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Lake Geneva
Satellite image
Location Switzerland, France
Coordinates 46°26′N 6°33′E / 46.433°N 6.55°E / 46.433; 6.55Coordinates: 46°26′N 6°33′E / 46.433°N 6.55°E / 46.433; 6.55
Primary inflows Rhone, La Venoge, Dranse, Aubonne
Primary outflows Rhone
Catchment area 7,975 km² (3,079 mi²)
Basin countries Switzerland, France
Max. length 73 km (45 mi)
Max. width 14 km (8.7 mi)
Surface area 582 km² (225 mi²)
Average depth 154.4 m
Max. depth 310 m
Water volume 89 km³
Residence time 11.4 years
Surface elevation 372 m
Islands Ile de la Harpe, Ile de Peilz (islets)
Settlements Geneva (CH), Lausanne (CH), Evian (F), Montreux (CH), Thonon (F), Vevey (CH) (see list)

Lake Geneva or Lake Léman (French: Lac Léman, Léman) is the largest natural freshwater lake in western Europe (582 km²)[1]. In addition it is the largest body of freshwater in continental Europe in term of volume (89 km³)[2]. Sixty percent of it comes under the jurisdiction of Switzerland (cantons of Vaud, Geneva, and Valais), and 40% under France (Haute-Savoie). The average level of water of 372 m is controlled by the Seujet Dam near Geneva.[3]

Lake Geneva, formed by a withdrawing glacier, has a crescent shape that narrows around Yvoire on the southern shore. It can thus be divided figuratively into the "Grand Lac" (Large Lake) to the east and the "Petit Lac" (Small Lake) to the west. The Chablais Alps border its southern shore, the western Bernese Alps lie over its eastern side. The high summits of Grand Combin and Mont Blanc are visible from some places. Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman (CGN) operates boats on the lake.

Contents

Name

The first recorded name of the lake is Lacus Lemanus from Roman times; it became Lacus Lausonius, although this name was also used for a town or district on the lake, Lacus Losanetes and then the Lac de Lausanne in the Middle Ages.[4] Following the rise of Geneva it became Lac de Genève (translated into English as Lake Geneva). In the 18th century, Lac Léman was revived in French. It is often called Lac de Genève in Geneva [1] [2] and Lac Léman elsewhere but the customary name in French is now Lac Léman or even le Léman. Certain maps name the lake the Lac d'Ouchy (after the port located on the Lausanne lake shore).[citation needed] In contemporary English, the name Lake Geneva is predominant.

A note on pronunciation:

English: Lake Geneva /ˌleɪk dʒɨˈniːvə/
French: Lac Léman [lak leˈmɑ̃] or Lac de Genève [lak də ʒøˈnɛv]
German: Genfersee or Genfer See [ˈɡɛnfəʁˈzeː]
Italian: Lago Lemano, Lago di Ginevra [ˈlaːɡo di dʒiˈnɛvra].

Geography

The lake lies on the course of the Rhone. The river has its source at the Rhone Glacier near the Grimsel Pass to the east of the lake and flows down through the Canton of Valais, entering the lake between Villeneuve and Le Bouveret, before flowing slowly towards its egress at Geneva. Other tributaries are La Dranse, L'Aubonne, La Morges, La Venoge, and La Veveyse.

View of the lake and the Chablais Alps from Caux

Lake Geneva is the largest in Switzerland, and greatly exceeds in dimensions all those which are equally closely connected with the main valleys of the Alps. Its form is that of a crescent with the horns pointing to south, the northern shore being 95 km., the southern shore 72 km. in length. The crescent form was more regular at a recent geological period, when the lake extended to Bex, about 18 km. south of Villeneuve. The detritus of the Rhone has filled up this portion of the bed of the lake, and it appears that within the historical period the waters extended about 2 km. beyond the present eastern margin of the lake. The greatest depth of the lake, in the broad portion between Evian and Lausanne, where it is just 13 km. in width, has been measured as 310 metres, making the bottom of the lake 62 metres higher than the the level of the sea. The lake's surface is the lowest point of the cantons of Valais and Vaud.[5]

