Laozi: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
老子, Romanized as Laozi (see below)

Laozi, depicted as a Taoist god.
Full name 老子, Romanized as Laozi (see below)
Born Unknown, 6th–4th centuries BC
Died Unknown, 6th–4th centuries BC
Era Ancient philosophy
Region Eastern philosophy
School Taoism
Notable ideas Wu wei
Taoism
Taoism
This article is part of a series on Taoism
Fundamentals
Dao (Tao) · De (Te) · Wuji · Taiji · Yin-Yang · Wu xing · Qi · Neidan · Wu wei
Texts
Laozi (Tao Te Ching) · Zhuangzi · Liezi · Daozang
Deities
Three Pure Ones · Yu Huang · Guan Shengdi · Eight Immortals · Yellow Emperor · Xiwangmu · Jade Emperor · Chang'e · Other deities
People
Laozi · Zhuangzi · Zhang Daoling · Zhang Jiao · Ge Hong · Chen Tuan
Schools
Tianshi Dao · Shangqing · Lingbao · Quanzhen Dao · Zhengyi Dao · Wuliupai
Sacred sites
Grotto-heavens · Mount Penglai

Taoism Portal
 v • d • e 

Laozi (Chinese: pinyin: LǎozǐWade-Giles: Laosi; also Lao Tse, Lao Tu, Lao-Tzu, Lao-Tsu, Laotze, Lao Zi, Laocius, and other variations) was a philosopher of ancient China and is a central figure in Taoism (also spelled "Daoism"). Laozi literally means "Old Master" and is generally considered an honorific. Laozi is revered as a deity in most religious forms of Taoism. Taishang Laojun is a title for Laozi in the Taoist religion, which refers to him as "One of the Three Pure Ones".

According to Chinese tradition, Laozi lived in the 6th century BC. Historians variously contend that Laozi is a synthesis of multiple historical figures, that he is a mythical figure, or that he actually lived in the 4th century BC, concurrent with the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Period.[1]

A central figure in Chinese culture, both nobility and common people claim Laozi in their lineage. Throughout history, Laozi's work was embraced by various anti-authoritarian movements.

Contents

History

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Tao Te Ching (Daodejing), though its authorship has been debated throughout history.[2][3][4]

The earliest reliable reference (circa 100 BC) to Laozi is found in the Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji) by Chinese historian Sima Qian (ca. 145–86 BC), which combines three stories. In the first, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius (551–479 BC). His surname was Li ( "plum"), and his personal name was Er ( "ear") or Dan ( "long ear"). He was an official in the imperial archives, and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the West. In the second, Laozi was Lao Laizi (老來子 "Old Master"), also a contemporary of Confucius, who wrote a book in 15 parts. In the third, Laozi was the Grand Historian and astrologer Lao Dan (老聃 "Old Long-ears"), who lived during the reign (384–362 BC) of Duke Xian (獻公) of Qin).[5][6]

Popular legends say that he was conceived when his mother gazed upon a falling star, stayed in the womb for 62 years, and was born when his mother leaned against a plum tree. He accordingly emerged a grown man with a full grey beard and long earlobes, which are a symbol of wisdom and long life.[7][8] In other versions he was reborn in some thirteen incarnations since the days of Fuxi; in his last incarnation as Laozi he lived to nine hundred and ninety years, and traveled to India to reveal the Dao.[9]

According to popular traditional biographies, he worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou. This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school, but he nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are numerous variations of a story depicting Confucius consulting Laozi about rituals.[10][11]

According to legends, Laozi leaves China on his water buffalo.[12]

Many of the popular accounts say that Laozi married and had a son named Zong, who became a celebrated soldier. A large number of people trace their lineage back to Laozi, as the emperors of the Tang Dynasty did. According to Simpkins & Simpkins, many (if not all) of the lineages may be inaccurate. However, they are a testament to the impact of Laozi on Chinese culture.[13]

Traditional accounts state that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of city life and noted the kingdom's decline. According to these legends, he ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 160. At the western gate of the city, or kingdom, he was recognized by a guard. The sentry asked the old master to produce a record of his wisdom. This is the legendary origin of the Daodejing. In some versions of the tale, the sentry is so touched by the work that he leaves with Laozi to never be seen again. Some legends elaborate further that the "Old Master" was the teacher of the Buddha, or the Buddha himself.[10][14]

