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Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

Carl von Linné, Alexander Roslin, 1775. Currently owned by and displayed at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Born May 23, 1707(1707-05-23)[a 1]
Råshult, Älmhult, Sweden
Died January 10, 1778 (aged 70)
Uppsala, Sweden
Residence Sweden
Nationality Swedish
Fields Zoology, Medicine, Botany
Alma mater Lund University
Uppsala University
University of Harderwijk
Known for Taxonomy
Ecology
Botany
Author abbreviation (botany) L.
Signature
Notes
Linnaeus adopted the name Carl von Linné after his 1761 ennoblement awarded him the title von. He is the father of Carolus Linnaeus the Younger.

Carl Linnaeus [a 2] (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus [a 3], also known after his ennoblement as About this sound Carl von Linné , 23 May [O.S. 12 May] 1707 – 10 January 1778) was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology.

Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. His father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent last name; prior to that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries. His father adopted the Latin-form name Linnaeus after a giant linden tree on the family homestead. Linnaeus got most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures of botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735–1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden where he became professor of botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was renowned throughout Europe as one of the most acclaimed scientists of the time.

The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."[1] The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly."[1] Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist".[2]

In botany, the author abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for species names is simply L.

Contents

Name

The Coat of Arms of Carl von Linné. featuring his favorite plant named in his honor, Linnaea borealis.
Doorway to the summer home bedroom of Linnaeus showing his personal motto, "Innocue vivito, numen adest", Live righteously- the deity is present.

When referring to or citing the author Linnaeus, it is appropriate to use 'Carl Linnaeus', 'Carolus Linnaeus' or just 'Linnaeus'. 'Carl von Linné' seems to be less suitable, especially for the works he published before 1762. On the title page of the second edition of Species Plantarum (1762) the author's name is still printed as 'Carolus Linnaeus' (or rather the genitive form 'Caroli Linnaei') but from then on, his name is quite consistently printed as 'Carolus v. Linne' or 'Carl von Linné'. Stafleu uses 'Carl Linnaeus' as the author's name for all his works.[3] In Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries, he is commonly known by his ennobled name Carl von Linné.

The adjectival form of his name is usually 'Linnaean'; however the world's premier taxonomy society is named the Linnean Society of London, and publishes the journal The Linnean, awards the Linnean Medal, and so on.

Biography

Early life

Statue of Linné outside the public library in Lund

Linnaeus was born on the farm Råshult, located in Älmhult Municipality, in the province of Småland in southern Sweden, on May 23, 1707. He was groomed as a youth to be a churchman, walking in his father's path, but showed little enthusiasm for it. There are accounts that he learned Latin as a mother tongue along with Swedish rather than at school. In 1717 he was sent to the primary school at the city Växjö, and in 1724 he passed to the gymnasium there, but with meager results in the clerical faculty. Instead his interest in botany made an impression on a local physician, who realized there might be a future in the field for the young Linnaeus, and on his recommendation Linnaeus's father sent his son to study at the closest university, Lund University. Linnaeus studied in Lund and tried to make something of the botanical garden there, but because it had been neglected, it was suggested to him that he would have better prospects at the Uppsala University; Linnaeus left for Uppsala within a year.[4]

His time in Uppsala was financially rough—too poor to buy shoes, he repaired discarded shoes and wore them[5] -- until he became acquainted with the renowned scientist Olof Celsius, uncle of astronomer Anders Celsius who created the temperature scale that was given his name. Celsius, impressed with Linnaeus's knowledge and botanical collections, offered him board and lodging.[4]

During this period, he came upon a work which ultimately led to the establishment of his artificial system of plant classification. This was a review of Sébastien Vaillant's Sermo de Structura Florum (Leiden, 1718), a thin quarto in French and Latin. Through this, he became convinced of the importance of the stamens and pistils, about which he wrote a short treatise on the sexes of plants in 1729. This caught the attention of Olof Rudbeck the Younger (1660-1740), the professor of botany in the university, who subsequently appointed Linnaeus his adjunct. In 1730, Linnaeus began giving lectures in the faculty.[4]

In 1732 the Academy of Sciences at Uppsala financed Linnaeus on an expedition to Lappland in northernmost Sweden, then virtually unknown. The result of this was first The Florula Lapponica (the first work to use the Sexual System) and later the Flora Lapponica published in 1737. His journey to sub-Arctic Lapland is notable for exotic and adventurous episodes.

