Late Quaternary prehistoric birds: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. They are known from subfossil remains and sometimes folk memory, as in the case of Haast's Eagle from New Zealand.

Artist's rendition of a giant Haast's eagle attacking New Zealand moa.

Birds (Aves) are generally believed to have evolved from feathered dinosaurs, and there is no real dividing line between birds and dinosaurs except of course that the former survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event and the latter did not. For the purposes of this article, a "bird" is considered to be any member of the clade Neornithes, that is the bird lineage as exists today. The other lineages of the Aves also became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous.

Taxon extinctions taking place before the Late Quaternary happened in the absence of significant human interference. Rather, reasons for extinction are stochastic abiotic events such as bolide impacts, climate changes, mass volcanic eruptions etc. Alternatively, species may have gone extinct due to evolutionary displacement by successor or competitor taxa - it is notable for example that in the early Neogene, seabird biodiversity was much higher than today; this is probably due to competition by the radiation of marine mammals after that time. The relationships of these ancient birds are often hard to determine, as many are known only from very fragmentary remains and due to the complete fossilization precludes analysis of information from DNA, RNA or protein sequencing.

For further discussion, see main article Fossil birds


Late Quaternary avian extinctions

This page lists bird taxa that have been become extinct before they could be researched by science, but nonetheless survived into (geologically) recent times. Their remains are not or not completely fossilized and therefore may yield organic material for molecular analyses to provide additional clues for resolving their taxonomic affiliations. As these species' extinction coincided with the expansion of Homo sapiens across the globe, in most (but not necessary all) cases, anthropogenic factors have played a crucial part in their extinction, be it through hunting, introduced predators or habitat alteration. It is notable that a large proportion of the species are from oceanic islands, especially in Polynesia. Bird taxa that evolved on oceanic islands are usually very vulnerable to hunting or predation by rats, cats, dogs or pigs - animals commonly introduced by humans -, as there evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and therefore only have rudimentary predator avoidance behavior. Many, especially rails, have additionally become flightless for the same reason and thus presented even easier prey.

The taxa in this list became extinct during the Late Quaternary - the Holocene or Late Pleistocene -, but before the period of global scientific exploration that started in the late 15th century. More precisely, their extinction was coincident with the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond Africa and Eurasia, i.e. this list basically deals with extinctions between 40000 BC and 1500 AD. They should be classified with the Wikipedia conservation status category "Prehistoric" in their individual accounts.

Taxonomic list of Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

All of these are Neornithes.



The Ostrich and related ratites.

1 more undescribed species is known, but taxonomy is not fully resolved. A. maximus and/or A. medius probably survived until historic times.

  • Emeidae - Moa
  • Dinornithidae - Moa
  • Megalapterygidae - Moa
    • Megalapteryx
      • Megalapteryx, Megalapteryx didinus (South Island, New Zealand) - may have survived until historic times (syn.Megalapteryx benhami)
  • Struthionidae - Ostriches
    • Extinct species of extant genera
  • Apterygidae - Kiwi
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Eastern Tokoeka, Apteryx sp. (South Island, New Zealand) - possibly the same as the Okarito, Haast or South Island tokoeka.


The group that includes modern ducks and geese.

