10 days of tough negotiations, ministers and other high-level officials from 160 countries reached agreement this morning on a legally binding Protocol under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2%.^ The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this limitation represents a 29% cut).
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^ "Industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%".
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^ On August 31, 2006, the California Legislature (representing over 33 million Californians) reached an agreement with Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to reduce the state's greenhouse-gas emissions, which rank at 12th-largest in the world, by 25% by the year 2020.
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.The agreement aims to lower overall emissions from a group of six greenhouse gases by 2008–12, calculated as an average over these five years.^ WWFs Climate Savers Program: Twelve major companies that participate in the program are aiming to cut at least 10 million tons of CO2 emissions a year by 2010.
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^ Shortly after taking office, President Bill Clinton announced on Earth Day, April 21, 1993, the Nations commitment to reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000.
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^ "ECO-lobbyists emitted tonnes of greenhouse gases this week as carbonated wine corks popped following the victory of the 'lower-emission' Labor Party.
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Cuts in the three most important gases – carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) – will be measured against a base year of 1990. Cuts in three long-lived industrial gases – hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) – can be measured against either a 1990 or 1995 baseline."
.National limitations range from 8% reductions for the European Union and others, to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.^ The US, China, Russia and India were not among the 45 nations that responded to his request.
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^ If you are located in the European Union or elsewhere outside of the U.S., you do so at your own risk and initiative and you, not us, are responsible for compliance with any applicable local and national laws.
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^ Conflict may emerge because Kyoto Protocol member nations may only account for emission reduction units (ERUs) created in other Kyoto Protocol member nations.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.The agreement supplements the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, which did not set any limitations or enforcement mechanisms.^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2006-10-19).
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^ See also: Global warming The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) .
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^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Changes in GHG emissions from 1990 to 2004 for Annex I Parties.
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.All parties to UNFCCC can sign or ratify the Kyoto Protocol, while non-parties to UNFCCC cannot.^ Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC art.
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^ Parties of the Convention have ratified its Kyoto Protocol to date.
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^ All parties to the UNFCCC can sign or ratify the Kyoto Protocol, while non-parties to the UNFCCC cannot.
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.The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 3) in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.^ The Parties to the Kyoto Protocol have been guided by the dual objective of safeguarding the climate and protecting the ozone layer when shaping climate action.
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^ A Montreal Declaration was also adopted , which acknowledges the historic global cooperation achieved during the last 20 years under the Montreal Protocol, and reaffirms parties.
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^ My party’s position on the Kyoto Protocol is clear and has been for a long time.
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Most provisions of the Kyoto Protocol apply to developed countries, listed in Annex I to UNFCCC.
.National emission targets exclude international aviation and shipping.^ Here nations need to get down in earnest to negotiate an international greenhouse gas emissions reductions agreement to kick in post-2012.
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^ Most provisions of the Kyoto Protocol apply to developed countries, listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC. Emission figures exclude international aviation and shipping.
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^ See Marcus Hoy, Norway Revises Vehicle Purchase Tax To Target Carbon Dioxide Emissions , BNA International Environment Daily , Jan.
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Common but differentiated responsibility

.UNFCCC adopts a principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."^ Common but differentiated responsibility .
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^ Following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility , India maintains that the major responsibility of curbing emission rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time.
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^ The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to a set of a "common but differentiated responsibilities."
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The parties agreed that:
.
  1. the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases originated in developed countries;
  2. per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low;
  3. the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet social and development needs.^ The largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries; Per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low; The share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs.
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    ^ At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointed out that the per-capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.
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    ^ While UN statistics indicate that, as a group, the 36 Kyoto signatory countries can meet the 5% reduction target by 2012, most of the progress in greenhouse gas reduction has come from the stark decline in Eastern European countries' emissions after the fall of communism in the 1990s.
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    [12]
.China, India and other developing countries were not included in any numerical limitation of the Kyoto Protocol, because they were not main contributors to the greenhouse gas emissions in the pre-treaty industrialization period.^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ If the developing world's emissions are not contained by the Kyoto Protocol, then the efforts of developed countries are rendered meaningless.
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^ They include, whether the Kyoto Protocol is a good model for reducing greenhouse gas emissions?
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.China has since become the largest greenhouse gas emitter.^ Grist.org: - "Q: Many argue that the US shouldn't commit to a global greenhouse-gas reduction target that doesn't involve China and India.
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^ In fact, Mr. Goodell anticipates that Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Emissions will become one of the fasting-growing commodities and markets ever.
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^ Since 1990 the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed, as have their greenhouse gas emissions.
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[13] .However, even without responsibility under the Kyoto target, developing countries are also committed to share the common responsibility of all countries to reduce emissions.^ Countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and their emissions targets.
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^ However, even without the commitment to reduce according to the Kyoto target, developing countries do share the common responsibility that all countries have in reducing emissions.
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^ One criticism is that, rather than reducing 8%, all the EU member countries should cut 15% as the EU insisted a uniform target of 15% for other developed countries during the negotiation while allowing itself to share a big reduction in the former East Germany to meet the 15% goal for the entire EU. Also, emission levels of former Warsaw Pact countries who now are members of the EU have already been reduced as a result of their economic restructuring.
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.The protocol defines a mechanism of "compliance" as a "monitoring compliance with the commitments and penalties for non-compliance."^ Point Carbon Market news ^ An Introduction to the Kyoto Protocol Compliance Mechanism.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Financial commitments

.The Protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries have to pay billions of dollars, and supply technology to other countries for climate-related studies and projects.^ The Protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries have to pay billions of dollars, and supply technology to other countries for climate-related studies and projects.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COP-6 was suspended, after two weeks of intensive but unsuccessful negotiations on making the Kyoto Protocol operational and strengthening financial and technical cooperation between developed and developing countries on climate-friendly policies and technologies.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Joint Implementation Mechanism (JI) under the Protocols article 6 is similar to the CDM; it allows developed countries to receive emissions reduction units for financing projects to mitigate climate change in other developed countries that are economies in transition, that is, formerly Communist countries.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The principle was originally agreed in UNFCCC.

Emissions trading

.Kyoto provides for a 'cap and trade' system which imposes national caps on the emissions of annex I countries.^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indiana, Ohio, and South Dakota are signing the agreement as observers to participate in the formation of the regional cap-and-trade system.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On average, this cap requires countries to reduce their emissions by 5.2% below their 1990 baseline over the 2008 to 2012 period.^ As of January 2008, and running through 2012, countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% below their 1990 levels.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cities aim is to reduce GHG by 7% below 1990 levels by 2012.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, this cap requires countries to reduce their emissions 5.2% below their 1990 baseline over the 2008 to 2012 period.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although these caps are national-level commitments, in practice, most countries will devolve their emissions targets to individual industrial entities, such as a power plant or paper factory.^ Although these caps are national-level commitments, in practice most countries will devolve their emissions targets to individual industrial entities, such as a power plant or paper factory.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of 493 industrial entities registered with VCR in mid-2002, only 102 actually reported their year 2000 emissions by March 31, 2002."
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While UN statistics indicate that, as a group, the 36 Kyoto signatory countries can meet the 5% reduction target by 2012, most of the progress in greenhouse gas reduction has come from the stark decline in Eastern European countries' emissions after the fall of communism in the 1990s.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example of a 'cap and trade' system is the 'EU ETS'. Other schemes may follow suit in time.^ Other schemes may follow suit in time.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One example of a 'cap and trade' system is the ' EU ETS '.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indiana, Ohio, and South Dakota are signing the agreement as observers to participate in the formation of the regional cap-and-trade system.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ultimate buyers of credits are often individual companies that expect emissions to exceed their quota, their assigned allocation units, AAUs or 'allowances' for short.^ This means that the ultimate buyers of credits are often individual companies that expect their emissions to exceed their quota (their Assigned Allocation Units, AAUs or 'allowances' for short).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations expects this market to be valued in excess of $2 Trillion/year by 2012 and others are saying this could easily exceed $5 Trillion/year within the next several years!
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any emission reduction units, or any part of an assigned amount, which a Party acquires from another Party in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 or of Article 17 shall be added to the assigned amount for the acquiring Party.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typically, they will purchase credits directly from another party with excess allowances, from a broker, from a JI/CDM developer, or on an exchange.^ Typically, they will purchase credits directly from another party with excess allowances, from a broker, from a JI/CDM developer, or on an exchange.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CERs/ERUs are overwhelmingly bought from project developers by funds or individual entities, rather than being exchange-traded like allowances.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These can be bought either from financial exchanges, from projects which reduce emissions in non-Annex I economies under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), from other Annex 1 countries under the JI, or from Annex I countries with excess allowances.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.National governments, some of whom may not have devolved responsibility for meeting Kyoto obligations to industry, and that have a net deficit of allowances, will buy credits for their own account, mainly from JI/CDM developers.^ National governments, some of whom may not have devolved responsibility for meeting Kyoto obligations to industry, and that have a net deficit of allowances, will buy credits for their own account, mainly from JI/CDM developers.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 2, 2006, it was reported that environmental funding designed to meet the Kyoto standards had been cut, while the Harper government develops a new plan to take its place.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These deals are occasionally done directly through a national fund or agency, as in the case of the Dutch government's ERUPT programme, or via collective funds such as the World Bank’s Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF).^ This will be the 10th such fund managed by the World Bank .
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These deals are occasionally done directly through a national fund or agency, as in the case of the Dutch government's ERUPT programme, or via collective funds such as the World Bank’s Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ California is also the world's 12th-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, responsible for 10% of the carbon dioxide produced nationally and 2.5% globally, but it has been making an attempt to mend its ways.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The PCF, for example, represents a consortium of six governments and 17 major utility and energy companies on whose behalf it purchases credits.^ The PCF, for example, represents a consortium of six governments and 17 major utility and energy companies on whose behalf it purchases Credits.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Utility-based wind, PV, emissions credits, or other "green" purchasing options; hydroelectric is sometimes considered .
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How difficult is it to interconnect the renewable energy system of the building with the utility company's powerlines/electric grid?
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that some of these initiatives have similar approaches to certifying their credits makes it conceivable that carbon credits in one market may in the long run be tradeable in other schemes.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EU might require importers to purchase the same allowances that European manufacturers would have to buy, to protect their markets from lower-priced products.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A high volume of trading in this secondary market helps price discovery and liquidity, and in this way helps to keep down costs and set a clear price signal in CO2 which helps businesses to plan investments.^ A high volume of trading in this secondary market helps price discovery and liquidity, and in this way helps to keep down costs and set a clear price signal in CO2 which helps businesses to plan investments.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, one point seems fairly clear: OMB has set its current discount rate too high.
  • The Shadow of the Future: Discount Rates, Later Generations, and the Environment 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.ciesin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This market has grown substantially, with banks, brokers, funds, arbitrageurs and private traders now participating in a market valued at about $60 billion in 2007.[citation needed][15] Emissions Trading PLC, for example, was floated on the London Stock Exchange's AIM market in 2005 with the specific remit of investing in emissions instruments.^ Emissions Trading PLC, for example, was floated on the London Stock Exchange's AIM market in 2005 with the specific remit of investing in emissions instruments.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This market has grown substantially, with banks, brokers, funds, arbitrageurs and private traders now participating in a market valued at about $60 billion in 2007 [15] .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin film photovoltaics represents a significant portion of this market - and based on this heavily researched solar technology, thin film photovoltaics now represents a $20 billion/year industry in the U.S. .
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Kyoto created a framework and a set of rules for a global carbon market, there are in practice several distinct schemes or markets in operation today, with varying degrees of linkages among them.^ Although Kyoto created a framework and a set of rules for a global carbon market, there are in practice several distinct schemes or markets in operation today, with varying degrees of linkages among them.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EU ETS uses EAUs (EU Allowance Units), each equivalent to a Kyoto AAU. The scheme went into operation on 1 January 2005, although a forward market has existed since 2003.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These initiatives, taken together may create a series of partly-linked markets, rather than a single carbon market.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kyoto enables a group of several annex I countries to create a market-within-a-market together.^ Kyoto enables a group of several Annex I countries to join together to create a market-within-a-market.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Emissions trading Kyoto is a 'cap and trade' system that imposes national caps on the emissions of Annex I countries.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations expects this market to be valued in excess of $2 Trillion/year by 2012 and others are saying this could easily exceed $5 Trillion/year within the next several years!
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EU elected to be treated as such a group, and created the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).^ The EU elected to be treated as such a group, and created the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A report from the Prime Minister's Advisory Task Group on Emissions Trading released on June 1 said that Australia should begin to develop a GHG emissions trading scheme, but criticized the Kyoto Protocol and warned against damaging the Australian economy.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uniquely this scheme allows Accredited Certificate Providers (ACP) to trade emissions from householders in the state.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The EU ETS uses EAUs (EU Allowance Units), each equivalent to a Kyoto AAU. The scheme went into operation on 1 January 2005, although a forward market has existed since 2003.
.The UK established its own learning-by-doing voluntary scheme, the UK ETS, which ran from 2002 through 2006. This market existed alongside the EU's scheme, and participants in the UK scheme have the option of applying to opt out of the first phase of the EU ETS, which lasts through 2007[citation needed].^ [Cyprus and Malta will participate indirectly through membership of the EU ETS .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UK established its own learning-by-doing voluntary scheme, the UK ETS, which ran from 2002 through 2006.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This market existed alongside the EU's scheme, and participants in the UK scheme have the option of applying to opt out of the first phase of the EU ETS, which lasts through 2007 [ citation needed ] .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sources of Kyoto credits are the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) projects.^ A clean development mechanism is hereby defined.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the clean development mechanism: .
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sources of Kyoto credits are the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) projects.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CDM allows the creation of new carbon credits by developing emission reduction projects in non-annex I countries, while JI allows project-specific credits to be converted from existing credits within annex I countries.^ Non-Annex I Parties to the Convention are primarily developing countries.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CDM allows the creation of new carbon credits by developing emission reduction projects in Non-Annex I countries, while JI allows project-specific credits to be converted from existing credits within Annex I countries.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carbon and CDM/JI projects specialist .