Carl Linnaeus dressed in Lapp costume. Portrait made in Netherlands, by Martin Hoffman in Hartecamp, 1737[6]

Travel and research

In 1735 Linnaeus moved to the Netherlands, where he was to spend the next three years. Here he earned his only academic degree, at the University of Harderwijk, in 6 days. This degree in Medicine consisted of a three day printing job of his botanical notes in Latin. He made friends with the botanist David de Gorter. He also met the drugist Albertus Seba and the botanist Jan Frederik Gronovius and showed him a draft of his work on taxonomy, the Systema Naturae. This was published in the Netherlands the same year, as an eleven page work.[7] Linnaeus stayed in the Netherlands for 12 months, until he made a journey to London in 1736, where he visited Oxford University and met several highly regarded people, such as the physicist Hans Sloane, the botanist Philip Miller and the professor of botany J. J. Dillenius. The journey lasted a few months, after which he returned to Amsterdam, and continued the printing of his Genera Plantarum, the starting point of his taxonomy.

View of Hartekamp from the Leiden-Haarlem canal, with the famous 'Hortus Cliffortianus' or garden of George Clifford in Heemstede as it is today

In 1737 Linnaeus spent a year studying and working on Hartekamp, the estate in Heemstede of George Clifford, a wealthy Amsterdam banker introduced to him by Herman Boerhaave. Clifford had many business connections with Dutch merchants and collected plants from around the world. His garden was famous. Linnaeus published the description of Clifford's garden as Hortus Cliffortianus. In 1738, the work was done, and he started his journey back home. On his way he stayed in Leiden for a year, during which he had his Classes Plantarum printed; then travelling to Paris, before setting sail for Stockholm.[7]

Back in Sweden

Returning to Sweden in 1738, he practiced medicine (specializing in the treatment of syphilis) and lectured in Stockholm before being awarded a professorship at Uppsala in 1741. At Uppsala, in the University's botanical garden, he arranged the plants according to his system of classification; he then made three more expeditions to various parts of Sweden and inspired a generation of students. Linnaeus continued to revise his Systema Naturae, which grew from a slim pamphlet into a multivolume work, as his ideas were evolving and more and more plant and animal specimens were sent to him from every corner of the globe. His pride in his work was very much evident; he thought of himself as a second Adam. He liked to say ' Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit, ' Latin for, "God created, Linnaeus organized". This self-perception was further shown by the artwork on the cover of his Systema Naturae, which depicts a man giving Linnaean names to new creatures as they are created in the Garden of Eden.[8]

Wedding portrait of Linnaeus painted by J.H. Scheffel in 1739. Considered scandalous because he is showing some abdominal skin.

Arriving in Stockholm, he settled as a physician. In September 1739 Linnaeus married Sara Elisabeth Morea (Moræaus) and the marriage took place at her family farm Sveden outside Falun; Sara he had met on one of his first scientific journeys to the county of Dalarna already five years earlier 1734. In 1739 he was one of the founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Kungliga vetenskapsakademin). In 1741 he ascended to the chair of medicine at Uppsala and moved there. The position was soon exchanged for the chair of botany.[7]

In 1743-44, Linnaeus designed today's thermometer scale by reversing that invented by Anders Celsius; originally 100 was the melting point of ice and 0 the boiling point of water.[9] Throughout the 1740s he conducted numerous field trips to many locations in Sweden to classify plants and animals: in 1741 to Stora Alvaret on Öland and also to Gotland; in 1746 to Västergötland; and in 1749 to Scania including visits to Kullaberg. The reports of each travel were published in Swedish to be accessible to the general public. Apart from containing many important reports of common life of that time, the reports have in recent years been appreciated for their fine treatment of language, putting Linnaeus as one of the foremost Swedish writers of the 18th century.[10]

The Linnaean garden has been maintained and can still be visited in Uppsala today

When not on travels, Linnaeus worked on his classifications, extending them to the kingdom of animals and the kingdom of minerals. The last may seem somewhat odd, but the theory of evolution was still a long time away. Linnaeus was only attempting a convenient way of categorizing the elements of the natural world.