  • Dromornithidae - The Australian mihirungs or "demon ducks"
  • Anatidae - Ducks, geese and swans
    • Geochen
      • Geochen rhuax (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Cnemiornis
      • South Island Goose, Cnemiornis calcitrans (South Island, New Zealand)
      • North Island Goose, Cnemiornis gracilis (North Island, New Zealand)
    • Pachyanas
      • Chatham Island Duck, Pachyanas chathamica (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
    • Centrornis
      • Malagasy Sheldgoose, Centrornis majori (Madagascar) (syn.Alopochen)
    • Chelychelynechen
      • Turtle-jawed Moa-nalo, Chelychelynechen quassus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Ptaiochen
      • Small-billed Moa-nalo, Ptaiochen pau (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Thambetochen
      • Maui Nui Large-billed Moa-nalo, Thambetochen chauliodous (Maui and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O'ahu Large-billed Moa-nalo, Thambetochen xanion (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Chendytes
      • Chendytes lawi (California and Southern Oregon Coasts and Channel Islands, E Pacific)
    • Talpanas
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Aitutaki Whistling-duck, Dendrocygna sp. (Aitutaki, Cook Islands)
      • Nēnē-nui, Branta hylobadistes (Maui, possibly Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Chatham Islands Shelduck, Tadorna cf. variegata (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Malagasy Shelduck, Alopochen sirabensis (Madagascar)
      • Scarlett's Duck, Malacorhynchus scarletti (New Zealand)
      • Finsch's Duck, Chenonetta finschi (New Zealand; possibly survived to 1870)
      • Anas pachyscelus (Bermuda, W Atlantic)
      • Macquarie Islands Teal, Anas cf. chlorotis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Chatham Islands Merganser, Mergus cf. australis (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • New Zealand Stiff-tailed Duck, Oxyura vantetsi (North Island, New Zealand)
      • New Zealand Musk Duck, Biziura delautouri (New Zealand)
      • Chatham Islands Swan, Cygnus chathamicus (Chatham Islands)
      • Cygnus falconeri (Malta, Sicily)
      • Cygnus equitum (Malta, Sicily), occasionally placed into the genus Anser
      • Anser aff. erythropus (Ibiza)
      • Neochen barbadiana (Barbados)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • New Zealand Swan, Cygnus atratus sumnerensis (New Zealand)
        • Chatham Islands Teal, Anas chlorotis ssp. nov. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Giant Hawai'i Goose, Branta sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant O'ahu Goose, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Long-legged "Shelduck", Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Rota Flightless Duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Rota, Marianas)


The group that includes modern chickens and quails.

  • Sylviornithidae - The Sylviornis or New Caledonian Giant Megapode
    • Sylviornis
      • Sylviornis, Sylviornis neocaledoniae (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
  • Megapodidae - Megapodes
    • Megavitiornis
      • Noble Megapode or Deep-billed Megapode, Megavitiornis altirostris (Viti Levu, Fiji)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Consumed Scrubfowl, Megapodius alimentum (Tonga and Fiji)
      • Lost Megapode or Viti Levu Scrubfowl, Megapodius amissus (Viti Levu and possibly Kadavu and Aiwa, Fiji) - may have survived to the early 19th or the 20th century.
      • Pile-builder Megapode, Megapodus molistructor (New Caledonia, Tonga and possibly Aiwa, Fiji) - may have survived to the late 18th century
      • 'Eua Scrubfowl or Small-fooed Megapode, Megapodius sp. ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Lifuka Scrubfowl, Megapodius sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)
      • Stout Tongan Megapode Megapodius sp. (Tongatapu, Tonga)
      • Megapodius sp. (Ofu, Samoa)
      • Large Vanuatu Megapode Megapodius sp. (Buka, Solomon Islands)
      • Large Solomon Islands Megapode Megapodius sp. (Efate, Vanuatu)
      • New Caledonia Megapode Megapodius sp. (Grande Tierre, New Caledonia)
      • Loyalty Megapode Megapodius sp. (Lifou and Maré, Loyalty Islands)
      • New Ireland Scrubfowl or Large Bismarck's Megapode, Megapodius sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Leipoa gallinacea (Progura gallinacea and Progura naracoortensis are synonyms) (Australia)
  • Phasianidae - Pheasants and allies
    • Extinct species of extant genera