CGN paddle steamer in 1926 near Vevey with the Dents du Midi in background

The beauty of the shores of the lake and of the sites of many of the places near its banks has long been celebrated. However it is only from the eastern end of the lake, between Vevey and Villeneuve, that the scenery assumes an Alpine character. On the south side the mountains of Savoy and Valais are for the most part rugged and sombre, while those of the northern shore fall in gentle vine-covered slopes, thickly set with villages and castles.[5]

The snowy peaks of the Mont Blanc are shut out from the western end of the lake by the ridge of the Voirons, and from its eastern end by the bolder summits of the Grammont, Cornettes de Bise and Dent d'Oche, but are seen from Geneva, and between Nyon and Morges. From Vevey to Bex, where the lake originally extended, the shores are enclosed by comparatively high and bold mountains, and the vista terminates in the grand portal of the defile of St. Maurice, cleft to a depth of nearly 9,000 ft. between the opposite peaks of the Dents du Midi and the Dent de Morcles.[5]

The shore between Nyon and Lausanne is called La Côte because it is "flatter". Between Lausanne and Vevey it is called Lavaux and is famous for its hilly vineyards. [6][7]

Environment

View over the western end of the lake from La Barillette

By the 1960s, the lake had ceased being a transport artery for commercial and construction materials.[citation needed] In the late 1960s pollution made it dangerous to swim at some beaches of the lake; indeed, tourists taking a ride in the local submarine had near zero visibility (it was eventually solid).[8][9] By the 1980s, intense environmental pollution (eutrophication) had almost wiped out all the fish. Today, pollution levels have been dramatically cut back, and it is again considered safe to swim in the lake.[10][11] Major leisure activities practiced include sailing, wind surfing, boating (including water skiing and wakeboarding), rowing, scuba diving and bathing.

On a scientific footnote, in 1827, Lake Geneva was the site for the first measurement of the speed of sound in (fresh) water.[12] French mathematician Jacques Charles François Sturm and Swiss Physicist Daniel Collodon used two moored boats, separated by a measured distance, as the transmit and receive platforms for the sounds of exploding gunpowder. The loud airborne sound coupled into the lake, establishing a loud underwater sound that could be measured at a distance. The flash of the exploding gunpowder provided the visual starting cue for the timepiece, and the underwater explosion sound striking a bell provided the finish cue.

Yacht racing

Yacht racing is a popular sport and high-performance catamarans have been developed specifically for the lake.[13] The design of Alinghi 5, the defender of the 2010 America's Cup, was influenced by those racing catamarans.[13] The best-known event, the "Bol d'Or" (not to be confused with other events having the same name) runs from Geneva to the end of the lake and back.[14]

Cities and places

View of Lake Geneva from Saint-Sulpice.
View from Montreux
View from Lavaux
CGN paddle steamer with the Jet d'Eau in Geneva
List of cities and places on Lake Geneva
Starting from the entry of Rhône River on the east end, with the southern shore to the left.
Southern shore Northern shore
Grand Lac
Petit Lac

