Late Bronze Age: Wikis

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Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (3300-1200 BC)

Caucasus, Anatolia, Aegean, Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Elam, Sistan
Bronze Age collapse

Indian Subcontinent (3000-1200 BC)

Europe (2300-600 BC)

Beaker culture
Unetice culture
Urnfield culture
Hallstatt culture
Atlantic Bronze Age
Bronze Age Britain
Nordic Bronze Age
Italian Bronze Age

China (2000-700 BC)

Korea (800-400 BC)

arsenical bronze
writing, literature
sword, chariot

Iron age

The Bronze Age of a culture is the period when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) in that culture used bronze. This could either have been based on the local smelting of copper and tin from ores, or trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Many, though not all, Bronze Age cultures flourished in prehistory.

The naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3000 BC. The Bronze Age is regarded as the second part of a three-age system for prehistoric societies, though there are some cultures that have extensive written records during their Bronze Ages. In this system, in some areas of the world the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic age. However, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic age was directly followed by the Iron Age. In some parts of the world, a Copper Age followed the Neolithic Age and preceded the Bronze Age.

Contents

Origins

The place and time of the invention of bronze are debated. It is possible that bronze was invented independently in the Maykop culture of the North Caucasus as early as the mid 4th millennium BC, which would make them the makers of the oldest known bronze. Others date the same Maykop artifacts to the mid 3rd millennium BC. However, the Maykop culture only had arsenical bronze, which is a naturally occurring alloy. Tin bronze, developed later, requires more sophisticated production techniques. Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make the bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of heavy use of metals, and of developing trade networks. (See tin sources and trade in ancient times.)

Near East

Bronze Age weaponry and ornaments

Periodization for the Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East is as follows:

Bronze Age
(3300–1200 BC)
Early Bronze Age
(3300–2200 BC)
Early Bronze Age I 3300–3000 BC
Early Bronze Age II 3000–2700 BC
Early Bronze Age III 2700–2200 BC
Middle Bronze Age
(2200–1550 BC)
Middle Bronze Age I 2200–2000 BC
Middle Bronze Age II A 2000–1750 BC
Middle Bronze Age II B 1750–1650 BC
Middle Bronze Age II C 1650–1550 BC
Late Bronze Age
(1550–1200 BC)
Late Bronze Age I 1550–1400 BC
Late Bronze Age II A 1400–1300 BC
Late Bronze Age II B 1300–1200 BC
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Mesopotamia

In Mesopotamia, the Bronze Age begins at about 2900 BC in the late Uruk period, spanning the Early Dynastic period of Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian periods and the period of Kassite hegemony.

Ancient Egypt

In Ancient Egypt, the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC.

Levant

Anatolia

Persian Plateau

Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with linear-Elamite inscription on it. Late 3rd Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.

Caucasus

Some scholars date some arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid 4th millennium BC.[1] If true, these are the earliest bronze artifacts in existence.

Indus Valley

The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin.

The Indian Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Period (1500–500 BC). The Harappan culture, which dates from 1700 BC to 1300 BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.

Far East

China

A two-handled bronze gefuding gui, from the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC).

Historians disagree about the dates of a "Bronze Age" in China. The difficulty lies in the term "Bronze Age" itself, as it has been applied to signify a period in European and Middle Eastern history when bronze tools replaced stone tools, and were later replaced by iron ones. In those places, the medium of the new "Age" made that of the old obsolete. In China, however, any attempt to establish a definite set of dates for a Bronze Age is complicated by two factors: the arrival of iron smelting technology and the persistence of bronze in tools, weapons and sacred vessels. The earliest bronze artifacts are found in the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC), and from then on the society gradually grew into the Bronze Age.

Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (also Erh-li-t'ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.[2] Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (also Hsia) dynasty.[3] The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule.[4] Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture. Since this is significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported rather than discovered independently in China.[citation needed][5]

Chinese pu bronze vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722–481 BC)

Iron is found in the Zhou period, but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests a knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.[6] Historian W. C. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (481 BC)" and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period, or through AD 221.[7]

The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or ritualistic, like the numerous large sacrificial tripods. However, even some of the most utilitarian objects bear the markings of more sacred items. The Chinese inscribed all kinds of bronze items with three main motif types: demons, symbolic animals, and abstract symbols.[8] Some large bronzes also bear inscriptions that have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China, especially during the Zhou period.

