The Full Wiki

Labrador Retriever: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


















































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Labrador Retriever

Yellow Labrador Retriever
Nicknames Lab
Labrador
Country of origin Originated Canada;
developed as a breed in the UK
Traits
Weight Male 27–36 kg (60–79 lb)
Female 25–32 kg (55–71 lb)
Height Male 56–70 cm (22–28 in)
Female 54–60 cm (21–24 in)
Coat Smooth, short and dense straight hair
Litter size 7–12 pups
Life span 10–12 years [1]

The Labrador Retriever (also Labrador, or Lab for short) is one of several kinds of retriever, a type of gun dog. They have webbed paws for swimming, useful when they retrieve their prey, hence the name retriever. The Labrador, once known as the Lesser Newfoundland, is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in the world, and is, by a large margin, the most popular breed by registration in Canada, the United States (since 1991),[2] and the United Kingdom.[3] It is also the most popular breed of assistance dog in Canada, the United States, Australia, United Kingdom and many other countries,[citation needed] as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities. Typically, Labradors are athletic, and love to swim, play catch and retrieve games, and are good with young children.[4]

Contents

History

Nell - A St. John's Dog circa 1856.

The modern labrador's ancestors originated on the island of Newfoundland, now part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.[5] The breed emerged over time from the St. John's Water Dog, also an ancestor of the Newfoundland dog (to which the Labrador is closely related), through ad-hoc breedings by early settlers in the mid to late 16th century.[5] The original forebears of the St. John's dog are not known, but are likely a random-bred mix of English, Irish, and Portuguese working breeds. From the St. John's Dog, two breeds emerged; the larger was used for hauling, and evolved into the large and gentle Newfoundland dog, likely as a result of breeding with mastiffs brought to the island by the generations of Portuguese fishermen who had been fishing offshore since the 1600s. The smaller short-coat retrievers used for retrieval and pulling in nets from the water were the forebears of the English-bred Labrador Retriever. The white chest, feet, chin, and muzzle - known as tuxedo markings - characteristic of the St. John's Dog often appear in Lab mixes, and will occasionally manifest in Labs as a small white spot on the chest (known as a medallion) or stray white hairs on the feet or muzzle.

The St. John's area of Newfoundland was settled mainly by the English and Irish. Local fishermen originally used the St. John's dog to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. A number of these were brought back to the Poole area of England in the early 1800s,[5] then the hub of the Newfoundland fishing trade, by the gentry, and became prized as sporting and waterfowl hunting dogs.[5] A few kennels breeding these grew up in England; at the same time a combination of sheep protection policy (Newfoundland) and rabies quarantine (England) led to their gradual demise in their country of origin.[6]

A surviving picture of Buccleuch Avon (b.1885), the foundational dog of many modern Labradors.

The first and second Earls of Malmesbury, who bred for duck shooting on his estate,[7] and the 5th and 6th Dukes of Buccleuch, and youngest son Lord George William Montagu-Douglas-Scott,[7] were instrumental in developing and establishing the modern Labrador breed in nineteenth century England. The dogs Avon ("Buccleuch Avon") and Ned given by Malmesbury to assist the Duke of Buccleuch's breeding program in the 1880s are usually considered the ancestors of all modern Labradors.[8]

Early descriptions

Several early descriptions of the St. John's Water Dog exist. In 1822, explorer W.E. Cormack crossed the island of Newfoundland by foot. In his journal he wrote "The dogs are admirably trained as retrievers in fowling, and are otherwise useful.....The smooth or short haired dog is preferred because in frosty weather the long haired kind become encumbered with ice on coming out of the water."[9]

Another early report by a Colonel Hawker described the dog as "by far the best for any kind of shooting. He is generally black and no bigger than a Pointer, very fine in legs, with short, smooth hair and does not carry his tail so much curled as the other; is extremely quick, running, swimming and fighting....and their sense of smell is hardly to be credited...."[9]

In his book Excursions In and About Newfoundland During the Years 1839 and 1840,[10] the geologist Joseph Beete Jukes describes the St. John's Water Dog. "A thin, short-haired, black dog came off-shore to us to-day. The animal was of a breed very different from what we understand by the term Newfoundland dog in England. He had a thin, tapering snout, a long thin tail, and rather thin, but powerful legs, with a lank body, – the hair short and smooth." wrote Jukes. "These are the most abundant dogs in the country...They are no means handsome, but are generally more intelligent and useful than the others...I observed he once or twice put his foot in the water and paddled it about. This foot was white, and Harvey said he did it to "toil" or entice the fish. The whole proceeding struck me as remarkable, more especially as they said he had never been taught anything of the kind."