.CDM projects produce Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), and JI projects produce Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), each equivalent to one AAU. Kyoto CERs are also accepted for meeting EU ETS obligations, and ERUs will become similarly valid from 2008 for meeting ETS obligations (although individual countries may choose to limit the number and source of CER/JIs they will allow for compliance purposes starting from 2008).^ CDM projects produce Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), and JI projects produce Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), each equivalent to one AAU. Kyoto CERs are also accepted for meeting EU ETS obligations, and ERUs will become similarly valid from 2008 for meeting ETS obligations (although individual countries may choose to limit the number and source of CER/JIs they will allow for compliance purposes starting from 2008).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kyoto is underwritten by governments and is governed by global legislation enacted under the UN’s aegis; Governments are separated into two general categories: developed countries, referred to as Annex I countries (who have accepted greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations and must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory); and developing countries, referred to as Non-Annex I countries (who have no greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations but may participate in the Clean Development Mechanism ); Any Annex I country that fails to meet its Kyoto obligation will be penalized by having to submit 1.3 emission allowances in a second commitment period for every ton of greenhouse gas emissions they exceed their cap in the first commitment period (i.e., 2008-2012); As of January 2008, and running thru 2012, Annex I countries have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% below their 1990 levels (for many countries, such as the EU member states, this corresponds to some 15% below their expected greenhouse gas emissions in 2008).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steinberg noted that both countries had opposed binding limits on greenhouse emissions and that new nuclear plants would be one way "to take advantage of the fact that today we have technologies available for energy use which were not available at the time that the United States and other developed countries were going through their periods of development."
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CERs/ERUs are overwhelmingly bought from project developers by funds or individual entities, rather than being exchange-traded like allowances.^ CERs/ERUs are overwhelmingly bought from project developers by funds or individual entities, rather than being exchange-traded like allowances.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, they will purchase credits directly from another party with excess allowances, from a broker, from a JI/CDM developer, or on an exchange.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Underlying insight is that individuals are likely to consume at least some of their (real) investment Income rather than reinvesting all of their returns.
  • The Shadow of the Future: Discount Rates, Later Generations, and the Environment 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.ciesin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the creation of Kyoto is subject to a lengthy process of registration and certification by the UNFCCC, and the projects themselves require several years to develop, this market is at this point largely a forward market where purchases are made at a discount to their equivalent currency, the EUA, and are almost always subject to certification and delivery (although up-front payments are sometimes made).^ Since the creation of Kyoto instruments is subject to a lengthy process of registration and certification by the UNFCCC, and the projects themselves require several years to develop, this market is at this point largely a forward market where purchases are made at a discount to their equivalent currency, the EUA, and are almost always subject to certification and delivery (although up-front payments are sometimes made).
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An obvious precondition, however, is a realignment of penalties and fines to similar levels, since these create an effective ceiling for each market.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EU ETS uses EAUs (EU Allowance Units), each equivalent to a Kyoto AAU. The scheme went into operation on 1 January 2005, although a forward market has existed since 2003.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to IETA, the market value of CDM/JI credits transacted in 2004 was EUR 245 m; it is estimated that more than EUR 620 m worth of credits were transacted in 2005.
.Several non-Kyoto carbon markets are in existence or being planned, and these are likely to grow in importance and numbers in the coming years.^ Several non-Kyoto carbon markets are in existence or being planned, and these are likely to grow in importance and numbers in the coming years.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These initiatives, taken together may create a series of partly-linked markets, rather than a single carbon market.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Kyoto created a framework and a set of rules for a global carbon market, there are in practice several distinct schemes or markets in operation today, with varying degrees of linkages among them.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and Western Climate Initiative in the United States and Canada, the Chicago Climate Exchange and the State of California’s recent initiative to reduce emissions.^ These include the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and Western Climate Initiative in the United States, the Chicago Climate Exchange , the State of California’s recent initiative to reduce emissions.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expressing the sense of Congress that the United States should act to reduce greenhouse gas emissions .
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steinberg noted that both countries had opposed binding limits on greenhouse emissions and that new nuclear plants would be one way "to take advantage of the fact that today we have technologies available for energy use which were not available at the time that the United States and other developed countries were going through their periods of development."
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These initiatives taken together may create a series of partly linked markets, rather than a single carbon market.^ These initiatives, taken together may create a series of partly-linked markets, rather than a single carbon market.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that some of these initiatives have similar approaches to certifying their credits makes it conceivable that carbon credits in one market may in the long run be tradeable in other schemes.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The common theme is the adoption of market-based mechanisms centered on carbon credits that represent a reduction of CO2 emissions.^ The common theme across most of them is the adoption of market-based mechanisms centered on carbon credits that represent a reduction of CO 2 emissions.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emissions trading · Personal carbon trading · Carbon tax · Carbon offset · Carbon credit · Carbon dioxide sink (Carbon sequestration) .
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.The fact that some of these initiatives have similar approaches to certifying their credits makes it possible that carbon credits in one market may in the long run be tradeable in other schemes.^ The fact that some of these initiatives have similar approaches to certifying their credits makes it conceivable that carbon credits in one market may in the long run be tradeable in other schemes.
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^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
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^ An obvious precondition, however, is a realignment of penalties and fines to similar levels, since these create an effective ceiling for each market.
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.The scheme would broaden the current carbon market far more than the current focus on the CDM/JI and EU ETS domains.^ This would broaden the current carbon market far more than the current focus on the CDM/JI and EU ETS domains.
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^ "If this electricity were generated instead by coal, world carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption would be almost 10 percent larger than they currently are.
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to December 20, 2006, airlines, which are responsible for 3% of the EUs CO2 emissions (more than refineries or steel plants) and which emit nitrogen oxides as well, were exempt from the ETS. .
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.An obvious precondition, however, is a realignment of penalties and fines to similar levels,since these create an effective ceiling for each market.^ An obvious precondition, however, is a realignment of penalties and fines to similar levels, since these create an effective ceiling for each market.
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^ These initiatives, taken together may create a series of partly-linked markets, rather than a single carbon market.
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Revisions

.The protocol left several issues open to be decided later by the sixth Conference of Parties (COP).^ The protocol left several issues open to be decided later by the sixth Conference of Parties (COP).
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^ The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
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^ The clean development mechanism shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol and be supervised by an executive board of the clean development mechanism.
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.COP6 attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in the Hague in late 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union on the one hand (which favoured a tougher agreement) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia on the other (which wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible).^ COP6 attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in the Hague in late 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union on the one hand (which favoured a tougher agreement) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia on the other (which wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible).
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^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
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^ Concentrators produce more electricity using less of the expensive semiconductor material than other solar electric systems.
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.In 2001, a continuation of the previous meeting (COP6bis) was held in Bonn where the required decisions were adopted.^ In 2001, a continuation of the previous meeting (COP6bis) was held in Bonn where the required decisions were adopted.
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^ The testimony noted that the Protocol as adopted the previous December fails—fails—to meet either of the requirements of Senate Resolution 98.
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^ The 2006 meeting of the subsidiary bodies was held in Bonn, Germany, as well as the twenty-sixth meeting, in 2007 .
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.After some concessions, the supporters of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to get Japan and Russia in as well by allowing more use of carbon dioxide sinks.^ After some concessions, the supporters of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to get Japan and Russia in as well by allowing more use of carbon dioxide sinks.
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^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Countries including Japan, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain and many more, are actively promoting government carbon funds and supporting multilateral carbon funds intent on purchasing Carbon Credits from Non-Annex I countries.
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.COP7 was held from 29 October 2001 through 9 November 2001 in Marrakech to establish the final details of the protocol.^ The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the Marrakesh Accords.
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^ The secretariats of the conventions share information and coordinate activities through the Joint Liaison Group, or JLG, established in 2001.
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^ Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Seventh Session, Held at Marrakesh from 29 October to 10 November 2001, Addendum: Part Two: Action Taken by the Conference of the Parties , FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, can be found at: http://unfccc.int/documentation/documents/advanced_search/items/3594.php#beg .
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.The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from 28 November to 9 December 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).^ The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
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^ (The first meeting was in London in 2005.
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^ COP-11 was held in Montreal, Canada, from November 28 to December 9, 2005, and was also the first MOP to the Kyoto Protocol.
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.See United Nations Climate Change Conference.^ See also Climate Change: Sacramento Aims to Join Chicago Climate Exchange , 38 (1) BNA Environment Reporter 16 (Jan.
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^ See Letter of April 14, 2005, from Senators John McCain and John F. Kerry, entitled Climate Change Assessment: Administration Did Not Meet Reporting Deadline .
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^ See also, Andrew C. Revkin, New Warnings on Climate Change , New York Times , Jan.
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.The 3 December 2007, Australia ratified the protocol during the first day of the COP13 in Bali.^ The 3rd of December 2007, Australia ratified the protocol during the first day of the COP13 in Bali.
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^ The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
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^ Australia and the U.S. signed but did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol; China signed and approved the Protocol; India acceded to it; Japan signed and accepted it; and the Republic of Korea signed and ratified it.
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.Of the signatories, 36 developed C.G. countries (plus the EU as a party in the European Union)agreed to a 10% emissions increase for Iceland; but, since the EU's member states each have individual obligations,[16] much larger increases (up to 27%) are allowed for some of the less developed EU countries (see below Kyoto Protocol#Increase in greenhouse gas emission since 1990).^ The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels.
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^ While the average emissions reduction is 5%, national limitations range from an 8% average reduction across the European Union to a 10% emissions increase for Iceland; but since the EU's member states each have individual obligations, [5] much larger increases (up to 27%) are allowed for some of the less developed EU countries (see below #Increase in greenhouse gas emission since 1990 ).
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^ "Industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%".
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[17] Reduction limitations expire in 2013.

Enforcement

.If the enforcement branch determines that an annex I country is not in compliance with its emissions limitation, then that country is required to make up the difference plus an additional 30%.^ If the enforcement branch determines that a Party is not in compliance with its obligations under the Protocol, it will require the Party to make up the difference between its emissions and its assigned amount during the second commitment period, plus an additional deduction of 30%.
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^ If the Enforcement Branch determines that an Annex I country is not in compliance with its emissions limitation, then that country is required to make up the difference plus an additional 30%.
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^ Of these, 36 developed C.G. countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries), with three more countries intending to participate.
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, that country will be suspended from making transfers under an emissions trading program.^ In addition, that country will be suspended from making transfers under an emissions trading program.
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^ Main article: Emissions trading Kyoto is a 'cap and trade' system that imposes national caps on the emissions of Annex I countries.
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^ On June 28, 2006, the German government announced it would exempt its coal industry from requirements under the EU internal emission trading system.
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[18]

Current positions of governments

Carbon emissions from various global regions during the period 1800–2000 AD

Australia

.On the change of government following the election in November 2007, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd signed the ratification immediately after assuming office on 3 December 2007, just before the meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change;[19][20] it took effect in March, 2008.[21] When he was in the opposition, Rudd commissioned Ross Garnaut to report on the economic effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.^ The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases that cause climate change.
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^ European Commission has a Climate Change page.
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^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2006-10-19).
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.The report was submitted to the Australian government on September 30, 2008. The policy of the Rudd government contrasts with that of the former Australian government, which refused to ratify the agreement on the ground that following the protocol would be costly,[22] and that countries like India and China with expanding economies and large population would not have any obligations.^ The governments of all of the countries whose parliaments have ratified the Protocol are supporting it.
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^ "And it promises to play an even greater role in the future, especially in developing countries, like India and China, which need to increase their electricity supplies to accommodate their expanding populations and economies."
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Furthermore, it was claimed that Australia was already doing enough to cut emissions, with a pledge of $300 million to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over three years.^ Further, it was claimed that Australia was already doing enough to cut emissions; having pledged $300 million to reduce Greenhouse gas emissions over three years.
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^ "Industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%".
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^ On August 31, 2006, the California Legislature (representing over 33 million Californians) reached an agreement with Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to reduce the state's greenhouse-gas emissions, which rank at 12th-largest in the world, by 25% by the year 2020.
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[citation needed]
.The greenhouse gas emissions in Australia from 2008 to 2012 was projected to be at 9% above the level in 1990, including the effects of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF).^ Analysis has projected Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions at 109% of the 1990 emissions level over the period 2008–12, calculated including the effects of Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF).
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^ As of January 2008, and running through 2012, countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% below their 1990 levels.
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^ Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2006.
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.The figure is slightly above the Kyoto Protocol limitation of 8%.^ This is slightly above its 108% Kyoto Protocol limitation.
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^ The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels.
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^ Most provisions of the Kyoto Protocol apply to developed countries, listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC. Emission figures exclude international aviation and shipping.
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.In 2007, the UNFCCC reported that the greenhouse gas emissions in Australia in 2004 were at 25.6% above the level in 1990, without the LULUCF correction.^ Emissions (1990-2004) excluding LULUCF .
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^ Emissions (1990-2004) including LULUCF .
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^ As of 2007, the UNFCCC is reporting that Australia's 2004 greenhouse gas emissions were at 125.6% of 1990 levels, calculated without the LULUCF correction.
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[23]
.The previous Australian government, along with the United States, agreed to sign the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate at the ASEAN regional forum on 28 July 2005. Furthermore, the state of New South Wales (NSW) commenced the NSW greenhouse gas abatement scheme.^ The previous Australian Government, along with the United States, agreed to sign the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate at the ASEAN regional forum on 28 July 2005.
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^ These include the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and Western Climate Initiative in the United States, the Chicago Climate Exchange , the State of California’s recent initiative to reduce emissions.
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^ The United States has signed the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, a pact that allows those countries to set their goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, but with no enforcement mechanism.
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[24] .This mandatory scheme of greenhouse gas emissions trading commenced on 1 January 2003 and is currently in trial by the state government in NSW alone.^ This mandatory greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme commenced on 1 January 2003 and is currently being trialled by the state government in NSW alone.
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^ On Monday, January 22, 2007, the day before President Bushs State of the Union speech, the group issued a statement calling for the federal government to act swiftly and enact strong national legislation to achieve significant reductions of greenhouse gas emissions.
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^ Currently the ETS covers carbon dioxide emissions from power stations and industries such as steel, cement, paper and oil refining throughout the EU. Phase I of the EUs Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme began January 1, 2005, and ran until the end of December 2007.
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.Notably, this scheme allows accredited certificate providers to trade emissions from households in the state.^ Uniquely this scheme allows Accredited Certificate Providers (ACP) to trade emissions from householders in the state.
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^ As of 2006 the scheme is still in place despite the outgoing Prime Minister's clear dismissal of emissions trading as a credible solution to climate change.
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^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
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.As of 2006, the scheme is still in place despite the outgoing Prime Minister's clear dismissal of emissions trading as a credible solution to climate change.^ As of 2006 the scheme is still in place despite the outgoing Prime Minister's clear dismissal of emissions trading as a credible solution to climate change.
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^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
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^ A report from the Prime Minister's Advisory Task Group on Emissions Trading released on June 1 said that Australia should begin to develop a GHG emissions trading scheme, but criticized the Kyoto Protocol and warned against damaging the Australian economy.
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.Following the example of NSW, the national emissions trading scheme (NETS) has been established as an initiative of state and territory governments of Australia, all of which have Labor Party governments, except Western Australia.^ Following the example of NSW, the National Emissions Trading Scheme (NETS) has been established as an initiative of State and Territory Governments of Australia, all of which have Labor Party governments.
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^ Indeed, in early May of 2007, Australias states announced a plan to launch a GHG reporting scheme by the middle of 2008, and a national emissions trading scheme by the end of 2010.
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^ On June 2 nd , 2007, the states and territories overrode federal objections to require facilities emitting more than 25 kilotonnes of GHGs to begin reporting their emissions in 2008-09 through the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI), unless the federal government introduces its own legislated reporting scheme in the meantime.
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[25] .The purpose of NETS is to establish an intra-Australian carbon trading scheme to coordinate policy among regions.^ The focus of NETS is to bring into existence an intra-Australian carbon trading scheme and to coordinate policy developments to this end.
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^ Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts.
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^ The European Emissions Trading Scheme, the largest of its kind in the world, discussed infra, and carbon trading in general, is not uncontroversial.
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.As the Constitution of Australia[26] does not refer specifically to environmental matters (apart from water), the allocation of responsibility is to be resolved at a political level.^ Climate Challenge participants negotiate voluntary commitments with the DOE to achieve a certain level of emission reductions and/or to participate in specific projects.
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^ The EUs Committee of the Regions must be consulted on environmental matters (inter alia, as such matters have repercussions at regional or local levels), and issues opinions on proposed legislation.
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^ According to the Constitution of Australia, [24] environmental matters are under the jurisdiction of the States, and the NETS is intended to facilitate ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the incoming Labor Government.
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.In the later years of the Howard administration (1996–2007), the states governed by the Labor took steps to establish a NETS (a) to take action in a field where there were few mandatory federal steps and (b) as a means of facilitating ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the incoming Labor government.^ According to the Constitution of Australia, [24] environmental matters are under the jurisdiction of the States, and the NETS is intended to facilitate ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the incoming Labor Government.
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^ "A good first step": Is the Kyoto Protocol "a good first step"?
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will oppose ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and its targets.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Greenpeace has called clause 3.7 of the Kyoto Protocol the "Australia clause" on the ground that it unfairly made Australia a major beneficiary.^ Australia and the U.S. signed but did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol; China signed and approved the Protocol; India acceded to it; Japan signed and accepted it; and the Republic of Korea signed and ratified it.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current Kyoto round calls for a greenhouse gas emission reduction of 6% in Canada and 5% in the USA. Canada is the third worst polluter on the planet (after Australia and the USA).
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^ One of the major goals of the Conference was to work on a global agreement for the time period after the Kyoto Protocol runs out in 2012.
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.The clause allows annex 1 countries with a high rate of land clearing in 1990 to set the level in that year as a base.^ The clause allows for Annex 1 countries with high rates of land clearing in 1990 to consider that year a base level.
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^ On May 7, 2007, the EEA reported that emissions of the EU-15 (members before the 2004 EU enlargement) declined by 0.8% in 2005 from 2004 levels, making their emissions only 1.5% lower than the 1990 base year, whereas their goal is an 8% reduction.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
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.Greenpeace argues that since Australia had an extremely high level of land clearing in 1990, Australia's "baseline" was unusually high compared to other countries.^ Greenpeace argues that Australia had extremely high levels of land clearing in 1990, and that this meant that Australia's "baseline" was unusually high compared to other countries.
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^ On the other hand, Japan, as a big importer of natural resources, had to improve its efficiency after the 1973 oil crisis and its emissions level in 1990 was better than most developed countries.
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^ Analysis has projected Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions at 109% of the 1990 emissions level over the period 2008–12, calculated including the effects of Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF).
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[27]
In May 2009, Kevin Rudd delayed and changed the carbon pollution reduction scheme:[28]
  • the scheme would begin in 2011/2012, a year later than initially scheduled (it had been scheduled to begin on 1 July 2010);
  • there would be one-year fixed price of AU$10 per permit in 2011/2012 (previously, price was to under the price cap of $40);
  • there would be an unlimited amount of permits available from the government in the first year (previously, estimated 300 million tons of CO2 was to be auctioned off);
  • a higher percentage of permits would be handed out, rather than auctioned off (previously, 60% or 90% of permits were to be handed out);
  • compensation would be canceled in 2010/2011 and reduced in 2011/2012;
  • households can reduce their carbon footprint by buying and retiring permits into an Australian carbon trust (previously, no such scheme was included);
  • subject to an international agreement, Australia would commit to a reduction of 25% from the 2000 level by 2020 (previously, there was to be a reduction of 15%);
  • 5% out of the 25% reduction could be achieved by the government purchase of international off-sets (previously, no such scheme was included).