The bronzes of the Western Zhou period document large portions of history not found in the extant texts, and often were composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class. Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts.[9] These inscriptions can commonly be subdivided into four parts: a reference to the date and place, the naming of the event commemorated, the list of gifts given to the artisan in exchange for the bronze, and a dedication.[10] The relative points of reference these vessels provide have enabled historians to place most of the vessels within a certain time frame of the Western Zhou period, allowing them to trace the evolution of the vessels and the events they record.[11]

Southeast Asia

Dating back to the Neolithic Age,the first bronze drums, called the Dong Son drums have been uncovered in and around the Red River Delta regions of Vietnam and Southern China. These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam.

Song Da bronze drum's surface, Dong Son culture, Vietnam

In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC.[12]

In Nyaunggan, Burma bronze tools have been excavated along with ceramics and stone artifacts. Dating is still currently broad (3500–500 BC).[13]

Korean peninsula

The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production (c. 700–600? BC) after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula (c. 900–700 BC). The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site. Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until 100.

Central Asia

The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon.[14] It is conjectured that changes in climate in this region around 2000 BC and the ensuing ecological, economic and political changes triggered a rapid and massive migration westward into northeast Europe and eastward into southeast China, Vietnam and Thailand across a frontier of some 4,000 miles.[14] This migration took place in just five to six generations and led to peoples from Finland in the west to Thailand in the east employing the same metal working technology and, in some areas, horse breeding and riding.[14] It is further conjectured that the same migrations spread the Uralic group of languages across Europe and Asia: some 39 languages of this group are still extant, including Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian and Lappish.[14] However, recent genetic testings of sites in south Siberia and Kazakhstan (Andronovo horizon) would rather support a spreading of the bronze technology via Indo-european migrations eastwards, as this technology was well-known for quite a while in western regions.[15][16]

Pontic-Caspian steppe

Europe

Central Europe

Bronze cup from Late Bronze Age in the area of today's Czech Republic on display in National Museum in Prague
Bronze cuirass, weighing 2.9kg, Grenoble, end of 7th century - early 6th century BCE.

In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800–1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubing, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures.

The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture, (1300–700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300–500 BC) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700–450 BC).

Important sites include:

The Bronze Age in Central Europe has been described in the chronological schema of German prehistorian Paul Reinecke. He described Bronze A1 (Bz A1) period (2300–2000 BC : triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads) and Bronze A2 (Bz A2) period (1950–1700 BC : daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets) and phases Hallstatt A and B (Ha A and B).

Aegean

Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.

The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3000 BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain.[citation needed]

Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded (except perhaps by Polynesian sailors) until AD 1730 when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.

The Minoan civilization based in Knossos appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade.

Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age.

Numerous authorities[citation needed] believe that ancient empires were prone to undervalue staple foods in favor of luxury goods, leading to famine. This may have arisen because money was concentrated in the hands of a few people, rather than due to a lack of modern accounting methods.

Collapse in Aegean

How the Bronze Age ended in this region is still being studied. There is evidence that Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy, and that several Minoan client states lost much of their population to famine and/or pestilence. This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition. It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea, also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some cultivation.

Mycenaean sword found in Eastern Europe

Recent research has discredited the theory that exhaustion of the Cyprus forests caused the end of the bronze trade. These forests are known to have existed into later times, and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late Bronze Age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years.

One theory says that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it once did. The colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought, famine, war, or some combination of those three, and had no access to the distant resources of an empire by which they could easily recover.

Another family of theories looks to Knossos itself. The Thera eruption occurred at this time, 110 km (70 mi) north of Crete. Some authorities speculate that a tsunami from Thera (more commonly known today as Santorini) destroyed Cretan cities. Others say that perhaps a tsunami destroyed the Cretan navy in its home harbour, which then lost crucial naval battles; so that in the LMIB/LMII event (c. 1450 BC) the cities of Crete burned and the Mycenaean civilization took over Knossos. If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC (as most chronologists now think) then its immediate effects belong to the Middle Bronze to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age; but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall. One such theory looks to the role of Cretan expertise in administering the empire, post-Thera. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire.

More recent archaeological findings, including some on the island of Thera, suggest that the center of Minoan Civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete. According to this theory, the catastrophic loss of the political, administrative and economic center by the eruption as well as the damage wrought by the tsunami to the coastal towns and villages of Crete precipitated the decline of the Minoans. A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to human predators. Indeed, the Santorini Eruption is usually dated to c. 1630 BC, while the Mycenaean Greeks first enter the historical record a few decades later, c. 1600 BC. Thus, the later Mycenaean assaults on Crete (c.1450 BC) and Troy (c.1250 BC) are revealed as mere continuations of the steady encroachments of the Greeks upon the weakened Minoan world.