By the mid-twentieth century, a consensus had emerged among scholars that the historicity of Laozi was doubtful or unprovable and that the Daodejing was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands originating in the -4th century."[15] Alan Watts (1975) held that this view was part of an academic fashion for skepticism about historical spiritual and religious figures, arguing that not enough would be known for years, or possibly ever, to make a firm judgment.[16]

Names

Laozi is an honorific title. Lao means "venerable" or "old". Zi, or tzu, means "master". Zi was used in ancient China like a social prefix, indicating "Master", or "Sir". In popular biographies, Laozi's given name was Er, his surname was Li (forming Li Er, ) and his courtesy name was Boyang. Dan is a posthumous name given to Laozi, and he is sometimes referred to as Li Dan ().[17][18][19]

During the Tang Dynasty, he was honoured as an ancestor of the dynasty after Daoists drew a connection between the dynasty's family name of Li and Laozi's bearing of the same name. He was granted the title Taishang xuanyuan huangdi, meaning "Supreme Mysterious and Primordial Emperor". Xuanyuan and Huangdi are also, respectively, the personal and proper names of the Yellow Emperor.[20][21][22]

Daodejing

Laozi's magnum opus, the Daodejing, is one of the most significant treatises in Chinese cosmogony. As with most other ancient Chinese philosophers, Laozi often explains his ideas by way of paradox, analogy, appropriation of ancient sayings, repetition, symmetry, rhyme, and rhythm.

The Daodejing, often called simply the Laozi after its reputed author, describes the Dao (or Tao) as the mystical source and ideal of all existence: it is unseen, but not transcendent, immensely powerful yet supremely humble, being the root of all things. According to the Daodejing, humans have no special place within the Dao, being just one of its many ("ten thousand") manifestations. People have desires and free will (and thus are able to alter their own nature). Many act "unnaturally", upsetting the natural balance of the Dao. The Daodejing intends to lead students to a "return" to their natural state, in harmony with Dao.[23] Language and conventional wisdom are critically assessed. Taoism views them as inherently biased and artificial, widely using paradoxes to sharpen the point.[24]

Livia Kohn provides an example of how Laozi encouraged a change in approach, or return to "nature", rather than action. Technology may bring about a false sense of progress. The answer provided by Laozi is not the rejection of technology, but instead seeking the calm state of wu wei, free from desires. This relates to many statements by Laozi encouraging rulers to keep their people in "ignorance", or "simple-minded". Some scholars insist this explanation ignores the religious context, and others question it as an apologetic of the philosophical coherence of the text. It would not be unusual political advice if Laozi literally intended to tell rulers to keep their people ignorant. However, some terms in the text, such as "valley spirit" (gushen) and "soul" (po), bear a religious context and cannot be easily reconciled with a purely ethical reading of the work.[24]

Wu wei, literally "non-action" or "not acting", is a central concept of the Daodejing. The concept of wu wei is very complex and reflected in the words' multiple meanings, even in English translation; it can mean "not doing anything", "not forcing", "not acting" in the theatrical sense, "creating nothingness", "acting spontaneously", and "flowing with the moment."[25]

It is a concept used to explain ziran, or harmony with the Dao. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with simplicity and humility as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between wu wei and esoteric practices, such as the "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi.[24]

According to esoteric adherents, the book contains specific instructions for Daoist adepts relating to qigong meditations, and in veiled preachings the way to revert to the primordial state.[26] This interpretation supports the view that Taoism is a religion addressing the quest of immortality.[27][28]

Taoism

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Daoism, intimately connected with the Daodejing and "primordial" (or "original") Daoism. Popular ("religious") Daoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Daoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities.[29][30]

The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the Han dynasty. As Daoism took root, Laozi was recognized as a god. Belief in the revelation of the Dao from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the Way of the Celestial Master, the first organized religious Daoist sect. In later mature Daoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of Dao. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations", or taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Daoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the Daodejing, but rather traveled to India to reveal the Dao.[9]