Name

There is some confusion surrounding the naming of the early breed. The breed originated in Newfoundland, but there was already a dog called the Newfoundland, so they called the dog a Labrador, because the province is called Newfoundland and Labrador. The foundational breed of what is now the Labrador Retriever was the St. John's Water Dog or St. John's Dog. When the dogs were later brought to England, they were named after the geographic area known as "the Labrador" or simply Labrador, even though the breed was from the more southern Avalon Peninsula. The area was named after Portuguese explorer João Fernandes Lavrador who, together with Pêro de Barcelos, were the second party of European explorers (after the Vikings) to sight it in 1498. There may also be a connection to the town of Castro Laboreiro in Portugal, where herding and guard dogs bear a striking resemblance to Labradors.[5]

Historical landmarks

The first written reference to the breed was in 1814 ("Instructions to Young Sportsmen" by Colonel Peter Hawker),[5] the first painting in 1823 ("Cora. A Labrador Bitch" by Edwin Landseer),[5] and the first photograph in 1856 (the Earl of Home's dog "Nell", described both as a Labrador and a St. Johns dog).[6] By 1870 the name Labrador Retriever became common in England.[5] The first yellow Labrador on record was born in 1899 (Ben of Hyde, kennels of Major C.J. Radclyffe),[5] and the breed was recognised by the Kennel Club in 1903. The first American Kennel Club (AKC) registration was in 1917.[5] The chocolate Labrador emerged in the 1930s,[5] although liver spotted pups were documented being born at the Buccleuch kennels in 1892.[5] The St. John's dog survived until the early 1980s, the last two individuals being photographed in old age around 1981.[6]

History of subtypes

Ancestral chocolate (sometimes called "liver") was noted in the original St. John's dogs as early as 1807, when the Canton shipwrecked carrying a number of St. John's dogs for the Earl of Malmesbury. Two dogs were later found, one black and one chocolate, evidence that chocolate had been a colour in the original St. John's dogs.[6] Yellow and chocolate pups, would occasionally appear (although often culled), until finally gaining acceptance in the 20th century.

The first recognised yellow Labrador was Ben of Hyde, born 1899, and chocolate labs became more established in the 1930s.

Ben of Hyde (b.1899), the first recognised yellow Labrador.
Yellow (and related shades)

In the early years of the breed through to the mid-20th century, Labradors of a shade we would now call "yellow" were in fact a dark, almost butterscotch, colour (visible in early yellow Labrador photographs). The shade was known as "Golden" until required to be changed by the UK Kennel Club, on the grounds that "Gold" was not actually a colour. Over the 20th century a preference for far lighter shades of yellow through to cream prevailed, until today most yellow labs are of this shade.[11]

Interest in the darker shades of gold and fox red were re-established by English breeders in the 1980s, and two dogs were instrumental in this change: Balrion King Frost (black, born approx. 1976) who consistently sired "very dark yellow" offspring and is credited as having "the biggest influence in the re-development of the fox red shade",[11] and his great-grandson, the likewise famous Wynfaul Tabasco (b.1986),[12] described as "the father of the modern fox red Labrador", and the only modern fox red Show Champion in the UK. Other dogs, such as Red Alert and Scrimshaw Placido Flamingo, are also credited with greatly passing on the genes into more than one renowned bloodline.[11]

Chocolate labradors

Jack Vanderwyk traces the origins of all Chocolate labradors listed on the LabradorNet database (some 34,000 labrador dogs of all shades) to eight original bloodlines. However, the shade was not seen as a distinct colour until the 20th century; before then according to Vanderwyk, such dogs can be traced but were not registered. A degree of crossbreeding with Flatcoat or Chesapeake Bay retrievers was also documented in the early 20th century, prior to recognition. Chocolate labradors were also well established in the early 20th century at the kennels of the Earl of Feversham, and Lady Ward of Chiltonfoliat.[13]

The bloodlines as traced by Vanderwyk each lead back to three black labradors in the 1880s—Buccleuch Avon (m), and his sire and dam, Malmesbury Tramp (m), and Malmesbury June (f). Morningtown Tobla is also named as an important intermediary, and according to the studbook of Buccleuch Kennels, the chocolates in that kennel came through FTW Peter of Faskally (1908).[13]

Description

A black Labrador from English stock.
A Black Lab of American field stock

Appearance

Labradors are relatively large, with males typically weighing 29–41 kg (65-90 pounds) and females 25–32 kg (55–71 lb). Labs weighing close to or over 100 lbs are considered obese or having a major fault under American Kennel Club standards, although some labs weigh significantly more.[14] The majority of the characteristics of this breed, with the exception of colour, are the result of breeding to produce a working retriever.

As with some other breeds, the Conformation (typically "English", "show" or "bench") and the Field (typically "American" or "working") lines differ, although both lines are bred in both countries. In general, however, Conformation Labs tend to be bred as medium-sized dogs, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and a slightly calmer nature than their Field counterparts, which are often bred as taller, lighter-framed dogs, with slightly less broad faces and a slightly longer nose; however Field labs should still be proportional and fit within AKC standards. With field labs, excessively long noses, thin heads, long legs and lanky frames are not considered standard. These two types are informal and not codified or standardised; no distinction is made by the AKC or other kennel clubs, but the two types come from different breeding lines. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.

The breed tends to shed hair twice annually, or regularly throughout the year in temperate climates.[8] Some labs shed a lot; however, individual labs vary.[15] Labrador hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter-like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. The webbing between their toes can also serve as a "snowshoe" in colder climes and keep snow from balling up between their toes- a condition that can be painful to other breeds with hair between the toes. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming.