The Swedish king, Adolf Fredrik, granted Linnaeus nobility in 1757, and after the privy council finally had confirmed this (in 1761 after a few years of discussions) Linnaeus took the surname von Linné, later often signing just Carl Linné.

In some portraits of Linnaeus, including three with this article, he is shown bearing a sprig of Twinflower, one of his favorite plants, named in his honor in his lifetime, by Jan Frederik Gronovius (1686-1762), Dutch botanist notable as a patron of Linnaeus, as Linnaea borealis. It is the only species in its genus, and, as it is circumboreal, it can be encountered in cool northern regions of both the Old World and the New.

Last years

The Linnaeus summer home at Hammarby, south of Uppsala.
Tombstone of father and son Linnaeus in Uppsala Cathedral

After his apotheosis, he continued teaching and writing. His reputation had spread over the world, and he corresponded with many different people. For example, Catherine II of Russia sent him seeds from her country.[11] He also corresponded with Joannes A. Scopoli, "the Linnaeus of the Austrian Empire", who was a doctor and a botanist in Idrija, Duchy of Carniola (nowadays Slovenia). Scopoli communicated all of his research, findings, and descriptions (for example, olm and dormouse, two little animals which were not known to Linnaeus) to him for several years, but because of the great distance they were never able to meet. Linnaeus named for him the solanaceous genus Scopolia from which scopolamine is derived.[12][13]

Of Linnaeus' seven children, five reached adult age: four girls and one boy. Only the boy, Carolus Linnaeus the Younger, was allowed to study. He did not have the same passion as his father, but managed to make a reputation in botany. At the father's death, the son succeeded him as professor; however, he died only five years later. The son is commonly referred to as filius (abbreviated "L. f.") to distinguish him from his famous father.[11]

Linnaeus' last years were troubled by weak health, and he suffered from gout and tooth aches.[11] A stroke in 1774 greatly weakened him, and two years later he suffered another, losing the use of his right side. He died in January 1778 in Uppsala, during a ceremony in Uppsala Cathedral. He was buried in the cathedral.[14]

Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaeus's main contribution to taxonomy was to establish conventions for the naming of living organisms that became universally accepted in the scientific world—the work of Linnaeus represents the starting point of binomial nomenclature. In addition Linnaeus developed, during the great 18th century expansion of natural history knowledge, what became known as the Linnaean taxonomy; the system of scientific classification now widely used in the biological sciences.

The Linnaean system classified nature within a hierarchy, starting with three kingdoms. Kingdoms were divided into Classes and they, in turn, into Orders, which were divided into Genera (singular: genus), which were divided into Species (singular: species). Below the rank of species he sometimes recognized taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank (for plants these are now called "varieties").

His groupings were based upon shared physical characteristics. Only his groupings for animals remain to this day, and the groupings themselves have been significantly changed since Linnaeus' conception, as have the principles behind them. Nevertheless, Linnaeus is credited with establishing the idea of a hierarchical structure of classification which is based upon observable characteristics. While the underlying details concerning what are considered to be scientifically valid 'observable characteristics' has changed with expanding knowledge (for example, DNA sequencing, unavailable in Linnaeus' time, has proven to be a tool of considerable utility for classifying living organisms and establishing their relationships to each other), the fundamental principle remains sound.

Description of mankind

Monument to Carolus Linnaeus at the Madrid Royal Botanical Garden.