Canada

.On 17 December 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005, requiring it to reduce emissions to 6% below 1990 levels during the 2008–2012 commitment period.^ On December 17, 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005, requiring it to reduce emissions to 6% below 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 commitment period.
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^ Canada's obligation to the treaty begins in 2008.
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^ The Protocol entered into force February 16, 2005.
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.At that time, numerous polls showed support for the Kyoto protocol at around 70%.^ At that time, numerous polls showed support for the Kyoto protocol at around 70%.
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^ General statements of support for the Kyoto Protocol Reijo Kemppinen, a spokesman for the European Commission, said about Russia's ratification of Kyoto in September of 2004.
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^ The EU has consistently been one of the major nominal supporters of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiating hard to get wavering countries on board.
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[29][30] .Despite strong public support, there was still some opposition, particularly by the Canadian Alliance, a precursor to the governing Conservative Party, some business groups,[31] and energy concerns, using arguments similar to those being voiced in the U.S. In particular, there was a fear that since U.S. companies would not be affected by the Kyoto Protocol, Canadian companies would be at a disadvantage.^ Despite strong public support, there was still some opposition, particularly by the Canadian Alliance, precursor to the governing Conservative Party, some business groups, [29] and energy concerns, using arguments similar to those being used in the US. In particular, there was a fear that since US companies would not be affected by the Kyoto Protocol that Canadian companies would be at a disadvantage in terms of trade.
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^ "Organized opposition to the Kyoto Protocol".
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^ Kyoto cutbacks in energy use would devastate America’s Economy.
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.In 2005, a "war of words" was ongoing, primarily between Alberta, Canada's primary oil and gas producer, and the federal government.^ Alberta is Canada’s oil-rich province.
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^ In 2005, the result was limited to an ongoing "war of words", primarily between the government of Alberta (Canada's primary oil and gas producer) and the federal government.
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^ Canada's federal government has introduced legislation to set mandatory emissions targets for industry, but it will not take effect until an estimated 2050.
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.In 2003, the federal government claimed that it had spent or committed $3.7 billion on climate change programs.^ As of 2003, the federal government claimed to have spent or committed 3.7 billion dollars on climate change programmes.
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^ Several of its programs and topics (in drop-down menus) address climate change.
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^ To state the major difference between the E.U. and the U.S. in the simplest way, in the E.U. there are climate change laws to apply (the E.U. has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and takes its commitments very seriously), and in the U.S. there are none, at least at the federal level.
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[32] .By 2004, CO2 emissions had risen to 27% above the level in 1990, which compares unfavorably with the 16% increase in emissions in the U.S. in the same time.^ Emissions (1990-2004) excluding LULUCF .
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^ Emissions (1990-2004) including LULUCF .
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^ By 2004, CO 2 emissions had risen to 27% above 1990 levels (which compares unfavorably to the 16% increase in emissions by the United States during that time).
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[33] .By 2006 they were down to 21.7% above 1990 levels.^ Canada is committed to reducing emission rates to 6% below what they were in 1990 , which is 20% below the 2002 level, and 35% below the projected 2010 business-as-usual level.
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[34]
.In January 2006, a Conservative minority government under Stephen Harper was elected, who previously has expressed opposition to Kyoto, and in particular to the international emission trading.^ In January 2006, a Conservative minority government under Stephen Harper was elected, who previously has expressed opposition to Kyoto, and in particular to the plan to participate in international emission trading.
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^ "Emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: NAFTA and WTO concerns."
  • Debate: Kyoto Protocol - Debatepedia, Debate on whether the Kyoto Protocol helps to combat global warming 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite strong public support, there was still some opposition, particularly by the Canadian Alliance, precursor to the governing Conservative Party, some business groups, [29] and energy concerns, using arguments similar to those being used in the US. In particular, there was a fear that since US companies would not be affected by the Kyoto Protocol that Canadian companies would be at a disadvantage in terms of trade.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rona Ambrose, who replaced Stéphane Dion as the environment minister, has since endorsed and expressed interests in some types of emission trading.^ Rona Ambrose, who replaced Stéphane Dion as the environment minister, has since endorsed some types of emission trading, and indicated interest in international trading.
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^ As of 2006 the scheme is still in place despite the outgoing Prime Minister's clear dismissal of emissions trading as a credible solution to climate change.
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^ It should be noted, however, that this opposition is not unanimous, and that the inclusion of emissions trading has led some environmental economists to embrace the treaty.
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[35] .On 25 April 2006, Ambrose announced that Canada would have no chance of meeting its targets under Kyoto, but would look to participate in the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate sponsored by the U.S. "We've been looking at the Asia-Pacific Partnership for a number of months now because the key principles around [it] are very much in line with where our government wants to go," Ambrose told reporters.^ "We've been looking at the Asia-Pacific Partnership for a number of months now because the key principles around [it] are very much in line with where our government wants to go," Ambrose told reporters.
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^ On April 25, 2006, Ambrose announced that Canada would have no chance of meeting its targets under Kyoto, and would look to participate in U.S. sponsored Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate.
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^ T he Bush administration established the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate in July 2005.
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[36] .On 2 May 2006, it was reported that the funding to meet the Kyoto standards had been cut, while the Harper government develops a new plan to take its place.^ On May 2, 2006, it was reported that environmental funding designed to meet the Kyoto standards had been cut, while the Harper government develops a new plan to take its place.
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^ On May 4, 2007, the State Department released a draft version of U.S. Climate Action Report 2006 .
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^ One the eve of the Kyoto meetings, the nuclear industry secured another startling windfall, this time a promise of nearly $400 million in research and development subsidies.
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .As the co-chair of the UN Climate Change Conference in Nairobi in November 2006, the Canadian government received criticism from environmental groups and other governments for its position.^ As the co-chair of UN Climate Change Conference in Nairobi in November 2006, Canada and its government received criticism from environmental groups and from other governments for its climate change positions.
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^ Friends of the Earth , a British environmental group, has a Climate Change page.
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^ It works with climate change and other environmental issues.
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[38] .On 4 January 2007, Rona Ambrose moved from the Ministry of the Environment to become Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs.^ On January 4, 2007, Rona Ambrose moved from the Ministry of the Environment to become Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs.
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^ Or we could shut off all the lights in Canada tomorrow.” ~ Rona Ambrose (born: 1969-03-15 age: 40 ) , Canada’s Environment Minister This is a croque de merde (crock of shit).
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^ Rona Ambrose (born: 1969-03-15 age: 40 ) , Canada’s Environment Minister This is a croque de merde (crock of shit).
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.The environment portfolio went to John Baird, the former President of the Treasury Board.^ The Environment portfolio went to John Baird, the former President of the Treasury Board.
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.The federal government has introduced legislation to set mandatory emissions targets for industry, but they will not take effect until 2012, with a benchmark date of 2006 as opposed to Kyoto's 1990. The government has since begun working with opposition parties to modify the legislation.^ They have no obligations under Kyoto until 2012, if then.
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^ Canada's federal government has introduced legislation to set mandatory emissions targets for industry, but it will not take effect until an estimated 2050.
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^ The government has since begun working with opposition parties to improve the legislation.
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A private member's bill[39] was put forth by Pablo Rodriguez, Liberal, to force the government to "ensure that Canada meets its global climate change obligations under the Kyoto Protocol." With the support of the Liberals, the New Democratic Party and the Bloc Québécois, and with the current minority situation, the bill passed the House of Commons on 14 February 2007 with a vote of 161 to 113.[40] The Senate passed the bill, and it received Royal Assent on 22 June 2007.[41] However, the government, as promised, has largely ignored the bill, which was to force the government 60 days to form a detailed plan, citing economic reasons.[42][43]
.In May 2007, the Friends of the Earth sued the federal government for failing to meet the Kyoto Protocol obligations to cut greenhouse gas emissions.^ The Kyoto Protocol's target cuts in emissions are achievable Stephen Leahy.
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^ Obligatory: Are Kyoto Protocol's obligatory cuts appropriate?
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^ In May 2007 Friends of the Earth sued the Canadian federal government for failing to meet its Kyoto Protocol obligations to cut greenhouse gas emissions linked to global warming.
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The obligations were based on a clause in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act that requires Ottawa to "prevent air pollution that violates an international agreement binding on Canada".[44] Canada's obligation to the treaty began in 2008.
.Regardless of the federal policy, some provinces are pursuing policies to restrain emissions, including Quebec,[45] Ontario, British Columbia and Manitoba as part of the Western Climate Initiative.^ Regardless of the national position, some individual provinces are pursuing Kyoto-style policies, including Quebec [40] and British Columbia and Manitoba as part of the Western Climate Initiative.
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^ Western Climate Initiative : In February of 2007, governors of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Oregon and Washington joined together to meet the regional challenges of climate change; they have since been joined by British Columbia, Manitoba, and Utah; the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, and Wyoming, the Canadian Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan, and the Mexican State of Sonora have joined as official observers.
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^ And on May 31, 2007, the premier of the Canadian province Ontario, Dalton McGuinty, signed a similar MOU to collaborate on clean energy technologies and policies, emissions trading programs, and energy efficient buildings and lighting.
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Since 2003 Alberta operates a carbon offset program[46].
.Environmental groups in Canada are working together to demand that Canadian politicians take the threat of climate change seriously and make the necessary changes to ensure the safety and health of future generations.^ Friends of the Earth , a British environmental group, has a Climate Change page.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It works with climate change and other environmental issues.
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^ In April 2007, the Church of England published a pamphlet entitled How Many Lightbulbs Does it Take to Change a Christian , encouraging Christians to help stop climate change.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Participating groups have created a petition called KYOTOplus, on which signatories commit to the following acts:
• set a national target to cut greenhouse gas emissions at least 25 per cent from 1990 levels by 2020;
• implement an effective national plan to reach this target and help developing countries adapt and build low-carbon economies; and
• adopt a strengthened second phase of the Kyoto Protocol at the United Nations climate change conference at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009.
.KYOTOplus is a national, non-partisan, petition-centered campaign for urgent federal government action on climate change.^ Climate change was at the center of the agenda at that meeting.
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^ "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
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^ As the co-chair of UN Climate Change Conference in Nairobi in November 2006, Canada and its government received criticism from environmental groups and from other governments for its climate change positions.
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.There are over fifty partner organizations, including: Climate Action Network Canada, Sierra Club Canada, Sierra Youth Coalition, Oxfam Canada, the Canadian Youth Climate Coalition, Greenpeace Canada, KAIROS: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives and the David Suzuki Foundation.^ See Press Release, 26 Global Leaders Sign Agreement to Partner on Climate Action: Declaration will Inform and Advance Negotiations for Next Global Agreement on Climate Change , Nov.
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^ Climate Action Network Europe: Ratification Calendar.
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^ David Suzuki Foundation (born: 1990 age: 20 ) 2002-09 The less your car weighs, the proportionately less CO 2 it will emit.
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People's Republic of China

.As of August 27, 2008 China surpassed the United States as the biggest emitter in the world of CO2 from power generation, according to the Center for Global Development.^ (The United States, the worlds biggest greenhouse generator, dropped out of the Kyoto accord, complaining it would hurt the U.S. economy, and that such big-polluter developing nations as China and India were not included.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World leadership in nuclear energy technologies and the underlying science is also vital to the United States from the perspective of national security, international influence and global stability."
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^ CO 2 emissions from coal-fired electricity generation comprise nearly 80 percent of the total CO 2 emissions produced by the generation of electricity in the United States, while the share of electricity generation from coal was 51.0 percent in 1999 (Table 3).
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[47] .On a per capita basis, however, the emission by the power sector in the U.S. is still nearly four times that in China.^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected on October 12, 2007, that CO2 emissions from China will be 2.6 billion tons by 2030, nearly double their 2005 levels.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, China is now building on average one coal-fired power plant every week, and plans to continue doing so for years.
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^ However, the U.S. and other Western nations assert that India, along with China, will account for most of the emissions in the coming decades, owing to their rapid industrialization and economic growth.
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.The top ten power sector emitters in the world in absolute terms are China, the United States, India, Russia, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa, and South Korea.^ India and Germany are among the top emitters.
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^ Member nations include Australia , China, India , Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States .
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security: This agreement, to reduce dependence on traditional energy sources and encourage the use of biofuels, was signed by members of ASEAN—the Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam—as well as China, Japan, New Zealand, India, South Korea, and Australia.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the 27 member states of the European Union are counted as a single country, the E.U. would rank as the third biggest CO2 polluter, after China and the United States.^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
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^ The European Community and its Member States declare that the commitment to limit anthropogenic CO2 emissions will be fulfilled in the Community as a whole through action by the Community and its Member States, within the respective competence of each.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part of the increases for some of the European Union countries are still inline with the treaty, being part of the cluster of countries implementation (see objectives in the list above).
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.In per capita terms, emissions from the U.S. power sector are the second highest in the world.^ At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointed out that the per-capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.
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^ Further, there is controversy surrounding the use of 1990 as a base year, as well as not using per capita emissions as a basis.
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^ Because China has put into place population control measures while maintaining low emissions per capita, it claims it should therefore in both of the above aspects be considered a contributor to the world's environment.
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.The production of electricity in the U.S. produces about 9.5 tons of CO2 per person per year, compared to 2.4 tons per person per year in China, 0.6 in India, and 0.1 in Brazil.^ About three-fourths of the Pacific Contiguous Census Division's CO 2 emissions are from natural gas-fired plants; however, most of that division's electricity generation is produced at nonfossil-fueled plants, such as hydroelectric and nuclear plants.
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^ Coal-fired electricity generation has the highest output rate of CO 2 per kilowatthour produced, averaging 2.095 pounds per kilowatthour in 1999.
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^ Emissions of CO 2 from the generation of electricity at natural gas-fired plants were 337 million metric tons in 1999.
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.The average per capita emission from electricity and heat production in the E.U. is 3.3 tons per year.^ WWFs Climate Savers Program: Twelve major companies that participate in the program are aiming to cut at least 10 million tons of CO2 emissions a year by 2010.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coal-fired electricity generation has the highest output rate of CO 2 per kilowatthour produced, averaging 2.095 pounds per kilowatthour in 1999.
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^ Emissions of CO 2 from the generation of electricity at natural gas-fired plants were 337 million metric tons in 1999.
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.Only Australia, at greater than 10 tons per year, emits more power-related emissions per person than the U.S does.^ WWFs Climate Savers Program: Twelve major companies that participate in the program are aiming to cut at least 10 million tons of CO2 emissions a year by 2010.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more vapor generated per unit of heat or fuel input, the greater the cooling capacity and the higher the overall operating efficiency.
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^ Oregon, Idaho, and Washington typically generate more than 90 percent of their power at hydroelectric plants and export power to California.
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.In March 2008, Canadian economists Jeff Rubin and Benjamin Tal discussed a number of reasons why a carbon tariff against China was likely.^ Several non-Kyoto carbon markets are in existence or being planned, and these are likely to grow in importance and numbers in the coming years.
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[48]
.
  • China’s GHG emissions have increased by 120% since the beginning of the decade, while U.S. emissions have increased 16% over the same period;
  • China now exceeds the United States as the single largest GHG emitter, and accounts for more than a fifth of global GHG emissions;
  • China relies more heavily on coal-fired power plants, the most GHG-intensive energy source, than do most OECD countries.^ Most of the increase in CO 2 emissions from gas-fired plants was offset by the decline in CO 2 emissions from petroleum- and coal-fired plants.
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    ^ China may be doing more to cut GHG emissions than has previously been thought.
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    ^ More reliable than the electricity from the power company.
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    Between now and 2012, the increase in Chinese coal-based emissions will exceed the entire level of coal-based emissions in the United States.
.In June 2007, China unveiled a 62-page climate change plan and promised to put climate change at the center of its energy policy and insisted that developed countries had an “unshirkable responsibility” to take the lead on cutting greenhouse gas emissions and that the principle of "common but differentiated responsibility", as agreed up in the UNFCCC, should be applied.^ BBC. "China unveils climate change plan", BBC, June 4, 2007.
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^ European Commission has a Climate Change page.
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^ The two states agreed to collaborate in developing climate change policies and initiatives.
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[49][50]
.China stated the criticisms of its energy policy were unjust.^ Automobile manufacturers sued, claiming, e.g., that the state's greenhouse gas regulations are either preempted by or violate the CAA and the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .It is unfair to compare among different countries, since China alone makes up one-fifth of the world's population and the per capita emission in China was low compared to the emission in the industrialized world.^ At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointed out that the per-capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.
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^ One hundred and thirty-seven (137) developing countries have ratified the protocol, including Brazil, China and India, but have no obligation beyond monitoring and reporting emissions.
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^ One hundred thirty-seven (137) developing countries have ratified the protocol, including Brazil, China and India, but have no obligation beyond monitoring and reporting emissions.
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.Even after one combines the population of the E.U., the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and South Korea, China would still outnumber them by a few hundred million.^ Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security: This agreement, to reduce dependence on traditional energy sources and encourage the use of biofuels, was signed by members of ASEAN—the Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam—as well as China, Japan, New Zealand, India, South Korea, and Australia.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
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^ Australia and the U.S. signed but did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol; China signed and approved the Protocol; India acceded to it; Japan signed and accepted it; and the Republic of Korea signed and ratified it.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A comparison of yearly emissions also neglects the cumulative amount generated by developed countries.^ If the developing world's emissions are not contained by the Kyoto Protocol, then the efforts of developed countries are rendered meaningless.
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^ The higher environmental, health, and safety standards in wealthy developed countries suggest that such a relationship exists between societies in the current generation [ 101 ] .
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^ Following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility , India maintains that the major responsibility of curbing emission rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time.
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.Studies of carbon leakage also suggest that nearly a quarter of China's emissions result from production of goods exported to developed countries.^ China, the NEI suggests, would never secretly export nuclear technology because it "has expressed strong concern over the possibility of nuclear-armed neighbors."
  • Jeffrey St. Clair: Kyoto, Gore and the Atomic Lobby 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results showed that the Administration's proposal will reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 216 million metric tons in 2010.
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^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected on October 12, 2007, that CO2 emissions from China will be 2.6 billion tons by 2030, nearly double their 2005 levels.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

