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Latin
Latin: Lingua latina
Latin inscription in the Colosseum
Alt text
Pronunciation /laˈtiːna/
Spoken in Italy Roman Republic, Roman Empire, Medieval Europe, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (as lingua franca),
Total speakers
Language family Indo-European
Official status
Official language in Holy See
Regulated by .Anciently, Roman schools of grammar and rhetoric.^ The elder Seneca in his collection of suasoriae and controversiae supplies examples of the barren quibblings by which the young Romans were trained in the rhetorical schools.

[1] In contemporary time, Opus Fundatum Latinitas.[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 la
ISO 639-2 lat
ISO 639-3 lat
The geographic range of Latin at the greatest extent of the Roman Empire
.Latin (lingua lătīna, IPA: /laˈtiːna/) is an Italic language[3] originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.^ At Rome, at all events, it is clear from the unwavering voice of tradition that Latin was spoken from the beginning of the city.

^ V. Pronunciation This appears the proper place for a rapid survey of the pronunciation' of the Latin language, as spoken in its best days.

^ Latin was the language spoken in Rome and in the plain of Latium in the 6th or 7th century B.C. - the earliest period from which we have any contemporary record of its existence.

With the Roman conquest, Latin was spread to countries around the Mediterranean, including a large part of Europe. .Romance languages such as Aragonese, Corsican, Catalan, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Sardinian, Spanish and others, are descended from Latin,[4] while many others, especially European languages, have inherited and acquired much of their vocabulary from it.^ Spanish, in other hand, and I’m not Spanish, have pronoms too in their vocabulary but rarely use them or then only to stress a meaning.
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^ So more effort should be made, at least where i’m from, to learn other modern languages, not Latin.
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^ I’ve attempted to take German, Latin, and Spanish, I think I’m just missing that part of the brain that helps you learn another language.
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.Latin was the international language of science and scholarship in central and western Europe until the 17th century, when it was gradually replaced with vernacular languages.^ Latin was used for centuries in science and religion not to keep knowledge from the masses, but in an attempt to have a universal language.
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^ Latin, long dead and still used to keep the majority in ignorance about science for centuries.
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^ Latin was the language spoken in Rome and in the plain of Latium in the 6th or 7th century B.C. - the earliest period from which we have any contemporary record of its existence.

Contents

Legacy

The Latin heritage has been delivered in these broad genres:
  • Inscriptions
  • Latin literature
  • Latin words and concepts in modern languages and scientific terminology
  • An extensive tradition of instruction in the Latin language, including grammars and dictionaries
Most inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed upon, monumental, multi-volume series termed the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL). Authors and publishers vary but the format is approximately the same: volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance and relevant information. The reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. .In addition to the approximately 180,000 known inscriptions the works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part, in substantial works or in fragments to be analyzed in philology.^ The problem wasn’t that Latin was being withheld from everyone, the problem was that people were too busy working and surviving to try and learn a dead “universal” language.
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^ Tevkik Esenc was an intelligent man who spoke several languages and he worked with linguistics to record the language as he was well aware of his status as the last speaker.
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They are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. Their works were published in manuscript form before the invention of printing and now exist in carefully annotated printed editions, such as the Loeb Classical Library by Harvard University Press.
There has also been a major Latin influence in English. .In the medieval period, much of this borrowing occurred through ecclesiastical usage established by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the 6th century, or indirectly after the Norman Conquest, through the Anglo-Norman language.^ After 1066, the Anglo-Norman court language was French.
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^ Latin was the language spoken in Rome and in the plain of Latium in the 6th or 7th century B.C. - the earliest period from which we have any contemporary record of its existence.

.From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek roots.^ I teach EFL nowadays, and I can use what I did learn in my Latin lessons to explain the roots of many English words to my students.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek words are used sparingly, not with the licence which he censures in Lucilius, and in his hexameters are framed according to Latin rules.

^ During this period Greek words are still generally inflected according to the Latin usage.

.These words were dubbed "inkhorn" or "inkpot" words, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink.^ These all became naturalized Latin words and were modified by the phonetic changes which took place in the Latin language after they had come into it (cf.

.Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, but some were so useful that they survived.^ This reacted on the participle itself giving it a prevailingly past colour, but its originally timeless use survives in many places, e.g.

^ There is sufficient difference between the two to justify us in assuming two different authors; but both freely employ words and constructions which are at once antiquated and vulgar.

^ These all became naturalized Latin words and were modified by the phonetic changes which took place in the Latin language after they had come into it (cf.

Imbibe and extrapolate are inkhorn terms created from Latin words. .Many of the most common polysyllabic English words are simply adapted Latin forms, in a large number of cases adapted by way of Old French.^ France they use MANY english words but pronouncing them in French.
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^ The great number of nouns which Latin inherited formed with this suffix were either (1) marked as abstract by the addition of the further suffix -on- (as in natio beside the Gr.

^ Although way too many people have the most insane stereotypes of newfoundlanders, great list!
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History of Latin

.Latin has been divided into historical phases, each of which is distinguished by minor differences in vocabulary, usage, spelling, morphology and syntax.^ The nature of his encyclopaedic subject matter naturally makes his vocabulary very extensive; but in syntax and general tone of language he does not differ materially from contemporary writers.

^ His language is universally taken as the normal type of Latin; and, as hitherto the history of the language has been traced by marking differences from his usage, so the same method may be followed for what remains.

^ Finally - and perhaps this parallelism is the most important of all from the historical standpoint - both Italic and Celtic are divided into two sub-families which differ, and differ in the same way, in their treatment of the Ind.-Eur.

.In addition to the historical phases, Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the styles used by the writers of the Roman Catholic Church in all historical phases from Late Latin on.^ Again with church services… Latin was the one language spoken in the Roman Church because they tried a “universal language”.
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^ Not to pick on the Latin Church, but the reality is the scriptures, in Latin, were often used by the priest to serve his own ends or goals because there were few, if any, that could contradict him.
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^ The fragments of the earlier Latin prose writers are too scanty for us to be able to say with certainty when and how a formed prose style was created.

Old, early or archaic Latin

.The earliest known is Old Latin, a phase of the early and middle Roman republic attested in inscriptions and the earliest surviving Latin works of literature.^ Here no doubt the use of the Greek middle influenced the Latin poets, but no doubt they thought also that they were reviving an old Latin idiom.

^ The problem wasn’t that Latin was being withheld from everyone, the problem was that people were too busy working and surviving to try and learn a dead “universal” language.
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^ Earliest Roman Inscriptions .

Around a bit before 700 b.c.

Classical Latin

.Old Latin was followed in the late republic and empire by Classical Latin, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, and was taught in the schools of grammar and rhetoric.^ In the writers of Nero's age there are already plain indications of the evil effects of the rhetorical schools upon language as well as literature.

^ In the vocabulary of Tacitus there are to be noted: I. Words borrowed (consciously or unconsciously) from the classical poets, especially Virgil, occurring for the most part also in contemporary prose.

^ Fun Language Fact – Thanks to linguist Edward Sapir, who worked with Ishi, Yana is relatively well documented compared to other extinct American languages.
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.The concepts of today's instructional grammars originated in these schools, which served as a sort of informal language academy to maintain and perpetuate the classical language.^ Kinda like my grammar teacher in school who was mad because our youth culture was “evolving” the language.
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[5][6]

Vulgar Latin

Philological analysis of Old Latin works, such as the plays of Plautus, which contain dialogue purporting to be the speech of the common people, indicates that contemporaneous with the literary and official language was a spoken language, which has from ancient times been called Vulgar Latin (sermo vulgi in Cicero), the language of the vulgus or "common people." Since the vulgus spoke — but did not write — their language, it can only be known through words and phrases cited by classical authors or in inscriptions.[7]
.As vulgar Latin was not under the control or encouragement of the schools of rhetoric, there is no reason to expect any uniformity of speech either diachronically or geographically.^ In the writers of Nero's age there are already plain indications of the evil effects of the rhetorical schools upon language as well as literature.

^ There’s no such thing as latin heritage.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s no reason why we should be bringing her name up on Latin Gossip no more..
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

.Just the opposite must have been true: European populations learning Latin developed their own dialects of the language.^ I had to learn Spanish on my own and sometimes i wish they had spoken to me or taught me Spanish just so I can relate to my family that doesn’t speak English.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So more effort should be made, at least where i’m from, to learn other modern languages, not Latin.
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^ I’ve attempted to take German, Latin, and Spanish, I think I’m just missing that part of the brain that helps you learn another language.
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[8] This is the situation that prevailed when the Migration Period, ca. 300-700 AD, brought an end to the unity and peace of the Roman world and removed the stabilizing influence of its institutions on the language. .A post-classical phase of Latin appeared, Late Latin, in which the spoken forms reappeared, and which is regionalized.^ V. Pronunciation This appears the proper place for a rapid survey of the pronunciation' of the Latin language, as spoken in its best days.