Yinxi

Laozi meets Yinxi

Laozi's relationship with the guardian of the western pass, named Yinxi (Wade Giles Yin Hse), is the subject of numerous legends. It is Yinxi who asked Laozi to write down his wisdom in the traditional account of the Daodejing's creation. The story of Laozi transmitting the Daodejing to Yinxi is part of a broader theme involving Laozi the deity delivering salvific truth to a suffering humanity. Regardless, the deliverance of the Daodejing was the ultimate purpose of his human incarnation. Folklore developed around Laozi and Yinxi to demonstrate the ideal interaction of Taoist master and disciple.[31]

A seventh century work, Sandong zhunang ("Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns"), provides one account of their relationship. Laozi pretended to be a farmer when reaching the western gate, but was recognized by Yinxi, who asked to be taught by the great master. Laozi was not satisfied by simply being noticed by the guard and demanded an explanation. Yinxi expressed his deep desire to find the Tao and explained that his long study of astrology allowed him to recognize Laozi's approach. Yinxi was accepted by Laozi as a disciple. This is considered an exemplary interaction between Daoist master and disciple, reflecting the testing a seeker must undergo before being accepted. A would-be adherent is expected to prove his determination and talent, clearly expressing his wishes and showing that he had made progress on his own towards realizing the Tao.[32]

The Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns continues the parallel of an adherent's quest. Yinxi received his ordination when Laozi transmitted the Daodejing, along with other texts and precepts, just as Taoist adherents receive a number of methods, teachings and scriptures at ordination. This is only an initial ordination and Yinxi still needed an additional period to perfect his faith, thus Laozi gave him three years to perfect his Dao. Yinxi gave himself over to a full-time devotional life. After the appointed time, Yinxi again demonstrates determination and perfect trust, sending out a black sheep to market as the agreed sign. He eventually meets again with Laozi, who announces that Yinxi's immortal name is listed in the heavens and calls down a heavenly procession to clothe Yinxi in the garb of immortals. The story continues that Laozi bestowed a number of titles upon Yinxi and took him on a journey throughout the universe, even into the nine heavens. After this fantastic journey, the two sages set out to western lands of the barbarians. The training period, reuniting and travels represent the attainment of the highest religious rank in medieval Taoism called "Preceptor of the Three Caverns". In this legend, Laozi is the perfect Daoist master and Yinxi is the ideal Taoist student. Laozi is presented as the Tao personified, giving his teaching to humanity for their salvation. Yinxi follows the formal sequence of preparation, testing, training and attainment.[33]

Influence

A stone sculpture of Laozi, located north of Quanzhou at the foot of Mount Qingyuan.

Potential officials throughout Chinese history drew on the authority of non-Confucian sages, especially Laozi and Zhuangzi, to deny serving any ruler at any time. Zhuangzi, Laozi's most famous follower, had a great deal of influence on Chinese literati and culture. Zhuangzi is a central authority regarding eremitism, a particular variation of monasticism sacrificing social aspects for religious aspects of life. Zhuangzi considered eremitism the highest ideal, if properly understood.[34]

Scholars such as Aat Vervoom have postulated that Zhuangzi advocated a hermit immersed in society. This view of eremitism holds that seclusion is hiding anonymously in society. To a Zhuangzi hermit, being unknown and drifting freely is a state of mind. This reading is based on the "inner chapters" of the self-titled Zhuangzi.[35]

Scholars such as James Bellamy hold that this could be true and has been interpreted similarly at various points in Chinese history. However, the "outer chapters" of Zhuangzi have historically played a pivotal role in the advocacy of reclusion. While some scholars state that Laozi was the central figure of Han Dynasty eremitism, historical texts do not seem to support that position.[36]

Political theorists influenced by Laozi have advocated humility in leadership and a restrained approach to statecraft, either for ethical and pacifist reasons, or for tactical ends. In a different context, various anti-authoritarian movements have embraced the Laozi teachings on the power of the weak.[37]