European Union

.On 31 May 2002, all fifteen then-members of the European Union deposited the relevant ratification paperwork at the UN. The EU produces around 22% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and has agreed to a cut, on average, by 8% from 1990 emission levels.^ See also: Energy policy of the European Union On May 31, 2002, all fifteen then-members of the European Union deposited the relevant ratification paperwork at the UN. The EU produces around 22% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and has agreed to a cut, on average, by 8% from 1990 emission levels.
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^ "Industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%".
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^ Increase in greenhouse gas emission since 1990 .
  • Kyoto Protocol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Denmark has committed itself to reducing its emissions by 21%.^ Shortly after taking office, President Bill Clinton announced on Earth Day, April 21, 1993, the Nations commitment to reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000.
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^ And if you vote for a politician who has a deep commitment to reducing CO 2 emissions, you might change the world.
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^ Canada is committed to reducing emission rates to 6% below what they were in 1990 , which is 20% below the 2002 level, and 35% below the projected 2010 business-as-usual level.
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On 10 January 2007, the European Commission announced plans for a European Union energy policy that included a unilateral 20% reduction in GHG emissions by 2020.
.The EU has consistently been one of the major nominal supporters of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiating hard to get wavering countries on board.^ The EU has consistently been one of the major nominal supporters of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiating hard to get wavering countries on board.
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^ COP-6 was suspended, after two weeks of intensive but unsuccessful negotiations on making the Kyoto Protocol operational and strengthening financial and technical cooperation between developed and developing countries on climate-friendly policies and technologies.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that time, numerous polls showed support for the Kyoto protocol at around 70%.
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.In December 2002, the EU created an emissions trading system in an effort to meet these tough targets.^ In December 2002, the EU created an emissions trading system in an effort to meet these tough targets.
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^ Main article: Emissions trading Kyoto is a 'cap and trade' system that imposes national caps on the emissions of Annex I countries.
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^ The EU elected to be treated as such a group, and created the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).
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.Quotas were introduced in six key industries: energy, steel, cement, glass, brick making, and paper/cardboard.^ Quotas were introduced in six key industries: energy, steel, cement, glass, brick making, and paper/cardboard.
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^ According to the Department of Energy, the recent technological advances in thin film photovoltaics make this a very exciting time to be in the solar energy industry.
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.There are also fines for member nations that fail to meet their obligations, starting at €40/ton of carbon dioxide in 2005, and rising to €100/ton in 2008. Current EU projections suggest that by 2008 the EU will be at 4.7% below 1990 levels.^ There are also fines for member nations that fail to meet their obligations, starting at €40/ton of carbon dioxide in 2005, and rising to €100/ton in 2008.
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^ Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) a .
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^ Current EU projections suggest that by 2008 the EU will be at 4.7% below 1990 levels.
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.Transport CO2 emissions in the EU grew by 32% between 1990 and 2004. The share of transport in CO2 emissions was 21% in 1990, but by 2004 this had grown to 28%.^ CO 2 emissions from coal-fired electricity generation comprise nearly 80 percent of the total CO 2 emissions produced by the generation of electricity in the United States, while the share of electricity generation from coal was 51.0 percent in 1999 (Table 3).
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^ In 1999, energy consumption was reduced by approximately 28 billion kilowatthours as a result of the program, reducing greenhouse gas emissions by nearly 21 million metric tons CO 2 (Table 7).
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^ The South Atlantic Census Division contributes the largest share of CO 2 emissions from petroleum-fired plants, 1.8 percent of the Nation's total CO 2 emissions from all sources.
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.The position of the EU is not without controversy in Protocol negotiations, however.^ The position of the EU is not without controversy in Protocol negotiations, however.
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^ The EU has consistently been one of the major nominal supporters of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiating hard to get wavering countries on board.
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.One criticism is that, rather than reducing 8%, all the EU member countries should cut 15% as the EU insisted a uniform target of 15% for other developed countries during the negotiation while allowing itself to share a big reduction in the former East Germany to meet the 15% goal for the entire EU. Also, emission levels of former Warsaw Pact countries who now are members of the EU have already been reduced as a result of their economic restructuring.^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
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^ Steinberg noted that both countries had opposed binding limits on greenhouse emissions and that new nuclear plants would be one way "to take advantage of the fact that today we have technologies available for energy use which were not available at the time that the United States and other developed countries were going through their periods of development."
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^ On May 7, 2007, the EEA reported that emissions of the EU-15 (members before the 2004 EU enlargement) declined by 0.8% in 2005 from 2004 levels, making their emissions only 1.5% lower than the 1990 base year, whereas their goal is an 8% reduction.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This may mean that the region's 1990 baseline level is inflated compared to that of other developed countries, thus giving European economies a potential competitive advantage over the U.S.
.Both the EU (as the European Community) and its member states are signatories to the Kyoto treaty.^ Bush has stated he will not ratify the Kyoto treaty.
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^ The 25 EU Member States have ratified the UNFCCC individually and as members of the European Economic Community.
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^ Both the EU (as the European Community) and its member states are signatories to the Kyoto treaty.
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.Greece, however was excluded from the Kyoto Protocol on Earth Day (22 April 2008) due to unfulfilled commitment of creating the adequate mechanisms of monitoring and reporting emissions, which is the minimum obligation, and delivering false reports by having no other data to report.^ Shortly after taking office, President Bill Clinton announced on Earth Day, April 21, 1993, the Nations commitment to reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ A report from the Prime Minister's Advisory Task Group on Emissions Trading released on June 1 said that Australia should begin to develop a GHG emissions trading scheme, but criticized the Kyoto Protocol and warned against damaging the Australian economy.
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.A United Nations committee has decided to reinstate Greece in the emissions-trading system of the Kyoto Protocol after a seven-month suspension (on November 15).^ The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ And indeed, on November 15 th , the United Kingdom proposed legislation to formalize existing long-term targets for reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent by 2050, and to address the issues raised in the Stern Review.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Germany

.Germany reduced gas emissions by 22.4% between 1990 and 2008.[53] On 28 June 2006, the German government announced that it would exempt its coal industry from requirements under the E.U. internal emission trading system.^ Most of the increase in CO 2 emissions from gas-fired plants was offset by the decline in CO 2 emissions from petroleum- and coal-fired plants.
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^ How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions You can easily and affordably reduce or eliminate your company's "carbon footprint."
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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.Claudia Kemfert, an energy professor at the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin said, "For all its support for a clean environment and the Kyoto Protocol, the cabinet decision is very disappointing.^ Claudia Kemfert, an energy professor at the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin said, "For all its support for a clean environment and the Kyoto Protocol, the cabinet decision is very disappointing.
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^ At that time, numerous polls showed support for the Kyoto protocol at around 70%.
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^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected on October 12, 2007, that CO2 emissions from China will be 2.6 billion tons by 2030, nearly double their 2005 levels.
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The energy lobbies have played a big role in this decision."[54] .However, Germany's voluntary commitment to reduce CO2 emissions by 21% from the level in 1990 has practically been met, because emission has already been reduced by 19%.^ Bush lied to the people during his campaign that he was going to reduce CO 2 emissions, then pushed through bills to increase them, such as the SUV tax subsidy.
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^ On December 17, 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005, requiring it to reduce emissions to 6% below 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 commitment period.
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^ Shortly after taking office, President Bill Clinton announced on Earth Day, April 21, 1993, the Nations commitment to reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000.
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Germany is thus contributing 75% of the 8% reduction promised by the E.U.[55]

United Kingdom

.The energy policy of the United Kingdom fully endorses goals for carbon dioxide emissions reduction and has committed to proportionate reduction in national emissions on a phased basis.^ "Carbon free energy" is energy that is produced or generated without producing any carbon dioxide emissions .
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^ Due to a change in the accounting for MSW by the Environmental Protection Agency, future AEOs will estimate the Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the non-biomass portion of this fuel.
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^ Research on, and promotion, development and increased use of, new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies; .
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The U.K. is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
.On 13 March 2007, a draft Climate Change Bill was published after cross-party pressure over several years, led by environmental groups.^ Friends of the Earth , a British environmental group, has a Climate Change page.
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^ March 13, 2007 .
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^ On March 13, 2007, a draft Climate Change Bill was published after cross-party pressure over several years, led by environmental groups.
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.Informed by the Energy White Paper 2003,[56] the bill aims to achieve a mandatory reduction of 60% in the carbon emission from the 1990 level by 2050, with an intermediate target of between 26% and 32% by 2020.[57] On 26 November 2008, the Climate Change Act became law with a target of 80% reduction over 1990.[58] The U.K. is the first country to ratify a law with such a long-range and significant carbon reduction target.^ It plans to cut CO2 emissions 60% by 2050 as compared to 1990 levels.
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^ The report noted that the three states combined carbon emissions ranked 7 th as compared with other countries in the world (between Germany and the UK) [521] and suggested steps they could take to achieve a significant reduction in GHG emissions.
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^ And indeed, on November 15 th , the United Kingdom proposed legislation to formalize existing long-term targets for reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent by 2050, and to address the issues raised in the Stern Review.
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.The U.K. currently appears on course to meet its Kyoto limitation for the basket of greenhouse gases, assuming the government is able to curb CO₂ emissions between 2007 and 2008 to 2012.[59] Although the overall greenhouse gas emissions in the U.K. have fallen, annual net carbon dioxide emission has increased by about 2% since the Labour Party came to power in 1997.[59] As a result, it now seems highly unlikely that the government will be able to honor its pledge to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 20% from the 1990 level by 2010,[59] unless an immediate and drastic action is taken under after the ratification of the Climate Change Bill.^ The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels.
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^ Climate change was at the center of the agenda at that meeting.
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^ "Industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%".
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France

.In 2004, France shut down its last coal mine, and now gets 80% of its electricity from nuclear power[60] and therefore has relatively low CO2 emissions, except for its transport sector.^ In 1990, France shut down its last coal mine, and now gets 80% of its electricity from nuclear power [60] and therefore has relatively low CO 2 emissions.
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^ Petroleum has a higher output rate of CO 2 than natural gas; therefore, switching from petroleum to natural gas can have a beneficial effect on both the overall amount and output rate of CO 2 emissions.
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^ About three-fourths of the Pacific Contiguous Census Division's CO 2 emissions are from natural gas-fired plants; however, most of that division's electricity generation is produced at nonfossil-fueled plants, such as hydroelectric and nuclear plants.
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[61]

Norway

.Between 1990 and 2007, Norway's greenhouse gas emissions increased by 12%.^ Germany has reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 17.2% between 1990 and 2004.
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^ Increase in greenhouse gas emission since 1990 .
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^ Most of the increase in CO 2 emissions from gas-fired plants was offset by the decline in CO 2 emissions from petroleum- and coal-fired plants.
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[62] .As well as directly reducing their own greenhouse gas emissions, Norway's idea for carbon neutrality is to finance reforestation in China, a legal provision of the Kyoto protocol.^ The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of six primary greenhouse gases, which are: .
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^ The results showed that the Administration's proposal will reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 216 million metric tons in 2010.
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^ Reduce Annual Gross Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Step 2) by 1 percent to assume 99 percent burn factor.
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India

.India signed and ratified the Protocol in August, 2002. Since India is exempted from the framework of the treaty, it is expected to gain from the protocol in terms of transfer of technology and related foreign investments.^ It updates U.S. climate-related actions since the last report in 2002.
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^ Australia and the U.S. signed but did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol; China signed and approved the Protocol; India acceded to it; Japan signed and accepted it; and the Republic of Korea signed and ratified it.
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^ On April 25, 2002, Council Decision 2002/358/EC , was published; it approved the Kyoto Protocol on behalf of the EC and its member states, who ratified it on May 31, 2002.
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.At the G8 meeting in June 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointed out that the per-capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.^ At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointed out that the per-capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.
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^ In response to critics of the nation's energy policy, China responded that those criticisms were unjust [53] , while studies of carbon leakage suggest that nearly a quarter of China's emissions result from exports for consumption by developed countries [54] .
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^ In addition, the country's energy intensity - measured as energy consumption per unit of GDP - was lowered by 47 per cent between 1991 and 2005; from 1950 to 2002, China’s carbon dioxide emissions from fossil sources accounted for only 9.33% of the global total in the same period, and in 2004, its per-capita emission of carbon dioxide from fossil sources was 3.65 tons, which is 87% of the world average and 33 per cent of that of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.
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.Following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, India maintains that the major responsibility of curbing emission rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time.^ Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Kyoto Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ For this generation to design democratic institutions that would keep a given social program in place for such long time periods would be even more difficult.
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.However, the U.S. and other Western nations assert that India, along with China, will account for most of the emissions in the coming decades, owing to their rapid industrialization and economic growth.^ However, the U.S. and other Western nations assert that India, along with China, will account for most of the emissions in the coming decades, owing to their rapid industrialization and economic growth.
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^ Comprehensive analysis of China's recent economic development and its effects on Chinese emissions.
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^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected on October 12, 2007, that CO2 emissions from China will be 2.6 billion tons by 2030, nearly double their 2005 levels.
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Pakistan

.Although the Minister of State for environment Malik Min Aslam was at first not very receptive, he subsequently convinced the Shoukat Aziz cabinet to ratify the Protocol.^ Claudia Kemfert, an energy professor at the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin said, "For all its support for a clean environment and the Kyoto Protocol, the cabinet decision is very disappointing.
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^ To state the major difference between the E.U. and the U.S. in the simplest way, in the E.U. there are climate change laws to apply (the E.U. has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and takes its commitments very seriously), and in the U.S. there are none, at least at the federal level.
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^ The signature alone is symbolic, as the Kyoto Protocol is non-binding on the United States unless ratified.
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.The decision was taken in 2001 but due to international circumstances, it was announced in Argentina in 2004 and accepted in 2005, opening the way for the creation of a policy framework.^ However, the issue of whether impatience and preferences based on that emotion are a rational [ 56 ] or prudent basis for public policy decisions remains open for debate.
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.On 11 January 2005, Pakistan submitted its instruments of accession to the Kyoto Protocol.^ The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
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^ The Parties to any such agreement shall notify the secretariat of the terms of the agreement on the date of deposit of their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Protocol, or accession thereto.
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^ In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Protocol.
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.The Ministry of Environment assigned the task to work as designated national authority (DNA).^ All the Annex I economies have established Designated National Authorities to manage their greenhouse gas portfolios under Kyoto.
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.In February, 2006, the national CDM operational strategy was approved, and on 27 April 2006, the first CDM project was approved by DNA. It was reduction of large N2O from nitric acid production (investor: Mitsubishi, Japan), estimating 1 million CERs annually.^ Emission reductions resulting from each project activity shall be certified by operational entities to be designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, on the basis of: .
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^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected that by 2030, Indian GHG emissions will increase to 2.6 times their 2005 levels, reaching 840 million tons.
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^ Foreign reductions, largely from carbon-sequestration projects, account for 6.0 percent of total electric utility sector reductions reported for 1998.
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.Finally, in November, 2006, the first CDM project was registered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).^ "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
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^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2006-10-19).
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^ See also: Global warming The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) .
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.
It was expected that the Protocol would help Pakistan lower dependence on fossil fuels through renewable energy projects.
^ However, a study in Nature [85] found that " accounting only for local external costs, together with production costs, to identify energy strategies, compliance with the Kyoto Protocol would imply lower, not higher, overall costs.
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^ Conversely, CO 2 emissions can be reduced through a greater use of nuclear, hydroelectric, and renewable energy for electricity generation.
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^ It would also use more renewable sources of energy, such as wind power, use alternative fuels, protect the local rainforest, and use less plastic and paper.
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Although Pakistan was not a big polluter, it was a victim. .Global warming had led to 'freak weather' in the country with record-breaking cold and heat, and droughts and floods.^ The heating is called global warming .
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^ So an abnormally cold day does not in any way contradict what scientists are saying about global warming.
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^ Gywnne Dyer wrote a summary article on global warming based on 18 months of 70 interviews in a dozen countries.
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Russia