.Starting about the 5th or 6th centuries, Late Latin contains minor features that are germinal to the development of the Romance languages.^ Voiced plosive g, pronounced as in English gone, but never as in English gem before about the 6th century after Christ.

^ Latin was used for centuries in science and religion not to keep knowledge from the masses, but in an attempt to have a universal language.
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^ Latin, long dead and still used to keep the majority in ignorance about science for centuries.
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.One of the tests as to whether a given Latin feature or usage was in the spoken language is to compare its reflex in a Romance language with the equivalent structure in classical Latin.^ Fun Language Fact – There is debate as to whether Beothuk is a language isolate, unlike any other, or whether it is related to Algonquian languages spoken in Quebec and Labrador.
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^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

.If it appeared in the Romance language but was not preferred in classical Latin, then it passes the test as being vulgar Latin.^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

^ Languages developed over hundreds of years, they didn’t just appear overnight; if we implement a universal language, it will eventually splinter, just like Latin did into the romance languages once the Roman Empire fell.
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^ V. Pronunciation This appears the proper place for a rapid survey of the pronunciation' of the Latin language, as spoken in its best days.

.For example, grammatical case in nouns is present in classical Latin but not in the Romance languages, excluding Romanian.^ Fun Language Fact – Dalmatian, a Romance language with some similarities to Romanian, was spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, with each town having its own different dialect of the language.
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.One might conclude that case endings in regions other than Romania were already wholly or partly missing in the spoken language even while being insisted upon in the written.^ Fun Language Fact – Efforts to revive Cornish have been moderately successful and Cornish gained official recognition under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2002, and in 2008 a Standard Written Form was agreed upon.
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^ Fun Language Fact – There is debate as to whether Beothuk is a language isolate, unlike any other, or whether it is related to Algonquian languages spoken in Quebec and Labrador.
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^ According to UNESCO, half of the 6500 languages spoken today are in danger of disappearing before the century ends.
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.(Even in Romanian there are only as many different case endings for nouns as there are for pronouns in the other languages; cf.^ His archaisms and Graecisms, both in diction and in syntax, are very numerous; but frequently there is a freedom in the use of cases and prepositions which can only be due to bold and independent innovations.

^ Plus, in my humble opinion, even if there was a universal language – people would find a new way to “not understand” eachother.
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^ The confusing difference of signification of the long -es ending led to a levelling of these and other forms in the two paradigms.

Romanian endings i, lor with the Italian pronouns gli, loro). .Also, much of the vocabulary that went into the Romance languages came from Vulgar Latin rather than classical.^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

^ Languages developed over hundreds of years, they didn’t just appear overnight; if we implement a universal language, it will eventually splinter, just like Latin did into the romance languages once the Roman Empire fell.
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^ All languages came into being due to barriers between people, mainly by distance and isolation.
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.The following examples follow the formula, classical Latin word/vulgar Latin word/ Italian word/ French word: ignis/focus/fuoco/feu, equus/caballus/cavallo/cheval, loquor/parabolare/parlare/parler, pulcher/bellus/bello/bel (or belle).^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

^ Turning now to the language of literature we may group the Latin authors as follows:1 I. Ante-Classical (240-80 B.C.).-Naevius (?

[9] .In each case French does not use the classical Latin word.^ France they use MANY english words but pronouncing them in French.
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^ Greek words are used sparingly, not with the licence which he censures in Lucilius, and in his hexameters are framed according to Latin rules.

^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

.The words actually used: focus, caballus, etc., must have been in the Vulgar Latin vocabulary.^ Greek words are used sparingly, not with the licence which he censures in Lucilius, and in his hexameters are framed according to Latin rules.

^ It must be added, however, in regard to these literary borrowings that it is not quite clear whether in this fourth class, and even in the unmodified forms in the preceding class, the words had really any living use in spoken Latin.

The expansion of the Roman Empire had spread Latin throughout Europe. .Vulgar Latin began to diverge into various dialects and many of these into distinct Romance languages by the 9th century at very latest, when the earliest known writings appeared.^ The narrative and the poems which are introduced into it are written in a style distinguished only by the ordinary peculiarities of silver Latinity; but in the numerous conversations the distinctions of language appropriate to the various speakers are accurately preserved; and we have in the talk of the slaves and provincials a perfect storehouse of words and constructions of the greatest linguistic value.

^ Languages developed over hundreds of years, they didn’t just appear overnight; if we implement a universal language, it will eventually splinter, just like Latin did into the romance languages once the Roman Empire fell.
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^ The Latin critics were themselves fully conscious of the broad distinction in character between their own language and the Greek.

.These languages must already have been in place.^ Hundreds of languages have already died, some of these long ago and with no fanfare, but sometimes the death of a language is recorded and we know exactly who last spoke it.
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^ These all became naturalized Latin words and were modified by the phonetic changes which took place in the Latin language after they had come into it (cf.

.These were, for many centuries, only oral languages, Latin still being used for writing.^ Language used by elites to prevent understanding is still very common.” .
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^ There is such diversity in languages, and I can understand if you can’t learn another language you’d want only one, but I still don’t agree.
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^ Imagine all cultures being based on only one language…No thanks.
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For example, Latin was still the official language of Portugal until 1296, when Portuguese replaced it. Portuguese had already developed and was in use under the umbrella of the vulgar language.

Medieval Latin

The language of Rome has had a profound impact on later cultures, as demonstrated by this Latin Bible from 1407
.The term Medieval Latin refers to the written Latin in use during that portion of the post-classical period when no corresponding Latin vernacular existed.^ During this period Greek words are still generally inflected according to the Latin usage.

^ Seneca dwells upon the stately and dignified movement of the Latin period, and uses for Cicero the happy epithet of gradarius.

^ Here no doubt the use of the Greek middle influenced the Latin poets, but no doubt they thought also that they were reviving an old Latin idiom.

.The spoken language had developed into the various incipient Romance Languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin continued without its spoken base.^ Latin you could understand each other without having to learn 20 languages to communicate.
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^ Again with church services… Latin was the one language spoken in the Roman Church because they tried a “universal language”.
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^ As someone who has had, and continues to have immense joy studying other languages, I cringe at the thought of one world language as suggested by Frank.
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Moreover, this Latin spread into lands that had never spoken Latin, such as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became useful as a means of international communication between the member states of the Holy Roman Empire and its allies.
.Cut loose from its corrective spoken base and severed from the vanished institutions of the Roman empire that had supported its uniformity, medieval Latin lost the precise knowledge of correctness; for example, suus ("his/her own") and eius ("his/her") are used interchangeably, an error that would have been swiftly corrected in the schools of classical Rome.^ Not to pick on the Latin Church, but the reality is the scriptures, in Latin, were often used by the priest to serve his own ends or goals because there were few, if any, that could contradict him.
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^ Latin was used for centuries in science and religion not to keep knowledge from the masses, but in an attempt to have a universal language.
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.In classical Latin sum and eram are used as auxiliary verbs in the perfect and pluperfect passive, which are compound tenses.^ Generally speaking, Tacitus likes to use a simple verb instead of a compound one, after the fashion of the poets, employs a pluperfect for a perfect, and (like Livy and sometimes Caesar) aims at vividness and variety by retaining the present and perfect subjunctive in indirect speech even after historical tenses.

^ This originally active meaning of the -r form (in the third person singular passive) is the cause of the remarkable fondness for the " impersonal " use of the passive in Latin (e.g., itur in antiquam silvam, instead of eunt ), which was naturally extended to all tenses of the passive ( ventum est, &c.

^ Pacuvius, Accius and Lucilius.-Pacuvius is noteworthy especially for his attempt to introduce a free use of compounds after the fashion of the Greek, which were felt in the classical 1 For further information see special articles on these authors, and Latin Literature .

Medieval Latin might use fui and fueram instead.[10] Furthermore the meanings of many words have changed and new vocabulary has been introduced from the vernacular.
.While these minor changes are not enough to impair comprehension of the language, they introduce a certain flexibility not in it previously.^ These all became naturalized Latin words and were modified by the phonetic changes which took place in the Latin language after they had come into it (cf.

.The style of each individual author is characterized by his own uses of classically incorrect Latin to such a degree that he can be identified just by reading his Latin.^ Pacuvius, Accius and Lucilius.-Pacuvius is noteworthy especially for his attempt to introduce a free use of compounds after the fashion of the Greek, which were felt in the classical 1 For further information see special articles on these authors, and Latin Literature .

^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

^ Not to pick on the Latin Church, but the reality is the scriptures, in Latin, were often used by the priest to serve his own ends or goals because there were few, if any, that could contradict him.
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.In that sense medieval Latin is a collection of individual Latins united loosely by the main structures of the language.^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

.Some are more classical, others less so.^ Some of these languages are experiencing a revival; others speak it and more are learning it.
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[10] .As the majority of these writers were influential members of the Christian church: bishops, monks, philosophers, etc., the term Ecclesiastical Latin does not accurately apply; the majority were ecclesiastical by occupation but there was no uniform language of the church; that was a product of the Renaissance.^ In the writers of Nero's age there are already plain indications of the evil effects of the rhetorical schools upon language as well as literature.

