Lübeck: Wikis


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Coat of arms of Lübeck
Map of Germany, Position of Lübeck highlighted
Coordinates 53°52′11″N 10°41′11″E / 53.86972°N 10.68639°E / 53.86972; 10.68639
Country Germany
State Schleswig-Holstein
District Urban district
City subdivisions 35 Stadtbezirke
Mayor Bernd Saxe (SPD)
Governing party CDU
Basic statistics
Area 214.13 km2 (82.68 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m  (43 ft)
Population 213,983  (31 December 2005)
 - Density 999 /km2 (2,588 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate HL
Postal codes 23501 − 23570
Area codes 0451, 04502
Website www.luebeck.de
Hanseatic City of Lübeck*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Germany Luebeck St Petri Turm.jpg
Church of St Peter
State Party  Germany
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 272
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Hanseatic City of Lübeck (pronounced [ˈlyːbɛk]  ( listen), older [ˈlyːbeːk]) is the second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. It was for several centuries the "capital" of the Hanseatic League ("Queen of the Hanse") and because of its Brick Gothic architectural heritage is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 2005 it had a population of 213,983.

Situated at the Trave River, Lübeck is the largest German port on the Baltic Sea. The old part of the town is an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe-Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Hamburg and Denmark (Vogelfluglinie). The borough Travemünde is a sea resort and ferry port at the coast of the Baltic Sea.



The area around Lübeck was settled after the last Ice Age. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area.

In addition to this, around 700 AD Slavic peoples started to come into the eastern parts of Holstein which had been left by many Germanic inhabitants in the course of the Migration Period. By the early 9th century Charlemagne, whose Christianisation attempts were opposed by Saxons, moved Saxons out and brought in Polabian Slavs, who were allied to Charlemagne, in their stead. Liubice ("lovely") was founded on the Trave banks about four kilometres north of the present-day city centre of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. The settlement was burned down in 1128 by pagan Rani from Rügen.

The modern town was founded by Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, in 1143 as a German settlement on the river island Bucu. He established a new castle which was first mentioned by Helmold in 1147. Adolf had to cede the castle to Henry the Lion in 1158. After Henry's fall in 1181, the town became an Imperial city for eight years. Emperor Barbarossa gave the city a ruling council with twenty members that survived into the 19th century. This council was dominated by merchants and caused Lübeck's politics to be dominated by trade interests for centuries to come.

The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and was part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217 and part of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.

Lübeck's seal, 1280

Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and, later, Teutonic Order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to an Imperial Free City, becoming the Free City of Lübeck. In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of this mediaeval trade organization. In 1375, Emperor Charles IV. named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome, Pisa and Florence. Several conflicts about trade privileges were fought by Lübeck and the Hanseatic League against Denmark and Norway with varying outcomes. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck also joined the Schmalkaldic League.

After defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power slowly declined. Lübeck managed to remain neutral in the Thirty Years' War, but with the devastation caused by the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade, the Hanseatic League and thus Lübeck lost importance. After the Hanseatic League was de facto disbanded in 1669, Lübeck remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea.

The great composer Dieterich Buxtehude became organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck in 1668 and remained at the post until at least 1703.

In the course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on November 6, 1806. Under the Continental System, the bank went into bankruptcy and from 1811 to 1813 Lübeck was formally annexed as part of France until the Vienna Congress of 1815.

In 1937 the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act, where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg was expanded, to encompass towns that had formally belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck), the 711-year-long independence of Lübeck came to an end and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.

Lübeck, 15th century
Lübeck in 1641

During World War II, Lübeck was the first German city to be attacked in substantial numbers by the Royal Air Force. The attack on 28 March 1942 created a firestorm, that caused severe damage to the historic centre and the Bombing of Lübeck in World War II destroyed three of the main churches and greater parts of the built-up area. A POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, was located near the city from 1940 until April 1945. Lübeck was occupied without resistance by the British Second Army on 2 May 1945.

On 3 May 1945, one of the biggest disasters in naval history happened in the Bay of Lübeck when RAF bombers sank three ships which, unknown to them, were packed with concentration-camp inmates. About 7,000 people were killed.

Lübeck's population grew considerably from about 150,000 in 1939 to more than 220,000 after the war, owing to an influx of refugees expelled from the former Eastern provinces of Germany.

Lübeck remained part of Schleswig-Holstein after the war (and consequently lay within West Germany) and was situated directly at the inner German border during the division of Germany into two rival states in the Cold War period. South of the city the border followed the path of the river Wakenitz that separated both countries by less than 10 m (32.81 ft) in many parts. The northernmost border crossing was in Lübeck's district of Schlutup. Lübeck's restored historic city centre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.