Gulls, auks, shorebirds

  • Laridae - Gulls
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Huahine Gull or Society Islands Gull, Larus utunui (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Kaua'i Gull, Larus sp. (Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Larus sp. (Saint Helena, Atlantic) - may be extant form
  • Charadriidae - Lapwings and plovers
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Malagasy Lapwing, Vanellus madagascariensis (Madagascar)
  • Alcidae - Auks
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Dow's Puffin, Fratercula dowi (Channel Islands, E Pacific)
  • Scolopacidae - Waders and snipes
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Henderson Island Sandpiper, Prosobonia sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Mangaian Sandpiper, Prosobonia sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Ua Huka Sandpiper, Prosobonia sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Forbes' Snipe, Coenocorypha chathamensis (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • Viti Levu Snipe, Coenocorypha miratropica (Viti Levu, Fiji)
      • New Caledonia Snipe, Coenocorypha sp. (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island Snipe, Coenocorypha sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
      • Gallinago sp. (Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands) - may be the same as
      • Gallinago sp. (Cuba, West Indies) - may be the same as
      • Gallinago sp. (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Puerto Rican Woodcock, Scolopax anthonyi


The group that includes modern rails and cranes.

  • Rallidae - Rails
    • Capellirallus (syn.Gallirallus)
      • Snipe-rail, Capellirallus karamu (North Island, New Zealand)
    • Vitirallus (syn.Gallirallus)
      • Viti Levu Rail, Vitirallus watlingi (Viti Levu, Fiji)
    • Hovacrex (syn.Gallinula)
    • Nesotrochis
      • Antillean Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis debooyi (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, West Indies) - may have survived until historic times
      • Haitian Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis steganinos (Haiti, West Indies)
      • Cuban Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis picapicensis (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Caledonian Swamphen, Porphyrio kukwiedei (New Caledonia, Melanesia) - may have survived into historic times
      • North Island Takahē, Porphyrio mantelli (North Island, New Zealand)
      • Huahine Swamphen, Porphyrio mcnabi (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Marquesas Swamphen, Porphyrio paepae (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas) - may have survived to the late 19th century
      • Buka Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Buka, Solomon Islands)
      • Giant Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Mangaia Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) (not to genus Pareudiastes)
      • New Ireland Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
      • Rota Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Rota, Marianas)
      • Ibiza Rail, Rallus eivissensis (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
      • Lifuka Rail, Gallirallus sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)
      • Nuku Hiva Rail, Gallirallus epulare (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas)
      • Ua Huka Rail, Gallirallus gracilitibia (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Niue Rail, Gallirallus huiatua (Niue, Cook Islands)
      • Mangaia Rail, Gallirallus ripleyi (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Tahuata Rail, Gallirallus roletti (Tahuata, Marquesas)
      • Huahine Rail, Gallirallus storrsolsoni (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Hiva Oa Rail, Gallirallus sp. (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • 'Eua Rail, Gallirallus vekamatolu ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Rota Rail, Gallirallus temptatus (Rota, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Aguiguan Rail, Gallirallus pisonii (Aguiguan, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Tinian Rail, Gallirallus pendiculentus (Tinian, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Saipan Rail, Gallirallus sp. (Saipan, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • New Ireland Rail, Gallirallus ernstmayri (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island Rail, Gallirallus sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific) - may have survived to the 19th century
      • Great O‘ahu Crake, Porzana ralphorum (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Great Maui Crake, Porzana severnsi (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Mangaia Crake, Porzana rua (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Liliput Crake, Porzana menehune (Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Oʻahu Crake, Porzana ziegleri (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Maui Crake, Porzana keplerorum (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Easter Island Crake, Porzana sp. (Easter Island, Southeast Pacific)
      • Great Big Island Crake, Porzana sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Great Kaua‘i Crake, Porzana sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Huahine Crake, Porzana sp. (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Mangaia Crake #2, Porzana sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Marquesas Crake, Porzana sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Mariana Crake, Porzana sp. (Marianas, West Pacific) - possibly 4 species
      • Medium Kaua'i Crake, Porzana sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Medium Maui Crake, Porzana sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Big Island Crake, Porzana sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Hodgen's Waterhen, Gallinula hodgenorum (New Zealand)
      • Viti Levu Gallinule, ?Gallinula sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) - would also be separated in Pareudiastes if that genus is considered valid, or may be new genus.
      • Chatham Island Coot, Fulica chathamensis (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • New Zealand Coot, Fulica prisca (New Zealand)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Barbados Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Barbados, West Indies) - formerly Fulica podagrica (partim)
      • Easter Island Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island)
      • Fernando de Noronha Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Fernando de Noronha, Atlantic) - probably survived to historic times
  • Gruidae - Cranes
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban Flightless Crane, Grus cubensis (Cuba, West Indies)
  • Aptornithidae - Adzebills (probably belongs in distinct order)
  • Rhynochetidae - Kagus (probably belongs in distinct oder)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Lowland Kagu, Rhynochetos orarius (New Caledonia, Melanesia)