Late Latin is sometimes classified as medieval, sometimes not. Certainly many of the individual Latins were influenced by the vernaculars of their authors.

Renaissance Latin

.The Renaissance briefly reinforced the position of Latin as a spoken language, through its adoption by the Renaissance Humanists.^ V. Pronunciation This appears the proper place for a rapid survey of the pronunciation' of the Latin language, as spoken in its best days.

^ Again with church services… Latin was the one language spoken in the Roman Church because they tried a “universal language”.
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^ Latin was the language spoken in Rome and in the plain of Latium in the 6th or 7th century B.C. - the earliest period from which we have any contemporary record of its existence.

Often led by members of the clergy, they were shocked by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical world and the rapid loss of its literature. They strove to preserve what they could. .It was they who introduced the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that remained by comparing surviving manuscripts, and they who attempted to restore Latin to what it had been.^ Fun Language Fact – Thanks to linguist Edward Sapir, who worked with Ishi, Yana is relatively well documented compared to other extinct American languages.
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^ The problem wasn’t that Latin was being withheld from everyone, the problem was that people were too busy working and surviving to try and learn a dead “universal” language.
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.They corrected medieval Latin out of existence no later than the 15th century and replaced it with more formally correct versions supported by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, through scholarship, to discover what the classical language had been.^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

^ The latin community needs to chill out and learn from the black community and not show so much hate to someone that says that they are American.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Languages developed over hundreds of years, they didn’t just appear overnight; if we implement a universal language, it will eventually splinter, just like Latin did into the romance languages once the Roman Empire fell.
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Language characteristics

.Throughout its entire history the Latin language retained the same major characteristics and is on that account classified as one language.^ Again with church services… Latin was the one language spoken in the Roman Church because they tried a “universal language”.
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^ The way she explained it was that when two cultures with different languages met as equals (e.g., trading) that the simpler words and phrases from either language tended to be the ones that were retained as the languages evolved and merged.
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^ Cedestra:33 History is one thing, language is another.
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.These characteristics are reflected best in the classical Latin period and are introduced in this article rather than in the Classical Latin article.^ Pacuvius, Accius and Lucilius.-Pacuvius is noteworthy especially for his attempt to introduce a free use of compounds after the fashion of the Greek, which were felt in the classical 1 For further information see special articles on these authors, and Latin Literature .

^ The style of the eminent lawyers of this period, foremost among whom is Gaius, deserves especial notice as showing well one of the characteristic excellences of the Latin language.

Over its 2500-3000 year history the language varied considerably in minor ways. .In general, a native speaker in one historical period understood the Latin of another only with difficulty or not at all.^ During this period Greek words are still generally inflected according to the Latin usage.

^ The style of the eminent lawyers of this period, foremost among whom is Gaius, deserves especial notice as showing well one of the characteristic excellences of the Latin language.

^ I was not raised in a Spanish speaking household and even my grandparents who were native Spanish speakers, spoke to me only in English.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

Persons educated in Latin, however, were able through study to broaden their horizons to two or more periods, an event that always commanded the respect of their peers. .Queen Elizabeth I of England and her close relatives, for example, who received the best classical education from tutors hired for the purpose from Oxford University, were respected at home and abroad for their command of Latin and ancient Greek.^ In this respect, too, Latin contrasts with Greek.

^ It is to be noticed also that in the earliest Latin, as in Greek and Sanskrit, the passive meaning, though the commonest, is not universal.

.Elizabeth could, when required, transit easily from French or Spanish into Latin for the convenience of foreign dignitaries.^ By now, English isn’t even considered a foreign language anymore, and you have to choose French, German or possibly Spanish or even Chinese.
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Pronunciation

.Pronunciation of Latin by the Romans in ancient times can be reconstructed from evidence in the modern Romance languages, transliteration to and from Greek, and the statements of ancient authors themselves.^ Languages developed over hundreds of years, they didn’t just appear overnight; if we implement a universal language, it will eventually splinter, just like Latin did into the romance languages once the Roman Empire fell.
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^ The Latin critics were themselves fully conscious of the broad distinction in character between their own language and the Greek.

^ I also have Latin and Ancient Greek at school (and attempting to learn Hebrew, but it’s hard without a tutor).
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.Latin spelling seems to have been a fairly close representation of the pronunciation, but some distinctions did not show up in the spelling.^ These things clearly point to a fairly close, and probably in part political, intercourse between the two communities of speakers at some early epoch.

.In particular all vowels could be either long or short, the letter N before G, or X (and probably G before N) represented IPA /ŋ/ (like English ng in sing) and the letters I and V each functioned sometimes as a vowel and sometimes as a consonant.^ Nasal, n as in English; but also (like the English n) a guttural nasal ( ng ) before a guttural.

^ Voiced, d as in English; but by the end of the 4th century di before a vowel was pronounced like our j (cf.

^ When a long vowel came to stand before another vowel in the same word through loss of i or u, it was always shortened; thus the -eo of intransitive verbs like candeo, caleo is for -eio (where the e is identical with then in Gr.

In modern texts, V is generally printed as U / u when a vowel and V / v when a consonant. .(Some newer editions, such as the Oxford Latin Dictionary, use V for upper case and u for lower case.^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

^ Latin restricted the various Cases to more sharply defined uses than either Greek or Sanskrit; the free use of the internal accusative in Greek (e.g.

) Less commonly, I is printed as I / i when a vowel and J / j when a consonant.
Most of the letters are pronounced the same as in English, but note the following:
Consonants:
  • c = /k/ (never as in nice)
  • g = /g/ (never as in germ)
  • t = /t/ (never as in English nation)
  • v (consonantal u) = /w/
  • j (consonantal i) = /j/ (like English y in you)
Vowels:
  • a = /a/ when short and /aː/ when long.
  • e = /ɛ/ (as in pet) when short and /eː/ (somewhat as in English they) when long.
  • i = /ɪ/ (as in pin) when short and /iː/ (as in machine) when long
  • o = /ɔ/ (as in British English law) when short and /oː/ (somewhat as in holy) when long.
  • u = /ʊ/ (as in put) when short and /uː/ (as in true) when long.

Orthography

The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the earliest known Old Latin text.
.To write Latin, the Romans used the Latin alphabet, derived from the Old Italic alphabet, which itself was derived from the Greek alphabet.^ Greek words are used sparingly, not with the licence which he censures in Lucilius, and in his hexameters are framed according to Latin rules.

^ Here no doubt the use of the Greek middle influenced the Latin poets, but no doubt they thought also that they were reviving an old Latin idiom.

^ The use of f (fh ) to denote the sound of Latin f supplied the explanation of the change of the symbol f from its Greek value (= Eng.

.The Latin alphabet flourishes today as the writing system for the Romance, Celtic, Germanic (including English and Scots), Baltic and Finnic, and some Slavic (such as Croatian and Czech) languages, among others as Indonesian, Vietnamese and Niger-Congo languages.^ Latin you could understand each other without having to learn 20 languages to communicate.
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^ This was done because when it first started Latin was the dominant language (like English today) and it was assumed everyone would be speaking someday.
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^ So it’s a dialect influenced by all sorts of other languages through history and nowadays Dalmatian people speak really different from other Croatians.
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.The ancient Romans did not use punctuation; macrons (although they did use apices to distinguish between long and short vowels); the letters j, u or w; lowercase letters (although they did have a cursive script); or interword spacing (though dots were occasionally placed between words that would otherwise be difficult to distinguish).^ The short sound of the vowels was not always identical in quality with the long sound.

^ France they use MANY english words but pronouncing them in French.
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^ Funny fact: There is no word for ‘year’ in xipaya, because they didn’t measure time as much as we did.
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So, a sentence originally written as:
LVGETEOVENERESCVPIDINESQVE
would be rendered in a modern edition as
Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque
or with macrons
Lūgēte, Ō Venerēs Cupīdinēsque.
and translated as
Mourn, O Venuses and Cupids
A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets
The Roman cursive script is commonly found on the many wax tablets excavated at sites such as forts, an especially extensive set having been discovered at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall in Britain. Curiously enough, most of the Vindolanda tablets show spaces between words, though spaces were avoided in monumental inscriptions from that era.

Grammar

.Latin is a synthetic, fusional language: affixes (often suffixes, which usually encode more than one grammatical category) are attached to fixed stems to express gender, number, and case in adjectives, nouns, and pronouns—a process called declension.^ The great number of nouns which Latin inherited formed with this suffix were either (1) marked as abstract by the addition of the further suffix -on- (as in natio beside the Gr.

^ So more effort should be made, at least where i’m from, to learn other modern languages, not Latin.
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^ The style of the eminent lawyers of this period, foremost among whom is Gaius, deserves especial notice as showing well one of the characteristic excellences of the Latin language.