Miscellaneous

References

  1. ^ Switzerland: Lake of Geneva esa.int. Retrived on 2009-07-20
  2. ^ Lake Geneva in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  3. ^ Seujet / Lac Léman rhone-geneve.ch. Retrived on 2009-07-20
  4. ^ "Lake Geneva". Town of Evian. http://www.ville-evian.fr/anglais/DT1209539703/page/Lake-Geneva.html. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  5. ^ a b c John Ball, A Guide to the Western Alps, p. 254
  6. ^ Cuckoo, Paul (26 October 2007). "Switzerland mastering the art of wine making". India Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Corporate_Dossier/Switzerland_mastering_the_art_of_wine_making/articleshow/2491742.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  7. ^ Mourby, Adrian (19 August 2007). "European Breaks: Three suns, one grape, a lot of flavour". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/short-breaks/european-breaks-three-suns-one-grape-a-lot-of-flavour-462211.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  8. ^ "Convention concerning protection of the waters of Lake Geneva against pollution.". United Nations Treaty Collection. 16 November 1962. http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/7/25/00013243.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  9. ^ Bergier, Jean-François; (Collective) (2008) (in French). Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse. Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse. 7. Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive. ISBN 2-88256-197-0. http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/textes/f/F8657-1-1.php. 
  10. ^ "Baisse du Phosphore dans le Léman" (in French). Comission Internationale pour la Protection du Léman (CIPEL). 9 May 2007. http://www.cipel.org/sp/IMG/pdf/Phosphore-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  11. ^ Monna, F.; Domnik J. ; Loiseau J.-L. ; Pardos M. ; Arpagaus P. (1999). "Origin and evolution of Pb in sediments of Lake Geneva (Switzerland-France). Establishing a stable Pb record". Environmental science & technology (Washington, DC: American Chemical Society) 33 (17): 2850–2857. ISSN 0013-936X. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1943833. 
  12. ^ Guichonnet, Paul (2002) (in French). Nature et histoire du Léman: le guide du Léman. Divonne-Les-Bains: Editions Cabedita. pp. 235. ISBN 2882951205, 9782882951205. http://books.google.com/books?id=C2cyTH8ydD4C&dq=histoire+du+lac+léman&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.alinghi.com/en/news/news/index.php?idIndex=200&idContent=21208
  14. ^ http://www.boldor.ch/boldor/ch/FR-CH/index.cfm
  15. ^ Sunstein, Emily W. (1989). Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality (1991 ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 478. ISBN 0801842182. 
  16. ^ Michner, Joerg (25 February 2007). "Fed-up Swiss taxpayers call time on concessions for wealthy foreigners". Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1543808/Fed-up-Swiss-taxpayers-call-time-on-concessions-for-wealthy-foreigners.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  17. ^ "Schuey vrooms into £30m home". The Sun. 2007-11-30. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article526160.ece. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 

External links

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Lake Geneva
File:Genfersee
Satellite image
Location Switzerland, France
Coordinates 46°26′N 6°33′E / 46.433°N 6.55°E / 46.433; 6.55Coordinates: 46°26′N 6°33′E / 46.433°N 6.55°E / 46.433; 6.55
Primary inflows Rhone, La Venoge, Dranse, Aubonne
Primary outflows Rhone
Catchment area 7,975 km² (3,079 mi²)
Basin countries Switzerland, France
Max. length 73 km (45 mi)
Max. width 14 km (8.7 mi)
Surface area 580.03 km² (223.95 mi²)
Average depth 154.4 m
Max. depth 310 m
Water volume 89 km³
Residence time 11.4 years
Surface elevation 372 m
Islands Ile de la Harpe, Ile de Peilz (islets)
Settlements Geneva (CH), Lausanne (CH), Evian (F), Montreux (CH), Thonon (F), Vevey (CH) (see list)

Lake Geneva or Lake Léman (French: Lac Léman, Léman) is a lake in Switzerland and France. It is one of the largest lakes in Western Europe. 59.53 % (345.31 km²) of it comes under the jurisdiction of Switzerland (cantons of Vaud, Geneva, and Valais), and 40.47 % (234.71 km²) under France (Haute-Savoie). The average level of water of 372 m is controlled by the Seujet Dam near Geneva.[1]

Lake Geneva, formed by a withdrawing glacier, has a crescent shape that narrows around Yvoire on the southern shore. It can thus be divided figuratively into the "Grand Lac" (Large Lake) to the east and the "Petit Lac" (Small Lake) to the west. The Chablais Alps border its southern shore, the western Bernese Alps lie over its eastern side. The high summits of Grand Combin and Mont Blanc are visible from some places. Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman (CGN) operates boats on the lake.