The diverse group that includes storks, herons and New World vultures.

  • Ardeidae - Herons
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Bennu Heron, Ardea bennuides (United Arab Emirates)
      • 'Eua Night Heron, Nycticorax sp. ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Lifuka Night Heron, Nycticorax sp. (Lifuka, Tonga) - may be same as ‘Eua species
      • Niue Night Heron, Nycticorax kalavikai (Niue)
      • Mangaia Night Heron, Nycticorax sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ardeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island, E Pacific)
  • Threskiornithidae - Ibises
    • Apteribis
      • Maui Upland Apteribis, Apteribis brevis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Moloka'i Apteribis, Apteribis glenos (Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Lowland Apteribis, Apteribis sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Xenicibis
      • Club-winged Ibis, Xenicibis xympithecus (Jamaica, West Indies)
  • Teratornithidae - Teratorns
  • Cathartidae - New World Vultures
    • Extinct species of extant genera
    • Placement unresolved
      • ?Cathartes sp. (Cuba, West Indies)


The group that includes modern pelicans and cormorants.

  • Sulidae - Gannets and boobies
    • Extinct subspecies of extant species
      • Ua Huka Booby, Papasula abbotti costelloi (Ua Huka, Marquesas)


The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm-petrels.

  • Procellariidae - Petrels
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Dune Shearwater or Hole's Shearwater, Puffinus holeae (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, and Atlantic coast of Iberian peninsula)
      • Lava Shearwater or Olson's Shearwater, Puffinus olsoni (Canary Islands, E Atlantic)
      • Scarlett's Shearwater, Puffinus spelaeus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Menorcan Shearwater, Puffinus sp. (Menorca, Balearic Islands) - possibly extirpated population of extant species
      • 'Eua Shearwater Puffinus sp ('Eua ,Tonga)
      • O'ahu Petrel, Pterodroma jugabilis (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • 'Eua Petrel Puffinus sp ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Canary Islands Petrel, Pterodroma sp. (El Hierro, Canary Islands) - possibly extirpated population of extant species
      • Pterodroma sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Henderson Island Petrel, Pterodroma sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Bourne's Petrel, Pterodroma sp. (Rodrigues)
      • Pseudobulweria sp. (Taravai, Angakauitai, Mangareva)
      • Pterodroma sp. (Norfolk Island)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Procellariidae sp. (Easter Island, East Pacific) - possibly extirpated population of extant species