Affixes are attached to fixed stems of verbs, as well, to denote person, number, tense, voice, mood, and aspect—a process called conjugation.

Nouns

There are six main Latin noun cases. .These play a major part in determining a noun's syntactic role in the sentence, so word order is not as important in Latin as it is in some other languages, such as English.^ No small part of the urbanitas consisted in a correct urban pronunciation; and the standard of this was found in the language of the women of the upper classes, such as Laelia and Cornelia .

^ Many languages also have words or terms which are impossible to translate, we have the word “hygge” which is one of the most important words to discribe our relations wíth other people, moods and situations, but it can’t be translated and no one outside of Scandinavia!
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^ Hundreds of languages have already died, some of these long ago and with no fanfare, but sometimes the death of a language is recorded and we know exactly who last spoke it.
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.Because of noun cases, words can often be moved around in a sentence without significantly altering its meaning, though the emphasis will have been altered.^ Because I know the Latin cases (nominative, genitive etc), I know what their Dutch translations (onderwerp, bijvoeglijke bepaling) mean.
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The cases, with their most important uses, are these:
  1. Nominative: used when the noun is the subject of the sentence or phrase, or when functioning as a predicative of the subject. The thing or person acting (e.g., The girl ran. Puella cucurrit.)
  2. Vocative: used when the noun is used in a direct address. The vocative form of a noun is the same as the nominative except for second declension nouns ending in -us. .The -us becomes an -e or if it ends in -ius (such as filius) then the ending is just -i (fili) (as distinct from the plural nominative (filii).^ Oscan the distinction was preserved to the end, both in singular and plural, e.g.

    ^ To this primitive neighbourhood may be referred such peculiarities as (a) the genitive plural feminine ending in -dsom (Gr.

    (e.g., "Master!" shouted the slave. "Domine!" servus clamavit.)
  3. .
  4. Accusative: used when the noun is the direct object of the sentence/phrase, with certain prepositions, or as the subject of an infinitive.^ In subordinate sentences quod is used for " the fact that," and sometimes approaches the later use of " that "; the infinitive follows many verbs and adjectives that do not admit of this construction in classical prose; the accusative and infinitive are used after negative expressions of doubt, and even in modal and hypothetical clauses.

    The thing or person having something done to them. (e.g., The slave woman carries the wine. .Ancilla vinum portat.)
  5. Genitive: used when the noun is the possessor of an object (e.g., "the horse of the man", or "the man's horse"—in both of these cases, the word man would be in the genitive case when translated into Latin).^ His archaisms and Graecisms, both in diction and in syntax, are very numerous; but frequently there is a freedom in the use of cases and prepositions which can only be due to bold and independent innovations.

    ^ Because I know the Latin cases (nominative, genitive etc), I know what their Dutch translations (onderwerp, bijvoeglijke bepaling) mean.
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    ^ Unifying language would force me to lose these words and their very specific meanings, and my own unique way of speaking the english language.
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    Also indicates material of which something greater is made (e.g., "a group of people"; "a number of gifts"—people and gifts would be in the genitive case). Some nouns are genitive with special verbs and adjectives too. (e.g., The cup is full of wine. Poculum plenum vini est. The master of the slave had beaten him. .Dominus servi eum verberaverat.)
  6. Dative: used when the noun is the indirect object of the sentence, with special verbs, with certain prepositions, and if used as agent, reference, or even possessor.^ The ablative of separation is used without a preposition, even with names of countries and with common nouns; the ablative of place is employed similarly without a preposition; the ablative of time has sometimes the force of duration; the instrumental ablative is employed even of persons.

    ^ In subordinate sentences quod is used for " the fact that," and sometimes approaches the later use of " that "; the infinitive follows many verbs and adjectives that do not admit of this construction in classical prose; the accusative and infinitive are used after negative expressions of doubt, and even in modal and hypothetical clauses.

    ^ In regard to prepositions, there are special uses of citra, erga, iuxta and tenus to be noted, and a frequent tendency to interchange the use of a preposition with that of a simple case in corresponding clauses.

    (e.g., The merchant hands over the stola to the woman. Mercator feminae stolam tradit.)
  7. Ablative: used when the noun demonstrates separation or movement from a source, cause, agent, or instrument, or when the noun is used as the object of certain prepositions; adverbial.
.
There is also a seventh case, called the Locative case, used to indicate a location and services (corresponding to the English "in" or "at").
^ His archaisms and Graecisms, both in diction and in syntax, are very numerous; but frequently there is a freedom in the use of cases and prepositions which can only be due to bold and independent innovations.

^ The syncretism of the so-called ablative case, which combines the uses of (a) the true ablative which ended in -d (0.

^ In regard to prepositions, there are special uses of citra, erga, iuxta and tenus to be noted, and a frequent tendency to interchange the use of a preposition with that of a simple case in corresponding clauses.

This is far less common than the other six cases of Latin nouns and usually applies to cities, small towns, and islands smaller than the island of Rhodes, but not including Rhodes, along with a few common nouns. .In the first and second declension singular, its form coincides with the genitive (Roma becomes Romae, "in Rome").^ Genitive singular of the o-stems (second declension) in -i Lat.

^ In declension he never uses -ae as the genitive, but -ai or -as; the older and shorter form of the gen.

In the plural, and in the other declensions, it coincides with the dative and ablative (Athenae becomes Athenis, "at Athens").
Latin lacks definite and indefinite articles; thus puer currit can mean either "the boy runs" or "a boy runs".

Verbs

.Verbs in Latin are usually identified by four main conjugations, groups of verbs with similarly inflected forms.^ Similarly in a small group of words the old form was preserved through their frequent use in legal or religious documents where tradition was strictly preserved- poena, foedus (neut.

The first conjugation is typified by active infinitive forms ending in -āre, the second by active infinitives ending in -ēre, the third by infinitives ending in -ere, and the fourth by active infinitives ending in -īre. However, there are exceptions to these rules. Further, there is a subset of the 3rd conjugation, the -iō verbs, which behave somewhat like the 4th conjugation. .There are five general tenses in Latin (present, imperfect, future, perfect and pluperfect), three grammatical moods (indicative, imperative and subjunctive, in addition to the infinitive, participle, gerund, gerundive and supine), three persons (first, second, and third), two numbers (singular and plural), two voices (active and passive), and a few aspects.^ Generally speaking, Tacitus likes to use a simple verb instead of a compound one, after the fashion of the poets, employs a pluperfect for a perfect, and (like Livy and sometimes Caesar) aims at vividness and variety by retaining the present and perfect subjunctive in indirect speech even after historical tenses.

^ This originally active meaning of the -r form (in the third person singular passive) is the cause of the remarkable fondness for the " impersonal " use of the passive in Latin (e.g., itur in antiquam silvam, instead of eunt ), which was naturally extended to all tenses of the passive ( ventum est, &c.

^ The disuse of the distinction between the personal endings of primary and secondary tenses, the -t and -nt, for instance, being used for the third person singular and plural respectively in all tenses and moods of the active.

Verbs are described by four principal parts:
.
  1. The first principal part is the first person (or third person for impersonal verbs) singular, present tense, indicative mood, active voice form of the verb (or passive voice for verbs lacking an active voice).
  2. The second principal part is the present infinitive active (or passive for verbs lacking an active) form.
  3. The third principal part is the first person (or third person for impersonal verbs) singular, perfect indicative active (or passive when there is no active) form.
  4. The fourth principal part is the supine form, or alternatively, the nominative singular, perfect passive participle form of the verb.^ The complete fusion of the aorist and perfect forms, and in the same tense the fusion of active and middle endings; thus tutudi, earlier *tutudai, is a true middle perfect; is an s aorist with the same ending attached; dixit'is an aorist active; tutudisti is a conflation of perfect and aorist with a middle personal ending.

    ^ In verbs there are scatit, fulgit, quaesit, confluxet = confluxisset, recesse = recessisse, induiacere for inicere; simple forms like fligere, lacere, cedere, stinguere for the more usual compounds, the infinitive passive in -ier, and archaic forms from esse like siet, escit, fuat.

    ^ The form in -do still lives in Italian as an indeclinable present participle.

    .The fourth principal part can show either one gender of the participle, or all three genders (-us for masculine, -a for feminine, and -um for neuter).^ It changed one’s psychology to go to mass back in those days–which was appropriate–you were communing with god, after all, not going to a movie or a show.
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    ^ The restriction of the accent to the last three syllables was completed by these changes, which did away with all the cases in which it had stood on the fourth syllable.

    ^ This list is in no particular order and is not an exhaustive list, but I think it is representative and shows that language death is not restricted to one part of the world.
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    It can also be the future participle when the verb cannot be made passive. .Most modern Latin dictionaries, if only showing one gender, tend to show the masculine; however, many older dictionaries will instead show the neuter.^ The style of the eminent lawyers of this period, foremost among whom is Gaius, deserves especial notice as showing well one of the characteristic excellences of the Latin language.