Main sights

Town Hall
Fehmarnbelt Lightship in front of the Concert and Congress Center
Hospital of the Holy Spirit, one of the oldest social institutions of Lübeck (1260)
A typical crow-stepped gabled town house
St. Mary's Church, Lubeck


Much of the old town has kept a medieval look with old buildings and narrow streets. The town once could only be entered by passing one of four town gates, of which two remain today, the well-known Holstentor (1478) and the Burgtor (1444).

The old town centre is dominated by seven church steeples. The oldest ones are the Lübecker Dom (the city's cathedral) and the Marienkirche (Saint Mary's), both from the 13th and 14th centuries.

Other sights include:

Like many other places in Germany, Lübeck has a long tradition with Christmas market in December, which includes the famous handicrafts market inside the Heiligen-Geist-Hospital (Hospital of the Holy Spirit), located at the north end of Königstrasse.


Lübeck has many smaller museums like the St. Annen Museum, the Behnhaus and the Holstentor. Lübeck Museum of Theatre Puppets is a privately run museum. Waterside attractions are a lightvessel that served Fehmarnbelt and Lisa von Lübeck, a reconstruction of a Hanseatic 15th century caravel.

Food and drink

Lübeck is very famous for its excellent marzipan industry, and according to local legend, Marzipan was first made in Lübeck possibly in response to either a military siege of the city, or a famine year. The story, perhaps apocryphal, is that the town ran out of all foods except stored almonds and sugar, and used these to make loaves of marzipan "bread". Others believe that marzipan was actually invented in Persia a few hundred years before Lübeck claims to have invented it. The best known producer is Niederegger, which tourists often visit while in Lübeck, especially during Christmas time.

The Lübeck wine trade dates back to Hanseatic times. One Lübeck specialty is Rotspon, wine made from grapes processed and fermented in France and transported in wooden barrels to Lübeck, where it is stored, aged and bottled.


Lübeck has three universities, Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, University of Lübeck and Musikhochschule Lübeck. The Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences is a central facility of the University and is founded by the German Excellence Initiative. The International School of New Media is an affiliated institute at the University.

Notable people


The city of Lübeck is divided into 10 zones. These again are arranged into altogether 35 urban districts. The 10 zones with their official numbers, their associated urban districts and the numbers of inhabitants of the quarters:

  • 01 City center (~ 12,000 Inhabitants)
  • 02 St. Jürgen (~ 40,000 Inhabitants)
    • Hüxtertor / Mühlentor / Gärtnergasse, Strecknitz / Rothebek, Blankensee, Wulfsdorf, Beidendorf, Krummesse, Kronsforde, Niederbüssau, Vorrade, Schiereichenkoppel, Oberbüssau
  • 03 Moisling (~ 10,000 Inhabitants)
    • Niendorf / Moorgarten, Reecke, Old-Moisling / Genin
  • 04 Buntekuh (~ 10,000 Inhabitants)
  • 05 St. Lorenz-South (~ 12,000 Inhabitants)
  • 06 St. Lorenz-North (~ 40,000 Inhabitants)
    • Holstentor-North, Falkenfeld / Vorwerk / Teerhof, Großsteinrade / Schönböcken, Dornbreite / Krempelsdorf
  • 07 St. Gertrud (~ 40,000 Inhabitants)
    • Burgtor / Stadtpark, Marli / Brandenbaum, Eichholz, Karlshof / Israelsdorf / Gothmund
  • 08 Schlutup (~ 6,000 Inhabitants)
  • 09 Kücknitz (~ 20,000 Inhabitants)
    • Dänischburg / Siems / Rangenberg / Wallberg, Herrenwyk, Alt-Kücknitz / Dummersdorf / Roter Hahn, Poeppendorf
  • 10 Travemünde (~ 15,000 Inhabitants)
    • Ivendorf, Alt-Travemünde / Rönnau, Priwall, Teutendorf, Brodten

The industrial Lübeck-Herrenwyk area was until the beginning of 1990s the location of a big metallurgical plant. The gas produced by this plant was used for making electricity in the Lübeck-Herrenwyk power station. In 1992, the Lübeck-Herrenwyk power station was demolished after the bankruptcy and demolition of the metallurgical plant and since 1994 its site houses the static inverter plant of the HVDC Baltic-Cable.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Lübeck is twinned with:

Lubec, Maine, the easternmost town in the United States, is named after Lübeck.

