Law enforcement in Bangladesh: Wikis

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Bangladesh Police
বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ
Common name পুলিশ (Police)
Abbreviation BP
Monogram of BP.jpg
Logo of the Bangladesh Police.
Motto শান্তি শৃঙ্খলা নিরাপত্তা প্রগতি
Peace Discipline Security Progress
Agency overview
Employees 123,197[1]
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Bangladesh divisions english.png
Map of Bangladesh Police's jurisdiction.
Size 147,570 km2 (56,977 sq mi)[2]
Population 162,221,000[3]
Constituting instrument Police Act, 1861
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters 6, Phoenix Road, Fulbaria, Dhaka - 1000
Agency executive Nur Mohammad, Inspector General of Police
Facilities
Stations 609[4]
Website
http://www.police.gov.bd

Bangladesh Police ( Bangla: বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ ) is the main law enforcement agency of Bangladesh. It is administered under the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Police plays a crucial role in maintaining peace and enforcement of law and order within the whole of Bangladesh. Though the police are primarily concerned with the maintenance of law and order and security of persons and property of individuals, it also plays a vital role in the criminal justice system.

Contents

History of Bangladesh Police

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Ancient Period

Evaluation of Policing is not a new phenomenon. There is a long and very much old history of police. A study of history shows that police is as old as the civilisation. In the city state of Rome police became a special institution by about the time of Augustus towards the Middle of the fist century B.C. In case of Bangladesh the history of policing is also very old.[5]

Manushanghita, the hieroglyphics of Emperor Ashoka, and the stories of renowned travelers are the main sources of composing our history. These sources also give clues to compose the fragmented history of Bangladesh Police. In Orthoshastra by Koutilla, nine types of spies are mentioned. During that period policing was confined in the efforts of collecting intelligence in order to curb anti-governmental activities and to maintain law and order in the society. The duties of under cover spies were extended such a way that they used to conduct surveillance over the activities of ministers, civil and military officials. For this all means of temptations and instigations were used. Information about investigating techniques and investigating authorities may be found in Orthoshastra. The procedures of punishing the accused are also found in this book. Hence it maybe assumed that there was one kind of police under the local autonomous system in the rural and urban areas.[6]

Medieval Period

Details of policing activities during the middle age cannot be found as well. However, during the periods of the great sultans, an official holding the position of Muhtasib used to perform the duties of policing. This person happened to be the chief of police and the in charge of public works and the inspector of public ethics simultaneously. In urban areas, Kotwals were responsible for performing police duties. Information regarding police systems during the Mughal period can be found in the book Aain-E-Akbori. The policing system introduced by Shershah Shuri, was further organized during the period of Emperor Akber, the great. The Emperor organized his administrative structure introducing Fouzdari (the principal representative of the Emperor), Mir Adal and Kazi (the head of judicial department) and Kotwal (the chief police official of larger cities). This system was very effective in maintaining the law and order in cities. The Kotwal police system was implemented in Dhaka City. Many district sadar police stations are still called Kotwali police stations. In Mughal period Kotwal emerged as an institution. According to the historians the Kotwal was minor luminary under the Muhtasib.

A Fouzdar was appointed to every administrative unit of the government (district). There were some artillery and cavalry forces under the Fouzdar. Thanadars was appointed dividing the parganas into small localities. There was a disciplined police system during the Mughal period though there was no professional police force like that of the British period. In general, it may be opined that there was a remarkable development in the maintenance of law and order and criminal administration during the reign of the Muslim rulers.[6]

British Period

The establishment of a systematic police force in England was of slow growth and came into effect after its creation abroad. In the early stage of Industrial Revolution when England was facing grave crisis due to socioeconomic transformation the necessity of an effective organised police service was keenly felt Sir Robert Peel, the then Prime Minister introduced a bill in the British Parliament in 1829 which created an organised civil police in the near by London Metro police. Initially there were some opposition to the existence of this uniform police but the success of the London police in controlling social disorder and crime captured imagination of not only the people of England but also of the whole Europe and America, New York city copied the London model with some modifications when it organised the first Municipal Police Force 1833.[5]