    ^ It is only in the letters from the Pontus that laxities of construction are detected, which show that the purity of his Latin was impaired by his residence away from Rome, and perhaps by increasing carelessness of composition.

    The fourth principal part is sometimes omitted for intransitive verbs, although strictly in Latin these can be made passive if used impersonally.

Contemporary use

The signs at Wallsend Metro station are in English and Latin as a tribute to Wallsend's role as one of the outposts of the Roman empire.
.Latin lives in the form of Ecclesiastical Latin used for edicts and papal bulls issued by the Catholic Church, and in the form of a sparse sprinkling of scientific or social articles written in it, as well as in numerous Latin clubs.^ Horace probably always used the Latin form in his Satires and Epistles, the Greek in his Odes.

^ Not to pick on the Latin Church, but the reality is the scriptures, in Latin, were often used by the priest to serve his own ends or goals because there were few, if any, that could contradict him.
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^ It must be added, however, in regard to these literary borrowings that it is not quite clear whether in this fourth class, and even in the unmodified forms in the preceding class, the words had really any living use in spoken Latin.

Latin vocabulary is used in science, academia, and law. .Classical Latin is taught in many schools often combined with Greek in the study of Classics, though its role has diminished since the early 20th century.^ It is to be noticed also that in the earliest Latin, as in Greek and Sanskrit, the passive meaning, though the commonest, is not universal.

^ Many traces of this survive in classical Latin, of which the chief are 1.

^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

The Latin alphabet, together with its modern variants such as the English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and German alphabets, is the most widely used alphabet in the world. .Terminology deriving from Latin words and concepts is widely used, among other fields, in philosophy, medicine, biology, and law, in terms and abbreviations such as subpoena duces tecum, q.i.d. (quater in die: "four times a day"), and inter alia (among other things).^ Some forty-two other Latin or Celtic words (among them credere, caesaries, probes, castus (cf.

^ Greek words are used sparingly, not with the licence which he censures in Lucilius, and in his hexameters are framed according to Latin rules.

^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

These Latin terms are used in isolation, as technical terms. .In scientific names for organisms, Latin is typically the language of choice, followed by Greek.^ His language is universally taken as the normal type of Latin; and, as hitherto the history of the language has been traced by marking differences from his usage, so the same method may be followed for what remains.

^ The Latin critics were themselves fully conscious of the broad distinction in character between their own language and the Greek.

^ Turning now to the language of literature we may group the Latin authors as follows:1 I. Ante-Classical (240-80 B.C.).-Naevius (?

The largest organization that still uses Latin in official and quasi-official contexts is the Roman Catholic Church (particularly in the Latin Rite). .The Tridentine Mass uses Latin, although the Mass of Paul VI is usually said in the local vernacular language; however, it can be and often is said in Latin, particularly in the Vatican.^ Notice, however, that true conjunctive forms were often used as futures , reges, reget, &c., and also the simple thematic conjunctive in forms like ero, rexero, &c.

Indeed, Latin is still the official standard language of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, and the Second Vatican Council merely authorized that the liturgical books be translated and optionally used in the vernacular languages. Latin is the official language of the Holy See and the Vatican City-State. The Vatican City is also home to the only ATM where instructions are given in Latin.(although only the front invitation page is in Latin, the details are not)[11].
Some films of relevant ancient settings, such as Sebastiane and The Passion of the Christ, have been made with dialogue in Latin for purposes of realism. Occasionally, Latin dialogue is used because of its association with religion or philosophy, in such film/TV series as the Exorcist and Lost (Jughead). Subtitles are usually employed for the benefit of audiences who do not understand Latin. There are also songs written with Latin lyrics.
Many organizations today have Latin mottos, such as "Semper Paratus" (always ready), the motto of the United States Coast Guard, and "Semper Fidelis" (always faithful), the motto of the United States Marine Corps. Several of the states of the United States also have Latin mottos, such as "Montani Semper Liberi" (Mountaineers are always free), the state motto of West Virginia, and "Esse Quam Videri" (To be rather than to seem), that of North Carolina.
.Latin grammar has been taught in most Italian schools since the 18th century: for example, in the Liceo classico and Liceo scientifico, Latin is still one of the primary subjects.^ H. J. Roby's Latin Grammar (from Plautus to Suetonius; London , 7th ed., 1896) contains a masterly collection of material, especially in morphology, which is still of great value.

Latin is taught in many schools and universities around the world as well.
Occasionally, the media broadcasts in Latin, which is targeted at the enthusiasts audience. Notable examples include Radio Bremen in Germany, YLE radio in Finland and Vatican Radio & Television; all of which broadcast news segments and other material in Latin.[12][13]
As with many languages which are seen as relatively unused in a day to day context - there are many websites and forums maintained in the language by enthusiasts. Wikipedia has over 10,000 articles written in Latin.

Instruction in Latin

A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz
.The Living Latin movement attempts to teach Latin in the same way that modern living languages are taught, i.e., as a means of both spoken and written communication.^ H. A. J. Munro has said admirably of this very period: " The living Latin for all the higher forms of composition, both prose and verse, was a far nobler language than the living Greek.

^ His language is universally taken as the normal type of Latin; and, as hitherto the history of the language has been traced by marking differences from his usage, so the same method may be followed for what remains.

.Living Latin instruction is provided at the Vatican, and at some institutions in the U.S., such as the University of Kentucky.^ Oscan also, by the 3rd century B.C., this first-syllable-accent had probably given way to a system which limited the word-accent in some such way as in classical Latin.

.In the United Kingdom, the Classical Association encourages this approach, and Latin language books describing the adventures of a mouse called Minimus have been published.^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

^ It is not that the Latin language fails to respond to the calls made upon it.

^ Turning now to the language of literature we may group the Latin authors as follows:1 I. Ante-Classical (240-80 B.C.).-Naevius (?

.In the United States, the National Junior Classical League (with more than 50,000 members) encourages high school students to pursue the study of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League encourages college students to continue their studies of the language.^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

^ A careful study of the earlier poets, especially Virgil and Lucan, has kept his language up to a high standard of purity.

^ Since, however, we have a far more complete knowledge of Latin than of any other member of the Italic group, this is the most convenient place in which to state briefly the very little than can be said as yet to have been ascertained as to the general relations of Italic to its sister groups.

.Many international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin.^ But his own style did not escape, as indeed it hardly could, the influences of his time; and in many small points his language falls short of classical purity.

Interlingua, which lays claim to a sizeable following, is sometimes considered a simplified, modern version of the language. .Latino sine Flexione, popular in the early 20th century, is a language created from Latin with its inflections dropped.^ Latin was the language spoken in Rome and in the plain of Latium in the 6th or 7th century B.C. - the earliest period from which we have any contemporary record of its existence.

.Latin translations of modern literature such as Treasure Island, Robinson Crusoe, Paddington Bear, Winnie the Pooh, Olivia, Tintin, Asterix, Harry Potter, Walter the Farting Dog, Le Petit Prince, Max und Moritz, How the Grinch Stole Christmas, and The Cat in the Hat are intended to bolster interest in the language.^ Cato.-The treatise of Cato the elder, De re rustica, would have afforded invaluable material, but it has unfortunately come down to us in a text greatly modernized, which is more of interest from the point of view of literature than of language.

^ Turning now to the language of literature we may group the Latin authors as follows:1 I. Ante-Classical (240-80 B.C.).-Naevius (?

See also

Language

Latin edition of Wikisource, the free-content library

Culture

Notes

  1. ^ "Schools". Britannica (1911 ed.). 
  2. ^ Opus Fundatum Latinitas is an organ of the Roman Catholic Church, and regulates Latin with respect to its status as official language of the Holy See and for use by Catholic clergy.
  3. ^ Sandys, John Edwin (1910). A companion to Latin studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 811-812. 
  4. ^ Bryson, Bill (1996). The mother tongue: English and how it got that way. New York: Avon Books. pp. 33-34. 
  5. ^ Pope, Mildred K. From Latin to modern French with especial consideration of Anglo-Norman; phonology and morphology. Publications of the University of Manchester, no. 229. French series, no. 6. Manchester: Manchester university press. p. 3. 
  6. ^ Monroe, Paul (1902). Source book of the history of education for the Greek and Roman period. London, New York: Macmillan Co.. pp. 346-352. 
  7. ^ Herman (2000), pp. 17-18.
  8. ^ Herman (2000) p 8.
  9. ^ Herman (2000), pp. 1-3.
  10. ^ a b Thorley, John (1998). Documents in medieval Latin. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. pp. 13-15. 
  11. ^ Moore, Malcom (28 January 2007). "Pope's Latinist pronounces death of a language". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1540843/Popes-Latinist-pronounces-death-of-a-language.html. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  12. ^ http://www.radiobremen.de/nachrichten/latein/
  13. ^ http://www.yleradio1.fi/nuntii/

References

  • Bennett, Charles E. (1908). Latin Grammar. Chicago: Allyn and Bacon. 
  • Herman, József; Wright, Roger (Translator) (2000). Vulgar Latin. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. 
  • Palmer, Frank Robert (1984). Grammar (2nd ed.). .Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England; New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin Books. 
  • Vincent, N. (1990), "Latin", in Harris, M., The Romance Languages, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-520829-3 
  • Waquet, Françoise; Howe, John (Translator) (2003).^ The poets of the Augustan age mark the opening of a new chapter in the history of the Latin language.