.Vladimir Putin approved the treaty on 4 November 2004, and Russia officially notified the United Nations of its ratification on 18 November 2004. The issue of Russian ratification was particularly closely watched in the international community, as the accord was brought into force 90 days after Russian ratification (16 February 2005).^ The Protocol entered into force February 16, 2005.
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^ Thus the Protocol came into effect on February 16, 2005.
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^ The annex or amendment to an annex shall enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which withdrawal of such notification has been received by the Depositary.
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.President Putin had earlier decided in favor of the protocol in September 2004, along with the Russian cabinet,[64] against the opinion of the Russian Academy of Sciences, of the Ministry for Industry and Energy, and of the then-president's economic adviser, Andrey Illarionov, and in exchange for the EU's support for Russia's admission into the WTO.^ President Putin had earlier decided in favour of the protocol in September 2004, along with the Russian cabinet, [61] against the opinion of the Russian Academy of Sciences, of the Ministry for Industry and Energy and of the then president's economic adviser, Andrey Illarionov, and in exchange to EU's support for Russia's admission in the WTO. [62] As anticipated after this, ratification by the lower (22 October 2004) and upper house of parliament did not encounter any obstacles.
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^ Claudia Kemfert, an energy professor at the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin said, "For all its support for a clean environment and the Kyoto Protocol, the cabinet decision is very disappointing.
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^ The ratification by Russia on 18 November 2004 satisfied the "55%" clause and brought the treaty into force, effective February 16, 2005.
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[65][66] .As anticipated, after this, ratification by the lower (22 October 2004) and upper house of parliament did not encounter any obstacles.^ It was established by Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council , October 13, 2003, as amended by Directive 2004/101/EC .
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.The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels.^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ The executives were not opposed to mandatory carbon emissions limits, but were predictably concerned about increased utility charges.
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^ In fact, U.S. Vice-President Gore did sign the Protocol on November 12, 1998, and agreed to make greenhouse gas emission cuts of 7% below 1990 levels.
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.Since 1990, the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed, as have their greenhouse gas emissions.^ Most of the increase in CO 2 emissions from gas-fired plants was offset by the decline in CO 2 emissions from petroleum- and coal-fired plants.
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^ How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions You can easily and affordably reduce or eliminate your company's "carbon footprint."
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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.Because of this, Russia should have no problem meeting its commitments under Kyoto, as its current emission levels are substantially below its limitations.^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
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^ Meetings of the subsidiary bodies and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol were held in Bonn from May 7-18, 2007 , in preparation for COP-13 and COP/MOP-3 to be held in Bali in December 2007.
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There is an ongoing scientific debate on whether Russia will actually gain from selling credits for unused AAUs.

United States

.The United States (U.S.), although a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, has neither ratified nor withdrawn from the Protocol.^ Bush has stated he will not ratify the Kyoto treaty.
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^ The United States ratified the treaty in 1992 , then reneged in 2001 .
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^ Parties of the Convention have ratified its Kyoto Protocol to date.
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.The signature alone is merely symbolic, as the Kyoto Protocol is non-binding on the United States unless ratified.^ Bush has stated he will not ratify the Kyoto treaty.
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^ To state the major difference between the E.U. and the U.S. in the simplest way, in the E.U. there are climate change laws to apply (the E.U. has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and takes its commitments very seriously), and in the U.S. there are none, at least at the federal level.
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^ Australia and the U.S. signed but did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol; China signed and approved the Protocol; India acceded to it; Japan signed and accepted it; and the Republic of Korea signed and ratified it.
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.The America's Climate Security Act of 2007, also more commonly referred to in the U.S. as the "Cap and Trade Bill", was proposed for greater U.S. alignment with the Kyoto standards and goals.^ On October 18, 2007, Senators Lieberman (chair of the Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Private Sector and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming and Wildlife Protection) introduced the Americas Climate Security Act of 2007, S. 2191 , which would, in section 9004, Retention of State Authority , refrain from preempting states from enacting GHG standards more stringent than the federal ones.
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^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
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^ On October 4, 2007, the Carbon Dioxide Pipeline Study Act of 2007 , S. 2144 , was introduced in Senate by Senator Coleman and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources .
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[67]
.On 25 July 1997, before the Kyoto Protocol was finalized (although it had been fully negotiated, and a penultimate draft was finished), the U.S. Senate unanimously passed by a 95–0 vote the Byrd-Hagel Resolution (S. Res.^ Resolution 98 was passed by the Senate 95-0 on July 25, 1997.
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^ It was only 1997 that the Republican-dominated Senate (see supra) voted unanimously to oppose the Kyoto Protocol.
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^ The Senates vote, 95-0, [referring to the Byrd-Hagel Resolution] shows that there is a clear consensus that the Kyoto Protocol is an unfair and ineffective means of addressing global climate change concerns.
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.98),[68][69] which stated the sense of the Senate was that the United States should not be a signatory to any protocol that did not include binding targets and timetables for developing nations as well as industrialized nations or "would result in serious harm to the economy of the United States". On 12 November 1998, Vice President Al Gore symbolically signed the protocol.^ In fact, U.S. Vice-President Gore did sign the Protocol on November 12, 1998, and agreed to make greenhouse gas emission cuts of 7% below 1990 levels.
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^ Also, the Senate strongly believed that serious harm to the United States economy could result if the U.S. did join.
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^ See Letter to Members of the Senate on the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change , March 13, 2001, 37(11) Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 444 (March 19, 2001), where President Bush stated I oppose the Kyoto Protocol because it exempts 80 percent of the world, including major population centers such as China and India, from compliance, and would cause serious harm to the U.S. economy.
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.Both Gore and Senator Joseph Lieberman indicated that the protocol would not be acted upon in the Senate until there was participation by the developing nations.^ In this guide, I briefly summarize the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and discuss the sources one would use to research them, but I make no claim to originality there.
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^ Two bills in the 110 th Congress would accelerate development of carbon capture technology: S. 731, the National Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity Assessment Act of 2007 [836] , and S. 962, the Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 2007 .
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^ On June 6, 2008, Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2008 (S. 3036) died in the Senate after failing to get the 60 votes needed to limit a filibuster, as Sen.
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[70] .The Clinton Administration never submitted the protocol to the Senate for ratification.^ Indeed, neither the Clinton nor the Bush Jr. Administration has sent the Protocol to the Senate for ratification.
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^ If passed, it would essentially reverse a 1997 sense-of-the-Senate resolution that warned the Clinton administration against signing the Kyoto Protocol, which would have required mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reductions by the United States.
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^ [T]here would be virtually no chance of securing the approval of two-thirds of the Senate were the President to decide to submit [the Kyoto Protocol] for such approval.
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.The Clinton Administration released an economic analysis in July 1998, prepared by the Council of Economic Advisors, which concluded that with emissions trading among the annex B/annex I countries, and participation of key developing countries in the "Clean Development Mechanism"—which grants the latter business-as-usual emissions rates through 2012—the costs of implementing the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced as much as 60% from many estimates.^ A clean development mechanism is hereby defined.
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^ Under the clean development mechanism: .
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^ The Kyoto Protocol mechanisms are: International Emissions Trading known as the carbon market" Clean development mechanism (CDM) Joint implementation (JI).
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.Estimates of the cost of achieving the Kyoto Protocol carbon reduction targets in the United States, as compared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), predicted losses to GDP of between 1.0% and 4.2% by 2010, reducing to between 0.5% and 2.0% by 2020. Some of these estimates assumed that action had been taken by 1998, and would be increased by delays in starting action.^ These are just some examples of carbon-free renewable energy.
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^ We will oppose ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and its targets.
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^ If passed, it would essentially reverse a 1997 sense-of-the-Senate resolution that warned the Clinton administration against signing the Kyoto Protocol, which would have required mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reductions by the United States.
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[71]
.President George W. Bush did not submit the treaty for Senate ratification based on the exemption granted to China (now the world's largest gross emitter of carbon dioxide, although emission is low per capita[72]).^ Due to a change in the accounting for MSW by the Environmental Protection Agency, future AEOs will estimate the Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the non-biomass portion of this fuel.
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^ The EU-15 used 1990 emissions as the base year for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and 1995 emissions for fluorinated gases for members except Finland and France, which selected 1990 as a base year for those gases.
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^ The results showed that the Administration's proposal will reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 216 million metric tons in 2010.
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.Bush opposed the treaty because of the strain he believed the treaty would put on the economy; he emphasized the uncertainties which he believed were present in the scientific evidence.^ Two voluntary programs were begun to implement it as an alternative to the mandatory efforts of the Kyoto Protocol that the administration believes would harm the economy.
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^ During the negotiation sessions, the U.S. often took strong positions, particularly against enforceable reduction targets and timetables, claiming scientific uncertainty about climate change and that emissions targets would adversely affect the U.S. economy.
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^ Senator James Inhofe, among others, spoke extensively against the measure, emphasizing the uncertainty of climate science and the potential damage to the U.S. economy.
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Furthermore, the U.S. was concerned with broader exemptions of the treaty. .For example, the U.S. did not support the split between annex I countries and others.^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
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[73]
.In June 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency released the "Climate Action Report 2002". Some observers have interpreted this report as being supportive of the protocol, although the report itself does not explicitly endorse the protocol.^ It updates U.S. climate-related actions since the last report in 2002.
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^ On May 4, 2007, the State Department released a draft version of U.S. Climate Action Report 2006 .
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^ Due to a change in the accounting for MSW by the Environmental Protection Agency, future AEOs will estimate the Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the non-biomass portion of this fuel.
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[citation needed] At the G8 meeting in June 2005 administration officials expressed a desire for "practical commitments industrialized countries can meet without damaging their economies". According to those same officials, the United States is on track to fulfill its pledge to reduce its carbon intensity 18% by 2012.[74] In 2002, the U.S. National Environmental trust labelled carbon intensity, "a bookkeeping trick which allows the administration to do nothing about global warming while unsafe levels of emissions continue to rise."[75] The United States has signed the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, a pact that allows those countries to set their goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, but with no enforcement mechanism. .Supporters of the pact see it as complementing the Kyoto Protocol while being more flexible.^ See supra for the Kyoto Protocol.
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^ As does the Kyoto Protocol, see supra.
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^ See Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC art.
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.The Administration's position was not uniformly accepted in the U.S. For example, Paul Krugman noted that the target 18% reduction in carbon intensity is still actually an increase in overall emissions.^ The executives were not opposed to mandatory carbon emissions limits, but were predictably concerned about increased utility charges.
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^ Carbon dioxide emissions by electric power plants is not controlled because no standards or required reductions currently exist.
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^ S. 3698 , the Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act: A bill to amend the Clean Air Act to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, and for other purposes.
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[76] .The White House has also come under criticism for downplaying reports that link human activity and greenhouse gas emissions to climate change and that a White House official, former oil industry advocate and current Exxon Mobil officer, Philip Cooney, watered down descriptions of climate research that had already been approved by government scientists, charges the White House denies.^ The net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from direct human-induced land-use change and forestry activities, limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since 1990, measured as verifiable changes in carbon stocks in each commitment period, shall be used to meet the commitments under this Article of each Party included in Annex I. The greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks associated with those activities shall be reported in a transparent and verifiable manner and reviewed in accordance with Articles 7 and 8.
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^ See, e.g., Press Release: Gov. Schwarzennegger Issus Directive to Establish Worlds First Low Carbon Standard for Transportation Fuels: World's first Greenhouse Gas Standard for transportation fuels will spark research in alternatives to oil, boost clean technology industry in California and reduce greenhouse gas emissions , Office of the Governor, Jan.
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^ Currently the ETS covers carbon dioxide emissions from power stations and industries such as steel, cement, paper and oil refining throughout the EU. Phase I of the EUs Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme began January 1, 2005, and ran until the end of December 2007.
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[77] .Critics point to the Bush administration's close ties to the oil and gas industries.^ Oil company shills like to confuse the lay public by pointing out that CO 2 is a natural biological gas.
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^ The Bush administration was known to have many connections with the oil producing industry, and the new president was not expected to favor environmental efforts.
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^ The Bush administration, he added, was part of an axis of oil."
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.In June 2005, State Department papers showed the administration thanking Exxon executives for the company's "active involvement" in helping to determine climate change policy, including the U.S. stance on Kyoto.^ In April 2007, the Church of England published a pamphlet entitled How Many Lightbulbs Does it Take to Change a Christian , encouraging Christians to help stop climate change.
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^ On May 4, 2007, the State Department released a draft version of U.S. Climate Action Report 2006 .
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^ The UN released its Report on the African Regional Workshop on Adaptation just before the meeting opened; the report states that the effects of climate change on Africa will be particularly severe.
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.Input from the business lobby group Global Climate Coalition was also a factor.^ Cleantech Group : New technology and related business models offering competitive returns for investors and customers while providing solutions to global challenges.
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^ Matthew Brown, Business groups campaign against climate change bill , Boston Globe , Mar.
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^ LiveEarth.org : Al Gore’s group that put on a giant global concert in 8 cities to motivate people to move on global climate change.
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[78]
.In 2002, Congressional researchers who examined the legal status of the Protocol advised that signature of the UNFCCC imposes an obligation to refrain from undermining the Protocol's object and purpose, and that while the President probably cannot implement the Protocol alone, Congress can create compatible laws on its own initiative.^ The presidents Clear Skies Initiative , a proposed revision of the Clean Air Act announced on February 2002, submitted to Congress in July 2002, and to each of the Congresses that followed, [147] sought to reduce GHG "intensity" by 18% by 2012 and was advertised as a better alternative to the Kyoto Protocol.
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^ It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the treaty.
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^ In this guide, I briefly summarize the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and discuss the sources one would use to research them, but I make no claim to originality there.
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[79]
.President Barack Obama has, as yet, taken no action with the senate that would change the position of the United States towards this protocol.^ If passed, it would essentially reverse a 1997 sense-of-the-Senate resolution that warned the Clinton administration against signing the Kyoto Protocol, which would have required mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reductions by the United States.
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^ In this guide, I briefly summarize the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and discuss the sources one would use to research them, but I make no claim to originality there.
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^ A number of key uncertainties, however, can affect these projections, and some of the reductions could be realized due to actions already taken by individual States.
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.When Obama was in Turkey in April 2009, he said that "it doesn't make sense for the United States to sign [the Kyoto Protocol] because [it] is about to end".[80] At this time, two years and eleven months remained from the four-year commitment period.^ Any such agreement shall remain in operation for the duration of the commitment period specified in Article 3, paragraph 7.
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^ Even before the summit had begun, protest groups spoke out against the expected presence of business leaders at the Summit, and criticized the United States for its failure to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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States and local governments

.The Framework Convention on Climate Change is a treaty negotiated between countries at the UN; thus individual states are not free to participate independently within this Protocol to the treaty.^ After that, Europe in particular, and other countries as well, began to call for action on climate change; in response, the UN, on December 21, 1990, created the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (INC).
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^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
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^ The UN released its Report on the African Regional Workshop on Adaptation just before the meeting opened; the report states that the effects of climate change on Africa will be particularly severe.
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Nonetheless, several separate initiatives have started at the level of state or city. .Eight Northeastern U.S. states created the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI),[81] a state level emissions capping and trading program, using their own independently-developed mechanisms.^ RGGI: The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a regional move by northeastern states to reduce GHG emissions by use of a cap-and-trade program for power plant emissions.
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^ On October 18, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-20-06 that, among other things, directed the Air Resources Board to work with other state agencies to develop a market-based program to permit GHG emissions trading with the E.U., the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, see infra, and other markets.
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^ By May 2007, 10 states had joined RGGI. [497] On October 29, 2007, a report was prepared for the group entitled Auction Design for Selling CO2 Emission Allowances Under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative , which contains recommendations on how to proceed with an auction of emissions credits.
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Their first allowances were auctioned in November 2008.
.On 27 September 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the bill AB 32, also known as the Global Warming Solutions Act, establishing a timetable to reduce the state's greenhouse-gas emissions, which rank at 12th-largest in the world, by 25% by the year 2020. This law effectively puts California in line with the Kyoto limitations, but at a date later than the 2008–2012 Kyoto commitment period.^ He states that: For more than 32 years, CAFE has the distinction of being the only effective constraint on greenhouse gas emissions throughout the entire economy.
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^ Saving the environment by reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and helping reverse Climate Change and Global Warming.
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^ Expressing the sense of Congress that the United States should act to reduce greenhouse gas emissions .
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.Many of the features of the Californian system are similar to the Kyoto mechanisms, although the scope and targets are different.^ However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms.
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^ The Kyoto Mechanisms Under the Kyoto Protocol , countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures.
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The parties in the Western Climate Initiative expect to be compatible with some or all of the Californian model.
.As of 14 June 2009, 944 U.S. cities in 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, representing over 80 million Americans support Kyoto after Mayor Greg Nickels of Seattle started a nationwide effort to get cities to agree to the protocol.^ They also agreed to hold further talks on a successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol.
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^ The APP was formed to accelerate the development and deployment of clean energy technologies; it will be consistent with and contribute to Partners efforts under the UNFCCC and will complement, but not replace, the Kyoto Protocol.
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^ Two voluntary programs were begun to implement it as an alternative to the mandatory efforts of the Kyoto Protocol that the administration believes would harm the economy.
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[82] On 29 October 2007, it was reported that Seattle met their target reduction in 2005, reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by 8 percent since 1990.[83]