Linnaeus presented a concept of "race" as applied to humans, also including mythological creatures. Within Homo sapiens he proposed five taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank. These categories were Africanus, Americanus, Asiaticus, Europeanus, and Monstrosus. They were based on place of origin at first, and later on skin colour.[15] Each race had certain characteristics that he considered endemic to individuals belonging to it. Native Americans were choleric, red, straightforward, eager and combative. Africans were phlegmatic, black, slow, relaxed and negligent. Asians were melancholic, yellow, inflexible, severe and avaricious. Europeans were sanguine and pale, muscular, swift, clever and inventive. The "monstrous" humans included such entities as the "agile and fainthearted" dwarf of the Alps, the Patagonian giant, and the monorchid Hottentot.[16]

In addition, in Amoenitates academicae (1763), he defined Homo anthropomorpha as a catch-all term for a variety of human-like mythological creatures, including the troglodyte, satyr, hydra, and phoenix. He claimed that these creatures not only actually existed but were in reality inaccurate descriptions of real-world ape-like creatures.[citation needed]

He also, in Systema Naturæ, defined Homo ferus as "four-footed, mute, hairy". Included in this classification were Juvenis lupinus hessensis (wolf boys), who he thought were raised by animals, Juvenis hannoveranus (Peter of Hanover) and Puella campanica (Wild-girl of Champagne).

Upsetting to theologians

Linnaeus' research took science on a path that diverged from what had been taught by religious authorities; rebuke followed. The Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala accused him of impiety.[17] The Catholic Church went further; Pope Clement XIII banned the works of Linnaeus by listing them in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum in 1758 and also condemned copies to be burned.[18] Linnaeus was aware of the theological tension that would be generated by grouping humans with animals; in a letter to Johann Georg Gmelin dated February 25, 1747, Linnaeus wrote:

  • Original Latin[19]

Non placet, quod Hominem inter ant[h]ropomorpha collocaverim, sed homo noscit se ipsum. Removeamus vocabula. Mihi perinde erit, quo nomine utamur. Sed quaero a Te et Toto orbe differentiam genericam inter hominem et Simiam, quae ex principiis Historiae naturalis. Ego certissime nullam novi. Utinam aliquis mihi unicam diceret! Si vocassem hominem simiam vel vice versa omnes in me conjecissem theologos. Debuissem forte ex lege artis.

  • English Translation[20]

It does not please [you] that I've placed Man among the Anthropomorpha, but man learns to know himself. Let's not quibble over words. It will be the same to me whatever name we apply.[21] But I seek from you and from the whole world a generic difference between man and simian that [follows] from the principles of Natural History. I absolutely know of none. If only someone might tell me a single one![22] If I would have called man a simian or vice versa, I would have brought together all the theologians against me.[23] Perhaps I ought to have by virtue of the law of the discipline.

Bibliography

Systema Naturae

Title page of the 1760 edition of Systema Naturae

The first edition of Systema Naturae was printed in the Netherlands in 1735. It was an eleven page work. By the time it reached its 10th edition (1758), it classified 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants. In it, the unwieldy names mostly used at the time, such as "Physalis annua ramosissima, ramis angulosis glabris, foliis dentato-serratis", were supplemented with concise and now familiar "binomials", composed of the generic name, followed by a specific epithet - in the case given, Physalis angulata. These binomials could serve as a label to refer to the species. Higher taxa were constructed and arranged in a simple and orderly manner. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was developed by the Bauhin brothers (see Gaspard Bauhin and Johann Bauhin) almost 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was the first to use it consistently throughout the work, also in monospecific genera, and may be said to have popularized it within the scientific community.

Linnaeus named taxa in ways that personally struck him as common-sensical; for example, human beings are Homo sapiens (see sapience). He also briefly described a second human species, Homo troglodytes ("cave-dwelling man"). This was however likely a confusion originating from exaggerated second- or third-hand accounts of the chimpanzee (currently most often placed in a different genus, as Pan troglodytes). The group "mammalia" are named for their mammary glands because one of the defining characteristics of mammals is that they nurse their young.

Species Plantarum

Species Plantarum (or, more fully, Species Plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas) was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work. Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today.