    ^ His language is universally taken as the normal type of Latin; and, as hitherto the history of the language has been traced by marking differences from his usage, so the same method may be followed for what remains.

    Latin, or the Empire of a Sign: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-402-2. 
  • Wheelock, Frederic (2005). Latin: An Introduction (6th ed.). Collins. ISBN 0-06-078423-7. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.Latin is an Indo-European language which was influenced by Ancient Greek and Etruscan, amongst others.^ Latin you could understand each other without having to learn 20 languages to communicate.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also have Latin and Ancient Greek at school (and attempting to learn Hebrew, but it’s hard without a tutor).
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So it’s a dialect influenced by all sorts of other languages through history and nowadays Dalmatian people speak really different from other Croatians.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Spoken in Ancient Rome, and closely related to a number of other ancient Italic languages such as Oscan, Umbrian, Faliscan and Venetic, it eventually evolved into the Romance languages spoken today.^ Languages change constantly, and it it just a fact of life that all languages will eventually meld into one single language due to increased global intermixture and ease of communuication.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let’s say there are 6500 languages spoken on the earth today.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had I studied Italian during those early years I would be fluent now and have acquired an equally efficient basis from which to learn other Romance languages.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Grammar

.Latin grammar is the root of nearly all Romance languages.^ And the pretty much all the advantages that people who learned Latin before learning a Romance language point relate to vocabulary, and you could get those same advantages from knowing another Romance language.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I guess Pig Latin will never die because it works with all languages.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only problem with the whole experiment was all the languages changed while Latin died out.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many constructions in Romance languages remain virtually unchanged from their Latin counterparts.^ I would add that learning any Romance language equips one for speedy acquisition of another in the same family; Latin has no particular advantage in that regard, and many disadvantages.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ His language is universally taken as the normal type of Latin; and, as hitherto the history of the language has been traced by marking differences from his usage, so the same method may be followed for what remains.

.For instance, the ending of verbs determines the person (first, second, or third) and the number (singular or plural), and nouns and adjectives possess genders.^ This change was completed after the archaic period, since we find in the oldest inscriptions -d regularly used in the third person singular of past tenses, e.g.

^ The disuse of the distinction between the personal endings of primary and secondary tenses, the -t and -nt, for instance, being used for the third person singular and plural respectively in all tenses and moods of the active.

^ My personal experience of people with English as a first language is that they tend to have no, or poor, second language skills.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Originally the Latin language had seventeen (!) cases. .The nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative, temporale and so on.^ The history of the -ae of the dative , genitive and locative is hardly yet clear (see Exon, Hermathena (1905), xiii.

.Indo-European languages were originally very widely developed.^ On the other hand, in the first early periods of that dialectic development in the Indo-European family, the precursors of Greek and Italic cannot have been separated by any very wide boundary.

Usually, the basic word order is loosely based on "Subject Object Verb", similar to Spanish or even Japanese. However, this is not a universal rule. .Unlike English, in which sentences derive much of their meaning from where the words are placed, Latin sentences can be scrambled in virtually any order and still make sense.^ I teach EFL nowadays, and I can use what I did learn in my Latin lessons to explain the roots of many English words to my students.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Word order is as important in Latin as it is in every language that ever existed.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans put their words in a particular order because that was the order that made most sense to them and to the people listening to them.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The endings of the nouns and the verbs tell the word's function in a sentence.^ The first tip is one a student gave me some years ago: In a Latin sentence, you can be 99% sure a word ending in -at, -et, or -it is a verb, and 100% sure on a word ending in -nt .
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lot of Latin words starting in pau derive from the Greek verb ðáõþ (pauo) - “to stop, bring to an end".
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Nouns and verbs).
.
Verbs are conjugated but there are no such things as "helper verbs" as there are in English, only different endings for each tense/person/mood/etc..
^ That paradigm can lead to difficulties in modern tranlation; there’s a good example at the Latin Forum of such a problem when translating the odd English expression “It is what it is".
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even in English these sound awful–no wonder this is the only place you’ll find them in extant Latin.
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my original Islands there were numerous dialects, with widly differing words for the same thing.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

(yes there are A LOT of endings). The essential endings are 1st person singular-o OR m 2nd person singular- s 3rd person singular- t 1st person plural- mus 2nd person plural- tis 3rd person plural - nt.

Nouns

The First Three Declensions:
Case FIRST DECLENSION: SECOND DECLENSION: THIRD DECLENSION:
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative a ae us i -- (typically -s) es
Genitive ae arum ī orum is ium (or um)
Dative ae īs ō īs ī ibus
Accusative am ās um ōs em es
Ablative ā īs ō īs e ibus
Vocative a ae e ī -- es
  • Cases
    • Latin nouns can change their endings according to cases, as listed in the chart above.
    • A list of the cases and their basic functions.
      • Nominative - used for subject or complement of a sentence, or when something is being named or created.
        • "Cornelia est puella." (Cornelia is a girl.)
      • Genitive - used for possession, description, or partitive.
        • "felis Corneliae" (Cornelia's cat)
        • "Cornelia est puella magnae sapientiae. (Cornelia is a girl of great wisdom.)
        • "amphora plena vini (a vase full of wine)
      • Dative - Indirect object/ used when "to" or "for" would be.
        • Marcus cani pretium dat. (Marcus gave the dog a reward/Marcus gave a reward to the dog.)
      • Accusative - primarily direct object. Some prepositions take the accusative but only when it is motion toward something.
        • Felis piscem petit. (The cat looks for fish.)
        • Cornelia ovum consumit. (Cornelia eats an egg)
      • Ablative - Object of a preposition (any preposition that IS NOT motion towards).
        • Vocative - Direct Address
        • AND SOMETIMES Locative - used to show the location of something

Practice

Vocabulary:
  • puella, -ae, f. girl
  • sub, prep. underneath, under
  • arbor, -oris, f. a tree
  • sedeo sedere sedi sessum, to sit
Example: Puella sub arbore sedet. The girl sits (or is sitting or does sit) under the tree.

Verbs

.Latin verbs are quite like the verbs of other languages, such as Spanish.^ Latin you could understand each other without having to learn 20 languages to communicate.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was done because when it first started Latin was the dominant language (like English today) and it was assumed everyone would be speaking someday.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any other language - not just Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, but German, Russian, Arabic - becomes easier for a child with a grounding in Latin Can you provide any studies of language teaching where latin is taught as a primer?
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Each verb usually has 4 principle parts (a good amount of them only have 3). Latin verbs are formed on the basis of a root and an ending.
Lets start with an example: Amo, amare, amavi, amatus; To love
.The first principle part, amo is the 1st person present active singular indicative form of the verb "to love". What this means is that you translate it as I love, or I am loving.^ This originally active meaning of the -r form (in the third person singular passive) is the cause of the remarkable fondness for the " impersonal " use of the passive in Latin (e.g., itur in antiquam silvam, instead of eunt ), which was naturally extended to all tenses of the passive ( ventum est, &c.

^ They also wanted one language for the Bible because everytime you translate you get changes to the meaning of the text.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first instance you overlook the fact that translation is an ongoing activity.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The second principle part is the present active infinitive. To translate, its just to be. The infinitive usually ends with are, ere, or ire. In our case of amo, the second principle part is amare, to love. .The infinitive dictates the root used for many forms of the verb.^ The interesting forms in -mini are a confusion of two distinct inflexions, namely, an old infinitive in -menai, used for the imperative, and the participial -menoi, masculine, -menai, feminine, used with the verb " to be " in place of the ordinary inflexions.

^ In subordinate sentences quod is used for " the fact that," and sometimes approaches the later use of " that "; the infinitive follows many verbs and adjectives that do not admit of this construction in classical prose; the accusative and infinitive are used after negative expressions of doubt, and even in modal and hypothetical clauses.

The third principle part is the 1st singular perfect active indicative. The perfect case is translated as a completed action. .Our Amavi is translated as I have loved or I loved (be careful, there is a difference between had loved and have loved).^ There is sufficient difference between the two to justify us in assuming two different authors; but both freely employ words and constructions which are at once antiquated and vulgar.

The 3rd principle part shows the root for much of the perfect system.
.The fourth principle part is the Perfect Passive Participle, abbreviated as the PPP. The PPP is a participle, in the past tense.^ Formation of the perfect passive from the -to- past participle, Lat.

^ This participle was taken with sum to form the perfect tenses of the passive, in which, thanks partly to the fusion of perfect and aorist active, a past aorist sense was also evolved.

^ Past Participle Passive.

