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LaTeX
The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX
Original author(s) Leslie Lamport
Platform Cross-platform
Type Typesetting
License LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL)
Website latex-project.org

LaTeX (pronounced /ˈleɪtɛk/, /ˈleɪtɛx/, /ˈlɑːtɛx/, or /ˈlɑːtɛk/) is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as \LaTeX.

LaTeX is most widely used by mathematicians, scientists, engineers, philosophers, linguists, economists and other scholars in academia and the commercial world, and other professionals.[1][2] As a primary or intermediate format (e.g. translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF), LaTeX is used because of the high quality of typesetting achievable by TeX. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout and bibliographies. LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX. LaTeX essentially comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the TeX formatting commands are very low-level, it is usually much simpler for end-users to use LaTeX.

LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International.[3] It has become the dominant method for using TeX—relatively few people write in plain TeX anymore. The current version is LaTeX2e (styled \LaTeXe).

The term LaTeX refers only to the language in which documents are written, not to the editor used to write those documents. In order to create a document in LaTeX, a .tex file must be created using some form of text editor. While most text editors can be used to create a LaTeX document, a number of editors have been created specifically for working with LaTeX.

Distributed under the terms of the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL), LaTeX is free software.

Contents

Typesetting system

LaTeX is based on the idea that authors should be able to focus on the content of what they are writing without being distracted by its visual presentation. In preparing a LaTeX document, the author specifies the logical structure using familiar concepts such as chapter, section, table, figure, etc., and lets the LaTeX system worry about the presentation of these structures. It therefore encourages the separation of layout from content while still allowing manual typesetting adjustments where needed. This is similar to the mechanism by which many word processors allow styles to be defined globally for an entire document or the use of Cascading Style Sheets to style HTML.

LaTeX can be arbitrarily extended by using the underlying macro language to develop custom formats. Such macros are often collected into packages, which are available to address special formatting issues such as complicated mathematical content or graphics. Indeed, in the example below, the align environment is provided by the amsmath package.

Example

The example below shows the LaTeX input and corresponding output:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\title{\LaTeX}
\date{}
\begin{document}
  \maketitle 
  \LaTeX{} is a document preparation system for the \TeX{} 
  typesetting program. It offers programmable desktop publishing 
  features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of 
  typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and 
  cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout, bibliographies, 
  and much more. \LaTeX{} was originally written in 1984 by Leslie 
  Lamport and has become the dominant method for using \TeX; few 
  people write in plain \TeX{} anymore. The current version is 
  \LaTeXe.
 
  % This is a comment; it is not shown in the final output.
  % The following shows a little of the typesetting power of LaTeX
  \begin{align}    E &= mc^2                              \\
    m &= \frac{m_0}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}}
  \end{align}
\end{document}
LaTeX output

Pronouncing and writing "LaTeX"

LaTeX can also be used to produce vector graphics.

LaTeX is usually pronounced /ˈlɑːtɛk/ or /ˈleɪtɛk/ in English (that is, not with the /ks/ pronunciation English speakers normally associate with X, but with a /k/). The characters T, E, X in the name come from capital Greek letters tau, epsilon, and chi, as the name of TeX derives from the Greek: τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuth promotes a /tɛx/ pronunciation[4] (that is, with a voiceless velar fricative as in Modern Greek, or the last sound of the German word "Bach", similar to the Spanish "j" sound, or as ch in loch). Lamport, on the other hand, has said he does not favor or discourage any pronunciation for LaTeX.

The name is traditionally printed with the special typographical logo shown at the top of this page. In media where the logo cannot be precisely reproduced in running text, the word is typically given the unique capitalization LaTeX to avoid confusion with the word "latex". The TeX, LaTeX [5] and XeTeX [6] logos can be rendered via pure CSS and XHTML for use in graphical web browsers following the specifications of the internal \LaTeX macro.[7]

Licensing

LaTeX is typically distributed along with plain TeX. It is distributed under a free software license, the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL). The LPPL is not compatible with the GNU General Public License, as it requires that modified files must be clearly differentiable from their originals (usually by changing the filename); this was done to ensure that files that depend on other files will produce the expected behavior and avoid dependency hell. The LPPL is DFSG compliant as of version 1.3. As free software, LaTeX is available on most operating systems including Unix (Linux, BSDs, Mac OS X), Windows, RISC OS and AmigaOS.