In 1754 Linnaeus divided the plant Kingdom into 25 classes. One, Cryptogamia, included all the plants with concealed reproductive parts (algae, fungi, mosses and liverworts and ferns).[24]

Genera Plantarum

Genera plantarum: eorumque characteres naturales secundum numerum, figuram, situm, et proportionem omnium fructificationis partium was first published in 1737, delineating plant genera. It reached its sixth edition by 1764.

Systema Plantarum

Systema Plantarum was a work published in 1779 that integrated the botanical aspects of Systema Naturae with Species Plantarum (and, defacto, Genera Plantarum) to make a complete work. This work actually presented the fourth edition of Species Plantarum.

Students

Linnaeus imbued his students with his own thoroughness in an atmosphere of enthusiasm, trained them to close and accurate observation, and then sent them to various parts of the globe. Some of the notable students and expeditions include Pehr Kalm's visit to North America 1748–1751; Daniel Solander, traveling first with James Cook's expedition to the Pacific in 1768, then in 1771 to Iceland, the Faroes and Orkney; Fredric Hasselquist, who visited Palestine and parts of Asia Minor; and Carl Peter Thunberg, journeying to Japan, South Africa, Java, and Sri Lanka.

Honors

In 1986, a new Swedish 100 kronor note was introduced. The note features a motif of Linnaeus on the front with a sketch of the Linnaeus garden in Uppsala in the background, drawings of pollinated plants from Linnaeus' Præludia Sponsaliarum Plantarum (1729), and Linnaeus' motto in microtext, which reads OMNIA MIRARI ETIAM TRITISSIMA (Find wonder in all things, even the most common place).

The backside of the note shows a bee pollinating a flower created using a photo by Lennart Nilsson, with a background showing stylized images of the fertilisation of flowers, along with a reconstruction of how a flower appears through the multi-faceted eyes of a fly.

Linnaeus University

On 1 January, 2010, Växjö University and Kalmar College will merge, forming the new Linnaeus University. The university will have two campuses, one in Växjö, and one in Kalmar. The merger has been approved by the Parliament of Sweden.[25]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Carl Linnaeus was born in 1707 on May 13th (Swedish Style) or 23rd according to our present calendar. Accordning to the Julian calendar he was born on May 12th. (Blunt 2004, p. 12)
  2. ^ Carl Linnaeus father, Nils, was born a patronymic with the family name Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson. However, when Nils was entering the university he had to take on a family name. Since a lime tree stood on land belonging to Nils' family he chose the name Linnaeus after the Swedish name for lime tree, "lind". (Blunt, 2004, 12) When Carl Linnaeus was born he was therefore named Carl Linnaeus, taking his father's family name. (Blunt, 2004, 13)
  3. ^ When Carl Linnaeus enrolled in private school as student at the University of Lund, he was registered as 'Carolus Linnaeus'. This Latinized form was the name he used when he published his works in Latin. (Stearn, 1753, Volume I: 14) After he was ennobled, in 1761, he took the name Carl von Linné. 'Linné' is thus a shortened version of 'Linnaeus', and 'von' is added to signify his ennoblement. (Blunt, 2004, 171)