.Amatus would be translated as "having been loved" The perfect passive participle is very important for passives in Latin verbs.^ Formation of the perfect passive from the -to- past participle, Lat.

^ This participle was taken with sum to form the perfect tenses of the passive, in which, thanks partly to the fusion of perfect and aorist active, a past aorist sense was also evolved.

^ We are very proud to be first generation Americans, but continue to keep our pride for our Latin heritage and roots strong – is she having a hard time expressing this?
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

Most of this stuff will be pretty confusing for now. The key idea is that Latin verbs have 4 principle parts, and what each principle part means

Irregular Verbs

.Like in English, Latin has its irregular verbs: verbs that do not follow the set patterns or anything close.^ This was done because when it first started Latin was the dominant language (like English today) and it was assumed everyone would be speaking someday.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Here's the most important one: To be: Sum, Esse, fui, futurus
This are the present forms of the verb
Singular: 1st person: sum 2nd person: es 3rd person: est
Plural 1st person: sumus 2nd person: estis 3rd person: sunt

Spelling

.In the Latin Language there are spellings of words that may seem weird to english speakers, in some cases there are accents over vowels going both right and left.^ His archaisms and Graecisms, both in diction and in syntax, are very numerous; but frequently there is a freedom in the use of cases and prepositions which can only be due to bold and independent innovations.

^ There are at least 7,000 languages throughout the World, and an increasing number are endangered through the linguistic imperialism of both Mandarin Chinese and English.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had another case where I had some Latino customers, and as I was researching they studied my business card and had a discussion, in Spanish, right in front of me.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

There are letters that contain tildes or ~, there are direreses or sideways colons

See also

External links

  • Doctus - Platform independent language drills
  • [1] - The Latin Language Learning Podcast from London

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.There is more than one meaning of Latin discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.^ But there is more to Latin than Catholic nostalgia.
  • Latin | Times & Seasons 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More appropriately and accurately, however, one should consult a two-way Latin dictionary with one's own language when learning of vocabulary of this language.
  • Latinvlo 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.panix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It just means that sometimes the form of the noun shows you that one person or thing is involved, and at other times it shows you that more than one person or thing is involved.
  • Latin by the Dowling Method 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

.We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself.^ All go out.
  • Latin Phrases in Common Usage in English 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC users.accesscomm.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then you will figure out its meaning "intuitively."
  • Latin by the Dowling Method 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, if you search for ferous, you must pass the entries for carb- and voc- which contain (carboniferous and vociferous) before reaching the entry for FEROUS. A case-sensitive search for FEROUS will lead you directly to the entry for ferous.
  • Basic Greek and Latin for understanding science and medicine 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.ee.unsw.edu.au [Source type: Reference]

.If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.^ If you want to give it a try, download and install the large or small packages from here.

^ So if you really wanted to say it that way, you would say *in medio rerum* “in the middle of things” .
  • Latin | Times & Seasons 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC timesandseasons.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They also wanted one language for the Bible because everytime you translate you get changes to the meaning of the text.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
See also latin, latín, and látin

Contents

English

Etymology

.From Latin latīnus, from Latium (the region around Rome) + -īnus (adjective suffix).^ The name comes from the region of Italy around Rome, which was called Latium.
  • Why is the roman language called latin and not roman? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In Italy, Latin was originally the dialect of the region around Rome.
  • LATIN LANGUAGE, 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Latin Language - MSN Encarta 17 September 2009 0:00 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium .
  • Latin English Words Languages Language Romance Names 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Latin 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC fact-archive.com [Source type: Reference]

Pronunciation

Adjective

Latin (not comparable)
Positive
Latin
  1. Of or relating to the language spoken in ancient Rome.
  2. Of or relating to the script of the language spoken in ancient Rome and many modern alphabets.
  3. Of or relating to ancient Rome or its Empire.
  4. Of or relating to the customs and people descended from the ancient Romans and their Empire.
  5. Of or relating to Latium (modern Lazio), the region around Rome.
  6. Of or from Latin America or of Latin American culture.

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ When they need to send a check, they buy a money order, or maybe they wire money, or they put the money into a reloadable debit card.

^ Enter it below and choose the languages you need it translated from and into, then choose whether you want a free machine translation or professional human translation!
  • Latin Translation by Translation Services USA - English to Latin Translation 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.translation-services-usa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What I want to know is: WHY do people feel the need to translate "Don't let the bastards get you down" into Latin so frequently?

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Derived terms

Proper noun

Singular
Latin
Plural
-
Latin
  1. The language of the ancient Romans; Classical Latin.

Ages of Latin
—75 BC    75 BC – 200    200 – 900    900 – 1300    1300 – 1600    1600 – 1900   1900 – present
Old Latin    Classical Latin    Late Latin    Medieval Latin    Renaissance Latin   New Latin    Recent Latin
See also: Vulgar Latin, Ecclesiastical Latin, Low Latin, Romance languages

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

Singular
Latin
Plural
Latins
Latin (plural Latins)
  1. A person native to ancient Rome or its Empire.
  2. A person who is descended from the ancient Romans.
  3. A person whose native tongue is one descended from Latin, such as a Spaniard or Italian.

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ When they need to send a check, they buy a money order, or maybe they wire money, or they put the money into a reloadable debit card.

^ Enter it below and choose the languages you need it translated from and into, then choose whether you want a free machine translation or professional human translation!
  • Latin Translation by Translation Services USA - English to Latin Translation 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.translation-services-usa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What I want to know is: WHY do people feel the need to translate "Don't let the bastards get you down" into Latin so frequently?

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

External links


Croatian

Proper noun

Làtīn m.
  1. Latin (person native to ancient Rome or its Empire, descended from the ancient Romans or speaking a Romance language)

French

Noun

Latin m.
  1. Latin (person)

Derived terms

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ailnt
  • liant

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.This is an elementary Latin course accompanied with a detailed grammar based upon Kennedy's Public School Latin Grammar designed to introduce one to the world of classical languages.^ Online Latin language audio course for learning Classical Latin.
  • LATINUM - The Online Latin Language Audio Course from London 17 September 2009 0:00 UTC latinum.mypodcast.com [Source type: General]

^ Complete online audio course for studying the Latin language ______________________________ To be entirely ignorant of the Latin language is like being in a fine country on a misty day.
  • LATINUM - The Online Latin Language Audio Course from London 17 September 2009 0:00 UTC latinum.mypodcast.com [Source type: General]

^ Even to the classical writers Latin was in a certain sense a dead language.

A basic understanding of grammatical terminology would be helpful, however, it is not required. Basic definitions of terms will be explained in Lessons 1 and 2, and later elaborated as needed.
For detailed explanations and examples of English grammatical terms, please consult the English grammar course. .However, Latin grammar is quite different from English, and thus it requires different grammatical terms to explain the concepts.^ We musn't forget that no grammar is taught at all these days - certainly no English grammar - and Latin gives that foundation in the structure and use of language.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Like all four-year-olds, my son makes quite a few grammatical mistakes in his spoken English.
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So to jumpstart things around here, I’ve decided to look at a few translation challenges, expressions in English that require a bit of thought when transferred to Latin.
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These will be taught as needed.

Contents

Note

.Parts of this book may have been edited by people who do not speak English as their first language.^ His style cannot be more fitly described than in the language of Quintilian, who speaks of his mira iucunditars and lactea ubertas.

^ Water - Aqua, at first they pronounce it wa wa, until learning to seperate the two and flit flawlessly between the three languages, depending on who they are conversing with.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I was not raised in a Spanish speaking household and even my grandparents who were native Spanish speakers, spoke to me only in English.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

.All Wikibooks are written in the particular English dialect of the writer, which may not be standard usage.^ A particular change in sound or usage may spread over a whole chain of dialects and be in the end exhibited alike by them all, although the time at which it first began was long after their special and distinctive characteristics had become clearly marked.