Official breed standards

There is a great deal of variety among Labs. The following characteristics are typical of the conformation show bred (bench-bred) lines of this breed in the United States, and are based on the AKC standard.[14] Significant differences between US and UK standards are noted.

  • Size: Labs are a medium-large but compact breed. They should have an appearance of proportionality. They should be as long from the withers to the base of the tail as they are from the floor to the withers. Males should stand 22.5–24.5 inches (57–62 cm) tall at the withers and weigh 65–80 lb (29–36 kg). Females should stand 21.5–23.5 inches (55–60 cm) and weigh 55–70 lb (25–32 kg). By comparison under UK Kennel Club standards, height should be 22–22.5 inches (56–57 cm) for males, and 21.5–22 inches (55–56 cm) for females.[16]
  • Coat: The Lab's coat should be short and dense, but not wiry. The coat is described as 'water-resistant' or more accurately 'water-repellent' so that the dog does not get cold when taking to water in the winter. That means that the dog naturally has a slightly dry, oily coat. Acceptable colours are black, yellow (ranging fom ivory or creme to fox red), and chocolate.
  • Head: The head should be broad with a pronounced stop and slightly pronounced brow. The eyes should be kind and expressive. Appropriate eye colours are brown and hazel. The lining around the eyes should be black. The ears should hang close to the head and are set slightly above the eyes.
  • Jaws: The jaws should be strong and powerful. The muzzle should be of medium length, and should not be too tapered. The jaws should hang slightly and curve gracefully back.
  • Body: The body should be strong and muscular with a level top line.

The tail and coat are designated "distinctive [or distinguishing] features" of the Labrador by both the Kennel Club and AKC.[14][16] The AKC adds that "true Labrador Retriever temperament is as much a hallmark of the breed as the 'otter' tail."[14]

As well, Labradors should not have droopy eyes (like a Basset Hound). The skin should be relatively tight, and you should not be able to see the pinks on the inside of their lids.

Color

Different shades of yellow: a usual yellow shade, and a fox red shade.
The three primary color varieties of the Labrador Retriever

Labrador Retrievers are registered in three colors:[14] black (a solid black color), yellow (anything from light cream to "fox-red"), chocolate (medium to dark brown). Some Labrador retrievers can have markings such as white patches on their chest and other areas, but most commonly they are one solid color.

Puppies of all colors can potentially occur in the same litter. Color is determined primarily by two genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's pigment granules: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (D) locus determines whether the pigment is produced at all. A dog with the recessive d allele will produce little pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus.[17] Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's coloration, which in yellow Labs varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Chocolate and black Labs' noses will match the coat color.

Nose and skin pigmentation

Because Labrador coloration is controlled by multiple genes, it is possible for recessive genes to emerge some generations later and also there can sometimes be unexpected pigmentation effects to different parts of the body. Pigmentation effects appear in regard to yellow Labradors, and sometimes chocolate, and hence the majority of this section covers pigmentation within the yellow Labrador. The most common places where pigmentation is visible are the nose, lips, gums, feet, tail, and the rims of the eyes, which may be black, brown, light yellow-brown ("liver", caused by having two genes for chocolate),[18] or several other colors. A Labrador can carry genes for a different color, for example a black Labrador can carry recessive chocolate and yellow genes, and a yellow Labrador can carry recessive genes for the other two colors. DNA testing can reveal some aspects of these. Less common pigmentations (other than pink) are a fault, not a disqualification, and hence such dogs are still permitted to be shown.[18] The intensity of black pigment on yellow Labs is controlled by a separate gene independent of the fur colouring.[18] Yellow Labradors usually have black noses, which may gradually turn pink with age (called "snow nose" or "winter nose"). This is due to a reduction in the enzyme tyrosinase which indirectly controls the production of melanin, a dark colouring. Tyrosinase is temperature dependent—hence light colouration can be seasonal, due to cold weather—and is less produced with increasing age two years old onwards. As a result, the nose colour of most yellow Labs becomes a somewhat pink shade as they grow older.[18]

A seven-week-old Dudley Lab. The nose and lips are pink or flesh-colored, the defining aspect of Dudley pigmentation.

A colouration known as "Dudley" is also possible. Dudleys are variously defined as yellow Labs which have no pigmented (pink) noses (LRC), yellow with liver/chocolate pigmentation (AKC), or "flesh colored" in addition to having the same color around the rims of the eye, rather than having black or dark brown pigmentation.[8][18] A yellow Labrador with brown or chocolate pigmentation, for example, a brown or chocolate nose, is not necessarily a Dudley, though according to the AKC's current standard it would be if it has chocolate rims around the eyes (or more accurately of the genotype eebb). Breed standards for Labradors considers a true Dudley to be a disqualifying feature in a conformation show Lab, such as one with a thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment along with flesh colored rims around the eyes. True Dudleys are extremely rare.[18][19]

Breeding in order to correct pigmentation often lacks dependability. Because color is determined by many genes, some of which are recessive, crossbreeding a pigmentation non-standard yellow Labrador to a black Labrador may not correct the matter or prevent future generations carrying the same recessive genes. For similar reasons, crossbreeding chocolate to yellow labs is also often avoided.

Show and field lines

Chocolate Labradors from field-bred stock are typically lighter in build and have a shorter coat than conformation show Labrador.