See also



External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Lübeck article)

From Wikitravel

Holstentor Lübeck
Holstentor Lübeck

Lübeck [1] is the second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost state of Germany. The city borders the Baltic Sea (Ostsee); Hamburg lies 58 km (36 mi) to the southwest. The old city (Altstadt) survived from medieval times and is part of the UNESCO World Heritage List. Lübeck was historically an independent city state, and was the capital of the Hanseatic League. It became part of Germany after the Second World War. It is located on the Trave River, and is the largest German port city on the Baltic Sea.

Get in

By plane

There are connections to Lübeck Airport (LBC) [2] with Ryanair from London-Stansted, Dublin, Stockholm-Skavsta, Milan, Pisa, Barcelona-Girona, Frankfurt-Hahn, Palma de Mallorca, Alicante and Alghero. Wizz Air flies to Gdańsk from spring 2006 on.

Ryanair calls the airport Hamburg-Lübeck. The airport is a few kilometers outside the city centre but is easily accessed by car and public transport. There is a shuttle bus A20 to Hamburg ZOB (Zentraler Omnibus Bahnhof, central bus station) close to the HBF (Hauptbahnhof, central train station). The public bus number 6 connects the airport to Lübeck's main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) every 30 minutes, journey time is about 20 minutes. There is also a local train connection from the station "Lübeck Flughafen", the station is about 200 metres away from the terminal building, the train runs every hour and needs not more than 10 minutes to the main railway station. The airport Hamburg (HAM) is just one hour away, and you can find there many international destinations.

By road

Lübeck is about 60 km northeast of Hamburg and easily accessible by car through the Autobahn A1. With the opening of the new highway A20 (Baltic Sea highway) to Rostock the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania is only a very short distance away.

By rail

Trains from/to Hamburg and Kiel leave on an hourly basis. Other trains leave for Copenhagen, Schwerin and Lüneburg.

By boat

Finnlines [3] operates ferries from Lübeck's coastal borough Travemünde to Finland and Sweden and other Baltic Sea countries, with lines eg to Trelleborg and Malmö. If you arrive in Travemünde, you can take a train or bus to the city centre.

Get around

From a sight-seeing point of view, it is best to go around Luebeck by foot. In fact you may find posters around Luebeck with a caption like "Luebeck: The place of short distances"!

There is a local bus service hub at the Hauptbahnhof/ZOB (central rail station) with services to all parts of the town and nearby towns. Taxis are available nearly everywhere but have got their price. Within the city centre walking is by far the best way to get around.

Tourist information can be obtained in the city hall (Rathaus, Breite Straße) or at the "Welcome Centre", opposite Holstentor.

You can take a virtual tour to view the points of interest on CityPanoramas Luebeck [4]

Windows in old Luebeck
Windows in old Luebeck

The main attraction is the medieval Altstadt (old city) located on an island surrounded by the Trave river and channels. Listed as an UNESCO heritage site [5], it offers an astonishing variety of different architectural styles. The streets of Luebeck are a delight for a connaisseur of architecture.

Bear in mind that Lübeck's Altstadt is not an open-air museum but a living city centre, so don't expect a complete medieval sight. You'll find many beautiful old buildings intertwined with modern ones and a modern infrastructure. A particularly well-preserved 13th c. part of the Altstadt is the Koberg area at the island's northern end. And don't miss the Gänge, small streets off the bigger roads, with small houses and a peculiar atmosphere.

Noteworthy historical buildings include:

  • The churches, housing several of the finest Northern German artworks:
    • St. Marien or Marienkirche: the biggest one, a fine brick gothic building, located near the Rathaus [6] (city hall) at the very centre of the Altstadt;
    • the Dom: very nicely situated on the quiet southern end of the island, contains a wooden crucifix by Bernd Notke;
    • St. Petri or Petrikirche, near Marienkirche: its tower platform (to be reached by an elevator) offers a great view over the city, and if weather conditions allow it you can even see Travemünde (17 km to the north-east);
    • St. Jakobi or Jakobikirche: north of St. Marien, at the Koberg;
    • St. Aegidien or Aegidienkirche: the smallest one, in the eastern Altstadt;
    • St. Katharinen or Katharinenkirche (without a tower): south of St. Jakobi, contains works of Ernst Barlach;
  • The two remaining city gates: Holstentor (near train station/ZOB bus terminal) and Burgtor (northern Altstadt); they both contain museums nowadays;
    Buildings in Luebeck
    Buildings in Luebeck
  • Heiligen-Geist-Hospital near Koberg;
  • Classicist Behnhaus/Drägerhaus in Königstraße, hosting an art museum;
  • The Rathaus or city hall: its architecture is a stylistic potpourri reaching back to the 12th c. Note that it is still the seat of the city administration and not a museum, so you're not expected to have a look inside on your own. But there are guided tours every hour or so where the many historic rooms and the gallery of city leaders' portraits are explained (in German and possibly other languages).