.If you see something particularly unclear, please feel free to correct it.^ I don’t mean to offend anyone it’s just that by the comments I can see that a lot of people really think that you can learn Dalmatian or something.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you have any other examples, feel free to comment!
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But please alter this article in a constructive manner.
This book will attempt to teach Latin from the ground up. .Please consult the Appendix or a Latin or Latin-aware Dictionary if you are confused about questionable presentation of Latin grammatical elements using English concepts.^ So, what would you celebrate about the Latin project, please oddweb?
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A question over at Akela’s Latin Forum reminded me of a translation problem I once struggled with: How exactly do you translate phrases like “Too A to B"?
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another problem in a series on English to Latin translation questions.
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Please read the Introduction carefully, as it introduces the concept of a stem. .As is typical in many other languages, the infinitive stem (present tense, active voice) is used for conjugating verbs.^ Look at the present indicative active of the 3rd conjugation verb mitto : .
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is in fact not as difficult for the English-speaker as many other languages, including Greek or any of the eastern Asian languages: its spelling is phonetically regular, its vocabulary is exceedingly small, its use of metaphor is sparing and almost apologetic, and its sentence structures economical.
  • Scholars Online Latin Sequence 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.scholarsonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of these that caught my ear the other day involves the use of a preposition with a verb, and illustrated for me something about the Latin relation between prepositions and adverbs.
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[The introduction of additional information in parentheses is done simply to avoid confusing a student who has already had exposure to Latin.]
.If something doesn't make sense to you, note your grade level in the summary, and delete what you don't understand, i.e., "grade 12 [grade] American [system] revert?"^ Well…I say you shouldn’t cover her anymore, If she doesn’t want to be considered LATINA then don’t allow her to be on a Latino gossip page!!
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She continues to make remarks about how she is American, and doesn’t consider herself anything else…meaning she isn’t Latina.
  • Jessica Not Proud To Be Latina - Latin Gossip 13 January 2010 10:20 UTC www.latingossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The real problem Latin has is that the advantages of studying it don't appear until you get to degree level.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The "revert" keyword allows your editors to know that you are not a skilled editor but are just trying to learn, and are confused.^ You know: the feeling you get when some pompous politician tries to show off and falls flat on his vocabulary?
  • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve been trying to learn Korean- but y’know, it’s HARD. I only have the most basic bits and pieces, not enough to have real conversations.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m very sorry you aren’t smart enough to learn another or don’t have the discipline to even try.
  • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Your changes are not permanent.
Editing this book responsibly:
  • As this is a textbook, readers will want denotational indication of macrons. If you do not know how to do this in HTML, please refer to Wikipedia's article on the topic.
  • Always use the genitive in presentation, or present the nominative and the genitive side by side, clearly indicating which one is which ("nom." for nominative and "gen." for genitive). .Different pages may use their own layout rules, but they should be left-justified and clear to the student.
  • Check with other commercial textbooks and study guides to see if what you are doing is factually accurate and pedagogically sound.^ You guys should try living in a country where they speak English, but refuse to speak it to you.
    • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only then should you go back to the better authors so you understand how they are nudging and hammering at the boundaries of the way Latin was used, how that differs from the everyday, and why we think that their style is worth preserving.
    • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you can’t see the macrons in the list, check that your browser is set for Unicode or auto-selected encoding (in IE, choose “View” -> “Encoding” and select “Auto-select").
    • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Wikibooks trusts you to make that judgment on your own, but this is a book - not an article.^ The only others that could, fellow brethren, did police their own and so long as the overall goal, control, was maintained, you could keep your frock.
    • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Post Your Comments You can write a comment on this article by clicking here .

    A person who is either bold or rash might make an error or mistake in layout or explanation that will take a long time to find and correct.

A Progressive Latin Grammar and Exercises

Introduction to the origins and structure of Latin:
  1. How to study a language on the Internet and in your head
  2. Special consideration: How to use a Wikibook when progress may mean inaccuracy
  3. Grammatical Introduction to Latin The origin and structure of Latin
  4. Basic Grammar Grammatical introduction.

Chapter 1: Basic Sentences
  1. The Nominative Case Create basic Latin sentences.
  2. Adjectives An overview of adjectives in Latin.
  3. Present indicative active construct An introduction to verbs, and the present tense of regular verbs.
  4. Adverbs & Prepositions More on adjectives, and an overview of adverbs and prepositions.
  5. The Accusative Case Learn to create sentences with transitive verbs.
  6. Pronouns Summary of Pronouns
  7. Chapter 1 Verse

Chapter 2: Complicated Sentences
  1. The Imperfect Tense The imperfect tense, working in the past.
  2. The Genitive and Dative Cases Indicate indirect objects and possession.
  3. The Future Tense Verbs in the Future
  4. The Ablative and Vocative Case Indicate an ablative construct / directly address someone
  5. The 3rd, 4th and 5th declensions All remaining categories of nouns
  6. Irregular Verbs & Revision Review of all five declensions and the conjugation of present imperfect indicative active verbs.
  7. Translation Exercise Translate a passage.
  8. Imperfect and Future indicative active constructs
  9. Chapter 2 Verse

Chapter 3: Advanced Sentences
  1. Imperatives Ordering or Telling People What to Do.
  2. Active v. Passive Verbs
  3. Indicative Passive Verbs Present, imperfect, and future passives.
  4. Principal Parts Principal verb parts and verb conjugation.
  5. The Perfect Indicative Tense The uses and formation of the perfect indicative tense.
  6. The Perfect Indicative Passive Verbs Use the perfect with the passives.
  7. Future and Past Perfect Indicative Tenses
  8. Chapter 3 Verse

Chapter 4: The Subjunctive Mood and Complex Sentences
  1. The Subjunctive Mood Subjunctive vs. Indicative moods, conjugate the Subjunctive present.
  2. The Uses of the Subjunctive
  3. The Subjunctive Imperfect Conjugation and uses of the imperfect subjunctive.
  4. The Subjunctive Passive Verbs Conjugate the present and imperfect subjunctives.
  5. The Subjunctive Perfects The perfect endings for the Subjunctive.
  6. The Subjunctive Perfect Passive Verbs Perfect auxiliary verbs for the subjunctive passives.
  7. The Gerund and Participles Verbal Nouns.
  8. Revision Review of all five declensions and the conjugation of the active subjunctive verbs.
  9. Idioms An overview of idiomatic phrases used in Latin.
  10. Translation Translate a passage from the Vulgate Bible.
    Bust of Julius Caesar
  11. Chapter 4 Verse
  12. Verse from the Gospels

Chapter 5: Review
  1. Revision Review of all five noun and adjective declensions.
  2. Revision Revise work on all verb conjugations and learned forms.
  3. Translation Translate a passage from Catullus.
  4. Exercises Review of subjunctive forms.
  5. Exercises Review of passive forms.
  6. Translation
  7. Revision Ideas and memory tools for language patterns in conjugation and declining.
  8. Chapter 5 Verse
  9. Poem about Latin

Spoken Latin

.This is a test book to teach those who wish to learn Latin which they can use in their daily lives.^ I teach EFL nowadays, and I can use what I did learn in my Latin lessons to explain the roots of many English words to my students.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And the pretty much all the advantages that people who learned Latin before learning a Romance language point relate to vocabulary, and you could get those same advantages from knowing another Romance language.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who voted with their feet went in the other direction, whether to plunder the Empire or to live there on its own terms.
  • Charlotte Higgins on why Latin matters more than ever | Culture | guardian.co.uk 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

  1. Spoken Latin Wikibook

Appendices

Verb Synopsis
List of Declensions
Phonology of Latin (pronunciation)
Accents and Scansion
Morphology of Latin
Ecclessiastical & Medieval Latin
Latin Grammatical Definitions
Latin Dictionary
Latin Mottos and Phrases Used today.
Latin Abbreviations Used today.
Common phrases
Latin Resources
Library of Graded Latin Texts for Translation
Roman History
Roman Culture
Spoken Latin
Words and their Flexion
Prefixes and Suffixes
Advanced: Stylistic Features of Latin Verse and Prose

About the Book

  1. Authors
Please leave ideas for additional chapters on the talk page.

External links

.
  • A complete textbook for spoken Classical Latin, G.J. Adler's "A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language for Speaking and Writing Latin" can be found on Google Books: http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=GJgAAAAAYAAJ
    • This textbook can be heard read out aloud here: http://latinum.mypodcast.com.^ Modern Latin writing is routinely compared to an imagined “1st-century Roman” speaker’s ability to understand and appreciate the language.
      • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The only problem with the whole experiment was all the languages changed while Latin died out.
      • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ That is why the greatest Italian poet of his time spent the better part of his career writing in a language that, today, hardly anyone reads."
      • LATINUM - The Online Latin Language Audio Course from London 17 September 2009 0:00 UTC latinum.mypodcast.com [Source type: General]

      .This podcast has received over 3 million episode downloads.
  • Another free textbook (more user friendly than Adler's) is Latin for Beginners by B. L. D'Ooge.^ Kennedy’s primer was first published in 1875, and had been more-or-less the standard Latin textbook used in British schools until the CLC came along.
    • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I’m not advocating one way or another, but it’s probably an issue Latinists should ponder a bit more than they do.
    • LatinLanguage.us - Category: Vocabulary and Grammar 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC www.latinlanguage.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Perhaps Latin should be taught more, that’s another issue.
    • 12 Last Known Speakers Of A Language - Listverse 31 January 2010 13:18 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    There is an answer key available from Textkit.
  • If you are looking to learn Biblical Latin, try the course at http://www.learnlangs.com/biblelatin , which allows you to read the Vulgate Bible in Latin right from lesson 1.
  • If you are more interested in Romans and history, an extensive free course in Classical Latin is available from http://www.learnlangs.com/latin .
  • More free language-learning materials for Latin are available at Textkit's website at http://www.textkit.com
  • A large set of lessons are available at http://www.du.edu/~etuttle/classics/latin/learnlat.htm

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

The vernacular language of the ancient Romans (Jn 19:20).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 07, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Latin, which are similar to those in the above article.








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