Contents

Name

The first recorded name of the lake is Lacus Lemanus from Roman times; it became Lacus Lausonius, although this name was also used for a town or district on the lake, Lacus Losanetes and then the Lac de Lausanne in the Middle Ages.[2] Following the rise of Geneva it became Lac de Genève (translated into English as Lake Geneva). In the 18th century, Lac Léman was revived in French. It is often called Lac de Genève in Geneva [1] [2] and Lac Léman elsewhere but the customary name in French is now Lac Léman or even le Léman. Certain maps name the lake the Lac d'Ouchy (after the port located on the Lausanne lake shore).[citation needed] In contemporary English, the name Lake Geneva is predominant.

A note on pronunciation:

English: Lake Geneva /ˌleɪk dʒɨˈniːvə/
French: Lac Léman [lak leˈmɑ̃] or Lac de Genève [lak də ʒøˈnɛv]
German: Genfersee or Genfer See Template:IPA-de
Italian: Lago Lemano, Lago di Ginevra [ˈlaːɡo di dʒiˈnɛvra].

Geography

The lake lies on the course of the Rhone. The river has its source at the Rhone Glacier near the Grimsel Pass to the east of the lake and flows down through the Canton of Valais, entering the lake between Villeneuve and Le Bouveret, before flowing slowly towards its egress at Geneva. Other tributaries are La Dranse, L'Aubonne, La Morges, La Venoge, and La Veveyse.

File:View over Lake Geneva
View of the lake and the Chablais Alps from Caux

Lake Geneva is the largest body of water in Switzerland, and greatly exceeds in size all others that are connected with the main valleys of the Alps. It is in the shape of a crescent, with the horns pointing south, the northern shore being 95 km., the southern shore 72 km. in length. The crescent form was more regular in a recent geological period, when the lake extended to Bex, about 18 km. south of Villeneuve. The detritus of the Rhone has filled up this portion of the bed of the lake, and it appears that within the historical period the waters extended about 2 km. beyond the present eastern margin of the lake. The greatest depth of the lake, in the broad portion between Evian and Lausanne, where it is just 13 km. in width, has been measured as 310 metres, making the bottom of the lake 62 metres higher than the level of the sea. The lake's surface is the lowest point of the cantons of Valais and Vaud.[3]

File:CGN-Helvé
CGN paddle steamer in 1926 near Vevey with the Dents du Midi in background

The beauty of the shores of the lake and of the sites of many of the places near its banks has long been celebrated. However it is only from the eastern end of the lake, between Vevey and Villeneuve, that the scenery assumes an Alpine character. On the south side the mountains of Savoy and Valais are for the most part rugged and sombre, while those of the northern shore fall in gentle vine-covered slopes, thickly set with villages and castles.[3]

The snowy peaks of the Mont Blanc are shut out from the western end of the lake by the ridge of the Voirons, and from its eastern end by the bolder summits of the Grammont, Cornettes de Bise and Dent d'Oche, but are seen from Geneva, and between Nyon and Morges. From Vevey to Bex, where the lake originally extended, the shores are enclosed by comparatively high and bold mountains, and the vista terminates in the grand portal of the defile of St. Maurice, cleft to a depth of nearly 9,000 ft. between the opposite peaks of the Dents du Midi and the Dent de Morcles.[3]

The shore between Nyon and Lausanne is called La Côte because it is "flatter". Between Lausanne and Vevey it is called Lavaux and is famous for its hilly vineyards.[4][5]

Environment

File:Barillette Lac Leman Mont
View over the western end of the lake from La Barillette

By the 1960s, the lake had ceased being a transport artery for commercial and construction materials.[citation needed] In the late 1960s pollution made it dangerous to swim at some beaches of the lake; indeed, tourists taking a ride in the local submarine had near zero visibility (it[clarification needed] was eventually solid).[6][7] By the 1980s, intense environmental pollution (eutrophication) had almost wiped out all the fish. Today, pollution levels have been dramatically cut back, and it is again considered safe to swim in the lake.[8][9] Major leisure activities practiced include sailing, wind surfing, boating (including water skiing and wakeboarding), rowing, scuba diving and bathing.