In 1858 full control of the Indian Territory was taken over from the East India Company by the British government. The success of the London police organised under Peels Act of 1829 prompted the British government to reform the police system in the sub-continent on the line of the British constabularies. With this end in view a police commissioner was set up 1840 and on the recommendation of the commission of the Police Act (Act V of 1861) was passed by the British Parliament. Under this Act a police force was created in each province of British India and placed under the control of the provincial government. The administration of the police force of a province was vested upon an officer styled as the Inspector General of Police. The administration of the police in a district was placed under the Superintended of Police. The Act is still in force throughout the Sub-continent and has been regulating the function of police in Bangladesh as well as the other countries of the sub-continent.[5]

Pakistan Period

After partition of the Sub-continent in 1947 police force in Bangladesh was first named as East Bengal Police and then as East Pakistan Police and it continued to function as provincial police force in the same lines as during the British rule.[6]

Role of Police in Liberation War

In 1971 the police force took an active part in the great liberation war against the Pakistan Army. In fact, on the night of the March 25, 1971 when the liberation war started it was the police force which put up the first organised resistance at Rajarbagh Police Lines, Dhaka. During the war of liberation large number of police officers and other ranks including one Deputy Inspector General, some senior Superintendents and many other gave their lives for the cause of liberation.

Bangladesh Period

After the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent country in December 16, 1971 the police force was recognized and it assumed the role of a national police force. Bangladesh Police as well as other police forces over the world is primarily responsible for the preservation of peace and order, protection of life and property of the people and prevention and detection of crime. The traditional role of police in Bangladesh has undergone significant change after the liberation. The role of police is no longer confined to maintenance of law and order and prevention and detection of crime. To meet the need of an independent and developing country the police is now required playing a significant role in developing state and such kinds of activities by providing the basic security required for sustained economic growth of the country. Police also is contributing substantially in this field by keeping under control economic crimes which retread the process of the development. It is further playing a vital role in dealing with insurgency in some areas of the country which impedes development activities and threatens the security of the state.[5]

Organisation of Bangladesh Police

Bangladesh Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police (IGP). He sits in the Police Headquarters (PHQ) located at Phoenix Road, Phulbaria, Dhaka. Under the control of Police Headquarters, Bangladesh Police is divided into different branches.

Branches

  • District Police Administration
  • Metropolitan Police
  • Special Branch (SB)
  • Criminal Investigation Department (CID)
  • Railway Police (GRP)
  • Highway Police
  • Armed Police Battalion (APBn)
  • Rapid Action Battalion (RAB)

Organisation of Police Administration

  • Outside the Dhaka capital region and other metropolitan cities, police is organised into Police Ranges, headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG), who control several Police Districts. Now there are seven Police Ranges in seven administrative divisions.
  • The Police District is the fulcrum of police activity and each Police District is headed by a Superintendent of Police (SP).
  • The Police District is made up of one or more Circles, and is under the command of an Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) often referred to as the Circle ASP.
  • Under the Police Circles are the police stations, generally under the control of an Inspector of Police who is called Officer-in-Charge (OC). Under him several Sub-Inspector of Police works. As per the various Bangladeshi laws, Sub-Inspector (and above) are the only officers who can file a charge sheet in the court.

Each Police Range maintains its own Range Reserve Force (RRF) and district police also maintains its own Special Armed Force (SAF) which is responsible for emergencies and crowd control issues. They are generally activated only on orders from the Superintendent of Police, and higher-level authorities. The armed constabulary do not usually come into contact with the general public unless they are assigned to VIP duty or to maintain order during fairs, festivals, athletic events, elections, and natural disasters. They may also be sent to quell outbreaks of student or labor unrest, organized crime, and communal riots; to maintain key guard posts; and to participate in anti-terrorist operations.