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "What people have said about Linnaeus", Uppsala University website "Linné on line" English language version.
  2. ^ Linnaeus deceased Uppsala University website "Linné on line" English language version.
  3. ^ Stafleu, F.A. (1976-1998) Taxonomic Literature second edition. An authoritative work on the names of botanists, their works and publication data, issued under the auspices of the IAPT.
  4. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, article Linnaeus. Suggested direct-link: [1], accessed September 1.
  5. ^ Houston and Ball, Eighteenth-century naturalists of Hudson Bay, Montreal 2003
  6. ^ Sörling & Fagerstedt, p.32
  7. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, article Linnaeus. Suggested direct-link: [2], accessed September 1 2006.
  8. ^ This stems from the biblical passage Genesis 2:19 which reads in the Authorized King James Version: And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. [3]
  9. ^ Linnaeus' thermometer at the Uppsala Universitet
  10. ^ Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature (1989), p.43
  11. ^ a b c Uppsala University, Linné Online, English language version
  12. ^ Soban, Branko (January 2005). "A Living Bond between Idrija and Uppsala". Slovenija.svet. Slovene Emigrant Association. http://www.theslovenian.com/articles/soban.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  13. ^ Scopoli, Giovanni Antonio. Joannes A. Scopoli-Carl Linnaeus. Dopisovanje/Correspondence 1760-1775, ed. Darinka Soban. Ljubljana, 2004: Slovenian Natural history society. 
  14. ^ 1911 Encyclopedica Britannica
  15. ^ "Page 29 of Linnaeus's Systema naturae per regna tria naturae". Google Books. 1767. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ix0AAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage#PPA29,M1. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  16. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus: Systema Naturae (1767), p. 29
  17. ^ Aczel, Amir D. (October 2007). The Jesuit and the Skull: Teilhard de Chardin, Evolution, and the Search for Peking Man. Riverhead Books (part of Penguin Group). ISBN 1594489564. 
  18. ^ Soulsby, Basil H. (1933). A Catalogue of the Works of Linnaeus in the British Museum (2nd Edition). British Museum. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/linnaeus-link/documents/bibliography/index.html.  This reference appears as a note to item "1223*" in "XI. Zoological Works.—Appendix." which may be viewed on page 6 of 8 in this PDF file: [4] It continues, noting that the complete ban was only partially lifted a decade and a half later as the result of an appeal by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada to Clement XIII's successor, Pope Clement XIV.
  19. ^ The Linnean Correspondence
  20. ^ For alternate translations, see [5] or near the bottom of [6]
  21. ^ Gmelin had expressed his dissatisfaction with this choice in an earlier letter on the ground that it seemed illogical to call man himself human-like. (See the Linnean Correspondence.) In the 1758 edition of Systema Naturae Linnaeus replaced the term Anthropomorpha with Primates.
  22. ^ In Linnaeus: The Man and his Work (1983) by Tore Frängsmyr (ed.), Linnaeus is quoted (see this page) as having at some point suspected that a distinguishing characteristic might be if it were to be found that only "the apes have a gap between their fangs and their other teeth," however even if this were the case (it was then in dispute and required "further investigation"), it was very minor and not what he considered the real difference anyway, which would necessarily be absent from his classification system as it was not a morphological characteristic: "I well know what a spendidly great difference there is [between] a man and a bestia [literally, "beast"; that is, a non-human animal] when I look at them from a point of view of morality. Man is the animal which the Creator has seen fit to honor with such a magnificent mind and has condescended to adopt as his favorite and for which he has prepared a nobler life".
    Others who followed were more inclined to give humans a special place in classification; Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History (1779), proposed that the primates be divided into the Quadrumana (four-handed, i.e. apes and monkeys) and Bimana (two-handed, i.e. humans). This distinction was taken up by other naturalists, most notably Georges Cuvier. Some elevated the distinction to the level of order. However, the many affinities between humans and other primates — and especially the great apes — made it clear that the distinction made no scientific sense. Charles Darwin wrote, in The Descent of Man in 1871:
    The greater number of naturalists who have taken into consideration the whole structure of man, including his mental faculties, have followed Blumenbach and Cuvier, and have placed man in a separate Order, under the title of the Bimana, and therefore on an equality with the orders of the Quadrumana, Carnivora, etc. Recently many of our best naturalists have recurred to the view first propounded by Linnaeus, so remarkable for his sagacity, and have placed man in the same Order with the Quadrumana, under the title of the Primates. The justice of this conclusion will be admitted: for in the first place, we must bear in mind the comparative insignificance for classification of the great development of the brain in man, and that the strongly-marked differences between the skulls of man and the Quadrumana (lately insisted upon by Bischoff, Aeby, and others) apparently follow from their differently developed brains. In the second place, we must remember that nearly all the other and more important differences between man and the Quadrumana are manifestly adaptive in their nature, and relate chiefly to the erect position of man; such as the structure of his hand, foot, and pelvis, the curvature of his spine, and the position of his head.
  23. ^ The conflict between worldviews based on science and theology that was caused by asserting that man was a type of animal would simmer for a century until the much greater, and still ongoing, creation–evolution controversy began in earnest with the publication of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin in 1859.
  24. ^ Hoek, C.van den, Mann, D.G. and Jahns, H.M. 2005. Algae An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 30419 9
  25. ^ About Linnaeus University, Linnaeus University website.
  26. ^ "Author Query". International Plant Names Index. http://www.ipni.org/ipni/authorsearchpage.do. 