There are significant differences between field and trial-bred (sometimes referred to as "American") and show-bred (or "English") lines of Labradors, arising as a result of specialised breeding. Dogs bred for hunting and field-trial work are selected first for working ability, where dogs bred to compete in conformation shows are selected for their conformation to the standards and characteristics sought by judges in the show ring.

Head and muzzle appearance: American or field (left), and English or show (right), showing the shorter muzzle length, more solid appearance head, and "pronounced" stop of the latter.

While individual dogs may vary, in general show-bred Labradors are heavier built, slightly shorter-bodied, and have a thicker coat and tail. Field Labradors are generally longer legged, lighter, and more lithe in build. In the head, show Labradors tend to have broader heads, better defined stops, and more powerful necks, while field Labradors have lighter and slightly narrower heads with longer muzzles.[20][21] Field-bred Labradors are commonly higher energy and more high-strung compared to the Labrador bred for conformation showing, and as a consequence may be more suited to working relationships than being a "family pet".[20][21] Some breeders, especially those specialising in the field type, feel that breed shows do not adequately recognise their type of dog, leading to occasional debate regarding officially splitting the breed into subtypes.[22]

In the United States, the AKC and the Labrador's breed club have set the breed standard to accommodate the field-bred Labrador somewhat. For instance, the AKC withers-height standards allow conformation dogs to be slightly taller than the equivalent British standard.[23] However, dual champions, or dogs that excel in both the field and the show ring, are becoming more unusual.[24]

Temperament

A Labrador participating in dog agility

Labradors are a well-balanced, friendly and versatile breed, adaptable to a wide range of functions as well as making very good pets. As a rule they are not excessively prone to being territorial, pining, insecure, aggressive, destructive, hypersensitive, or other difficult traits which sometimes manifest in a variety of breeds. As the name suggests, they are excellent retrievers. Labradors instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness (a Labrador can carry an egg in its mouth without breaking it).[25] They are also known to have a very soft feel to the mouth, as a result of being bred to retrieve game such as waterfowl. They are prone to chewing objects (though they can be trained out of this behavior). The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, thus facilitating the extensive use of the dog in waterfowl hunting.

Labradors enjoy playing with water

Labradors have a reputation as a very mellow breed and an excellent family dog (including a good reputation with children of all ages and other animals),[8] but some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic. Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand—an uncontrolled adult can be quite problematic. Females may be slightly more independent than males.[8] Labradors mature at around three years of age; before this time they can have a significant degree of puppy-like energy, often mislabelled as being hyperactive.[8][26] Because of their enthusiasm, leash-training early on is suggested to prevent pulling when full-grown.[27] Labs often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly and other forms of activity (such as agility, frisbee, or flyball).

Although they will sometimes bark at noise, especially noise from an unseen source ("alarm barking"), Labs are usually not noisy[8] or territorial. They are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers, and therefore are not usually suitable as guard dogs.[8]

Labradors have a well-known reputation for appetite, and some individuals may be highly indiscriminate, eating digestible and non-food objects alike.[25] They are persuasive and persistent in requesting food. For this reason, the Labrador owner must carefully control his/her dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems (see below).[25]

The steady temperament of Labs and their ability to learn make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. Their primary working role in the field continues to be that of a hunting retriever.

Exploration

They do not typically jump high fences or dig. Because of their personalities,(like swimming, playing, running, sleeping, and eating) some Labs climb and/or jump for their own amusement. As a breed they are highly intelligent and capable of intense single-mindedness and focus if motivated or their interest is caught. Therefore, with the right conditions and stimuli, a bored Labrador could "turn into an escape artist par excellence".[8][28]

Labradors as a breed are curious, exploratory and love company, following both people and interesting scents for food, attention and novelty value. In this way, they can often "vanish" or otherwise become separated from their owners with little fanfare.[29] They are also popular dogs if found, and at times may be stolen.[30] Because of this a number of dog clubs and rescue organisations (including the UK's Kennel Club) consider it good practice that Labradors be microchipped, with the owner's name and address also on their collar and tags.[29][31]

Use as working dogs

Labradors are a very popular selection for use as guide dogs.

Labradors are an intelligent breed with a good work ethic and generally good temperaments (breed statistics show that 91.5% of Labradors who were tested passed the American Temperament Test.[32]) Common working roles for Labradors include: hunting, tracking and detection (they have a great sense of smell which helps when working in these areas), disabled-assistance, carting, and therapy work.[33] Approximately 60–70% of all guide dogs in Canada are Labradors; other common breeds are Golden Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs.[34]

The high intelligence, initiative and self-direction of Labradors in working roles is exemplified by dogs such as Endal, who during a 2001 emergency placed an unconscious human being in the recovery position, retrieved his mobile phone from beneath the car, fetched a blanket and covered him, barked at nearby dwellings for assistance, and then ran to a nearby hotel to obtain help.[35] A number of labradors have also been taught to assist their owner in removing money and credit cards from ATMs with prior training.[36]

Health and well-being

Many dogs, including Labs such as this twelve year old, show distinct whitening of the coat as they grow older; especially around the muzzle.