On a scientific footnote, in 1827, Lake Geneva was the site for the first measurement of the speed of sound in (fresh) water.[10] French mathematician Jacques Charles François Sturm and Swiss Physicist Daniel Collodon used two moored boats, separated by a measured distance, as the transmit and receive platforms for the sounds of exploding gunpowder. The loud airborne sound coupled into the lake, establishing a loud underwater sound that could be measured at a distance. The flash of the exploding gunpowder provided the visual starting cue for the timepiece, and the underwater explosion sound striking a bell provided the finish cue.

Yacht racing

Yacht racing is a popular sport and high-performance catamarans have been developed specifically for the lake.[11] The design of Alinghi 5, the defender of the 2010 America's Cup, was influenced by those racing catamarans.[11] The best-known event, the "Bol d'Or" (not to be confused with other events having the same name) runs from Geneva to the end of the lake and back.[12]

Cities and places

File:Saint Sulpice
View of Lake Geneva from Saint-Sulpice.
File:Geneva Lac
CGN paddle steamer with the Jet d'Eau in Geneva
List of cities and places on Lake Geneva
Starting from the entry of Rhône River on the east end, with the southern shore to the left.
Southern shore Northern shore
Grand Lac
Petit Lac

Miscellaneous

References

  1. ^ Seujet / Lac Léman rhone-geneve.ch. Retrieved on 2009-07-20
  2. ^ "Lake Geneva". Town of Evian. http://www.ville-evian.fr/anglais/DT1209539703/page/Lake-Geneva.html. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  3. ^ a b c John Ball, A Guide to the Western Alps, p. 254
  4. ^ Cuckoo, Paul (26 October 2007). "Switzerland mastering the art of wine making". India Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Corporate_Dossier/Switzerland_mastering_the_art_of_wine_making/articleshow/2491742.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  5. ^ Mourby, Adrian (19 August 2007). "European Breaks: Three suns, one grape, a lot of flavour". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/short-breaks/european-breaks-three-suns-one-grape-a-lot-of-flavour-462211.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  6. ^ "Convention concerning protection of the waters of Lake Geneva against pollution.". United Nations Treaty Collection. 16 November 1962. http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/7/25/00013243.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  7. ^ Bergier, Jean-François; (Collective) (2008) (in French). Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse. Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse. 7. Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive. ISBN 2-88256-197-0. http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/textes/f/F8657-1-1.php. 
  8. ^ "Baisse du Phosphore dans le Léman" (in French). Commission Internationale pour la Protection du Léman (CIPEL). 9 May 2007. http://www.cipel.org/sp/IMG/pdf/Phosphore-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  9. ^ Monna, F.; Domnik J. ; Loiseau J.-L. ; Pardos M. ; Arpagaus P. (1999). "Origin and evolution of Pb in sediments of Lake Geneva (Switzerland-France). Establishing a stable Pb record". Environmental science & technology (Washington, DC: American Chemical Society) 33 (17): 2850–2857. doi:10.1021/es9902468. ISSN 0013-936X. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1943833. 
  10. ^ Guichonnet, Paul (2002) (in French). Nature et histoire du Léman: le guide du Léman. Divonne-Les-Bains: Editions Cabedita. pp. 235. ISBN 2882951205, 9782882951205. http://books.google.com/?id=C2cyTH8ydD4C&dq=histoire+du+lac+léman. 
  11. ^ a b http://www.alinghi.com/en/news/news/index.php?idIndex=200&idContent=21208
  12. ^ http://www.boldor.ch/boldor/ch/FR-CH/index.cfm
  13. ^ Sunstein, Emily W. (1989). Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality (1991 ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 478. ISBN 0801842182. 
  14. ^ Michner, Joerg (25 February 2007). "Fed-up Swiss taxpayers call time on concessions for wealthy foreigners". Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1543808/Fed-up-Swiss-taxpayers-call-time-on-concessions-for-wealthy-foreigners.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  15. ^ "Schuey vrooms into £30m home". The Sun. 2007-11-30. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article526160.ece. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Lake Geneva (disambiguation).
Lake Geneva beacon
Lake Geneva beacon

Lake Geneva, known in French as Lac Léman, is one of the largest lakes in western Europe. It lies on the course of the Rhone river on the frontier between France and Switzerland.

