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Claife Station on the western shore of Windermere

The Lake District National Park is located in the north-west of England and is the largest of the British National Parks. It is in the central and most-visited part of the Lake District.

The National Park was formed in 1951 to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change from industry or commerce. Almost all of the land in the Park is in private ownership, with small areas belonging to the National Trust. In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The highest mountains in England are within the Park boundary.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery unique to this corner of England. Farmland, hill and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats.

Water

The lakes and rivers are cool and mainly unpolluted. The level of nutrients in the water of different lakes varies providing varied habitats for different plant and animal species. Charr, crayfish, schelly and vendace are found in different lakes.

Woodlands

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native Oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native Red Squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some Ancient Woodland in the national Park. Woodlands are differently managed: some are Coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

References and external links

Coordinates: 54°27′N 3°06′W / 54.45°N 3.10°W / 54.45; -3.10

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]] The Lake District National Park is located in the north-west of England and is the largest of the English National Parks and the second largest in the United Kingdom. It is in the central and most-visited part of the Lake District.

The National Park was formed in 1951 to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change from industry or commerce. Almost all of the land in the Park is in private ownership, with small areas belonging to the National Trust. In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The highest mountains in England are within the Park boundary.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery unique to this corner of England. Farmland, hill and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats.

Water

The lakes and rivers are cool and mainly unpolluted. The level of nutrients in the water of different lakes varies providing varied habitats for different plant and animal species. Charr, crayfish, schelly and vendace are found in different lakes.

Woodlands

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native Oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native Red Squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some Ancient Woodland in the national Park. Woodlands are differently managed: some are Coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

References and external links

Coordinates: 54°27′N 3°06′W / 54.45°N 3.10°W / 54.45; -3.10


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Britain and Ireland : United Kingdom : England : North West : Cumbria : Lake District National Park
The snow covered route to the summit of Helvellyn, England's third highest peak.
The snow covered route to the summit of Helvellyn, England's third highest peak.

Lake District National Park [1] is in North West England, in the county of Cumbria. It is the largest National Park in the country (occupying 885 sq. miles) and is considered one of its most scenic regions and England's premier destination for hiking and climbing.

  • Windermere and lake of the same name.
  • Ambleside at the top of Windermere - a major tourist centre.
  • Keswick on the shores of Derwent Water, the heart of the northern Lakes.
  • Coniston, village on the shores of Coniston Water.
  • Hawkshead, village to the north of Esthwaite Water
  • Grasmere and lake of the same name.
  • Glenridding on the shores of Ullswater.
  • Kendal on the eastern edge of the Lake District
  • Penrith - the northern gateway to the lakes.
  • Eskdale Green - western side of the lakes.
  • Bowness-on-Windermere - at the middle of Windermere (lake).
Windermere Lake - lake-side view
Windermere Lake - lake-side view
The view from Wordsworth's study
The view from Wordsworth's study

The Lake District comprises of 16 lakes, 53 tarns, and several “waters”. All possess their own unique features and provide a comforting sense of permanence, standing as they do, framed by glorious backdrops of mountains, fells, and woodland.

  • Bassenthwaite Lake
  • Buttermere
  • Coniston Water
  • Crummock Water
  • Derwent Water
  • Elterwater
  • Ennerdale Water
  • Esthwaite
  • Grasmere
  • Haweswater Reservoir
  • Loweswater
  • Rydal Water
  • Thirlmere (now a reservoir with limited access)
  • Ullswater
  • Wast Water (England's deepest lake)
  • Windermere (England's largest lake)

Fells

Hills or mountains in the Lake District are known by the local name of Fells. The Lakeland Fells are England's only true mountain range and though not high by world standards (ie none being much over 3000 feet or 1000 metres) they nevertheless offer a huge number of challenging and rewarding hillwalks. All can be walked (as opposed to "climbed" with ropes etc) and due to the long tradition of recreational walking here there is an exceptional network of paths and routes. Additionally there is free access to virtually all areas above the "intake wall" (ie the last wall as you climb out of the valley).

According to the most respected authority (guidebook author A. Wainwright) there are 214 Fells, most of which offer a number of routes, plus many opportunities to ridge-walk between the fells.

The highest is Scafell Pike (pronounced "Score-fell"). This "highest" designation leads to a lot of traffic, and visitors who want to experience a high Lakeland Fell may want to choose another. Some of the slightly smaller fells are in fact much more rewarding to climb as well as offering better views. Great Gable and Helvellyn are popular choices. Less well-known hills include Grisedale Pike, Fairfield, and Bowfell.

The main attraction is the lakes and fells carved by glacial erosion and providing dramatic and inspiring scenery although much modified by man's intervention mainly by farming. It is the former home of cultural luminaries such as William Wordsworth and John Ruskin, and the walks and fells are famously documented by Alfred Wainwright.

First settled in the Stone Age (some residents still exist) and occupied by the Romans the area was heavily influenced by the Norse in their occupation circa 900A.D. They cleared the woods to produce charcoal to smelt lead in Glenridding and copper in the Borrowdale Valley and Coniston. They introduced the Herdwick sheep to the fells and left a legacy of language such as 'gill' gorge, 'beck' stream, 'tarn' lake, 'dale' valley and 'force' waterfall; of them all 'thwaite', a clearing in a wood, is the most common.

The Agricultural Revolution and the Enclosure Acts in the 18th century saw the erection of the dry stone walls which are a predominant feature on the fellsides. The 19th Century saw the advent of tourism with the arrival of the railway in the town of Windermere where it terminates.

The destination is popular with national and international visitors and this can easily cause congestion in busy periods at the most popular locations. Visitor attractions are numerous and not limited to scenic attractions.