Metropolitan Police

In addition to the district police, major cities have police forces which follow the Police Commissionerate System. The Chief of Metropolitan Police is the Police Commissioner. Raised in 1976, the Dhaka Metropolitan Police is charged with maintaining security and order in the national capital and neighbouring areas. Later five other metropolitan police were formed in other large cities, namely - Chittagong Metropolitan Police, Khulna Metropolitan Police, Rajshahi Metropolitan Police, Sylhet Metropolitan Police and Barisal Metropolitan Police.

SWAT

The SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) is another elite tactical unit of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police which was established on February 28, 2009. SWAT (Bangladesh) operate under the Detective Branch of Dhaka Metropolitan Police.

Traffic Police

Traffic Police in the small towns come under the district police, but Traffic Police in the cities come under the metropolitan police. The Traffic Police are responsible for maintaining the smooth flow of traffic and stopping offenders in the city or town.

Special Branch (SB)

The Bangladesh Police Special Branch was established to assist in maintaining national security and also performs the functions of intelligence-gathering and counterintelligence. [7]

Criminal Investigation Department (CID)

Criminal Investigation Department (CID) is a special unit of Bangladesh Police responsible for carrying out investigations into crimes, including terrorism, murders and organized crime. It also gives forensic support.

Railway Police (GRP)

The Railway Police is responsible for law enforcement on the Bangladesh Railways. They maintain discipline on platforms as well as travel inside trains to keep passengers secure. Railway accidents are also handled by them. Under the Deputy Inspector General (Railway Police) Railway Police is divided into two Railway District, one is Syedpur and another is Chittagong each headed by a Superintendent of Railway Police (SRP).

Highway Police

To make the highways safer and to ensure smooth traffic management system, Government realized the necessity of Highway Police. In the year 2005 Highway Police started its journey.[8]

Armed Police Battalion (APBn)

There are ten Armed Police Battalion located at different parts of Bangladesh.

Rapid Action Battalion (RAB)

In 2004, elite force of Bangladesh Police Rapid Action Battalion was raised comprising of the personnel of Bangladesh Police, Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, Border Guard Bangladesh and Bangladesh Ansar. It works under the control and supervision of Police Headquarters.[9]

Tourist Police

In 2009 Tourist Police was formed to protect local and foreign tourists, starting the service in Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach, a popular area with world’s longest sandy beach. It is planned to expand the Tourist Police to other tourist spots very soon.[10] It works under the District Police Administration.

Police Units

POLICE

  • Police Range
  • Police District
  • Circle
  • Thana (Police Station)
  • Investigation Centre (IC) / Police Out-Post / Police Camp