Related software

As a macro package, LaTeX provides a set of macros for TeX to interpret. There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt.

When TeX "compiles" a document, the processing sequence (from the user's point of view) goes like this: Macros > TeX > Driver > Output. Different implementations of each of these steps are typically available in TeX distributions. Traditional TeX will output a DVI file, which is usually converted to a PostScript file. More recently, Hàn Thế Thành and others have written a new implementation of TeX called pdfTeX, which also outputs to PDF and takes advantage of features available in that format. The XeTeX engine developed by Jonathan Kew merges modern font technologies and Unicode with TeX.

The default font for LaTeX is Knuth's Computer Modern, which gives default documents created with LaTeX the same distinctive look as those created with plain TeX. XeTeX allows to use OpenType and TrueType (that is, outlined) fonts for output files.

There are also many editors for LaTeX, listed in section See also.

Versions

LaTeX2e is the current version of LaTeX. As of 2010, a future version called LaTeX3, started in the early 1990s, is still in development.[8] Planned features include improved syntax, hyperlink support, a new user interface, access to arbitrary fonts, and new documentation.[9]

There are numerous commercial implementations of the entire TeX system. System vendors may add extra features like additional typefaces and telephone support. LyX is a free, WYSIWYM visual document processor that uses LaTeX for a back-end. TeXmacs is a free, WYSIWYG editor with similar functionalities as LaTeX but a different typesetting engine. Other WYSIWYG editors that produce LaTeX include Scientific Word on MS Windows.

A number of TeX distributions are available, including TeX Live (multiplatform), teTeX (deprecated in favour of TeX Live, Unix), fpTeX (deprecated), MiKTeX (Windows; for Linux in the upcoming version 2.8), MacTeX, gwTeX (Mac OS X), OzTeX (Mac OS Classic), AmigaTeX (no longer available) and PasTeX (AmigaOS, available on the Aminet repository).

See also

References

  1. ^ "What are TeX, LaTeX and friends?". http://www.ctan.org/what_is_tex.html. 
  2. ^ Alexia Gaudeul (March 27, 2006). "Do Open Source Developers Respond to Competition?: The (La)TeX Case Study". http://ssrn.com/abstract=908946. 
  3. ^ Leslie Lamport (April 23, 2007). "The Writings of Leslie Lamport: LaTeX: A Document Preparation System". Leslie Lamport's Home Page. http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/pubs.html#latex. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  4. ^ Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison–Wesley, Boston, 1986, p. 1.
  5. ^ O'Connor, Edward. "TeX and LaTeX logo POSHlets". http://edward.oconnor.cx/2007/08/tex-poshlet. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  6. ^ Taraborelli, Dario. "CSS-driven TeX logos". http://nitens.org/taraborelli/texlogo. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  7. ^ Walden, David (2005-07-15). "Travels in TeX Land: A Macro, Three Software Packages, and the Trouble with TeX". The PracTeX journal (3). http://www.tug.org/pracjourn/2005-3/walden-travels/. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  8. ^ See e.g. [1]. Furthermore, all LaTeX3 components actually carry the copyright notice "(C) 1990-2006 LaTeX3 project", e.g. [2].
  9. ^ Frank Mittelbach, Chris Rowley (January 12, 1999). "The LaTeX3 Project" (PDF). http://www.latex-project.org/guides/ltx3info.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 

Further reading

  • Griffiths, David F.; Highman, David S. (1997). Learning LaTeX. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ISBN 0-898-71383-8. 
  • Kopka, Helmut; Daly, Patrick W. (2003). Guide to LaTeX (4th ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-321-17385-6. 
  • Lamport, Leslie (1994). LaTeX: A document preparation system: User's guide and reference. illustrations by Duane Bibby (2nd ed.). Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-52983-1. 
  • Mittelbach, Frank; Goosens, Michel (2004). The LaTeX Companion (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-36299-6. 