There are two houses dedicated to Lübeck's two literature nobel prize laureates: The Buddenbrookhaus is dedicated to the brothers Thomas and Heinrich Mann, who spent their youth there, and contains many of their works. It's near Marienkirche, in Mengstraße. Then there is the Günter-Grass-Haus (of The Tin Drum fame) in Glockengießerstraße.

The Museumshafen (museal port) between Beckergrube and the Musik- und Kongreßhalle building features some old-fashioned ships, among them a rebuilt Hanseatic kraweel ("Lisa von Lübeck")—more so in winter, because many of these ships are still in use during summer.

The borough of Moisling has a special Jewish history. An old Jewish cemetery is still to be found there.

  • Walk around the Altstadt and enjoy the the charming atmosphere of the former queen of the Hanseatic League.
  • The Lübeck Tourism site [7] offers excellent guidance on self guided tours as well as guided tours.
  • Take a bus/boat ride to Travemünde, a sea side resort and enjoy the view of the Baltic Sea. A bus journey is preferred, as it would take about 20 minutes. A boat ride however, would be much more scenic. For further information, enquire at the "Welcome Center" at the Holstentor.
  • Visit the newly restored St.-Annen-Museum and the Buddenbrookhaus for some cultural experience.
  • Take a seat on one of the tourist boats and ship around the city (boats go off every hour or so on the Holstentor side of the Altstadt island). For example you get a beautiful view of the Salzspeicher (Hanseatic salt warehouses; fans of classic horror movies might be interested by the fact that one of these Salzspeicher was the house of Count Nosferatu both in the Murnau film and the Werner Herzog remake with Klaus Kinski). If you've got more time to spent ship on along the Wakenitz river which links the Trave river with the Ratzeburg lake. Parts of the river offer an astonishing flora.
  • Go to the Cafe Niederegger [8] (Breite Straße) and fill your stomach with marzipan and cakes
  • Theater Lübeck: Beckergrube;
  • Puppet theatre;
  • several smaller theatres.
  • Stadthalle (southern Altstadt): mainstream;
  • Filmhaus (Königstraße, vis-à-vis Katharinenkirche): the special and off-beat film cinema;
  • Kommunales Kino (Mengstraße): niche films.

Luebeck.de > Aktuelles > Kinoprogramm [9] keeps an updated programme for all cinemas in town.

Note that almost all films are dubbed in Germany, including Hollywood productions. Kommunales Kino is an exception, showing many subtitled films.

If you are visiting Lübeck during autumn, you might want to check out the Nordische Filmtage (Nordic film days), a festival where films from Northern Europe (especially Scandinavia) are shown in all cinemas, most of them in the original languages with German or sometimes English subtitles. Get a festival programme in one of the cinemas.

Clubs and discotheques

Normally they don't cater to a special scene but have themes and playlists changing on a daily basis. Have a look at the respective web pages or at Piste Lübeck [10] for a programme. If you are in Lübeck, you can get a free printed copy of Piste magazine in newspaper shops or some restaurants.

In Germany the normal age to be admitted into a club/disco is 18 years or older.

  • A1 Musikpark [11], Lohmühle;
  • Body & Soul [12]: on a boat in the Trave river along Kanalstraße (has 1 Tablesoccer-Table) - The Body&Soul hast closed, but opens from time to time for special events!;
  • Hüx [13]: Hüxstraße;
  • Parkhaus [14]: Hüxstraße (vis-à-vis Hüx; has 2 Tablesoccer-Tables);
  • Abaco [15], not in Lübeck but in the suburban Stockelsdorf

There are two more or less regular goth parties in Lübeck: Darkness Party [16] in Treibsand [17] and Schwarze Zone [18] in the Burgtor (see above). Since 2005, the Schwarze Zone Party is over, while DarknessParty still lives (for over 12 years now).