METROPOLITAN POLICE

  • Division
  • Zone
  • Thana (Police Station)
  • Police Out-Post / Police Camp

Inspector General of Police

  • A. Khaleque - From April 17, 1971 to April 23, 1973 (From Mujibnagar Government)
  • M. A. K. Chowdhury - From May 18, 1971 to December 13, 1971
  • A. Rahim - From April 23, 1973 to December 31, 1973
  • A. H. M. Nurul Islam - From December 31, 1973 to November 21, 1975
  • Hossain Ahmed - From November 21, 1975 to August 26, 1978
  • A. B. M. G. Kibria - From August 26, 1978 to February 7, 1982
  • A. M. R. Khan - From February 08, 1982 to January 31, 1984
  • E. A. Chowdhury - From February 01, 1984 to December 30, 1985
  • Md. Habibur Rahman - From January 09, 1986 to January 09, 1986
  • A. R. Khondkar - From January 09, 1986 to February 28,1990
  • Toyob Uddin Ahmed - From February 28, 1990 to January 08, 1991 & July 20, 1991 to October 16, 1991
  • A. M. Chowdhury - From January 08, 1991 to July 20, 1991
  • M. Enamul Haque - From October 16, 1991 to July 08, 1992
  • A. S. M. Shahjahan - From July 08, 1992 to April 22, 1996
  • M. Azizul Haque - From July 22 1996 to November 16, 1997
  • Md. Ismail Hussein - From November 16, 1997 to September 27, 1998
  • A. Y. B. Siddiqui - From September 27, 1998 to June 07, 2000
  • Muhammad Nurul Huda - From June 07, 2000 to November 06, 2001
  • Modabbir Hossein Chowdhury, psc - From November 16, 2001 to April 22, 2003
  • Shohudul Haque - From April 22, 2003 to December 15, 2004
  • Ashraful Huda - From December 15, 2004 to April 07, 2005
  • Mohammad Hadis Uddin - From April 07, 2005 to May 07, 2005
  • Abdul Kaiyum - From May 07, 2005 to July 06, 2006
  • Anwarul Iqbal - From July 06, 2006 to November 02, 2006
  • Khoda Bokhs Chowdhury - From November 02, 2006 to January 29, 2007
  • Nur Mohammad - From January 29, 2007 to present

Police Ranks

Superior Officers

POLICE

  • Inspector General of Police (IGP)
  • Additional Inspector General of Police (Addl IGP)
  • Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG of Police)
  • Additional Deputy Inspector General of Police (Addl DIG of Police)
  • Superintendent of Police (SP) / Assistant Inspector General (AIG) (in Police HQ) / Special Superintendent (SS) (in SB & CID)
  • Additional Superintendent of Police (Addl SP)
  • Senior Assistant Superintendent of Police (Senior ASP)
  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)

METROPOLITAN POLICE

  • Police Commissioner
  • Additional Commissioner of Police
  • Joint Commissioner of Police
  • Deputy Commissioner of Police (DC)
  • Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police (ADC)
  • Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (Senior AC)
  • Assistant Commissioner of Police (AC)

RAPID ACTION BATTALION (RAB)

  • Director General
  • Additional Director General
  • Director
  • Deputy Director (DD)
  • Senior Assistant Director (Senior AD)
  • Assistant Director (AD)

Rank Badge of Superior Officers

Bangladesh Bangladesh Police
Addl IGP BP.jpg Addl IGP BP.jpg DIG BP.jpg Addl DIG BP.jpg SP BPolice.jpg Addl SP BP.jpg Senior ASP BP.jpg ASP BP.jpg
IGP Addl IGP DIG Addl DIG SP Addl SP Senior ASP ASP

Subordinate Officers

UN-ARMED BRANCH

  • Inspector of Police / Traffic Inspector (TI)
  • Sub-Inspector (SI) / Sergeant / Town Sub-Inspector (TSI)
  • Assistant Sub-Inspector (ASI) / Un-armed Head Constable (HC)
  • Police Constable

ARMED BRANCH

  • Armed Inspector
  • Armed Sub-Inspector (Armed SI)
  • Head Constable (HC)
  • Naik
  • Police Constable

Rank Badge of Subordinate Officers

Inspector BP.jpg Sub-Inspector BP.jpg Sergeant BP.jpg ASI BPolice.jpg Head Constable UB.jpg Head Constable AB.jpg Naik BP.jpg Constable.jpg
Inspector Sub-Inspector Sergeant ASI Head Constable

Un-Armed Branch

Head Constable

Armed Branch

Naik Constable

Strength

As of February 2007, the strength of the Bangladesh Police is 123,197.[11]. The Police Population ratio in Bangladesh is 1:1138.[12]

Women in Bangladesh Police

Although the history of Bangladesh Police is so long but the women in Bangladesh Police is not so long. Women first joined Bangladesh Police in 1974. Fourteen women police were appointed in Special Branch in 1974. The first female uniformed police members were recruited two years later. In 1976 women were directly appointed as Sub-Inspector (SI) Assistant Sub-Inspector (ASI) and Constable in the subordinate ranks of Bangladesh Police.[13]

In 1978, women police were appointed in Dhaka metropolitan Police for the first time. However, no women were recruited in the supervising posts in those days.