Labrador pups should not be brought home before they are 7–10 weeks old. Their life expectancy is generally 10 to 12 years,[37] and it is a healthy breed with relatively few major problems. Notable issues related to health and well-being include:

Inherited disorders

Other disorders

Labs are sometimes prone to ear infection, because their floppy ears trap warm moist air. Labs who spend a lot of time in water are additionally prone to infection. This is easy to control, but needs regular checking to ensure that a problem is not building up unseen. A healthy Labrador ear should look clean and light pink (almost white) inside. Darker pink (or inflamed red), or brownish deposits, are a symptom of ear infection. The usual treatment is regular cleaning daily or twice daily (being careful not to force dirt into the sensitive inner ear) and sometimes medication (ear drops) for major cases. As a preventative measure, some owners clip the hair carefully around the ear and under the flap, to encourage better air flow. Labradors also get cases of allergic reactions to food or other environmental factors.

Obesity

Labradors can easily become overweight, due to their enjoyment of treats, hearty appetites, and endearing behaviour towards people. Lack of activity is also a contributing factor. A healthy Labrador should keep a very slight hourglass waist and be fit and light, rather than fat or heavy-set. Excessive weight is strongly implicated as a risk factor in the later development of hip dysplasia or other joint problems and diabetes, and also can contribute to general reduced health when older. Osteoarthritis is common in older, especially overweight, Labradors. A 14 year study covering 48 dogs by food manufacturer Purina showed that labs fed to maintain a lean body shape outlived those fed freely, by around two years, emphasizing the importance of not over-feeding.[44]

Appearance around the world

In the United States, the breed gained wider recognition following a 1928 American Kennel Gazette article, "Meet the Labrador Retriever". Before this time, the AKC had only registered 23 Labradors in the country,[6] in part because US and UK hunting styles had different requirements.[45] Labradors acquired popularity as hunting dogs during the 1920s and especially after World War II, as they gained recognition as combining some of the best traits of the two favourite United States breeds as both game finders and water dogs.[45]

Outside North America and Western Europe, the Labrador arrived later. For example, the Russian Retriever Club traces the arrival of Labradors to the late 1960s, as household pets of diplomats and others in the foreign ministry.[46] The establishment of the breed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (ex-USSR) was initially hindered by the relatively small numbers of Labradors and great distances involved, leading to difficulty establishing breedings and bloodlines;[46] at the start of the 1980s, home-born dogs were still regularly supplemented by further imports from overseas.[46] Difficulties such as these initially led to Labradors being tacitly cross-bred to other types of retriever.[46] In the 1990s, improved access to overseas shows and bloodlines is said to have helped this situation become regularised.[46]

Demography

The Labrador is an exceptionally popular dog. For example as of 2006:

  • Widely considered the most popular breed in the world.[47][48]
  • Most popular dog by ownership in USA (since 1991),[49][50] UK,[51] Australia,[52] New Zealand[53] Canada,[54] and Israel.[55]
  • In both the UK and USA, there are well over twice as many Labradors registered as the next most popular breed.[49][51] If the comparison is limited to dog breeds of a similar size, then there are around 3 - 5 times as many Labradors registered in both countries as the next most popular breeds, the German Shepherd and Golden Retriever.[49][51]
  • Most popular breed of assistance dog in the United States, Australia and many other countries, as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities.[4] Approximately 60–70% of all guide dogs in the United States are Labradors (see below).[34]
  • Seven out of 13 of the Australian National Kennel Council "Outstanding Gundogs" Hall of Fame appointees are Labradors (list covers 2000-2005).[56]

There is no global registry of Labradors, nor detailed information on numbers of Labradors living in each country. The countries with the five largest numbers of Labrador registrations as of 2005 are: 1: United Kingdom 2: United States and France (approximately equal), 4: Sweden, 5: Finland.[57][58] Sweden and Finland have far lower populations than the other three countries, suggesting that as of 2005 these two countries have the highest proportion of labs per million people:

Country Population
(millions)
Labrador
registrations
Registrations per
million pop.
Finland 5.2 2236 426.0
France 60.5 9281 153.4
Sweden 9.0 5158 570.5
United Kingdom 59.7 18554 311.0
USA 298.2 10833 36.3

OFA statistics suggest that yellow and black labs are registered in very similar numbers (yellow slightly more than black); chocolate in lesser numbers.[57][58]

Note: number of registrations is not necessarily the same as number of living dogs at any given time.

Famous labradors

As both the most popular breed by registered ownership and also the most popular breed for assistance dogs in several countries, there have been many notable and famous labradors since the breed was recognised.