Support

.Advocates of the Kyoto Protocol state that reducing these emissions is crucially important, as carbon dioxide is believed to be causing the Earth's atmosphere to heat up.^ These greenhouse gasses trap heat in the atmosphere, much like a giant greenhouse.
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^ Due to a change in the accounting for MSW by the Environmental Protection Agency, future AEOs will estimate the Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the non-biomass portion of this fuel.
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^ The results showed that the Administration's proposal will reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 216 million metric tons in 2010.
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This is supported by attribution analysis.
.Most prominent among advocates of Kyoto have been the European Union and many environmentalist organizations.^ The European Community, aka the European Economic Community, most commonly known as the European Union, with 12 member states, was established in 1965; it was the successor to the European Coal and Steel Community, founded in 1953 with 6 member states.
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.The United Nations and some individual nations' scientific advisory bodies (including the G8 national science academies) have also issued reports favoring the Kyoto Protocol.^ A report from the Prime Minister's Advisory Task Group on Emissions Trading released on June 1 said that Australia should begin to develop a GHG emissions trading scheme, but criticized the Kyoto Protocol and warned against damaging the Australian economy.
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^ [The Kyoto Accord is] a socialist scheme to suck money out of wealth-producing nations… [The Accord is] based on tentative and contradictory scientific evidence about climate trends.
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^ Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Protocol shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
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.An international day of action was planned for 3 December 2005, to coincide with the Meeting of the Parties in Montreal.^ In addition, it shall require the Party to submit a compliance action plan and suspend the eligibility of the Party to make transfers under emissions trading until the Party is reinstated.
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^ The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol may take further action, as appropriate, to promote the implementation of the provisions of this paragraph.
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^ COP-14 and the Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP-4) took place in Poznań, Poland, on December 1-12, 2008.
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The planned demonstrations were endorsed by the Assembly of Movements of the World Social Forum.
.A group of major Canadian corporations also called for urgent action regarding climate change, and have suggested that Kyoto is only a first step.^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
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^ To state the major difference between the E.U. and the U.S. in the simplest way, in the E.U. there are climate change laws to apply (the E.U. has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and takes its commitments very seriously), and in the U.S. there are none, at least at the federal level.
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^ A10 ("On climate change, they took a major step back from the Rio agreements 10 years ago, said Phil Clapp, president of National Environmental Trust.
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[84]
In the United States, there is at least one student group, Kyoto Now!, which aims to use student interest to support pressure towards reducing emissions as targeted by the Kyoto Protocol compliance.

Criticism

.Some argue the protocol does not go far enough to curb greenhouse emissions[85] (Niue, The Cook Islands, and Nauru added notes to this effect when signing the protocol).^ The U.S. signature has little effect without ratification, but the signature does mean that the U.S. must not work against the Protocol, or prevent other nations from joining.
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ In fact, U.S. Vice-President Gore did sign the Protocol on November 12, 1998, and agreed to make greenhouse gas emission cuts of 7% below 1990 levels.
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[86]
.Some environmental economists have been critical of the Kyoto Protocol.^ The Kyoto protocol does not deal with critical environmental issues.
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^ The Kyoto protocol does not deal with critical environmental issues.” ~ Stephen Harper (born: 1959-04-30 age: 50 ) anti-environmental Prime Minister of Canada, Address on the Kyoto Accord, 2002-12-09 Of course.
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[87][88][89] .Many see the costs of the Kyoto Protocol as outweighing the benefits, some believing the standards which Kyoto sets to be too optimistic, others seeing a highly inequitable and inefficient agreement which would do little to curb greenhouse gas emissions.^ Kyoto Protocol : text of the agreement.
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^ As does the Kyoto Protocol, see supra.
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^ See Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC art.
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[90] .Some economists such as Gwyn Prins and Steve Rayner think that an entirely different approach needs to be followed than the approach suggested by the Kyoto Protocol.^ Most economists agree that the discount rate that the time preference explanation suggests--which we will call the social discount rate--is substantially lower than the rate that the opportunity cost indicates [ 51 ] .
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^ Some economists suggest that the proper social discount rate is a hybrid opportunity cost/time preference rate.
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^ Some readers may think that this approach is short-sighted because it stresses commitments to nearby generations over those farther into the future.
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[91]
.Climate scientist James E. Hansen, in his recent book (Storms of my Grandchildren) and in an open letter to President Obama, has criticized the Kyoto Protocol for promoting an inefficient “cap and trade” system.^ Indiana, Ohio, and South Dakota are signing the agreement as observers to participate in the formation of the regional cap-and-trade system.
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^ Special attention is given to Canada^rsquo;s response to the Kyoto Protocol, as well as an assessment of the overall adequacy of Kyoto as a response to the global challenge of climate change .
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^ A report from the Prime Minister's Advisory Task Group on Emissions Trading released on June 1 said that Australia should begin to develop a GHG emissions trading scheme, but criticized the Kyoto Protocol and warned against damaging the Australian economy.
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[92]
."They are selling indulgences there"..."The developed nations want to continue basically business as usual so they are expected to purchase indulgences to give some small amount of money to developing countries.^ The Least Developed Country Expert Group (LEG) gives advice to the least developed countries.
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^ The use of solar electric systems is particularly important in developing nations because it can help avert the expected increases in emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the growing demand for electricity in those countries.
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^ Canada is committed to reducing emission rates to 6% below what they were in 1990 , which is 20% below the 2002 level, and 35% below the projected 2010 business-as-usual level.
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They do that in the form of offsets and adaptation funds." [93] "So, for example, in the Kyoto Protocol, that was very ineffective. .Even the countries that took on supposedly the strongest requirements, like Japan for example—if you look at its actual emissions, its actual fossil fuel use, you see that their CO2 emissions actually increased even though they were supposed to decrease.^ Democrats and environmental groups were disappointed that emissions from stationary sources that burn fossil fuels were not mentioned.
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^ Nuclear power generation increased by 8.1 percent to a record level in 1999, which contributed to keeping CO 2 emissions lower by displacing fossil-fueled generation, particularly in the East North Central Census Division.
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^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
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.Because their coal use increased and they used offsets to meet their objective.^ Most of the increase in CO 2 emissions from gas-fired plants was offset by the decline in CO 2 emissions from petroleum- and coal-fired plants.
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^ However, the renewable electricity generation remains at 9% while use of coal increases 50 percent in 2030 to 57%.
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^ Because hydroelectric and nuclear generation displace fossil-fueled generation when available, CO 2 emissions increase when hydroelectric or nuclear power is unavailable and fossil-fueled generation is used as a replacement.
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Offsets don’t help significantly. .That’s why the approach that Copenhagen is using to specify goals for emission reductions and then to allow offsets to accomplish much of that reduction is really a fake.^ Emissions trading under the Protocols article 17 allows Annex I Parties to purchase the right to emit from other countries that have not used up their emission limits.
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^ Its Web site has information on creating renewable energy projects, offsetting CO2 emissions from driving a car or air travel, and much more.
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And that has to be exposed. .Otherwise, just like in the Kyoto Protocol, we’ll realize 10 years later, oops, it really didn’t do much."^ If a doctor tells you that you have lung cancer and likely won’t last the year, it does not make him wrong, just because that is the last thing you wanted to hear.
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^ It concludes that the EU-15 will meet its Kyoto Protocol target, [644] and that the 10 newest members are on track to meet theirs despite rising emissions.
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[94]
.Hansen has proposed as an alternative a carbon tax involving a dividend to citizens inversely proportional to their carbon footprint.^ It could start with individual countries instituting the tax based on the total carbon footprint of a product including mining, manufacturing and shipping.
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[95][96]
.Further, there is controversy surrounding the use of 1990 as a base year[citation needed], as well as not using per capita emissions as a basis.^ The EU-15 used 1990 emissions as the base year for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and 1995 emissions for fluorinated gases for members except Finland and France, which selected 1990 as a base year for those gases.
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^ On May 7, 2007, the EEA reported that emissions of the EU-15 (members before the 2004 EU enlargement) declined by 0.8% in 2005 from 2004 levels, making their emissions only 1.5% lower than the 1990 base year, whereas their goal is an 8% reduction.
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^ Also, a certain degree of flexibility was built into article 3 regarding Annex I Parties undergoing the process of transition to a market economy regarding the base year they use, if 1990 is considered too strict.
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.Countries had different achievements in energy efficiency in 1990. For example, the former Soviet Union and eastern European countries did little to tackle the problem and their energy efficiency was at its worst level in 1990, the year just before their communist regimes fell.^ On May 7, 2007, the EEA reported that emissions of the EU-15 (members before the 2004 EU enlargement) declined by 0.8% in 2005 from 2004 levels, making their emissions only 1.5% lower than the 1990 base year, whereas their goal is an 8% reduction.
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^ These are just some examples of carbon-free renewable energy.
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^ General Electric: After 128 years, GE announced improvements to incandescent light bulbs, called high efficiency incandescent, or HEI lamps, that will make their energy efficiency levels comparable to those of compact fluorescent bulbs.
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.On the other hand, Japan, as a big importer of natural resources, had to improve its efficiency after the 1973 oil crisis and its emissions level in 1990 was better than most developed countries.^ On May 7, 2007, the EEA reported that emissions of the EU-15 (members before the 2004 EU enlargement) declined by 0.8% in 2005 from 2004 levels, making their emissions only 1.5% lower than the 1990 base year, whereas their goal is an 8% reduction.
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^ The developed country Parties and other developed Parties in Annex II to the Convention may also provide, and developing country Parties avail themselves of, financial resources for the implementation of Article 10, through bilateral, regional and other multilateral channels.
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^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected on October 12, 2007, that CO2 emissions from China will be 2.6 billion tons by 2030, nearly double their 2005 levels.
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.However, such efforts were set aside, and the inactivity of the former Soviet Union was overlooked and could even generate big income due to the emission trade.^ About three-fourths of the Pacific Contiguous Census Division's CO 2 emissions are from natural gas-fired plants; however, most of that division's electricity generation is produced at nonfossil-fueled plants, such as hydroelectric and nuclear plants.
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^ Finally, even if this generation could "lock in" policy choices for many generations, it probably would choose not to do so.
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^ For this generation to design democratic institutions that would keep a given social program in place for such long time periods would be even more difficult.
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.There is an argument that the use of per capita emissions as a basis in the following Kyoto-type treaties can reduce the sense of inequality among developed and developing countries alike, as it can reveal inactivities and responsibilities among countries.^ The Adaptation Fund was established to finance adaptation projects and programs in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol .
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^ When China and India ratified the treaty in 1993 , the intention was the developed world would develop the technology for these countries to adopt later.
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^ Monitoring Greenhouse Gas Emissions targets Under the Kyoto Protocol , a country's actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out.
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Cost-benefit analysis

.Economists have been trying to analyze the overall net benefit of Kyoto Protocol through cost-benefit analysis.^ Most decisions fall into a grey area in which the cost-benefit analysis turns on discretionary technical choices.
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^ L. 1321 (1991) (analyzing another case involving asbestos and suggesting that feasibility analysis and cost-benefit analysis may lead to the same environmental policy conclusions).
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^ The President also directed agencies to conduct cost-benefit analyses of major legislative proposals, thus significantly expanding the role of cost-benefit analysis, and by implication, that of the discount rate.
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There is disagreement due to large uncertainties in economic variables.[97] .Some of the estimates indicate either that observing the Kyoto Protocol is more expensive than not observing the Kyoto Protocol or that the Kyoto Protocol has a marginal net benefit which exceeds the cost of simply adjusting to global warming.^ More CO 2 means more global warming.
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^ Even if we could predict some benefits with a degree of accuracy over such long periods, today's generation likely would refuse to make severe sacrifices simply to create marginal improvements in the welfare of distant future generations.
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^ At some point they're going to say, The United States is more than California.
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[citation needed] However, a study by De Leo et al. found that "accounting only for local external costs, together with production costs, to identify energy strategies, compliance with the Kyoto Protocol would imply lower, not higher, overall costs."[98]
.The recent Copenhagen consensus project found that the Kyoto Protocol would slow down the process of global warming, but have a superficial overall benefit.^ The DOE and EPA see no recent developments that would change our projection of the expected impact of the Administration proposal.
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^ A summary of Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol can be found at: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/background/items/3145.php .
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^ The Senates vote, 95-0, [referring to the Byrd-Hagel Resolution] shows that there is a clear consensus that the Kyoto Protocol is an unfair and ineffective means of addressing global climate change concerns.
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.Defenders of the Kyoto Protocol argue, however, that while the initial greenhouse gas cuts may have little effect, they set the political precedent for bigger (and more effective) cuts in the future.^ The U.S. signature has little effect without ratification, but the signature does mean that the U.S. must not work against the Protocol, or prevent other nations from joining.
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^ The preceding discussion suggests that policymakers should not set the social discount rate for intragenerational effects at a higher rate than the real rate of return on investments.
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^ State rejoins a Northeast greenhouse gas initiative , Boston Globe , Jan.
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[99] They also advocate commitment to the precautionary principle. .Critics point out that additional higher curbs on carbon emission are likely to cause significantly higher increase in cost, making such defense moot.^ Bush lied to the people during his campaign that he was going to reduce CO 2 emissions, then pushed through bills to increase them, such as the SUV tax subsidy.
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^ The executives were not opposed to mandatory carbon emissions limits, but were predictably concerned about increased utility charges.
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^ Oil company shills like to confuse the lay public by pointing out that CO 2 is a natural biological gas.
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.Moreover, the precautionary principle could apply to any political, social, economic or environmental consequence, which might have equally devastating effect in terms of poverty and environment, making the precautionary argument irrelevant.^ Its choice of discount rates has even greater impact on long-term global environmental issues such as ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect [ 5 ] .
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^ EarthTrends is a comprehensive online database, maintained by the World Resources Institute, that focuses on the environmental, social, and economic trends that shape our world.
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^ Thus, in considering the opportunity cost of environmental decisions, society must determine which are realistic political and social alternatives.
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The Stern Review (a UK government sponsored report into the economic impacts of climate change) concluded that one percent of global GDP is required to be invested to mitigate the effects of climate change, and that failure to do so could risk a recession worth up to twenty percent of global GDP.[100]

Discount rates

.One problem in attempting to measure the "absolute" costs and benefits of different policies to global warming is choosing a proper discount rate.^ The problems we have seen with determining the proper discount rate merely exemplify this.
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^ A. Intragenerational Time Preferences and the Social Discount Rate One rationale for discounting is a simple preference for a benefit today over the same benefit tomorrow.
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^ L. 1321 (1991) (analyzing another case involving asbestos and suggesting that feasibility analysis and cost-benefit analysis may lead to the same environmental policy conclusions).
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.Over a long time horizon such as that in which benefits accrue under Kyoto, small changes in the discount rate create very large discrepancies between net benefits in various studies.^ A. Intragenerational Time Preferences and the Social Discount Rate One rationale for discounting is a simple preference for a benefit today over the same benefit tomorrow.
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^ The President also directed agencies to conduct cost-benefit analyses of major legislative proposals, thus significantly expanding the role of cost-benefit analysis, and by implication, that of the discount rate.
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^ To state the major difference between the E.U. and the U.S. in the simplest way, in the E.U. there are climate change laws to apply (the E.U. has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and takes its commitments very seriously), and in the U.S. there are none, at least at the federal level.
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.However, this difficulty is generally not applicable to "relative" comparison of alternative policies under a long time horizon.^ For this generation to design democratic institutions that would keep a given social program in place for such long time periods would be even more difficult.
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^ A policy generally distributes those costs and benefits unequally over time, so simple comparison of gross costs and gross benefits would ignore the time value of money.
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^ Rather it is a procedure that can provide a crude but highly useful picture of the relative merits of alternative policies.
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.This is because changes in discount rates tend to equally adjust the net cost/benefit of different policies unless there are significant discrepancies of cost and benefit over time horizon.^ They concluded: There was a systematic White House effort to minimize the significance of climate change by editing climate change reports.
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^ However, the author believes that there is time to avoid the worst effects if governments make strong, deliberate policy choices.
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.It has been difficult to arrive at a scenario under which the net benefits of Kyoto are positive using traditional discounting methods such as the Shadow Price of Capital approach,[101].^ This is the so-called "shadow price of capital" approach.
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^ In its proposed discount rate revision, OMB suggests that the shadow price of capital approach "is the analytically preferred means of capturing the effects of Government projects on resource allocation in the private sector" but provides little further guidance for the use of this alternative in federal agencies' policy analysis.
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^ Proponents can make a stronger argument for the use of intergenerational equity as a constraint on discounting future benefits when the contemplated future benefit is the quality of natural resources passed to succeeding generation.
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Change in greenhouse gas emission since 1990

