The Full Wiki

Lal Shahbaz Qalander: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Syed Usman Shah Marwandi
Religion Islam, specifically the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order
Other name(s) Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Personal
Born 1177
Marwand
Died 1274
Sehwan
Senior posting
Based in Sehwan
Title Shahbaz
Period in office 12th/13th century
Predecessor Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Successor Various

Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (1177 - 1274) (Sindhi: لال شھباز قلندر), a AfghanSufi saint, philosopher, poet, and qalandar, was born as Syed Usman Shah Marwandi.[1]

He belonged to the Suhrawardiyya order of sufis, and was close contemporary to Baha-ud-din Zakariya, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari Surkh-posh of Uchch, and Shams Tabrizi. Some also add the name of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi (Mevlana Rumi).

He travelled around the Muslim world and had settled in Sehwan (Sindh, Pakistan) and was buried there.[2] He preached religious tolerance among Muslims and Hindus. Thousands of pilgrims visit his shrine every year, especially at the occasion of his Urs.

Contents

Life

Shahbaz Qalandar (Shaikh Usman Marwandi) was born in Marwand, Afghanistan[3] to a dervish, Syed Ibrahim Kabiruddin[4] whose ancestors migrated from Bagdad and settled down in Mashhad, a center of learning and civilization, before migrating again to Marwand.

His dedication to the knowledge of various religious disciplines enabled him to eventually become a profound scholar. During his lifetime, he witnessed the Ghaznavid and Ghurids rules in South Asia.[5] He became fluent in many languages including Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Sindhi and Sanskrit. His mysticism attracted people from all religions. He was titled Lal (red) for his usual red attire, Shahbaz due to his noble and divine spirit, and Qalandar for his Sufism and saintly attitude. Hindus regarded him as the incarnation of Bhrithari. Qalandar Lal Shahbaz lived a celibate life and, did not marry. Evidence shows that Shahbaz Qalander was in Sindh before 1196, when he met Pir Haji Ismail Panhwar of Pat; it is believed he entered Sehwan in 1251. Shahbaz Qalander established his Khanqah in Sehwan and started teaching in Fuqhai Islam Madarrsah; during this period he wrote his treatises Mizna-e-Sart, Kism-e-Doyum, Aqd and Zubdah.

In poetry and prose

A Qawwali by Abida Parveen and many other singers of sufi songs, 'Lal Meri Pat Rakhiyo ...' is in honour of Shahbaz Qalandar, as is the one sung by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan named Mast Qalandar.

This famous mystic often quoted the teachings of Maulana Jalal ad-Din Rumi. A book detailing his life is called "Solomon's Ring" by Gul Hasan.

Bu Ali Shah Qalandar's famous Persian verses showing his love and honour for Hazrat Ali are engraved on his shrine:

Haiderium Qalandram Mastam

Banda e Murtaza Ali Hastam

Peshwa e tamam Rindanam

Ke Sag e Koo e Sher e Yazdanam!

Translation:

I am Haideri (relating to Haider, a second name for Ali ibn Abi Talib), Qalandar and Mast (intoxicated with inspiration)

I am a servant of Ali Murtaza

I am leader of all saints

Because I am a dog of the lane of "Allah's Lion" (referring to Ali Murtaza)

Legends and Stories

On his way from Baluchistan to Sindh, he also stayed in present day Karachi's Manghopir area for muraqba (meditation), and it is said that Manghopir's natural warm fountain is a miracle of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. That warm fountain started to flow from beneath the hill, on which Lal Shahbaz sat for muraqba (meditation). After passing hundreds of years, that warm fountain is still flowing continuously and is said to have miraculous healing power especially for asthma patients.

In Multan, Lal Shahbaz met Bahauddin Zachariah Multani of the Suhurwardiya order, Baba Farid Ganjshakar of Chishtiya order, and Makhdoom Jahanian Surkh Bukhari. The attachment was so cordial and spiritual that their friendship became legendary. They were known as Chahar Yar (Persian = four friends). According to some historians, the four friends visited various parts of Sindh and Punjab, in present day Pakistan.

Many saints of Sindh, including Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Makhdoom Bilawal and Sachal Sarmast, were devout followers of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar.

It is also believed that he turned into a falcon to pick up his friend Fariduddin Ganjshakar from the gallows. The legend goes that the incumbent fakirs in Sehwan sent him a bowl of milk filled to the brim, indicating that there was no room for anything more. But surprisingly, he returned the bowl with a beautiful flower floating on the top. This legend spread far and wide by the time of his death in 1274, after living a good span of 97 years.

Shrine

The shrine around his tomb, built in 1356, gives a dazzling look with its Sindhi kashi tiles, mirror work and one gold-plated door - donated by the late Shah of Iran, and installed by the late Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[3] The inner sanctum is about 100 yards square with the silver canopied grave in the middle. On one side of the marble floor is a row of about 12 inch high folding wooden stands on which are set copies of Quran for devotees to read. On the other side, beside a bundle of burning agarbattis (joss sticks), are rows of diyas (small oil lamps) lighted by devotees.

Urs

His annual Urs (death anniversary celebration) is held on the 18 Sha'aban - the eighth month of the Muslim lunar calendar. Thousands of devotees flock to the tomb while every Thursday their number stands multiplied especially at the time of his ‘Urs’ being a carnival as well a religious festival and celebrated every year. Sehwan springs to life and becomes the focal point of more than half a million pilgrims from all over Pakistan. On each morning of the three day feast, the narrow lanes of Sewhan are packed to capacity as thousands and thousands of pilgrims, fakirs and devotees make their way to the shrine to commune with the saint, offer their tributes and make a wish. Most of the people present garlands and a green chadar (a cloth used to cover a tomb) with Qur’anic inscriptions in silver or gold threads. Humming of verses, singing and dancing in praise of the saint continues till late at night. A devotional dance known as ‘dhamal’, being a frenzied and ecstatic swirl of the head and body, is a special ritual that is performed at the rhythmic beat of the [dhol] (a big barrel-shaped drum), some of them being of giant size and placed in the courtyard of the shrine. Bells, gongs, cymbals and horns make a thunderous din, and the dervishes, clad in long robes, beads, bracelets and colored head-bands whirl faster and faster in a hypnotic trance, until with a final deafening scream they run wildly through the doors of the shrine to the courtyard beyond.

References

  1. ^ Sarah Ansari (1971) Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Vanguard Books.
  2. ^ M Inam (1978) Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar of Sehwan Sharif. Karachi.
  3. ^ a b N M Mathyani (2002) Lal Shahbaz Qalandar: A great saint. Retrieved on 27 January, 2008
  4. ^ I A Rashid (2004) Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. Story of Pakistan. 6 March. Retrieved on 27 January, 2008
  5. ^ N B G Qazi (1971) Lal Shahbaz Qalandar ʻUthman Marwandi'. RCD Cultural Institute.

External links

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message