A selection of a few of the most famous labradors within various categories includes:

Endal, the world's most decorated dog, wearing his PDSA Gold Medal.
Assistance dogs
  • Endal, a service dog in England. Among other distinctions, "the most decorated dog in the world" (including "Dog of the Millennium"[59] and the PDSA’s Gold Medal for Animal Gallantry and Devotion to Duty),[60] the first dog to ride on the London Eye and the first dog known to work a 'chip and pin' ATM card. By Endal's death in March 2009, he and his owner/handler Allen Parton had been filmed almost 350 times by crews from several countries, and a film of a year in Endal's life was in production.[61][62]
Police, military, rescue and detection dogs
  • Zanjeer, a detection dog who detected arms and ammunition used in 1993 Mumbai (Bombay) serial explosions. During his service, his haul was excellent. He helped recover 57 country-made bombs, 175 petrol bombs, 11 military bombs, 242 grenades and 600 detonators. His biggest contribution to the police force and the city was the detection of 3,329 kg of RDX. He also helped detect 18 AK-56 rifles and five 9mm pistols.
  • Lucky and Flo, twin Black Labrador counterfeit detection dogs who became famous in 2007 for "sniffing out nearly 2 million pirated counterfeit DVDs" on a six-month secondment to Malaysia in 2007.[63] Following the multi-million dollar, 6-arrest Malaysian detection, they became the first dogs to be awarded Malaysia's, "outstanding service award",[64] and software pirates were stated to have put a £30,000 contract out for their lives.[65][66]
Vladimir Putin with Koni at his residence in Novo-Ogaryovo.
Pets
Fiction and media
  • Labradors have featured variously as pets and significant characters in sitcoms and other TV shows, as well as other portrayals in the media. Bouncer in Neighbours, and Luath in The Incredible Journey, are two TV examples.
  • Marley is an American Labrador featured in Marley & Me, a best-selling book by John Grogan, and a subsequent film based on Grogan's life and times with Marley.
Mascots and advertising

Significant crossbreeds

The "Labradoodle" is a popular "designer dog" that is a cross-bred Labrador and Poodle. Originating in Australia, the intent of breeding this cross was to try and create a service dog suitable for allergy sufferers. However the current fashionability of labradoodles has resulted in indiscriminate breeding, and there is no guarantee such a cross will inherit the hypo-allergenic poodle coat.

Some assistant-dog groups use Golden Retriever / Labrador Retriever hybrids (unofficially called a Golden Labrador Retriever) because they believe this cross produces dogs with a excellent temperaments.[69] However, such crossbreeds are not immune to many of the problems suffered by purebreds, as Golden Retrievers and Labradors have similar health problems.