Each of these theories is persuasive, and aspects of all of them may have some validity in describing the end of the Bronze Age in this region.

Italy

Iberian peninsula, France

Ceremonial giant dirk of the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.

Great Britain

In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 750 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the migrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people, and cultural change was significant. Integration is thought to have been peaceful, as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers. The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating; where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands and appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1400–1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. Devon and Cornwall were major sources of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales. Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent.

The burial of dead (which until this period had usually been communal) became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the Early Bronze Age saw people buried in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns.

The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire, where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham (more than 6500 pieces).[17]

Bronze Age seafaring

Ireland

The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around 2000 BC, when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes, daggers, halberds and awls in copper. The period is divided into three phases: Early Bronze Age (2000–1500 BC), Middle Bronze Age (1500–1200 BC), and Late Bronze Age (1200 – c. 500 BC). Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials.

One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe. There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel (c. 2200 BC), Ballybeg (c. 2000 BC), Killaha (c. 2000 BC), Ballyvalley (c. 2000–1600 BC), Derryniggin (c. 1600 BC), and a number of metal ingots in the shape of axes.[18]

North Europe

Americas

The Inca civilization of South America independently discovered and developed bronze smelting.[19] Later appearance of limited bronze smelting in West Mexico (see Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica) suggests either contact of that region with the Incas or separate discovery of the technology.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://budgetcastingsupply.com/images/C873-Silicon-Bronze.jpg
  2. ^ Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", pp. 6–7, 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  3. ^ Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", p. 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  4. ^ "Teaching Chinese Archaeology, Part Two — NGA". Nga.gov. http://www.nga.gov/education/chinatp_pt2.shtm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  5. ^ Li-Liu; The Chinese Neolithic, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  6. ^ Barnard, N.: "Bronze Casting and Bronze Alloys in Ancient China", p. 14. The Australian National University and Monumenta Serica, 1961.
  7. ^ White, W. C.: "Bronze Culture of Ancient China", p. 208. University of Toronto Press, 1956.
  8. ^ Erdberg, E.: "Ancient Chinese Bronzes", p. 20. Siebenbad-Verlag, 1993.
  9. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L.: "Sources of Western Zhou History", pp. xv–xvi. University of California Press, 1982.
  10. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. "Sources of Western Zhou History", pp. 76–83. University of California Press, 1982.
  11. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. "Sources of Western Zhou History", p. 107
  12. ^ "Bronze from Ban Chiang, Thailand: A view from the Laboratory". Museum.upenn.edu. http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/Asia/banchiang/bronzelab/index.shtml. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  13. ^ "Nyaunggan City — Archaeological Sites in Myanmar". Myanmartravelinformation.com. http://myanmartravelinformation.com/mti-archealogical-sites/nyaunggan.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  14. ^ a b c d Keys, David (January 2009), "Scholars crack the code of an ancient enigma", BBC History Magazine 10 (1): 9 
  15. ^ [1] C. Lalueza-Fox et al. 2004. Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians
  16. ^ [2] C. Keyser et al. 2009. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people. Human Genetics.
  17. ^ Hall and Coles, p. 81–88.
  18. ^ Waddell; Eogan.
  19. ^ Antonio Gutierrez. "Inca Metallurgy". Incas.homestead.com. http://incas.homestead.com/inca_metallurgy_copper.html. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 

References

  • Eogan, George (1983) The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age, Dublin : University College, 331p., ISBN 0-901120-77-4
  • Hall, David and Coles, John (1994) Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence, Archaeological report 1, London : English Heritage, 170 p., ISBN 1-85074-477-7
  • Pernicka, E., Eibner, C., Öztunah, Ö., Wagener, G.A. (2003) "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean", In: Wagner, G.A., Pernicka, E. and Uerpmann, H-P. (eds), Troia and the Troad : scientific approaches, Natural science in archaeology, Berlin; London : Springer, ISBN 3-540-43711-8, p. 143–172
  • Waddell, John (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press, 433 p., ISBN 1-901421-10-4
  • Siklosy et al. (2009): Bronze Age volcanic event recorded in stalagmites by combined isotope and trace element studies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23/6, 801-808. [DOI: 10.1002/rcm.3943] http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122202090/abstract

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