External links


LaTeX
Original author(s) Leslie Lamport
Platform Cross-platform
Type Typesetting
License LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL)
Website latex-project.org

LaTeX (pronounced /ˈleɪtɛk/, /ˈleɪtɛx/, /ˈlɑːtɛx/, or /ˈlɑːtɛk/) is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as . The term LaTeX refers only to the language in which documents are written, not to the editor used to write those documents. In order to create a document in LaTeX, a .tex file must be created using some form of text editor. While most text editors can be used to create a LaTeX document, a number of editors have been created specifically for working with LaTeX.

LaTeX is most widely used by mathematicians, scientists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, linguists, economists, researchers, and other scholars in academia.[1][2] As a primary or intermediate format, e.g., translating DocBook and other XML-based formats to PDF, LaTeX is used because of the high quality of typesetting achievable by TeX. The typesetting system offers programmable desktop publishing features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout and bibliographies.

LaTeX is intended to provide a high-level language that accesses the power of TeX. LaTeX essentially comprises a collection of TeX macros and a program to process LaTeX documents. Because the TeX formatting commands are very low-level, it is usually much simpler for end-users to use LaTeX.

LaTeX was originally written in the early 1980s by Leslie Lamport at SRI International.[3] It has become the dominant method for using TeX—relatively few people write in plain TeX anymore. The current version is LaTeX2e (styled ).

As it is distributed under the terms of the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL), LaTeX is free software.

Contents

Typesetting system

LaTeX is based on the idea that authors should be able to focus on the content of what they are writing without being distracted by its visual presentation. In preparing a LaTeX document, the author specifies the logical structure using familiar concepts such as chapter, section, table, figure, etc., and lets the LaTeX system worry about the presentation of these structures. It therefore encourages the separation of layout from content while still allowing manual typesetting adjustments where needed. This is similar to the mechanism by which many word processors allow styles to be defined globally for an entire document or the use of Cascading Style Sheets to style HTML.

LaTeX can be arbitrarily extended by using the underlying macro language to develop custom formats. Such macros are often collected into packages, which are available to address special formatting issues such as complicated mathematical content or graphics. Indeed, in the example below, the align environment is provided by the amsmath package.

Example

The example below shows the LaTeX input and corresponding output:

\documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \title{\LaTeX} \date{} \begin{document}

 \maketitle 
 \LaTeX{} is a document preparation system for the \TeX{} 
 typesetting program. It offers programmable desktop publishing 
 features and extensive facilities for automating most aspects of 
 typesetting and desktop publishing, including numbering and 
 cross-referencing, tables and figures, page layout, bibliographies, 
 and much more. \LaTeX{} was originally written in 1984 by Leslie 
 Lamport and has become the dominant method for using \TeX; few 
 people write in plain \TeX{} anymore. The current version is 
 \LaTeXe.
 % This is a comment; it is not shown in the final output.
 % The following shows a little of the typesetting power of LaTeX
 \begin{align}
   E &= mc^2                              \\
   m &= \frac{m_0}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}}
 \end{align}

\end{document}

Pronouncing and writing "LaTeX"

.]]

LaTeX is usually pronounced /ˈlɑːtɛk/ or /ˈleɪtɛk/ in English (that is, not with the /ks/ pronunciation English speakers normally associate with X, but with a /k/). The characters T, E, X in the name come from capital Greek letters tau, epsilon, and chi, as the name of TeX derives from the Greek: τέχνη (skill, art, technique); for this reason, TeX's creator Donald Knuth promotes a pronunciation of /tɛx/ (tekh)[4] (that is, with a voiceless velar fricative as in Modern Greek, similar to the last sound of the German word "Bach", the Spanish "j" sound, or as ch in loch). Lamport, on the other hand, has said he does not favor or discourage any pronunciation for LaTeX.