The economist Murray Rothbard suggests that Laozi was the first libertarian, likening Laozi's ideas on government to F.A. Hayek's theory of spontaneous order.[38][39] Similarly, the Cato Institute's David Boaz includes passages from the Daodejing in his 1997 book The Libertarian Reader.[40] Philosopher Roderick Long, however, argues that libertarian themes in Taoist thought are actually borrowed from earlier Confucian writers.[41]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Kohn (2000). Pg 4.
  2. ^ Simpkins & Simpkins (1999). Pp 11–13.
  3. ^ Morgan (2001). Pg 223.
  4. ^ Hornstein (2002). Pp 403–404.
  5. ^ Fowler (2005). Pg 96
  6. ^ Robinet(1997). Pg 26.
  7. ^ Simpkins & Simpkins (1999). Pp 11–12.
  8. ^ Morgan (2001). Pg 303.
  9. ^ a b Kohn (2000). Pp 3–4
  10. ^ a b Simpkins & Simpkins (1999). Pp 12–13.
  11. ^ Morgan (2001). Pp 223–224.
  12. ^ Renard, (2002), p.16
  13. ^ Simpkins & Simpkins (1999). Pg 12.
  14. ^ Morgan (2001). Pp 224–225.
  15. ^ Watson (1968), p.8
  16. ^ Watts (1975), p.xxiii
  17. ^ Luo (2004). Pg 118.
  18. ^ Kramer (1986). Pg 118.
  19. ^ Kohn (2000). Pg 2.
  20. ^ Kohn (2000). Pg 720.
  21. ^ Drompp (2004). Pg. 254.
  22. ^ Fowler (2005). Pg. 153
  23. ^ Ivanhoe & Van Nording (2005). Pg 162.
  24. ^ a b c Kohn (2000). Pg 22.
  25. ^ Watts (1975). Pp 78–86.
  26. ^ Robinet (1997). Pp 26, 28.
  27. ^ Maspero (1950) Pg 211.
  28. ^ Creel (1982) Pg 40.
  29. ^ Maspero (1981). Pg 41.
  30. ^ Robinet (1997). Pg 63.
  31. ^ Kohn & Lafargue (1998). Pp 14, 17, 54.
  32. ^ Kohn & Lafargue (1998). Pg 55.
  33. ^ Kohn & Lafargue (1998). Pp 55–56.
  34. ^ Bellamy (1993). Pp 55–56.
  35. ^ Bellamy (1993). Pp 58–63.
  36. ^ Bellamy (1993). Pp 64, 67.
  37. ^ Roberts (2001). Pp 1–2.
  38. ^ Rothbard (2005).
  39. ^ Rothbard (1990)
  40. ^ Boaz (1997)
  41. ^ Long (2003)

References

  • Bellamy, James A.B. Some Proposed Emendations to the Text of the Koran, The Journal of the American Oriental Society 113.4 (1993), citing work by Aad Vervoorn
  • Boaz, David (1998). The libertarian reader: classic and contemporary readings from Lao-tzu to Milton Friedman. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-84767-1. 
  • Creel, Herrlee G. (1982). What Is Taoism?: and Other Studies in Chinese Cultural History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-12047-3. 
  • Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005). Zen Buddhism: A History (Volume 1: India and China ed.). Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom. ISBN 0941532895. 
  • Drompp, Michael Robert (2004). Tang China And The Collapse Of The Uighur Empire: A Documentary History. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004140964. 
  • Fowler, Jeaneane (2005). An Introduction To The Philosophy And Religion Of Taoism: Pathways To Immortality. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-84519-085-8. 
  • Kohn, Livia (2000). Daoism Handbook (Handbook of Oriental Studies / Handbuch der Orientalisk — Part 4: China, 14). Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11208-1. 
  • Kohn, Livia & Lafargue, Michael, editors (1998). Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791435997. 
  • Kramer, Kenneth (1986). World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions. New York, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-2781-4. 
  • Long, Roderick T. Austro-Libertarian Themes in Early Confucianism, The Journal of Libertarian Studies Vol XVII No 3 (Summer 2003), pp. 35–62. [1]PDF (129 KiB)
  • Luo, Jing (2004). Over a cup of tea: an introduction to Chinese life and culture. Washington, D.C: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-2937-7. 
  • Maspero, Henri (1981). Taoism and Chinese religion. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-308-4. 
  • Morgan, Diane (2001). The Best Guide to Eastern Philosophy and Religion. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 1-58063-197-5. 
  • Renard, John (2002). 101 Questions and answers on Confucianism, Daoism, and Shinto. New York, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4091-8. 
  • Roberts, Moss (2004). Dao De Jing: The Book of the Way. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24221-1. 
  • Robinet, Isabelle (1997). Taoism: Growth of a Religion. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804728399. 
  • Rothbard, Murray N. The Ancient Chinese Libertarian Tradition, Ludwig von Mises Institute (2005).[2]
  • Rothbard, Murray N. Concepts in the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Towards Laissez Faire, The Journal of Libertarian Studies Vol IX No 2 (Fall 1990), pp. 43–67.[3]PDF (1.20 MiB)
  • Simpkins, Annellen M.; Simpkins, C. Alexander (1999). Taoism: a guide to living in the balance. Boston: Tuttle Pub. ISBN 0-8048-3173-4. 
  • Van Norden, Bryan W.; Ivanhoe, Philip J. (2005). Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87220-780-3. 
  • Watson, Burton (1968). Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. New York: Columbia Univ. Press (UNESCO Collection of Representative Works: Chinese Series). pp. 408. ISBN 0-231-03147-5. 
  • Watts, Alan with Huan, Al Chung-liang (1975). Tao: The Watercourse Way. New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 134. ISBN 0-394-73311-8. 