The assistance dog organization Mira utilises Labrador-Bernese Mountain Dog crosses ("Labernese") with success.[70]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fogle, Bruce, DVM (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7894-6130-7
  2. ^ AKC Dog Registration Statistics
  3. ^ 2006 Top 20 Breed Registrations - The Kennel Club
  4. ^ a b Tassieyy, Raye. "A Lab is". Labrador Retriever Club of South Australia Inc.. http://www.salabclub.com.au/?page=alabradorisa. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Barmore, Laura. "History of the Lab". http://alllabs.com/cgi-local/SoftCart.exe/labrador_retriever_history.htm?E+scstore. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Dollevoet, Lori. "History of the Labrador Retriever". Lorken Farms. http://personal.pitnet.net/LDoll/labrador%20Retriever%20history.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  7. ^ a b "The Buccleuch Labrador". The Buccleuch Estates Limited. 2003. http://www.drumlanrig.co.uk/pages/content.asp?PageID=244. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miller, Liza Lee; Cindy Tittle Moore (2004-01-07). "FAQ Labrador Retrievers". Puget Sound Labrador Rescue. http://www.pslra.org/html/articles/faqs.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  9. ^ a b "Labrador Retriever History". grandane.com Guide to Nova Scotia Kennels. 2007. http://www.grandane.com/NS.Kennels/Labhistory.html. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  10. ^ Jukes, Joseph Beete. Excursions In and About Newfoundland During the Years 1839 and 1840. Vol. 1. (London, 1842),
  11. ^ a b c Robbins, Joyce; Pam Naranjo and Gina Gross. "Fox Red Labradors: History of the Shade". Little River Labs. http://www.littleriverlabs.com/foxred.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  12. ^ "Labrador Genealogy". U.P. Labradors. http://www.uplabradors.com/uplabradorsgenealogy.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  13. ^ a b Vanderwyk, Jack. "Origins of Chocolate Labs". http://labradornet.com/chochistory.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Labrador Retriever Breed Standard". American Kennel Club. 1994-03-31. http://www.akc.org/breeds/labrador_retriever/index.cfm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  15. ^ a b "Sporting breeds: Labrador Retriever." animalforum.com. (c) 1998-2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  16. ^ a b Retriever (Labrador) Breed Standard. The Kennel Club.
  17. ^ Davol, Pamela A.. "B/b, E/e, and Beyond: A Detailed Examination of Coat color Genetics in the Labrador Retriever". http://www.labbies.com/genetics2.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f Wagner, Sharon; Laura Michaels. "Pigment in Yellow Labradors". http://www.woodhavenlabs.com/yellow-pigment.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  19. ^ "Labrador Retriever Breed Standards Comparison Chart". Canada's Guide to Dogs Website. 2006-03-14. http://www.canadasguidetodogs.com/labrador/labarticle6.htm. 
  20. ^ a b Davol, Pamela A.. "History of the Labrador Retriever". http://www.labbies.com/history.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  21. ^ a b Michaelsons, Laura. "English or American Labrador?". Woodhaven Labradors. http://www.woodhavenlabs.com/english-american.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  22. ^ Wiest, Mary (2002). "Splitting the Breed" (PDF). Labrador Quarterly 2.635 (3). http://www.woodhavenlabs.com/documents/breed_split2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  23. ^ AKC member club standard: "The height at the withers for a dog is 22-1/2 to 24-1/2 inches; for a bitch is 21-1/2 to 23-1/2 inches." and Kennel Club standard: "Ideal height at withers: dogs: 56-57 cms (22-221/2 ins); bitches: 55-56 cms (21 1/2-22 ins)."
  24. ^ Field vs. Show – What’s the Difference? by: Geoffrey A. English, 2006-12-6
  25. ^ a b c "Labrador Retrievers". BBC News. 2001-05-01. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A545186. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  26. ^ Dougherty, Josephina. "Labrador Retrievers: The Perfect Companion & Family Dogs". Ecology Photographic. http://www.ecology.org/ecophoto/articles/Labs.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  27. ^ Davis/Diamond, Kathy. "Labrador Retriever Revelations". http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=A&C=99&A=2244&S=0. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  28. ^ "Labrador Retriever FAQs". Labs4rescue, Inc. http://www.labs4rescue.com/faq.html#19. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  29. ^ a b "All About ID Tags." all-about-labradors.com. (c) 2006-2007. Retrieved on September 18, 2007.
  30. ^ "'Lost' Dogs." The Dog Rescue Net. Last updated on April 24, 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  31. ^ "Rescue News." The Labrador Rescue Trust Limited. Summer 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  32. ^ "ATTS Breed Statistics as of December 2006". American Temperament Test Society, Inc.. http://www.atts.org/stats5.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  33. ^ Moore, Cindy. "Working Dogs". http://www.k9web.com/dog-faqs/working.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  34. ^ a b Moore, Cindy Tittle. "Service Dogs". http://www.faqs.org/faqs/dogs-faq/service/. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  35. ^ Blystone, Richard; Mallary Gelb. "Assistance dogs are trained as partners for the disabled". CNN.com. http://archives.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/08/10/super.dog/index.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  36. ^ "thought this was Bark-lays bank". Metro. http://www.metro.co.uk/weird/article.html?in_article_id=39317&in_page_id=2. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  37. ^ Fogle, Bruce, DVM (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7894-6130-7
  38. ^ a b "Labrador Retriever". Canine Inherited Disorders Database. http://www.upei.ca/~cidd/breeds/labradorretriever2.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  39. ^ Newton, C. D.; Nunamaker, D. M. (Eds.) "Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics." Published by the International Veterinary Information Service (Riser, Rhodes and Newton). p. 2.
  40. ^ "Hip dysplasia statistics". Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. 2006. http://www.offa.org/hipstatbreed.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  41. ^ Mitchell, P. "Canada's Guide to Dogs: Health Concerns for the Labrador Retriever". http://www.canadasguidetodogs.com/labrador/labarticle3.htm#eye. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  42. ^ Davol, Pamela A. "Skeletal muscle myopathy". http://www.labbies.com/hmlr.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  43. ^ http://www.justlabradors.com/articles/lab_health_and_nutrition/exercise_induced_collapse_in_labrador_retrievers.html
  44. ^ "Purina Life Span Study". Purina Pet Institute. http://www.purina.com/company/press/2003/BodyFat.aspx. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  45. ^ a b Dollevoet, Lori. "Origins of Labrador Retrievers". Lorken Farms. http://personal.pitnet.net/LDoll/labrador%20Retriever%20history.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  46. ^ a b c d e Teslenko, Olga. "History of Retrievers in Russia". The Russian Retriever Club. http://www.labrador.ru/en/history/legends.php. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  47. ^ "The Right Breed". Stanley Coren, Puppy and Dog basics. 2007. http://www.puppyanddogbasics.com/pr2.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-28. Stanley Coren is a Professor of Psychology and author of many books on dogs and dog cognition.
  48. ^ "The Ultimate Labrador Retriever". Howell Book House. April 18, 2003. http://www.amazon.ca/Ultimate-Labrador-Retriever-Heather-Wiles-Fone/dp/0764526391. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  49. ^ a b c "AKC Dog Registration Statistics". American Kennel Club. 2006. http://www.akc.org/reg/dogreg_stats_2006.cfm. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  50. ^ Edwards, Jim (March 2007). "WSAVA Monthly News - March, 2007". World Veterinary Association. http://www.worldvet.org/displayarticle3315.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  51. ^ a b c "Registration statistics for all recognised dog breeds, 2005 and 2006". UK Kennel Club. 2006. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=926&d=pg_dtl_art_news&h=238&f=0. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  52. ^ "National Registration Statistics". Australian National Kennel Council. 2006. http://www.ankc.aust.com/nrs.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  53. ^ "Most popular dog breeds in New Zealand". dogstuff.co.nz. 2007. http://www.dogstuff.co.nz/dog-breeds/. Retrieved 2007-09-26.  "The Labrador Retriever remains New Zealand’s most popular dog...." - John Perfect, NZ Kennel Club President.
  54. ^ "Labrador Retriever — breed description & information". Canada's Guide to Dogs/P.Mitchell. 2007-09-21. http://www.canadasguidetodogs.com/retrieverlab.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  55. ^ "Labrador most popular dog in Israel". Ynetnews. 2009-04-30. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3708669,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  56. ^ "ANKC Hall of Fame". Australian National Kennel Council. http://www.ankc.aust.com/hall_of_fame.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  57. ^ a b Lanternier, Thomas; Philippe Canal (2004-2005). "Database Statistics". http://labrador.retriever.free.fr/stat.php?lang=en. Retrieved 2007-09-13.  (A historic mirror of this page is available at Archive.org)
  58. ^ a b Vanderwyk, Jack (2004-2005). "Labrador Statistics". http://www.labradornet.com/labstats.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  59. ^ "Hero dog to the rescue". Petersfield Herald. 4 June 2001. http://www.petersfield-herald-today.co.uk/today/options/news/newsdetail.cfm?id=27389&hididarch=archive. "The pair have appeared on television all over the country demonstrating how specially trained dogs can help profoundly disabled people. This week, as they recovered from their ordeal at the Steep home of Canine Partners for Independence, the group who trained Endal, Allen praised his four legged companion: “We’ve given so many demonstrations on how Endal should go into action if I fall out of my wheelchair but last Thursday Endal did it for real” ... Endal was voted Dog of the Millennium by Dogs Today readers and Beta Pet Foods, Dog of the Year by the charities Pro Dogs and Pets As Therapy, and was the first ever winner of the Golden Bonio Award." 
  60. ^ "Endal, December 2006". Illinois Springer Spaniel Rescue. http://illinoisspringerrescue2.pulse.net/SITETWO/ENDAL.html. Retrieved 2007-06-20. 
  61. ^ "TV crew making film of partners' year". K9 Perspective Magazine, Issue 27. http://www.k9magazinefree.com/index.shtml. 
  62. ^ "Crufts 2006 eventful for Allen and Endal". K9 Perspective Magazine, Issue 27. http://www.k9magazinefree.com/k9_perspective/iss27p11.shtml. 
  63. ^ "Police Dogs Sniff for Pirated DVDs." ABC News. May 10, 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  64. ^ Blass, Evan. "DVD-sniffing dogs awarded medals, returning to NYC." Engadget. August 20, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  65. ^ Chan, Sewell. "Fresh Off Malaysian Triumph, DVD-Sniffing Dogs Tackle New York." New York Times. August 28, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  66. ^ Blass, Evan. "DVD pirates put out hits on Lucky and Flo the crime dogs." Engadget. March 22, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  67. ^ "Australian Dog Returns Home After A Year In The Wilderness". www.defence.gov.au, Defence Media Release. Australian Department of Defence. 2009-11-12. Archived from the original on 2009-11-11. http://209.85.229.132/search?q=cache:2xuBAsoZnqAJ:www.defence.gov.au/media/DepartmentalTpl.cfm%3FCurrentId%3D9698+http://www.defence.gov.au/media/DepartmentalTpl.cfm%3FCurrentId%3D9698&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  68. ^ "Handler never gave up on lost army dog". ABC News. 2009-11-12. Archived from the original on 2009-11-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5lHTZf72N. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  69. ^ http://www.guidedogs.org.uk/fileadmin/gdba/images/downloads/Cross.doc
  70. ^ Saint-Pierre, Ric. "The Labernese: A new breed serving humans." mira. Retrieved on February 18, 2007.