Aside from the city and canton of Geneva most destinations in the Lake Geneva region are in either the Swiss canton of Vaud or the French department of Haute Savoie. For its part Vaud is the largest canton in the French speaking part of Switzerland, and the third largest in the country as a whole. The geography is varied, with the Jura mountains in the north, a hilly plain in the center and in the southwest the Alps. The main attractions of the region are the cities and towns surrounding the lake, the opportunities for skiing and hiking in both mountain ranges, and of course the lake itself.

  • Geneva -- the largest City on the lake.
  • Coppet -- medieval charm on the lake, very close to Geneva
  • Nyon -- pleasant town center with thriving Sunday flea market
  • Lausanne - like San Francisco, but more Swiss.
  • Vevey -- Small city in the midst of the Swiss Riviera, corp. headquarters of Nestlé
  • Montreux -- the jewel of the Swiss Riviera
  • Evian -- the French bottled water capital (Haute Savoie, France)
  • Aigle -- a jumping off point for the Vaud Alps, with a very cool castle
  • Leysin -- spa and college town with good skiing in the Vaud Alps
  • Les Diablerets -- ski/hiking resort town in the Vaud Alps
  • Villars -- good ski resort for beginners and families
  • Pompaples
  • Lavaux - A terraced wine growing region

Talk

The shores of Lake Geneva are entirely French speaking, though you will also hear Swiss German, Italian, and English. In Geneva and Lausanne, it is not uncommon for people around you to be having conversations in four different languages.

Get in

By air

The only airport in this region is in Geneva (Genève-Cointrin). It is much smaller than the airport in Zürich, but very heavily internationally connected due to the UN's presence in Geneva. You can also easily fly into Zürich and catch an express train south.

By train

The TGV from France and the Cisalpino from Italy stop in Geneva, Lausanne, Vevey, and Montreux. From Germany or Austria you will have to change in Basel or Zürich.

Get around

Most towns on Lake Geneva are served by the boats of the Compagnie Génerale de navigation (CGN). As well as modern boats, CGN operates five heritage paddle steamers build at the beginning of the 20th century. On some routes, boats are the fastest mean of transport (between Lausanne and Evian, for example). On most other routes though, boats are much slower than trains, but they often offer more scenic views.

Private boat tours and transfers from Geneva to any port on the lake is by Léman Transfers. Groups of up to 6 passengers can be privately chauffeured around the lake. - Léman Transfers. h

  • Chocolaterie Tristan: In Bougy-Villars, a cute little village half-way between Lausanne and Geneva, one shouldn't miss this little artisanal chocolate factory. Unique chocolates with all sort of original flavours such as spice, tea, olive oil, and many more, are prepared here. You can get there by bus from Allaman (IKEA train stop). On the way, you will enjoy a beautiful view of the mountains and the surrounding vineyards. Once in the village, let the scent guide you to the shop. And by the way, why not stop in Féchy (the neighbouring village) to taste some famous local wine.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LAKE GENEVA, a city of Walworth county, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 65 m. N.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1900) 2585, of whom 468 were foreign-born; (5905, state census) 3449. It is served by the Chicago & Northwestern railway. The city is picturesquely situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (9 m. long and 12 to 3 m. wide), a beautiful body of remarkably clear water, fed by springs, and encircled by rolling hills covered with thick groves of hardwood trees. The region is famous as a summer resort, particularly for Chicago people. The city is the seat of Oakwood Sanitarium, and at Williams Bay, 6 m. distant, is the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago. Dairying is the most important industrial interest. The first settlement on Lake Geneva was made about 1833. The city was chartered in 1893.


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