  • Columbidae - Doves and pigeons
    • Dysmoropelia
      • Saint Helena Dove, Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos (Saint Helena, Atlantic) - may have survived to the 16th century
    • Natunaornis
    • Bountyphaps
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Society Islands Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia arevarevauupa (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Marquesan Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia heana (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • Puerto Rican Quail-dove, Geotrygon larva (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
      • Great Ground-dove, Gallicolumba nui (Marquesas and Cook Islands)
      • Henderson Island Ground-dove, Gallicolumba leonpascoi (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • New Caledonian Ground-dove, Gallicolumba longitarsus (New Caledonia)
      • Huahine Ground-dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Huahine, Society Islands) - G. nui?
      • Mangaia Ground-dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - G. nui?
      • Rota Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Rota, Marianas)
      • Tongan Tooth-billed Pigeon, Didunculus placopedetes (Tonga, Pacific)
      • Kanaka Pigeon, Caloenas canacorum (New Caledonia, Tonga)
      • Henderson Island Imperial-pigeon, Ducula harrisoni (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Lakeba Imperial-pigeon, Ducula lakeba (Lakeba, Fiji)
      • Steadman's Imperial-pigeon, Ducula david ('Eua, Tonga, and Wallis Island)
      • Tongan Imperial-pigeon, Ducula sp. ('Eua, Foa and Lifuka, Tonga) - may be D. david, D. lakeba or new species
      • Ducula cf. galeata (Cook Islands) - possibly new species
      • Ducula cf. galeata (Society Islands) - possibly new species
      • Ducula sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) - may be D. lakeba
      • Tubuai Fruit-dove, Ptilinopus sp. (Tubuai, Austral Islands)
      • Columba melitensis (Malta)


  • Placement unresolved
    • Psittaciformes gen. et sp. indet. (Rota, Marianas) - cf. Cacatua/Eclectus?
  • Strigopidae - Kakas and Kakapos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
  • Cacatuidae Cockatoos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Caledonian Cockatoo, Cacatua sp. (New Caledonia)
      • New Ireland Cockatoo, Cacatua sp. (New Ireland)
  • Psittacidae - Parrots, parakeets, and lorikeets
    • Extinct species of extant genera
    • Extinct subspecies of an extant species
      • Virgin Islands Parrot (Amazona vittata ssp. indet.)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (Easter Island)
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (Easter Island)
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Guam, Marianas) - cf. Trichoglossus/Vini?


  • Cuculidae - Cuckoos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Henderson Island Koel, Eudynamis cf. taitensis
      • Ancient Coua, Coua primaeva (Madagascar)
      • Bertha's Coua, Coua berthae (Madagascar)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • Conkling's Roadrunner, Geococcyx californianus conklingi (Inland SW North America)


Birds of prey

  • Accipitridae - Hawks and eagles
    • Bermuteo
      • Bermuda Hawk, Bermuteo avivorus (Bermuda, W Atlantic)
    • Gigantohierax
      • Cuban Giant-hawk, Gigantohierax suarezi (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Titanohierax
      • Bahaman Titan-hawk, Titanohierax gloveralleni (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Hispaniolan Titan-hawk, Titanohierax sp. (Hispaniola, West Indies)
    • Harpagornis
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Powerful Goshawk, Accipiter efficax (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Gracile Goshawk, Accipiter quartus (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Accipiter sp. 1 (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Accipiter sp. 2 (New Ireland, Melanesia) - one of the two New Ireland species may be Meyer's Goshawk
      • Malagasy Eagle, Aquila sp. (Madagascar)
      • Borras' Eagle-hawk, Buteogallus borrasi (Cuba, West Indies) - formerly in Aquila/Titanohierax
      • Mime Harrier, Circus dossenus (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Eyles' Harrier, Circus eylesi (New Zealand) (The Forbes' Harrier, Circus teauteensis, is considered as synonym of the Eyles' Harrier by some authors)
      • A subfossil sea eagle (Haliaeetus) from Maui may be a valid species or subspecies; another one listed from the Chatham Islands is in error.
      • Malagasy Crowned Eagle, Stephanoaetus mahery (Madagascar)
    • Extinct subspecies of extant species
      • Aquila chrysaetos simurgh (Crete) (sometimes considered as full species)
  • Falconidae - Falcons
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Bahaman Caracara, Caracara creightoni (Bahamas and Cuba, West Indies) - may be same as C. latebrosus
      • Puerto Rican Caracara, Caracara latebrosus (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
      • Terrestrial Caracara, Caracara tellustris (Jamaica, West Indies)
      • Cuban Caracara, Milvago carbo (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Jamaican Caracara, ?Milvago sp. (Jamaica, West Indies)
      • Cuban Kestrel, Falco kurochkini (Cuba, West Indies)


Nightjars and potoos

  • Caprimulgidae - Nightjars
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban Poorwill, Siphonorhis daiquiri (Cuba, West Indies) - possibly extant




Swifts and hummingbirds.

