LAN: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Local area network article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network over a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or an airport. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.

ARCNET, Token Ring and many other technologies have been used in the past, and G.hn may be used in the future, but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently in use.

Contents

History

As larger universities and research labs obtained more computers during the late 1960s, there was an increasing pressure to provide high-speed interconnections. A report in 1970 from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory detailing the growth of their "Octopus" network[1][2] gives a good indication of the situation.

Cambridge Ring was developed at Cambridge University in 1974[3] but was never developed into a successful commercial product.

Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975,[4] and filed as U.S. Patent 4,063,220. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published their seminal paper, "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks."[5]

ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977.[6] It had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York.[7]

Standards evolution

The development and proliferation of CP/M-based personal computers from the late 1970s and then DOS-based personal computers from 1981 meant that a single site began to have dozens or even hundreds of computers. The initial attraction of networking these was generally to share disk space and laser printers, which were both very expensive at the time. There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be “the year of the LAN”.

In practice, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical Layer and network protocol implementations, and a plethora of methods of sharing resources. Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system. A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for dozens of competing card/cable types, and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors. Netware dominated[8] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups.

Of the competitors to NetWare, only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths, but Banyan never gained a secure base. Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share, Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server. None of these were particularly successful, Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, Intergraph, NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking. Although this market segment is now much reduced, the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS X networking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX, AppleTalk, NBF and other protocols used by the early PC LANs.

Cabling

Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of coaxial cable, but IBM's Token Ring used shielded twisted pair cabling of their own design, and in 1984 StarLAN showed the potential of simple Cat3 unshielded twisted pair—the same simple cable used for telephone systems. This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most LANs today. In addition, fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used.

Technical aspects

Switched Ethernet is the most common Data Link Layer implementation on local area networks. At the Network Layer, the Internet Protocol has become the standard. However, many different options have been used in the history of LAN development and some continue to be popular in niche applications. Smaller LANs generally consist of one or more switches linked to each other—often at least one is connected to a router, cable modem, or ADSL modem for Internet access.

Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic with VLANs. Larger LANS also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, and sensors.[9]

LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or by tunneling across the Internet using virtual private network technologies. Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN, and the distance involved, a LAN may also be classified as metropolitan area network (MAN) or wide area networks (WAN).

See also

References

External links




Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to LAN Airlines article)

From Wikitravel

LAN[1] is a Chile-based airline, and is one of the largest airlines in South America.

Key airports

LAN's main hub is Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport in Santiago, while other focus cities include Buenos Aires, Quito, Guayaquil, Lima and Miami.

Aircraft

56 Airbus A320 200 Boeing 747-400ER

Alliances

LAN is a member of the Oneworld Alliance.

This article is still a stub and needs your attention. It does not have a template. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Acronym

Singular
LAN

Plural
LANs

LAN (plural LANs)

  1. (computing) acronym for "Local Area Network", as contrasted with a WAN, or Wide Area Network. An interconnection of computers that are in relatively close proximity to each other, such as within a building.
    A LAN connects all of the computers in our office.
  2. (computing) A network on which all devices communicate using OSI model device layer addressing; (Internet) A network on which all communication is delivered by way of MAC address. A network which is not routed.

Usage notes

Translations

See also

  • (Internet) ARP

Related terms

Anagrams


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to The Computer Revolution/Networks/LAN article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< The Computer Revolution
  • What LAN is

LAN stands for local area network. A local area network represents a small or large area such as a building or even a class room .All the computers within a designated area are linked to the LAN and can access a common device such as a printer.

  • Where LAN is used

Local area networks are used in many different ways and in many different scenarios. For instance LAN can be within a large office building with more than thirty computers all in the same LAN. However LAN can be accommodated to smaller areas, such as setting up a LAN connection between two playstations for establishing a system link. This permits LAN to be used from small personal business's to large corporations. But requires proper installations and maintenance to allow LAN to properly run in a large scale operation. instance LAN can be within a large office building with more than thirty computers all in the same LAN. However LAN can be accommodated to smaller areas, such as setting up a LAN connection between two playstations for establishing a system link. This permits LAN to be used from small personal business's to large corporations. But requires proper installations and maintenance to allow LAN to properly run in a large scale operation.

  • Why LAN is used

LAN is used depending on the application that is needed. Using LAN for an entire company that is spread word wide is just not practical. However were LAN becomes useful is when it allows a certain number of computers to all belong to the same network and communicate within that network. This allows LAN to become a more accessible and quicker way of communication, with very little chance of any delay. Although this is not to say a user cannot experience delay through LAN. As the number of computers increases on a certain LAN, the speed of the resulting connection begins to become diluted.

  • An alternative to LAN

An alternative to LAN would be WAN, WAN stands for wide area network and in principle works like LAN. But on a much larger scale. WAN also incorporates many LAN connections and can identify with the internet. However LAN and WAN do have there differences in speed, reliability and access.


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

An acronym for Local Area Network. A LAN consists of multiple computers or game systems connected, each unit acting as a cross between a server and a client, forming a cluster that is only accessed by itself.

LAN Parties

Common during the era of Quake, gamers would often assemble at a location (computers included) and link them together. These parties would often last for hours on end, its participants finally dispersing when either the refreshments ran out or people began to fall asleep on ther keyboards.

Organisations like SurreyGaming.co.uk are setting up LAN Gaming Sessions (LAN PArties) all over Surrey.

Stub
This article is a stub. You can help by adding to it.

Stubs are articles that writers have begun work on, but are not yet complete enough to be considered finished articles.


This article uses material from the "LAN" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message