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The Later Trần Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Trần) period of 1407 till 1413 in the history of Vietnam is characterized by two revolts, centered around Trần Ngỗi (陳頠) (Giản Định Đế (簡定帝)) and Trần Quý Khoáng (陳季擴) (Trùng Quang Đế (重光帝)).

Contents

Giản Định Đế (1407-1409)

A younger son of the late emperor Tran Nghe Ton, Trần Ngỗi rises his banner in 1406, proclaimed himself Giang Dinh emperor and started a revolt. His base first centered in the province of Ninh Binh and was supported by Tran Trieu Co, a mandarin under the late Tran dynasty.

Lacking the materials and poorly managed, he was defeated, abandoned Ninh Binh and fled further south into the province of Thanh Hoa. Here he met Dang Tat who at that same time was waging a revolt also against the administration of the Ming. Dang Tat was high ranking official under the Tran dynasty. The ranking and followers of Giang Dinh together with Dang Tat keep swelling and gained more and more support from the Viet people since 1408.

Gathering momentum and popularity, Giang Dinh moved further north with a small army, defeated the Ming in a battle at Bo Co in which Lu Nghi, a Ming general, was fatally wounded.

Giang Dinh, victorious, would like to wage wars further north, right into Thang Long, the capital. But Dang Tat, his lieutenant, stopped him and advised him not to, judging that his army is still small, ill-organized and does not have enough weaponry, or supply for a long war. Another advocate with him, Nguyen Canh Chan, a former minor general under the Tran, also pleaded not to wage a bigger war with the Ming who at that time still control most of the territories. However, Giang Dinh, not taking any advise, is riding on his pride. He soon has his 2 best lieutenants both Nguyen Canh Chan and Dang Tat arrested and killed, causing a dissension in his army and revolt.

Giang Dinh moved along with his plan, revolt and continued waging wars with the Ming until he was captured by the Ming and slain around 1410.

Trần Quý Khoáng (1409-1413)

Meanwhile the other side who supported Dang Tat and Nguyen Canh Chan, now has 2 new figures: Dang Dung and Nguyen Canh Di, both are sons of Dang Tat and Nguyen Chan respectively. These 2 men search for a new master. They found Tran Quy Khoang, a nephew of the late emperor Tran Nghe Tong.

It is real sad to say even within the ranks of the rebellions, there are rifts and disagreements instead of unity. Tran Quy Khoang on his side waged war against the Ming invaders. On the other side, Giang Dinh De has his.

Knowing the rift and weakness of the revolt, the Ming took the initiative to attack Thanh Hoa and Nghe An in 1413. That proved disastrous for Tran Quy Khoang. Both Giang Dinh and Tran Quy Khoang retreated to the mountains and forests. Their situation is going bleak, not enough supplies. The flame of their resistance faded, and faded. Tran Quy Khoang was captured together with his whole clan in 1413. He committed suicide.

Along a few years later, a new resistance movement was born under Le Loi’s banner.

Analysis of the Later Trần failures

As we can see the resistance of the Late Tran against the Chinese Ming failed because of disunity and of the selfishness of the individual. But it should not be forgotten that to organize a real, total uprising one has to have not only wealth, popularity but also demand management, organization skills as well as military skills. Another talent that should not be overlooked is how to recognize, and use, utilize people’s skills. For all these factors to happen, one has to wait until Le Loi’s on scene arrival.

References

  1. Viet Nam Su Luoc by Tran Trong Kim
  2. Viet Su Toan Thu by Pham Van Son
Preceded by
Hồ Dynasty
Dynasty of Vietnam
1407-1413
Succeeded by
Fourth Chinese domination (History of Vietnam)
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