  • Apodidae - Swifts
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Mangaia Swiftlet, Aerodramus manuoi (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - formerly Collocalia


Hornbills and relatives. Formerly included in Coraciiformes.

  • Bucerotidae - Hornbills
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Lifou Hornbill, Rhyticeros ("Aceros") sp. (Lifou, Loyalty Islands)


Owls and barn owls.

  • Strigidae - Typical owls
    • Grallistrix
      • Kauaʻi Stilt-owl, Grallistrix auceps (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Stilt-owl, Grallistrix erdmani (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Molokaʻi Stilt-owl, Grallistrix geleches (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O'ahu Stilt-owl, Grallistrix orion (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Ornimegalonyx
      • Cuban Giant Owl, Ornimegalonxy oteroi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Ornimegalonyx sp. - probably subspecies of O. oteroi
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban Horned Owl, Bubo osvaldoi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Cretan Little Owl, Athene cretensis (Crete, Mediterranean)
      • New Caledonia Boobook, Ninox cf. novaeseelandiae (New Caledonia, Melanesia) - possibly extant
      • aff. Otus sp. (Madeira)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
  • Tytonidae - Barn-owls
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Puerto Rican Barn-owl, Tyto cavatica (Puerto Rico, West Indies) - may still have existed in 1912
      • New Caledonian Barn-owl, ?Tyto letocarti (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Maltese Barn-owl, Tyto melitensis (Malta, Mediterranean) - possibly paleosubspecies of Tyto alba
      • Noel's Barn-owl, Tyto noeli (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Hispaniolan Barn-owl, Tyto ostologa (Hispaniola, West Indies) - may still have existed in 1788
      • Bahaman Barn-owl, Tyto pollens (Andros, Bahamas)
      • Rivero's Barn-owl, Tyto riveroi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Barbudan Barn-owl, Tyto neddi (Barbuda , West Indies)
      • Antiguan Barn-owl Tyto sp. (Antigua, West Indies)
      • Mussau Barn-owl, Tyto cf. novaehollandiae (Mussau, Melanesia)
      • New Ireland Greater Barn-owl, Tyto cf. novaehollandiae (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • New Ireland Lesser Barn-owl, Tyto cf. alba/aurantiaca (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Cuban Barn-owl, Tyto sp. (Cuba, West Indies)