  • July: Travemünder Woche sailing festival in Travemünde;
  • August: Duckstein Festival;
  • November/December: Artificers' market on Koberg;
  • July to September: Sand World sand sculpture exposition Travemünde;
  • December/January: Ice World ice sculpture exposition (Willy-Brandt-Allee);
  • December: Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas fair) at central market place, mediaeval market at St. Marien.
  • Lübecker Marzipan is the most famous export from the City. It is available in several varieties. The excellent Cafe Niederegger [19] has outlets throughout the city. It's main store on the Alter Markt is a tourist attraction in its own right. It includes a museum dedicated to the Manufacture of Marzipan as well as many Marzipan sculptures.
  • Walk down the Hüxstrasse and the "Fleischhauerstrase", Luebeck's famous shopping streets and enjoy shopping. You may find artists, painting various interpretations of the Holstentor, which make an excellent souvenir.
  • Rotspon wine, available in nearly every shop.
  • Souvenirs and Lübeck-related literature can be purchased eg at the Rathaus bookshop (between market place and Marienkirche).


There are several restaurants within the city centre which will satisfy most tastes. At the top is Michelin starred Wullenwever [20]. Other good options include Markgraf [21] and Schabbelhaus [22] while the most popular spot for tourists is the Schiffergesellschaft [23]. If you're in for locally brewed beer, check out the slightly Bavarian-themed Brauberger in Alfstraße. Lübeck is well-known for its high density of cafés and "Kneipen" (~pubs), so peep into some of the smaller streets as well and look if you find something that fits your taste. Shortys Cantina [24] has some special TexMex Food you have to try.


There are many traditional bars in Lübeck, but if you're after a bit of international "big city" vibe, Cole Street - Bar Cafe Gallery - on Beckergrube 18, right next to the theatre, is a great find. Cool design, music and regularly changing contemporary art exhibitions. Check colestreets site [25] for their latest info. You might also want to check out NUI the great Thai & Japanese Restaurant at the bottom of Beckergrube.

  • RuckSack Hotel, [26]. Friendly and helpful owner. Clean and well kept rooms at a good price. Opposite is Aldi food store and next to the hostel/hotel is a restaurant. Located on north side of old town next to river. Can get off bus 6 (airport bus) at Sandstrasse or Kongnistrasse and walk to hostel.  edit
  • Ibis Hotel Lübeck, Fackenburger Allee 54 23554 Lübeck, [27]. Budget hotel located quite close to the Main railway station.  edit

Lübeck offers a large variety of hotels. Booking in advance is always advisable, especially during the summer. There are two youth hostels, one is a little bit east of the Altstadt (Am Gertrudenkirchhof 4; Tel: 0451/33433; Fax: 0451/34540), the other within the Altstadt (Mengstr. 33, 23552 Lübeck; Tel: 0451/7020399; Fax: 0451/77012). At the upmarket end are the Radisson SAS and Mövenpick hotel with superb views of the Altstadt.

Get out

There are several options to spend your time around Lübeck.

  • Sea-side towns for sun & beaches are:
  • Travemünde Still part of Lübeck and only a 15-20 minute drive away
  • Timmendorfer Strand /Niendorf about 20-30 minutes and a more stylish resort and very popular with people from Hamburg

Somewhat north of Travemünde is a cliff (Brodtener Ufer) that has a hiking way from Travemünde to Niendorf (1-1,5 hrs walk) with good views on the Baltic coastline. Niendorf/Ostsee is somewhat more cosy and family oriented with its fishery port and a new renovated public swimming pool and a well-known bird zoo (Vogelpark Niendorf, situated in a small nature resort).

The Baltic coast resorts in Mecklenburg Pommerania are about 1-2 hrs drive on the Autobahn A20 away and might be worth a day trip

For nature lovers a trip to the lakes south of Lübeck may be of interest as there are great opportunities for bird-watching (eg the Ratzeburger See and the Schaalsee).Ratzeburg (with its Ernst-Barlach and A.-Paul-Weber museums) and Mölln are also worth a visit, especially as they are easily accessible by train. Near Ratzeburg is also one of the rare places to see the nearly extinct European bison—not a very spectacular facility, just some buffaloes on a pasture, but if you're in the area and have never seen one you might want to look out for the "Wisentgehege".

If you're travelling on northwards to Kiel, consider a (train) stop in one of the three small towns of Eutin, Plön, and Preetz. Among other sites, each of them boasts a "Schloß" or former aristocratic mansion. The towns are situated in a lake district which is popular for rambling and canoeing in summer (you can eg rent a canoe in Plön and go to Preetz by Schwentine River and through various lakes, then the canoe-centre people will get you and your canoe back to Plön by car).

And don't forget that it's just a mere 50 minutes by train to Hamburg (they go each hour).

During the summer the Schleswig-Holstein music festival [28] is one of the largest events in northern Germany. An abundance of concerts with world-famous artists and orchestras attracts many people every year.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



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  1. A city in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany


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