Further reading

  • Bodde, Derk; Feng, Youlan (1983). A history of Chinese philosophy. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02021-3. 
  • Henricks, Robert G. (1992). Lao Tzu: Te-Tao Ching — A New Translation Based on the Recently Discovered Ma-wang-tui Texts (Classics of Ancient China). [New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-37099-6. 
  • Kaltenmark, Max. Lao Tzu and Taoism. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0689-1. 
  • Waley, Arthur (1958). The Way and Its Power: Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought (UNESCO Collection of Representative Works). New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-5085-3. 
  • Moeller, Hans-Georg (2006). The philosophy of the Daodejing. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13678-1. 
  • Peerenboom, R. P. (1993). Law and morality in ancient China: the silk manuscripts of Huang-Lao. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1237-7. 
  • Klaus, Hilmar (2008). Das Tao der Weisheit. 3 German translations, English Introduction, many English + German sources (140 pp.). Aachen/Germany: Hochschulverlag. pp. 548. ISBN 978-3-8107-0032-2 & ISBN 978-3-8107-0041-4. 
  • Klaus, Hilmar (2009). The Tao of Wisdom. Laozi — Daodejing. Chinese-English-German. Aachen: Hochschulverlag). Aachen/Germany: Hochschulverlag. pp. 600. ISBN 978-3-8107-0055-1. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Knowing others is intelligence;
knowing yourself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength; mastering yourself is true power.
There is a thing inherent and natural, which existed before heaven and earth. Motionless and fathomless, It stands alone and never changes; It pervades everywhere and never becomes exhausted. It may be regarded as the Mother of the Universe. I do not know its name. If I am forced to give it a name, I call it Tao, and I name it as supreme.

老子 Lǎozǐ (c. 4th century B.C.) was a Chinese philosopher; also called Lao Zi, Lao Tzu, Lao Tse, or Lao Tze. The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: Dào Dé Jīng, or Dao De Jing) represents the sole document generally attributed to Laozi.

Contents

Tao Te Ching

The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name.
The Tao is called the Great Mother: empty yet inexhaustible, it gives birth to infinite worlds.
The Tao is like a well:
used but never used up.
It is like the eternal void:
filled with infinite possibilities.
A leader is best when people barely know that he exists...
Of a good leader, who talks little, when his work is done, his aims fulfilled, they will all say, "We did this ourselves."
Since before time and space were, the Tao is. It is beyond is and is not.
How do I know this is true?
I look inside myself and see.
A good traveler has no fixed plans
and is not intent upon arriving.
A good artist lets his intuition
lead him wherever it wants.
Without the laughter, there would be no Tao.
A journey of a thousand li starts with a single step.
The mark of a moderate man is freedom from his own ideas. Tolerant like the sky, all-pervading like sunlight, firm like a mountain, supple like a tree in the wind, he has no destination in view and makes use of anything life happens to bring his way.
The Master has no possessions.
The more he does for others, the happier he is.
The more he gives to others, the wealthier he is.
The Tao nourishes by not forcing.
By not dominating, the Master leads.
  • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name.
    Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things.
    From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions.
    These two are the same in source and become different when manifested.
    This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe.
    • Ch 1, as translated by Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904)
    • Also as The called Tao is not Tao.
  • The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao;
    The name that can be named is not the eternal name.
    The nameless is the beginning of heaven and earth.