The name is traditionally printed with the special typographical logo shown at the top of this page. In media where the logo cannot be precisely reproduced in running text, the word is typically given the unique capitalization LaTeX. The TeX, LaTeX [5] and XeTeX [6] logos can be rendered via pure CSS and XHTML for use in graphical web browsers following the specifications of the internal \LaTeX macro.[7]

Licensing

LaTeX is typically distributed along with plain TeX. It is distributed under a free software license, the LaTeX Project Public License (LPPL). The LPPL is not compatible with the GNU General Public License, as it requires that modified files must be clearly differentiable from their originals (usually by changing the filename); this was done to ensure that files that depend on other files will produce the expected behavior and avoid dependency hell. The LPPL is DFSG compliant as of version 1.3. As free software, LaTeX is available on most operating systems including Unix (Linux, BSDs, Mac OS X), Windows, RISC OS and AmigaOS.

Related software

As a macro package, LaTeX provides a set of macros for TeX to interpret. There are many other macro packages for TeX, including Plain TeX, GNU Texinfo, AMSTeX, and ConTeXt.

When TeX "compiles" a document, the processing sequence (from the user's point of view) goes like this: Macros > TeX > Driver > Output. Different implementations of each of these steps are typically available in TeX distributions. Traditional TeX will output a DVI file, which is usually converted to a PostScript file. More recently, Hàn Thế Thành and others have written a new implementation of TeX called pdfTeX, which also outputs to PDF and takes advantage of features available in that format. The XeTeX engine developed by Jonathan Kew merges modern font technologies and Unicode with TeX.

The default font for LaTeX is Knuth's Computer Modern, which gives default documents created with LaTeX the same distinctive look as those created with plain TeX. XeTeX allows the use of OpenType and TrueType (that is, outlined) fonts for output files.

There are also many editors for LaTeX, listed in section See also.

Versions

LaTeX2e is the current version of LaTeX. As of 2010, a future version called LaTeX3, started in the early 1990s, is still in development.[8] Planned features include improved syntax, hyperlink support, a new user interface, access to arbitrary fonts, and new documentation.[9]

There are numerous commercial implementations of the entire TeX system. System vendors may add extra features like additional typefaces and telephone support. LyX is a free, WYSIWYM visual document processor that uses LaTeX for a back-end. TeXmacs is a free, WYSIWYG editor with similar functionalities as LaTeX but a different typesetting engine. Other WYSIWYG editors that produce LaTeX include Scientific Word on MS Windows.

A number of TeX distributions are available, including TeX Live (multiplatform), teTeX (deprecated in favour of TeX Live, Unix), fpTeX (deprecated), MiKTeX (Windows), MacTeX (TeX Live with the addition of Mac specific programs), gwTeX (Mac OS X), OzTeX (Mac OS Classic), AmigaTeX (no longer available) and PasTeX (AmigaOS, available on the Aminet repository).

Compatibility

LaTeX documents can be shared with people who only use Microsoft Word or OpenOffice.org Writer, converting the LaTeX file (.tex) to Rich Text Format (.rtf). This can be done using the free software program LaTeX2RTF.

See also

Free software portal

References

  1. ^ "What are TeX, LaTeX and friends?". http://www.ctan.org/what_is_tex.html. 
  2. ^ Alexia Gaudeul (March 27, 2006). "Do Open Source Developers Respond to Competition?: The (La)TeX Case Study". http://ssrn.com/abstract=908946. 
  3. ^ Leslie Lamport (April 23, 2007). "The Writings of Leslie Lamport: LaTeX: A Document Preparation System". Leslie Lamport's Home Page. http://research.microsoft.com/users/lamport/pubs/pubs.html#latex. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  4. ^ Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison–Wesley, Boston, 1986, p. 1.
  5. ^ O'Connor, Edward. "TeX and LaTeX logo POSHlets". http://edward.oconnor.cx/2007/08/tex-poshlet. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  6. ^ Taraborelli, Dario. "CSS-driven TeX logos". http://nitens.org/taraborelli/texlogo. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  7. ^ Walden, David (2005-07-15). "Travels in TeX Land: A Macro, Three Software Packages, and the Trouble with TeX". The PracTeX journal (3). http://www.tug.org/pracjourn/2005-3/walden-travels/. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  8. ^ See e.g. [1]. Furthermore, all LaTeX3 components actually carry the copyright notice "(C) 1990-2006 LaTeX3 project", e.g. [2].
  9. ^ Frank Mittelbach, Chris Rowley (January 12, 1999). "The LaTeX3 Project" (PDF). http://www.latex-project.org/guides/ltx3info.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 