In 1986, only one woman BCS Cadre police officer Ms. Fatema Begum was appointed as Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) through 6th Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examination. She is the pioneer of women as BCS Cadre officer in Bangladesh police. Now she is serving as Deputy Inspector General (DIG) in Bangladesh Police. After two years in 1988 four women joined Bangladesh Police through the 7th Bangladesh Civil Service examination. After long interval from 1989 to 1998, in 1999 eight women officers were appointed through the 18th Bangladesh Civil Service examination.

Nowadays women police of various ranks are appointed and working in all units of Bangladesh police.[9]

Currently there are about 2,240 women are working in Bangladesh Police in the ranks from Deputy Inspector General (DIG) to Constable.[14]

Selection and Training

The recruitment process differs according to the level of the position, and direct entry (where an applicant does not have to start at the lowest level) is possible. The educational requirements increase with recruitment for higher posts. Recruitment is conducted in the following three tiers:

  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)
  • Sub-Inspector (SI)
  • Constable

Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)

The Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) are recruited by Public Service Commission (PSC) through the extremely competitive Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examination. They undergo a one year long rigorous training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Probationary ASP. After passed out from academy they also undergo an orientation training of six months in the district level as a probationer.

Sub-Inspector (SI)

Sub-Inspector is recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. They undergo a one year long rigorous training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Cadet Sub-Inspector. After thah they have also probation period in different police units as part of training.

Constable

Constable is recruited in the district level. They undergo a six month long training in the Police Training Centre as the Trainee Recruit Constable (TRC).

Training Institutions

Bangladesh Police Academy, established in 1912 in Sardah, Rajshahi is the central training institution of Bangladesh Police. The Police Staff College, Bangladesh was established in 2000 in Dhaka.[15] Bangladesh Police also maintains Police Training Centre (PTC) in Noakhali, Khulna, Rangpur and Tangail. The Detective Training School was established in 1962 in Dhaka.

List of Training Institutions

Contribution to UN Peach Keeping Operations

Starting in 1988 Bangladesh Police contributes to U.N. peace-keeping missions including in Ivory Coast, Sudan, Liberia, Kosovo, East Timor, Congo, Angola, Haiti and others. In 2005 Bangladesh Police sent its first Formed Police Unit (FPU) to the UN mission. Bangladesh is the largest police contributing country of UN. At present 1646 members of Bangladesh Police is deployed in six countries in seven UN Missions.[16]

References

  1. ^ "Strength of police". http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=151. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  2. ^ http://www.bbs.gov.bd/dataindex/pb_wb_page.pdf|accessdate=2010-03-02
  3. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  4. ^ "Police Stations". http://www.thedailystar.net/story.php?nid=130318. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Police administration, interrogation of offenders". http://www.ittefaq.com/issues/2009/08/08/news0209.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  6. ^ a b c "History of Bangladesh Police". http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=18. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  7. ^ Bangladesh Intelligence and Security
  8. ^ "Highway Police of Bangladesh". http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=133. Retrieved 2010-02-2. 
  9. ^ a b "History of the Bangladesh Police". http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=18. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  10. ^ "Bangladesh creates tourist police". http://www.eturbonews.com/11075/bangladesh-creates-tourist-police. Retrieved 2010-02-2. 
  11. ^ http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=151
  12. ^ http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=152
  13. ^ "Women in the Police". The New Nation. http://nation.ittefaq.com/issues/2008/02/21/news0230.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  14. ^ "Women in Challenging Professions". http://www.thedailystar.net/pf_story.php?nid=129189. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  15. ^ "Police Staff College". http://www.psc.gov.bd/about.php. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  16. ^ "Present deployment in UN Mission". http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=205. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 

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