.Below is a list of the change in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007 for some countries that are part of the Climate Change Convention as reported by the United Nations.^ The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) released a report during the Nairobi COP-12/MOP-2 entitled Migratory Species and Climate Change: Impacts of a Changing Environment on Wild Animals on November 16, 2007.
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^ In April 2007, the Church of England published a pamphlet entitled How Many Lightbulbs Does it Take to Change a Christian , encouraging Christians to help stop climate change.
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^ On May 4, 2007, the State Department released a draft version of U.S. Climate Action Report 2006 .
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[102]
Country Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1990–2007)
excluding LULUCF
Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1990–2007)
including LULUCF
EU Assigned Objective
for 2012
Treaty Obligation 2008–2012
Denmark -3.3% -5.6% −20% −11%
Germany -21.3% -20.8% −21% −8%
Canada +26.2% +46.7% n/a −6%
Australia +30.0% +82.0% n/a +8%
Spain +53.5% +55.3% +15% −8%
Norway +10.8% -22.0% n/a +1%
New Zealand +22.1% +18.3% n/a 0%
France -5.3% -11.8% 0% −8%
Greece +24.9% +25.2% +25% −8%
Ireland +25.0% +22.6% +13% −8%
Japan +8.2% +8.2% n/a −6%
United Kingdom -17.3% -17.8% −12.5% −8%
Portugal +38.1% +30.8% +27% −8%
EU -4.3% -5.6% n/a −8%
.Below is a table of the changes in the CO2 emissions between 1992 and 2008 of 20 countries with the most (estimated) 2008 emissions[103], and other pertinent information.^ Due to a change in the accounting for MSW by the Environmental Protection Agency, future AEOs will estimate the Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the non-biomass portion of this fuel.
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^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
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^ Texas generates about 10% of the nations CO2 emissions, more than any other state, and has taken the position that government action, state or federal, is unnecessary.
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.Note that the 2008 emissions numbers from which the following table has been created are not actual published emission numbers, but are instead preliminary estimates [104] made by CDIAC[105] using some extrapolation methods[106].^ Economists generally use two methods to estimate society's willingness to pay to preserve a life.
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^ To evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the forecast, a comparison was made between the latest forecast for 1999 (from the AEO2000) and the estimated actual data for 1999 (Table 5).
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^ Note: Actual data for Carbon Dioxide Emissions and electricity generation for 1999 are preliminary.
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.The population data used for per-capita calculations is taken from US Census Bureau's international Data Base (IDB)[107].^ Any Party included in Annex I may use 1995 as its base year for hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride, for the purposes of the calculation referred to in paragraph 7 above.
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Country Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1992–2008)
2008 Per-Capita CO2 Emissions
(Metric Tonnes per person)
Share of Worldwide
CO2 Emissions
China +166.5% 5.3 22.2%
USA +16.8% 18.6 17.8%
India 124.1% 1.5 5.5%
Russia -23.1% 11.3 5.0%
Japan 8.5% 10.3 4.1%
Germany -17.0% 9.4 2.4%
Canada 20.5% 17.0 1.8%
UK -6.8% 8.9 1.7%
South Korea 81.8% 10.8 1.6%
Iran 98.5% 7.5 1.5%
Italy 5.6% 7.9 1.4%
Mexico 13.5% 4.1 1.4%
South Africa 36.0% 9.1 1.4%
Saudi Arabia 52.6% 15.5 1.4%
Brazil 84.1% 2.1 1.3%
France -4.4% 5.9 1.2%
Indonesia 78.9% 1.5 1.1%
Australia 18.8% 16.8 1.1%
Spain 42.6% 8.5 1.1%
Poland -2.8% 8.6 1.0%
Remaining Countries 45.1% 3.0 23.7%
World Total 41.7% 4.7 100.0%
.Comparing total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 to 1990 levels, the U.S. emissions were up by 15.8%,[108] with irregular fluctuations from one year to another but a general trend to increase.^ Generation increased an estimated 15.0 percent, with CO 2 emissions increasing a corresponding 15.7 percent.
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^ Greenhouse Gas Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures –2009 and Subsequent Model Passenger Cars, Light-Duty Trucks, and Medium-Duty Vehicles , was in fact filed on September 15, 2005, to be effective January 1, 2006.
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^ Most of the increase in CO 2 emissions from gas-fired plants was offset by the decline in CO 2 emissions from petroleum- and coal-fired plants.
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[109] .At the same time, the EU group of 23 (EU-23) Nations had reduced their emissions by 5%.^ Only the Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC, 22 countries and the EU-15, are required to reduce their emissions of GHGs under it.
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^ The initiative joined with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group [128] (a group of 23 cities world wide, formed in 2005 to reduce urban carbon emissions) to help large cities combat global warming.
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^ More information on the Communitys strategy to reduce car emissions can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/automotive/pagesbackground/pollutant_emission/index.htm .
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[110] .In addition, the EU-15 group of nations (a large subset of EU-23) reduced their emissions by 0.8% between 1990 and 2004, while emission rose 2.5% from 1999 to 2004. Part of the increases for some of the European Union countries are still in line with the treaty, being part of the cluster of countries implementation (see objectives in the list above).^ Bush lied to the people during his campaign that he was going to reduce CO 2 emissions, then pushed through bills to increase them, such as the SUV tax subsidy.
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^ The EU-15 used 1990 emissions as the base year for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and 1995 emissions for fluorinated gases for members except Finland and France, which selected 1990 as a base year for those gases.
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^ On May 7, 2007, the EEA reported that emissions of the EU-15 (members before the 2004 EU enlargement) declined by 0.8% in 2005 from 2004 levels, making their emissions only 1.5% lower than the 1990 base year, whereas their goal is an 8% reduction.
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.As of year-end 2006, the United Kingdom and Sweden were the only EU countries on pace to meet their Kyoto emissions commitments by 2010. While UN statistics indicate that, as a group, the 37 Kyoto signatory countries can meet the 5% reduction target by 2012, most of the progress in greenhouse gas reduction has come from the stark decline in Eastern European countries' emissions after the fall of communism in the 1990s.^ Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all greenhouse gas emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the Convention and application of market instruments; .
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^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
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^ The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of six primary greenhouse gases, which are: .
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[111]

2007 EIA Emissions Data

.The following table is based on the 2007 emissions data (CO2 emissions from the use of energy) published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), instead of the 2008 extrapolated estimates from CDIAC.^ The data on CO 2 emissions and the generation of electricity were collected and prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the report was jointly written by DOE and EPA to address the five areas outlined in the Presidential Directive.
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^ For more information on uncertainty in estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions , see Appendix C, "Uncertainty in Emissions Estimates," Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States, DOE/EIA-0573(98) (Washington, DC, October 1999).
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^ Actual: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and generation: Table 1; other data: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2000, DOE/EIA-0035(2000/04) (Washington, DC, April 2000); Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, May 2000 (EIA Web site, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html).
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The following data tables were used in preparing this table:[112],[113],[114],[115].
Country Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1992–2007)
2007 Per-Capita CO2 Emissions
(Metric Tonnes per person)
Share of 2007 Worldwide
CO2 Emissions
World Total 39.22% 4.52 100.0%
China 154.42% 4.75 21.01%
USA 18.09% 19.94 20.08%
Russia −17.41% 11.83 5.59%
India 110.99% 1.25 4.68%
Japan 17.13% 9.91 4.22%
Germany −7.09% 10.13 2.79%
Canada 21.62% 17.91 1.97%
UK -2.62% 9.28 1.89%
South Korea 75.34% 10.69 1.72%
Iran 108.83% 7.5 1.64%
Italy 10.9% 7.92 1.54%
Australia 67.8% 21.99 1.53%
Mexico 44.48% 4.17 1.51%
South Africa 40.11% 9.35 1.51%
Saudi Arabia 84.29% 15.73 1.45%
France 5.84% 6.36 1.35%
Brazil 67.22% 2.05 1.33%
Spain 50.8% 9.47 1.28%
Ukraine −33.8% 7.65 1.18%
Indonesia 76.38% 1.36 1.06%
Taiwan 133.01% 13.47 1.03%
Poland −8.71% 7.83 1.01%
Turkey 99.86% 3.71 0.93%
Netherlands 22.69% 15.78 0.87%
Thailand 145.82% 3.81 0.83%
Kazakhstan −18.26% 14.16 0.72%
Venezuela 53.65% 6.6 0.57%
UAE 67.49% 38.46 0.57%
Argentina 50.91% 4.14 0.55%
Egypt 70.34% 2.11 0.53%
Malaysia 116.3% 6.35 0.53%
Singapore 126.35% 33.86 0.52%
Belgium 15.59% 13.87 0.48%
Pakistan 97.02% 0.82 0.46%
Uzbekistan 27.52% 4.52 0.41%
Greece 35.02% 10.07 0.36%
Nigeria 9.97% 0.72 0.35%
Romania −20.83% 4.63 0.34%
Algeria 22.99% 3.03 0.34%
Remaining Countries 31.29% 1.68 9.24%

Successor

.In the non-binding 'Washington Declaration' agreed on 16 February 2007, Heads of governments from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, the United States, Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa agreed in principle on the outline of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol.^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
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^ The Group of 8 or the G8 is the Group of Seven (G-7) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States, which together account for about two-thirds of the world's economic output, plus Russia, since 1997.
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^ The 90-page Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada is available online.
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They envisage a global cap-and-trade system that would apply to both industrialized nations and developing countries, and hoped that this would be in place by 2009.[116][117]
.On 7 June 2007, leaders at the 33rd G8 summit agreed that the G8 nations would 'aim to at least halve global CO2 emissions by 2050'. The details enabling this to be achieved would be negotiated by environment ministers within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in a process that would also include the major emerging economies.^ "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
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^ The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
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^ The day the G8 summit opened on June 6 th , 2007, George Bushs senior climate adviser, James Connaughton, said the U.S. would not agree to Chancellor Angela Merkels goal of cutting GHG emissions by 50% by 2050.
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[118]
.A round of climate change talks under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Vienna Climate Change Talks 2007) concluded in 31 August 2007 with agreement on key elements for an effective international response to climate change.^ "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fourth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol and the fourth workshop under the dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention was held in Vienna, Austria, August 27-31, 2007.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119]
.A key feature of the talks was a United Nations report that showed how energy efficiency could yield significant cuts in emissions at low cost.^ Furthermore, a United Nations report released in May 2007 entitled Sustainable Bioenergy: A Framework for Decision Makers warns that switching to biofuels could lead to deforestation, which would result in a net increase in emissions.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Carbon Emissions , Carbon Dioxide Emissions , and Greenhouse Gas Emissions can be reduced or completely eliminated with renewable energy technologies , such as our Solar Energy Systems - including our super high efficiency Solar Cogeneration and Solar Trigeneration energy systems.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See Energy Roadmap Backs Renewables: Half of the world's energy needs in 2050 could be met by renewables and improved efficiency, a study claims , BBC News , Jan.
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The talks were meant to set the stage for a major international meeting to be held in Nusa Dua, Bali, which started on 3 December 2007.[120]
.The Conference was held in December 2008 in Poznań, Poland.^ United Nations negotiators to use in Poland at COP-14 in December 2008.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COP-14 and the Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP-4) took place in Poznań, Poland, on December 1-12, 2008.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps for that reason, the date for the first auction was pushed forward to September 10, 2008; the second was held on December 17th.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the main topics on this meeting was the discussion of a possible implementation of avoided deforestation also known as Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) into the future Kyoto Protocol.^ Russia: Regulations were drafted in January 2007 that would enable Russian companies to sell GHG emission credits through the Kyoto Protocols Joint Implementation mechanism.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the report claims that seven member states (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) will exceed their Kyoto Protocol emission limits and will have to find additional methods to reduce emissions, the reports conclude that the EU will meet its targets if all goes as planned.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the reports conclusions is that industrialized countries will need to intensify their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[121]
UN negotiations are now gathering pace in advance of a key meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.[122]

Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

.The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement among seven Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States.^ Who has ratified Kyoto already: 80+ countries have now ratified the Protocol, including 18 industrialised countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union EU plus the Czech Republic, Norway and Romania), Japan, Russia, China, India, Canada and New Zealand.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Accord 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agreement was that Canada and the USA would develop the high technology required, field test it, then sell it to India and China.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Accord 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the meantime, China and India would not do much damage compared with the developed countries.
  • Kyoto Accord 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Accord 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.mindprod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between them, these seven countries are responsible for more than half of the world's carbon dioxide emissions.^ Due to a change in the accounting for MSW by the Environmental Protection Agency, future AEOs will estimate the Carbon Dioxide Emissions attributed to the non-biomass portion of this fuel.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results showed that the Administration's proposal will reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 216 million metric tons in 2010.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report noted that the three states combined carbon emissions ranked 7 th as compared with other countries in the world (between Germany and the UK) [521] and suggested steps they could take to achieve a significant reduction in GHG emissions.
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.The partnership had its official launch in January 2006 at a ceremony in Sydney, Australia.^ The first meeting was held in Sydney, Australia, in January 2006.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alliance states that member nations have initiated nearly 100 projects aimed at clean energy capacity building and market formation since then[citation needed].^ The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan projected on October 12, 2007, that CO2 emissions from China will be 2.6 billion tons by 2030, nearly double their 2005 levels.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, the National Association of Evangelicals has also agreed to collaborate, but the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance and other conservative Christian groups have criticized the alliance.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a later meeting in October 2006, in Korea, nearly 100 individual projects aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions over the last few years were endorsed.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Building on these activities, long-term projects are scheduled to deploy clean energy and environment technologies and services.^ And on May 31, 2007, the premier of the Canadian province Ontario, Dalton McGuinty, signed a similar MOU to collaborate on clean energy technologies and policies, emissions trading programs, and energy efficient buildings and lighting.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EPAs page entitled: Clean Air and Energy Projects in China is: http://www.epa.gov/oia/airandclimate/byregion/chinaair.html .
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The APP was formed to accelerate the development and deployment of clean energy technologies; it will be consistent with and contribute to Partners efforts under the UNFCCC and will complement, but not replace, the Kyoto Protocol.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pact allows those countries to set arbitrary goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, without any enforcement mechanism for these goals.^ How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions You can easily and affordably reduce or eliminate your company's "carbon footprint."
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major distinction between the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize Greenhouse Gas Emissions , the Kyoto Protocol commits them to do so.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe the Court will recognize the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from cars and other sources.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supporters of the pact see it as "complementing the Kyoto Protocol" whilst being more flexible.^ See supra for the Kyoto Protocol.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As does the Kyoto Protocol, see supra.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC art.
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.Critics have said the pact will be ineffective without any enforcement measures and is a means to undermine the negotiations leading to the Protocol scheduled to replace the current Kyoto Protocol (negotiations started in Montreal in December 2005).^ The U.S. signature has little effect without ratification, but the signature does mean that the U.S. must not work against the Protocol, or prevent other nations from joining.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Senates vote, 95-0, [referring to the Byrd-Hagel Resolution] shows that there is a clear consensus that the Kyoto Protocol is an unfair and ineffective means of addressing global climate change concerns.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A report from the Prime Minister's Advisory Task Group on Emissions Trading released on June 1 said that Australia should begin to develop a GHG emissions trading scheme, but criticized the Kyoto Protocol and warned against damaging the Australian economy.
  • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U.S. Senator John McCain said the partnership "[amounted] to nothing more than a nice little public relations ploy,"[123] while the Economist described the partnership as "patent fig-leaf for the refusal of America and Australia to ratify Kyoto".[124]

See also

Action on climate change

Agreements

Business

Controversies

Emissions

Initiatives

References

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Further reading

  • Depledge, J. (August 1999/August 2000). ."Tracing the Origins of the Kyoto Protocol: An Article-by-Article Textual History".^ In this guide, I briefly summarize the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and discuss the sources one would use to research them, but I make no claim to originality there.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Participants pledged to review the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol in 2008 as required under Article 9 of the protocol to determine whether it adequately deals with increases in GHG emissions.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    UNFCCC Technical paper. .http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/tp/tp0200.pdf.^ The report is available at: http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/adverse_effects_and_response_measures_art_48/application/pdf/advance_unedited_african_wkshp_report.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ UNFCCCs science page is at: http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/items/2722.php .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/convention_bodies/constituted_bodies/items/2581.php .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2009-05-20
    .
     