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Brightwell, C. L. A Life of Linnaeus. London: J. Van Voorst, 1858.
  • Hovey, Edmund Otis. The Bicentenary of the Birth of Carolus Linnaeus. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1908.
  • Sörlin & Fagerstedt, Linné och hans lärjungar, 2004. ISBN 91-27-35590-X
  • J.L.P.M. Krol, Linneaus' verblijf op de Hartekamp In: Het landgoed de Hartekamp in Heemstede. Heemstede, 1982. ISBN 90-70712-01-6
  • "A Passion for Order", article published in National Geographic Magazine June 2007 edition about Linnaeus, commemorating the 300th anniversary of his birth.
  • Linneaus plays a significant role in the short story entitled "Rare Bird" by Andrea Barrett (which appears in her 1996 anthology "Ship Fever").

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Abbreviation

L.

  1. A botanical plant name author abbreviation for botanist Carl von Linnaeus (1707-1778).

External links


English

Abbreviation

L.

  1. Latin
  2. pound sterling

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Carolus Linnaeus article)

From Wikispecies

Carolus Linnaeus
autograph of Carolus Linnaeus
English: Carolus Linnaeus, commonly known as Linnaeus and Linné (Carl von Linné) (23 May 1707 - 10 January 1778). Swedish biologist. As botanist is his abbreviation L. and as zoologist Linnaeus. Founder of the modern classification system for all living organisms.
Deutsch: Carl von Linné (vor der Erhebung in den Adelsstand Carl Nilsson Linnæus; * 23. Mai 1707 in Råshult bei Älmhult; † 10. Januar 1778 in Uppsala) war ein schwedischer Naturwissenschaftler, der mit der binominalen Nomenklatur die Grundlagen der modernen botanischen und zoologischen Taxonomie schuf. Sein offizielles botanisches Autorenkürzel lautet „L.“. In der Zoologie wird „Linnaeus“ als Autorenkürzel verwendet.

Linné setzte sich als Student in seinem Manuskript Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum mit der noch neuen Idee von der Sexualität der Pflanzen auseinander und legte mit diesen Überlegungen den Grundstein für sein späteres Wirken. Während seines Aufenthaltes in Holland entwickelte er in Schriften wie Systema Naturae, Fundamenta Botanica, Critica Botanica und Genera Plantarum die theoretischen Grundlagen seines Schaffens. Während seiner Tätigkeit für George Clifford in Hartekamp konnte Linné zum ersten Mal viele seltene Pflanzen direkt studieren, und schuf mit Hortus Cliffortianus das erste nach seinen Prinzipien geordnete Pflanzenverzeichnis. Nach der Rückkehr aus dem Ausland arbeitete Linné für kurze Zeit als Arzt in Stockholm. Er gehörte hier zu den Gründern der Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und war deren erster Präsident. Mehrere Expeditionen führten ihn durch die Provinzen seiner schwedischen Heimat und trugen zu seiner Anerkennung bei.

Ende 1741 wurde Linné Professor an der Universität Uppsala und neun Jahre später deren Rektor. In Uppsala führte er seine enzyklopädischen Anstrengungen, alle bekannten Mineralien, Pflanzen und Tiere zu beschreiben und zu ordnen, weiter. Seine beiden Werke Species Plantarum (1753) und Systema Naturae (in der zehnten Auflage von 1758) sind noch heute für die biologische Nomenklatur von Bedeutung.
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Carolus Linnaeus on Wikimedia Commons.







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