Get in

By rail

Windermere station is most conveniently located for the Southern Lakes. The train from here travels to Oxenholme station on the main West Coast line. The Leeds-Settle-Carlisle line also links the lakes to Yorkshire.

For the northern lakes, it is best to travel to Penrith, from where it is possible to catch a bus to Keswick.

By car

M6 motorway and enter the park via either the A590 from Junction 36 for the South Lakes, or the A66 at Penrith from Junction 40 for the North Lakes. Alternatively the A65 from Leeds connects to the A590 at Junction 36.

By air

The closest airport to the Lake District is at Blackpool, served by Ryanair from London. Newcastle, Durham Tees Valley, Glasgow, Leeds/Bradford, Liverpool and Manchester airports are about a 2 hour drive away.

Get around

The area is served by multiple bus routes, many of them operated by Stagecoach. However, as this is a rural area, and routes are necessarily limited to the roads in the valleys, it is sensible to plan your travel in advance.

This also applies to getting around by car, with journey times being extended due to the slow winding roads. Bringing your own car to the lakes is the most popular option, but motorists may encounter hefty parking fees/restrictions in large towns, or even at the base of popular hill walking routes.

The beautiful coastal railway, travelling between Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness allows access to many of the rarely visited seaside towns and villages.

See

The National Park features an extensive network of footpaths throughout the valleys and on the fells (the local term for mountains), allowing excellent access.

See also: Hikes in the Lake District

  • Discover The Lakes, [2]. A Lake District guide compiled by people who live and work in The Lakes.  edit
  • Lakes District Outdoors information
  • Go walking. Most visitors spend their time walking on the Fells or by the Lakes. The park has over two hundred fells, all of which are open to visitors. Maps (available in most shops locally) show the huge network of footpaths which both cross the fells and run through the valleys. The district is mapped on four sheets by the Ordnance Survey - NW, NE, SW, SE. Additionally there are a large number of guidebooks available locally which suggest walks. See also the Itinerary Hikes in the Lake District.
  • Boat trips can be taken on many of the lakes, including Windermere, Ullswater, Coniston and Derwentwater.
  • Ullswater Steamer. Stops at Glenridding, Howtown, and Pooley Bridge.[3]  edit
  • Keswick Launch offers both clockwise and anticlockwise circuits of Derwentwater.[4]
  • Windermere Lake Cruises [5]
  • The Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway [6] is a small narrow-gauge steam railway, connecting the mainline station of Ravenglass on the coast to Boot station in the Eskdale valley.
  • The Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway [7] is a tourist steam railway at the foot of Lake Windermere.
  • Walk the Coast To Coast Walk.

Eat

Traditional pubs tend to be more prevalent than restaurants in this region, and most of them will serve traditional english food at lunch and dinner time. With so much sheep farming in the hills of the lake district, roast lamb is a favourite local dish. Cumberland sausage is a speciality throughout Cumbria, and locally-caught Borrowdale trout is also popular.

Drink

This region presents many opportunities to drink a traditional English ale in a traditional English pub. This can be a very satisfying way to replace lost calories after a long day walking in the hills.

Pubs in remote areas can develop a surprisingly lively scene in the evenings, if they are popular with mountaineers. Otherwise you will need to head in to larger towns if you are looking for night life.

The best thing about Cumbria is the staggering number of breweries - around 25 to date.

A selection of country pubs are:

  • The Three Shires Inn, in Little Langdale
  • The Swinside, in the Newlands Valley
  • The Mill Inn, in the hamlet of Mungrisdale
  • The Bridge Hotel, in Buttermere village
  • The Fish Hotel, in Buttermere village
  • The Salutation, in Threlkeld
  • The Swan, at Thornthwaite
  • The Britannia, in Elterwater
  • The Old Dungeon Ghyll, in Great Langdale
  • The New Dungeon Ghyll, in Great Langdale
  • The Riverside Bar of the Scafell Hotel in Rosthwaite

Sleep

The most common accommodation option in the area is the Bed & Breakfast, many of which can be found in the villages and towns in the park, as well as at many farms. Please see the individual town/village articles for listings.

  • Youth Hostels The YHA [8] has a diversity of accommodtion to offer the visitor to the Lake District. From the impressive Waterhead Youth Hostel [9] on the shores of Lake Windermere to Black Sail [10] converted shepherd's bothy only accessible on foot.
  • Pod-Camping Camping Pods [11] are an innovative alternative to tent camping. They are eco-friendly and have the advantage of lockable doors. The are designed to sleep a family of four. Pods are essentially 'wooden tents' you will need to take everything that you would for a camping holiday, minus the tent.
  • Camping Barns An excellent alternative to self-catering or Youth Hostelling. Camping Barns [12] are normally converted farm buildings/barns and are usually individually owned by the farmer. The Camping Barn basically as a stone tent, facilities vary, but most have only minimal facilities.

Stay safe

The mountains of the Lake District are by no means the largest or most extreme mountains of the world, but they can still present a serious threat to safety for walkers, and underestimating them can be fatal. Be sure to follow sensible safety precautions while walking. Clearly other outdoor sports have different risks associated with them.

Some of the area's mountain passes are extremely steep, with sharp corners and uneven road surfaces. Drivers should exercise extreme caution, particularly in poor wealther conditions.

The most obvious signs of crime are the police signs in Lakeland car parks warning you not to leave valuables on show in your car.

Get out

From the Lake District, the natural extended itineraries would take you either north, through Carlisle into Scotland, or south towards the big cities of Manchester and Liverpool. Alternatively, for those interested in touring more of England's parks, the Yorkshire Dales are just east of the Lake District.

This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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