Further reading

  • Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3. 
  • Fergus, Charles (2002). Gun Dog Breeds, a Guide to Spaniels, Retrievers, and Pointing Dogs. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-618-5. 

Simple English

This article is about the dog breed, for the province of Canada, see Newfoundland and Labrador.

[[File:|thumb|Female yellow Labrador]] The Labrador Retriever (or Lab and Labrador for short) is a breed of dog.

Labrador Retrievers are very gentle dogs with family-friendly personalities. They enjoy attention and exercise with their owner. This dog is great with children. They love to run around in big, open spaces, have a natural love of bringing things back, and learn to retrieve easily. They love to be active. They like the water no matter what temperature outside as their coat protects them. They are strong swimmers as they have webbing between the toes on their paws. They come in five colors: black, yellow, and chocolate or brown. There are many different shades of "yellow" Labrador, including a type that looks bronze or dark orange.

This tough, hardy breed of retriever is a great choice as a family pet. They are playful, easy to train, and naturally obedient. Labrador Retrievers do require regular amounts of daily exercise and are prone to obesity. As a pet, they can be demanding of attention and are best suited in a home where they can have a daily workout. They like water and have a unique otter-like tail, which they use like a rudder when they swim.

The origin of the Labrador Retriever is unsure due to the many different theories to how the Labrador, as we know it, came to exist. A popular theory is that the Labrador's ancestors were brought to Newfoundland by English fisherman. These dogs were descendants of Newfoundland dogs brought to Europe and bred with Portuguese Water Dogs and other sports dogs.

Although there is only one type of Labrador Retriever recognized by the CKC (Canadian Kennel Club), many Labrador enthusiasts will argue that there are actually two types of Labradors. These can be broken down into the categories of English (Show) Dogs and American (Field) Dogs.Labs are fairly easy to train(with gentleness and patience), and make great family pets,but need to be acquainted with kids at an early age.They are very energetic dogs.

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message