Further reading

  • Griffiths, David F.; Highman, David S. (1997). Learning LaTeX. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ISBN 0-898-71383-8. 
  • Kopka, Helmut; Daly, Patrick W. (2003). Guide to LaTeX (4th ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-321-17385-6. 
  • Lamport, Leslie (1994). LaTeX: A document preparation system: User's guide and reference. illustrations by Duane Bibby (2nd ed.). Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-52983-1. 
  • Mittelbach, Frank; Goosens, Michel (2004). The LaTeX Companion (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-36299-6. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

See also: List of resources under LaTeX

LaTeX is a markup language (as is MediaWiki!) for producing mathematical texts of the highest quality. Its use is widespread in the mathematics world. It is built on plain TeX developed by Donald Knuth. You can embed LaTeX markups in MediaWiki by the <math></math> tags, e.g. <math> e = m c^2</math> is rendered as e = mc2.

Contents

Installation

  • If you are using Linux, you probably have it already! Just type "latex".
  • If you are using Windows, the simplest thing to do is to open Cygwin (the linux emulator) and type "latex". If you haven't installed Cygwin, do it! You will often find it useful. The installation may take less than an hour but it is usually straightforward.
    • Note that it is now fairly simple to install a linux dual boot, for example, with wubi. All you need is a number of Gigabytes in a refactored hard-drive. You can delete it like a regular windows directory whenever you don't want it any more.

Step by step guide for beginners

  1. Create a file with .tex suffix, e.g. "helloworld.tex" (see /helloworld.tex).
  2. Go to your linux/cygwin/[1] whatever shell, go to the directory of your file "helloworld.tex" and type "latex helloworld".
  3. A .dvi file will be created - you may view it directly if you have the right tools.
  4. If not, type "dvips helloworld" or type "dvipdf helloworld" to convert it to a postscript or PDF file.
  5. Use Ghostview to view the .ps file, or the Adobe Acrobat Reader to view the .pdf file.

Choosing an editor

A good editing environment helps! A useful and free option is the LaTeX editor (LEd) (see their home page).

See also

  • List of resources under LaTeX
  • Topic:LaTeX - the organisation page for wikiversity learning activities on LaTeX
  • b:LaTeX - the featured wikibook, available in .pdf format
  • w:LaTeX - wikipedia article on LaTeX

Notes

  1. If you are new to cygwin, you can find your c-drive by something liki cd /cygdrive/c

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also latex, and látex

Contents

English

The LaTeX logo
Sample LaTeX output

Alternative forms

Etymology

Blend of Leslie Lamport and TeX.

Pronunciation

  • enPR: lāʹtĕKH, IPA: /ˈleɪtɛx/, SAMPA: /"leItEx/ or enPR: ʹlătāKH, IPA: /ˈlatex/, SAMPA: /"latex/

Proper noun

Singular
LaTeX

Plural
-

LaTeX

  1. A document-typesetting system derived from TeX and used mainly to create scientific and mathematical literature.

External links

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aeltx
  • exalt

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

This is a guide to the LaTeX markup language. It is intended that this can serve as a useful resource for everyone from new users who wish to learn, to old hands who need a quick reference.

Wikibook Development Stages
Sparse text 00%.svg Developing text 25%.svg Maturing text 50%.svg Developed text 75%.svg Comprehensive text: 100%.svg

Contents

If you have questions related to LaTeX, ask at the Q&A.

Appendices

Other wikibooks


Simple English

The text-processing system can be found at Latex (text processing system)

Latex is found in the sap of the Para rubber tree. The tree takes its name from the state of Pará, Brazil. Latex is used to make rubber. Brazil, in particular the city of Manaus grew rich on latex. Today, much natural latex comes from Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia and Indonesia. Rubber can be produced synthetically (this means that it can be made in factories).









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