    The named is the mother of ten thousand things.
    Ever desireless, one can see the mystery.
    Ever desiring, one can see the manifestations.
    These two spring from the same source but differ in name;
    this appears as darkness.
    Darkness within darkness.
    The gate to all mystery.
    • Ch. 1, Gia-Fu Feng & Jane English (1972)
  • The tao that can be told
    is not the eternal Tao
    The name that can be named
    is not the eternal Name.
    The unnameable is the eternally real.

    Naming is the origin
    of all particular things.
    Free from desire, you realize the mystery.
    Caught in desire, you see only the manifestations.
    Yet mystery and manifestations
    arise from the same source.
    This source is called darkness.
    Darkness within darkness.
    The gateway to all understanding.
  • The tao that can be described
    is not the eternal Tao.
    The name that can be spoken
    is not the eternal Name.
    The nameless is the boundary of Heaven and Earth.
    The named is the mother of creation.
    Freed from desire, you can see the hidden mystery.
    By having desire, you can only see what is visibly real.

    Yet mystery and reality
    emerge from the same source.
    This source is called darkness.
    Darkness born from darkness.
    The beginning of all understanding.
  • The way you can go
    isn't the real way.
    The name you can say
    isn't the real name.
    Heaven and earth
    begin in the unnamed:
    name's the mother
    of the ten thousand things.

    So the unwanting soul
    sees what's hidden,
    and the ever-wanting soul
    sees only what it wants.
    Two things, one origin,
    but different in name,
    whose identity is mystery.
    Mystery of all mysteries!
    The door to the hidden.
  • The Tao is like a well:
    used but never used up.

    It is like the eternal void:
    filled with infinite possibilities.

    It is hidden but always present.
    I don't know who gave birth to it.
    It is older than God.

  • The Tao is like a bellows:
    it is empty yet infinitely capable.
    The more you use it, the more it produces;
    the more you talk of it, the less you understand.
  • The Tao is called the Great Mother:
    empty yet inexhaustible,
    it gives birth to infinite worlds.
  • The universe is deathless; Is deathless because, having no finite self, it stays infinite. A sound man by not advancing himself stays the further ahead of himself, By not confining himself to himself sustains himself outside himself: By never being an end in himself he endlessly becomes himself.
    • Ch. 7
  • Thirty spokes unite at the single hub;
    It is the empty space which makes the wheel useful.
    Mold clay to form a bowl;
    It is the empty space which makes the bowl useful.
    Cut out windows and doors;
    It is the empty space which makes the room useful.
    • Ch. 11
  • A leader is best when people barely know that he exists, not so good when people obey and acclaim him, worst when they despise him. Fail to honor people, They fail to honor you. But of a good leader, who talks little, when his work is done, his aims fulfilled, they will all say, "We did this ourselves."
    • Ch. 17
  • Since before time and space were,
    the Tao is.
    It is beyond is and is not.

    How do I know this is true?
    I look inside myself and see.
  • There is a thing inherent and natural,
    Which existed before heaven and earth.
    Motionless and fathomless,
    It stands alone and never changes;
    It pervades everywhere and never becomes exhausted.
    It may be regarded as the Mother of the Universe.
    I do not know its name. If I am forced to give it a name, I call it Tao, and I name it as supreme.
    • Ch 25, as translated by Ch'u Ta-Kao (1904)
  • A good traveler has no fixed plans
    and is not intent upon arriving.
    A good artist lets his intuition
    lead him wherever it wants.
    A good scientist has freed himself of concepts
    and keeps his mind open to what is.