  • Placement unresolved
    • Slender-billed Kauaʻi Passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Tiny Kauaʻi Passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Acanthisittidae - New Zealand "Wrens"
    • Pachyplichas
      • Stout-legged Wren, or South Island Stout-legged Wren, Pachyplichas yaldwyni (North Island, New Zealand)
      • North Island Stout-legged Wren, Pachyplichas jagmi (South Island, New Zealand) - may be subspecies of P. yaldwyni
    • Dendroscansor
      • Long-billed Wren, Dendroscansor decurvirostris (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • North Island Piwauwau, Xenicus gilviventris ssp. nov. (North Island, New Zealand) - Rock Wren subspecies
  • Mohoidae
    • Prehistorically extinct species of Recently extinct genera
      • Oʻahu Kioea, Chaetoptila cf. angustipluma (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Narrow-billed Kioea, ?Chaetoptila sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Corvidae - Crows, Ravens, Jays and Magpies
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Chatham Islands Raven, Corvus moriorum (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • High-billed Crow, Corvus impluviatus (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Corvus sp. (Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a’, North Kona District, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands)
      • New Zealand Raven, Corvus antipodum (New Zealand)
      • Robust Crow, Corvus viriosus (O'ahu and Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • New Ireland Crow, Corvus sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Puerto Rican Crow, Corvus pumilis (Puerto Rico and St Croix, West Indies) - probably a subspecies of C. nasicus or C. palmarum
  • Sturnidae - Starlings
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Huahine Starling, Aplonis diluvialis (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Erromango Starling, Aplonis sp. (Erromango, Vanuatu)
  • Sylviidae - Old World warblers
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • 'Eua Bush Warbler, Cettia sp. ('Eua, Tonga)
  • Zosteropidae - White-eyes
    • Placement unresolved
      • Tongan Large White-Eye, Zosteropidae gen. et sp. indet. ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Guam Large White-Eye, Zosteropidae gen. et sp. indet. (Guam, Marianas)
  • Turdidae - Thrushes
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Maui Olomaʻo, Myadestes cf. lanaiensis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) - may have survived until the 19th century
  • Fringillidae - Finches
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Trías Greenfinch, Carduelis triasi (La Palma, Canary Islands)
  • Drepanididae - Hawaiian Honeycreepers
    • Orthiospiza
    • Xestospiza
      • Cone-billed Finch, Xestospiza conica (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Ridge-billed Finch, Xestospiza fastigialis (Oʻahu, Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Vangulifer
      • Strange-billed Finch, Vangulifer mirandus (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Thin-billed Finch, Vangulifer neophasis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Aidemedia
      • Oʻahu Icterid-like Gaper, Aidemedia chascax (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Sickle-billed Gaper, Aidemedia zanclops (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Nui Icterid-like Gaper, Aidemedia lutetiae (Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Prehistorically extinct species of extant and Recently extinct genera
      • Kauaʻi Finch, Telespiza persecutrix (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Nui Finch, Telespiza ypsilon (Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Finch, Telespiza cf. ypsilon (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Pila's Palila, Loxioides kikuichi (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands) - possibly survived until early 18th century
      • Scissor-billed Koa-finch, Rhodacanthis forfex (Kauaʻi and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Primitive Koa-finch, Rhodacanthis litotes (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O'ahu Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops wahi (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant ("King Kong") Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops regiskongi (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Kauaʻi Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands) - may be same as Chloridops wahi
      • Maui Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant Nukupu‘u, Hemignathus vorpalis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands) - sometimes in genus Akialoa
      • Hoopoe-billed ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus upupirostris (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu) - sometimes in genus Akialoa
      • Hemignathus aff. upupirostris (Maui)
      • Stout-legged Finch, Ciridops tenax (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Molokaʻi Ula-ai-Hawane, Ciridops cf. anna (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Oʻahu Ula-ai-Hawane, Ciridops sp. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) - at least 3 species
      • Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Emberizidae - Buntings
    • Pedinornis
      • Puerto Rican Obscure Bunting, Pedinornis stirpsarcana (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
  • Hirundinidae - Swallows and martins
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • Henderson Island Pacific Swallow, Hirundo tahitensis ssp. nov. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
  • Estrildidae - Waxbills
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Marianas Parrotfinch, Erythrura sp. (Guam and Rota, Marianas)


  • Steadman, David William (2006): Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77142-3
  • Balouet, Jean Christophe ; Olson, Storrs L. (1989) Fossil birds from late Quaternary deposits in New Caledonia. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian contributions to zoology ; Nr. 469. Smithsonian Institution Press
  • Goodman, S.M. and Patterson, B.D. (1997) Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. 432 S. ISBN 978-1-56098-683-6
  • del Hoyo, J. , Andrew Elliott, David Christie (2007) Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 12 Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees, Lynx Edicions, 2007. ISBN 84-96553-42-6
  • Turvey, Samuel T. (edit.) (2009) Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953509-5
  • Feduccia, Alan (1999) The Origin and Evolution of Birds. 2nd. Edit. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07861-9
  • Olson, Storrs L.; James, Helen F. (1991): Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45
  • Olson, Storrs L.; James, Helen F. (1991): Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 46: 1-91.

External links

See also


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