  • Ekardt, F./von Hövel, A.: Distributive Justice, Competitiveness, and Transnational Climate Protection. In: Carbon & Climate Law Review, Vol. 3., 2009, p. 102–114.
  • Grubb, M. (July–September 2003). "The Economics of the Kyoto Protocol". World Economics 4 (3): 143–189. .http://www.ieta.org/ieta/www/pages/getfile.php?docID=129.^ AAASs home page is http://www.aaas.org/ ; their Global Climate-Change Resources page is: http://www.aaas.org/climate/ .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ UNFCCCs science page is at: http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/items/2722.php .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ DOEs FutureGen page is: http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/futuregen/ .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2009-08-08
    .
     
  • Gupta, S., D. A. Tirpak, N. Burger, J. Gupta, N. Höhne, A. I. Boncheva, G. M. Kanoan, C. Kolstad, J. A. Kruger, A. Michaelowa, S. Murase, J. Pershing, T. Saijo, A. Sari. B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds). (2007). "Policies, Instruments and Co-operative Arrangements. .In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation.^ In April 2007, the Church of England published a pamphlet entitled How Many Lightbulbs Does it Take to Change a Christian , encouraging Christians to help stop climate change.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In March 2007, the UK unveiled its draft Climate Change Bill , [682] which makes the Britain the first country to propose binding limits on CO2 emissions.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The 179-page draft Climate Change Bill from March 2007 can be found at: http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm70/7040/7040.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change".^ See also Climate Change: Sacramento Aims to Join Chicago Climate Exchange , 38 (1) BNA Environment Reporter 16 (Jan.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ IPCC: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the WMO and the UNEP to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more recent IPCC assessment reports, see infra under Online Scientific Resources Relating to Global Climate Change, Specific scientific materials .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cambridge University Press. .http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter13.pdf.^ The report is available at: http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/adverse_effects_and_response_measures_art_48/application/pdf/advance_unedited_african_wkshp_report.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The report is available in Italian at: http://www.legambiente.com/associazione/tnews.php?id=3584 .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The January 16, 2007, stay can be found at: http://www.communityrights.org/PDFs/OrderFiled_1-16-07.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2009-05-20
    .
     
  • Kogan, Lawrence A. (June 2002). ."The U.S. Response to the Kyoto Protocol – A Realistic Alternative?".^ Two voluntary programs were begun to implement it as an alternative to the mandatory efforts of the Kyoto Protocol that the administration believes would harm the economy.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In response, the UK Treasury proposed expansion of the current EU Emissions Trading Scheme to other sectors and gases, and expansion of the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development Mechanism.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Volume III, Number 2. .http://blogs.shu.edu/projects/diplomacy/archives/5_kogan.pdf.^ The 192-page study, The Future of Coal , can be found at: http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf ; an overview, including press releases and key findings, can be found at: http://web.mit.edu/coal/ .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Understanding and Responding to Climate Change is available at: http://dels.nas.edu/basc/Climate-HIGH.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2001-10-20
    .
     
  • Kogan, Lawrence A. (June 2007). ."Europe's Warnings on Climate Change Belie More Nuanced Concerns".^ See also, Andrew C. Revkin, New Warnings on Climate Change , New York Times , Jan.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The intent is for companies to become more active about reducing their effect on climate change, and for consumers to support with their business the companies that are.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rick Piltz, On Issues of Concern About the Governance and Direction of the Climate Change Science Program , June 2, 2005.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Institute for Trade, Standards and Sustainable Development. .http://www.itssd.org/White%20Papers/Europe_sWarningsonClimateChangeBelieMoreNuancedConcerns.pdf.^ AAASs home page is http://www.aaas.org/ ; their Global Climate-Change Resources page is: http://www.aaas.org/climate/ .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ USCAPs Blueprint is available at: http://gristmill.grist.org/images/user/6337/USCAP_Blueprint.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The UCSs Web page is: http://www.ucsusa.org/ .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2001-10-20
    .
     
  • Kogan, Lawrence A. and Vaclav Klaus (July 2007). ."Czech President Vaclav Klaus and ITSSD CEO Share Some Thoughts and Ambitions Concerning Freedom & Climate Change".^ See also, Bush 'must fight climate change': Chief executives of some of the largest companies in the U.S. have urged President George W Bush to introduce measures to tackle global warming , BBC News , Jan.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See Remarks Announcing the Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives in Silver Spring, Maryland , I Public Papers of the Presidents 226, 228 (Feb.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) , a multi-agency effort to develop climate change technology, was established in the Department of Energy to implement the President's NCCTI. [144] .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Institute for Trade, Standards and Sustainable Development (ITSSD) Journal on Economic Freedom. .http://itssdeconomicfreedom.blogspot.com/2008/05/following-e-mail-correspondences-took.html.^ B3; abstract is available at: http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/search.html .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A1, available at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9906E7D7153CF934A25753C1A9619C8B63 .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Schwarzenegger/Rell op-ed piece is available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/20/AR2007052001059_pf.html .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2001-10-20
    .
     
  • Liverman, D.M. (2008). ."Conventions of climate change: constructions of danger and the dispossession of the atmosphere".^ "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
    • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Charles Wald, ranked climate change among the top three security threats to the U.S., and stated that: "This is one of the most dangerous times in our history."
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Two other conventions related to climate change – the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) – debuted at the Rio conference.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Journal of Historical Geography 35: 279. doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2008.08.008. .http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/~dliverma/CV/JHGE07-17.pdf.^ MarClims Web site is: http://www.mba.ac.uk/marclim/ .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The January 16, 2007, stay can be found at: http://www.communityrights.org/PDFs/OrderFiled_1-16-07.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The report, American Voters and 40MPG Fuel Standards is available at: http://www.40mpg.org/pdfs/060607_CSI_40MPG_NOW_survey_report.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2009-08-08
    .
     
  • Weyant, J.P. (ed) (May 1999). "The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation". Energy Journal (Special issue). http://emf.stanford.edu/publications/the_costs_of_the_kyoto_protocol_a_multimodel_evaluation/. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  • Manne, A.S. and R. Richels. .The Kyoto Protocol: A Cost-Effective Strategy for Meeting Environmental Objectives?.^ Participants pledged to review the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol in 2008 as required under Article 9 of the protocol to determine whether it adequately deals with increases in GHG emissions.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ COP-14 and the Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP-4) took place in Poznań, Poland, on December 1-12, 2008.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Their interest is to develop an effective global climate protection policy for the period after the Kyoto Protocol expires.
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/38/53/1923159.pdf.^ Andersons testimony is at: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/7568_CCS_Senate_Testimony_Jan08.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See http://www.asiapacificpartnership.org/About.htm .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The 2003 Strategic Plan is available at: http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/stratplan2003/final/ccspstratplan2003-all.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2009-08-08
    .
     
  • Nordhaus, W.D. and J.G. Boyer. Requiem for Kyoto: An Economic Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol. .http://www.econ.unideb.hu/rendezvenyek/programsorozatok/szeminariumsorozat/nordhaus_boyer_Kyoto.pdf.^ The January 16, 2007, stay can be found at: http://www.communityrights.org/PDFs/OrderFiled_1-16-07.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The report, American Voters and 40MPG Fuel Standards is available at: http://www.40mpg.org/pdfs/060607_CSI_40MPG_NOW_survey_report.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The 244-page opinion can be found at this url in pdf: http://www.vtd.uscourts.gov/Supporting%20Files/Cases/05cv302.pdf .
    • GlobaLex - UPDATE: Global Warming: A Comparative Guide to the E.U. and the U.S. and Their Approaches to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2009-08-08
    .
     

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Contents

Preamble (not officially labeled as such)

The Parties to this Protocol,
Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as "the Convention",
In pursuit of the ultimate objective of the Convention as stated in its Article 2,
Recalling the provisions of the Convention,
Being guided by Article 3 of the Convention,
Pursuant to the Berlin Mandate adopted by decision 1/CP.1 of the
Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its first session,
Have agreed as follows:

Article I

.For the purposes of this Protocol, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply.^ For the purposes of this Protocol, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply.
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^ The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Protocol.
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^ For the purposes of this Protocol , the definitions contained in Article 1 of the ...
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In addition:
.1. "Conference of the Parties" means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.^ "Conference of the Parties" means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
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^ Conference of the Parties” means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
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^ Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its first session, .
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2. "Convention" means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992.
.3. "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" means the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established in 1988 jointly by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme.^ "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" means the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established in 1988 jointly by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme.
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^ Ten years earlier, scientists working through the World Meteorological Society and the United Nations established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to assess the science of climate change.
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^ Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change .
  • Online NewsHour: Global Warming Dispute -- June 14, 2001 9 October 2009 8:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.4. "Montreal Protocol" means the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, adopted in Montreal on 16 September 1987 and as subsequently adjusted and amended.^ Summary of the 19 th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer: 17-21 September 2007 .
  • Strengthened Ozone Treaty Provides Five Times Kyoto Treaty in 9 October 2009 8:53 UTC www.unep.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 16: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer signed in Montreal.
  • CBC News In Depth: Kyoto 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

^ (A major group of industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
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.5. "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.^ "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.
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^ Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.
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^ Article 19: The Protocol may be amended by consensus, if possible, or by "a three-fourths majority of the Parties present and voting."

.6. "Party" means, unless the context otherwise indicates, a Party to this Protocol.^ Party” means, unless the context otherwise indicates, a Party to this Protocol.
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^ "Party" means, unless the context otherwise indicates, a Party to this Protocol.
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^ The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of the entry into force of this Protocol.  Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall be held every year and in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.

.7. "Party included in Annex I" means a Party included in Annex I to the Convention, as may be amended, or a Party which has made a notification under Article 4, paragraph 2(g), of the Convention.^ The parties to the Protocol may or may not be the same as the Parties to the Convention.

^ "Party included in Annex I" means a Party included in Annex I to the Convention , as may be amended, or a Party which has made a notification under Article 4 , paragraph 2(g) , of the Convention .

^ Party included in Annex 1.
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Article 2

1. Each Party included in Annex I, in achieving its quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3, in order to promote sustainable development, shall:
(a) Implement and/or further elaborate policies and measures in accordance with its national circumstances, such as:
(i) Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy;
(ii) Protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, taking into account its commitments under relevant international environmental agreements; promotion of sustainable forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation;
(iii) Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture in light of climate change considerations;
(iv) Research on, and promotion, development and increased use of, new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies;
(v) Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all greenhouse gas emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the Convention and application of market instruments;
(vi) Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol;
(vii) Measures to limit and/or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in the transport sector;
(viii) Limitation and/or reduction of methane emissions through recovery and use in waste management, as well as in the production, transport and distribution of energy;
.(b) Cooperate with other such Parties to enhance the individual and combined effectiveness of their policies and measures adopted under this Article, pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 2(e)(i), of the Convention.^ Cooperate with other such Parties to enhance the individual and combined effectiveness of their policies and measures adopted under this Article, pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 2(e)(i), of the Convention.
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^ The individual and combined effectiveness of these policies is to be enhanced through cooperation and information exchange between parties.
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^ Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and .
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.To this end, these Parties shall take steps to share their experience and exchange information on such policies and measures, including developing ways of improving their comparability, transparency and effectiveness.^ To this end, these Parties shall take steps to share their experience and exchange information on such policies and measures, including developing ways of improving their comparability, transparency and effectiveness.
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^ The individual and combined effectiveness of these policies is to be enhanced through cooperation and information exchange between parties.
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^ "The adoption by Annex 1 Parties of the Protocol's policies and measures has a potential to have very significant adverse effects on all single commodity producing developing countries, a fact that has been recognized by the many provisions of Convention and the Protocol.
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.The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first session or as soon as practicable thereafter, consider ways to facilitate such cooperation, taking into account all relevant information.^ The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
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^ The frequency of subsequent submission of information required under this Article shall be determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, taking into account any timetable for the submission of national communications decided upon by the Conference of the Parties.
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^ Amendments to this Protocol shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
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.2. The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from aviation and marine bunker fuels, working through the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, respectively.^ Party included in Annex 1.
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^ Party Quantified emission limitation or .
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^ Emissions from "bunker" fuels (for international maritime or aviation use) are exempted from emissions limits.
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.3. The Parties included in Annex I shall strive to implement policies and measures under this Article in such a way as to minimize adverse effects, including the adverse effects of climate change, effects on international trade, and social, environmental and economic impacts on other Parties, especially developing country Parties and in particular those identified in Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention, taking into account Article 3 of the Convention.^ Such reviews shall be coordinated with pertinent reviews under the Convention, in particular those required by Article 4, paragraph 2(d), and Article 7, paragraph 2(a), of the Convention.
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^ Party included in Annex 1.
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^ Each Party included in Annex I shall strive to implement the commitments mentioned in paragraph 1 above in such a way as to minimize adverse social, environmental and economic impacts on developing Autonomous Systems, particularly those identified in Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention.
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.The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol may take further action, as appropriate, to promote the implementation of the provisions of this paragraph.^ The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
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^ Amendments to this Protocol shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.beaah.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Green Assembly Asia Environment:Climate Change » Kyoto Protocol (original) 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.greenassembly.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall decide on the acceptance of such notification.
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.beaah.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Green Assembly Asia Environment:Climate Change » Kyoto Protocol (original) 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.greenassembly.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, if it decides that it would be beneficial to coordinate any of the policies and measures in paragraph 1(a) above, taking into account different national circumstances and potential effects, shall consider ways and means to elaborate the coordination of such policies and measures.^ "Conference of the Parties" means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
  • KYOTO PROTOCOL 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC unfccc.int [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the implementation of Article 10, Parties shall take into account the provisions of Article 4, paragraphs 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of the Convention.
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
  • KYOTO PROTOCOL 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC unfccc.int [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.beaah.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Green Assembly Asia Environment:Climate Change » Kyoto Protocol (original) 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.greenassembly.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

Article 3

1. The Parties included in Annex I shall, individually or jointly, ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated pursuant to their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments inscribed in Annex B and in accordance with the provisions of this Article, with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases by at least 5 per cent below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012.
.2. Each Party included in Annex I shall, by 2005, have made demonstrable progress in achieving its commitments under this Protocol.^ Party included in Annex 1.
  • Guide to the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.sierraclub.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each Party included in Annex I shall, by 2006, have made demonstrable progress in achieving its commitments under this Protocol.
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Each Party included in Annex I shall, by 2005, have made demonstrable progress in achieving its commitments under this Protocol.
  • KYOTO PROTOCOL 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC unfccc.int [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.beaah.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Green Assembly Asia Environment:Climate Change » Kyoto Protocol (original) 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.greenassembly.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

3. The net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from direct human-induced land-use change and forestry activities, limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since 1990, measured as verifiable changes in carbon stocks in each commitment period, shall be used to meet the commitments under this Article of each Party included in Annex I. The greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks associated with those activities shall be reported in a transparent and verifiable manner and reviewed in accordance with Articles 7 and 8.
.4. Prior to the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, each Party included in Annex I shall provide, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, data to establish its level of carbon stocks in 1990 and to enable an estimate to be made of its changes in carbon stocks in subsequent years.^ Party included in Annex 1.
  • Guide to the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.sierraclub.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Protocol shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
  • KYOTO PROTOCOL 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC unfccc.int [Source type: Academic]

^ The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
  • KYOTO PROTOCOL 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC unfccc.int [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.beaah.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol to the Secret Working Group Framework Convention on BGP 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.potaroo.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Green Assembly Asia Environment:Climate Change » Kyoto Protocol (original) 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.greenassembly.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first session or as soon as practicable thereafter, decide upon modalities, rules and guidelines as to how, and which, additional human-induced activities related to changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks in the agricultural soils and the land-use change and forestry categories shall be added to, or subtracted from, the assigned amounts for Parties included in Annex I, taking into account uncertainties, transparency in reporting, verifiability, the methodological work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the advice provided by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice in accordance with Article 5 and the decisions of the Conference of the Parties.^ The net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from direct human-induced land-use change and forestry activities, limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since 1990, measured as verifiable changes in carbon stocks in each commitment period, shall be used to meet the commitments under this Article of each Party included in Annex I. The greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks associated with those activities shall be reported in a transparent and verifiable manner and reviewed in accordance with Articles 7 and 8.
  • KYOTO PROTOCOL 12 September 2009 12:012 UTC unfccc.int [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC kyotoprotocol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.beaah.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kyoto Protocol - Wikisource 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]
  • 1 What is the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.carbonwatch.com [Source type: Academic]
  • KyotoUSA 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.kyotousa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Green Assembly Asia Environment:Climate Change » Kyoto Protocol (original) 28 January 2010 0:15 UTC www.greenassembly.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Party included in Annex 1.
  • Guide to the Kyoto Protocol 2 February 2010 8:24 UTC www.sierraclub.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Protocol shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.