    Thus the Master is available to all people
    and doesn't reject anyone.
    He is ready to use all situations
    and doesn't waste anything.
    This is called embodying the light.

    • Ch. 27, as interpreted by Stephen Mitchell (1992)
    • Variants:
    • A good traveller has no fixed plan and is not intent on arriving.
      • As quoted in In Search of King Solomon's Mines‎ (2003) by Tahir Shah, p. 217
    • A true traveller has no fixed plan, and is not intent on arriving.
  • Knowing others is intelligence;
    knowing yourself is true wisdom.
    Mastering others is strength; mastering yourself is true power.
  • Scholars of the highest class, when they hear about the Tao, take it and practice it earnestly.
    Scholars of the middle class, when they hear of it, take it half earnestly.
    Scholars of the lowest class, when they hear of it, laugh at it.
    Without the laughter, there would be no Tao.
    • Ch. 41
  • He who knows that enough is enough will always have enough.
    • Ch. 46
  • By letting it go it all gets done. The world is won by those who let it go. But when you try and try, the world is beyond the winning.
    • Ch. 48, as translated by Raymond B. Blakney (1955)
  • 'Block the passages, shut the doors,
    And till the end your strength shall not fail.
    Open up the passages, increase your doings,
    And till your last day no help shall come to you.'
    • Ch. 52 as translated by Arther Walley (1934)
  • He who knows does not speak; he who speaks does not know.
    • Ch. 56
  • The more laws and order are made prominent, the more thieves and robbers there will be.
    • Ch. 57
    • Variant translation: The more prohibitions there are, the poorer the people will be.
  • 千里之行始於足下。
    • Shǐ yú zú xià。
    • A journey of a thousand li starts with a single step.
      • Ch. 64, line 12
    • Variant translations:
    • A journey of a thousand [miles] starts with a single step.
    • A journey of a thousand miles started with a first step.
    • A thousand-mile journey starts from your feet down there.
      • As translated by Dr. Hilmar Klaus
  • The mark of a moderate man
    is freedom from his own ideas.

    Tolerant like the sky,
    all-pervading like sunlight,
    firm like a mountain,
    supple like a tree in the wind,
    he has no destination in view
    and makes use of anything
    life happens to bring his way.
  • Governing a large country is like frying a small fish.
    • Charapter 60.
  • Wise men don't need to prove their point;
    men who need to prove their point aren't wise.
    The Master has no possessions.
    The more he does for others, the happier he is.
    The more he gives to others, the wealthier he is.
    The Tao nourishes by not forcing.
    By not dominating, the Master leads.

Misattributed

  • I am not at all interested in immortality, only in the taste of tea.
    • From Lu Tong (also spelled as Lu Tung)
  • Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach him how to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.
    • This quotation has been misattributed to Laozi; its origin is actually unknown. This quotation has also been misattributed to Confucius and Guan Zhong.
  • What I hear, I forget. What I say, I remember. What I do, I understand.
    • This quotation has also been misattributed to Confucius.

Quotes about Laozi

  • Helpmeat too, contrasta toga, his fiery goosemother, laotsey taotsey, woman who did, he tell princes of the age about. You sound on me, judges! Suppose we brisken up. Kings! Meet the Mem, Avenlith, all viviparous out of couple of lizards. She just as fenny as he is fulgar. How laat soever her latest still her sawlogs come up all standing. Psing a psalm of psexpeans, apocryphul of rhyme! His cheekmole of allaph foriverever her allinall and his Kuran never teachit her the be the owner of thyself.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to:

Chinese versions

  • Comparison Chart Chinese characters with PinYin spellings of the Wang Bi, HeShang Gong, Mawangdui A and B, Guodian texts.
  • Bamboo slips of the Guodian text Photographs of the Guodian Bamboo Slips with modern equivalents of the Chinese characters, PinYin and Wade Giles spellings, and English definitions.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

Pinyin romanisation of the Chinese 老子 (Lǎo Zǐ).

Proper noun

Singular
Laozi

Plural
-

Laozi

  1. An influential Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism who lived 604-c 531 bc

See also

Translations


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message