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Leaning Tower of Pisa
Basic information
Location  Italy
Geographic coordinates 43°43′23″N 10°23′47″E / 43.72306°N 10.39639°E / 43.72306; 10.39639Coordinates: 43°43′23″N 10°23′47″E / 43.72306°N 10.39639°E / 43.72306; 10.39639
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Province Pisa
District Tuscany
Website http://www.endex.com/gf/buildings/ltpisa/ltpisa.html
.The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa.^ About the Leaning Tower of Pisa Overview The leaning tower of Pisa, or "La Torre di Pisa" in Italian, is a well-known Italian landmark.
  • Pisa, Italy Hotels & Reservations | Travels.com 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.travels.com [Source type: General]

^ Pisa the city of the leaning tower in tuscany Italy .
  • tuscany italy Pisa tourist guide of the leaning tower and the charming places around Pisa tuscany Italy 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.welcometuscany.it [Source type: General]

^ The famous Leaning Tower was built as a campanile or bell tower.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A28387524 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is situated behind the Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in Pisa's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo) after the Cathedral and the Baptistry.^ Piazza del Duomo .
  • Pisa Hotels Italy: 68 Cheap Accommodation Deals 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ DSCF0948 Pisa - Duomo and Pisa tower - Piazza del Duomo...
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa pictures and videos on Webshots 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.webshots.com [Source type: General]

^ It is situated behind the Cathedral and it is the third structure by time in Pisa's Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square).
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Although intended to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose substrate that has allowed the foundation to shift direction.^ The tower began to lean while it was still under construction.
  • The Straight Dope: What was the Leaning Tower of Pisa for? 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1173 A.D. the Tower of Pisa was started and immediately the foundation began to tip.
  • FREE article: Defining Brand & Messaging, Part 1 of 2 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.serviceperformance.com [Source type: General]

^ The tower started leaning soon after construction began in 1173.
  • CNN.com - Dream trip: The Leaning Tower of Pisa - Apr 4, 2006 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.The tower currently leans to the southwest.^ The tower presently leans to the southwest.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Currently, the tower leans 13 feet off center, and has been straightened by 14.5 inches since 1999 with the help of a 40 million dollar restoration project.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm trying to hunt down as many photos of people 'pushing' or 'holding the Leaning Tower of Pisa as possible for my current project.
  • MySpace - Leaning Tower of Pisa - 27 - Female - UK - myspace.com/towerofpisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the lowest side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the highest side.^ The height of the tower is 183.27 ft from the ground on the lowest side and 186.02 ft on the highest side.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the lowest side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the highest side.
  • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian Leaning Tower of Pisa The height of the Tower is about 183 ft.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa, Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, Italian Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy Leaning Tower of Pisa, Leaning Tower of Pisa Italy, Italy�s Leaning Tower of Pisa, Leaning Tower of Pisa Italian, Leaning Tower of Pisa of Italy 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.worldtravel4indians.com [Source type: News]

.The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft).^ The width of the walls at the base is 13.42 ft and at the top 8.14 ft.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The walls of the Tower at the base have a width of 4.09 m and of 2.48 m at the top.
  • Constructing the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the walls at the base are 13 ft.

.Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons).^ Its weight is estimated at 14,500 tonnes.

^ Weight: 14,700 metric tons .
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons).
  • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase.^ The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tower has 294 steps.

^ Climb the Leaning Towers 294 steps for a breathtaking view of Pisas cathedral, baptistery and beyond.
  • HeraldNet: Tower’s just start of Pisa’s charms 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.heraldnet.com [Source type: General]

.Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees,[1][2][3] but the tower now leans at about 3.99 degrees.^ The Leaning Tower of Pisa undergoes almost constant restoration work.
  • About the Leaning Tower of Pisa - a knol by eHowKnol 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

^ The Leaning Tower of Pisa leans at an angle of nearly 4 degrees.
  • About the Leaning Tower of Pisa - a knol by eHowKnol 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

^ The tower leans at 6.87 degree angle.
  • 'Leaning Tower' Of Shanghai Underwhelms Visitors : NPR 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

[4] .This means that the top of the tower is 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) from where it would stand if the tower were perfectly vertical.^ The tower leans at an angle of 3.97 degrees.This means that the top of the tower is 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) from where it would stand if the tower were perfectly vertical.
  • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was intended to stand vertically so as to serve as a bell tower, but began leaning soon after construction started in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation.

^ If you are wondering: yes, it could have been brought back to the vertical, but it would not then be the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
  • ArchitectureWeek - News - Stabilizing the Leaning Tower - 2001.0711 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.architectureweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Contents

Construction

.The Tower of Pisa was a work of art, performed in three stages over a period of about 177 years.^ The Tower of Pisa was a work of art, performed in three stages over a period of about 177 years.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Construction on the Tower of Pisa , called “La Torre di Pisa” in Italian, began in 1173 and went on more or less for about two hundred years.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa | Italy Travel Guide 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.italylogue.com [Source type: General]

^ Work has been taking place for more than a decade to stabilise the famous monument and the tower has now stopped leaning for the first time in 800 years.
  • Leaning tower of Pisa 'safe for centuries to come' 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.villacentre.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Construction of the first floor of the white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, a period of military success and prosperity.^ The building began to lean as soon as the first three floors were completed.
  • Culture and Recreation - What Caused The Tower Of Pisa To Lean Sideways?: History Fact Finder 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bell tower , begun in 1173 as the third and final structure of the city’s cathedral complex, was designed to stand 185 feet (56 metres) high and was constructed of white marble.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa (tower, Pisa, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Wikipedia says: “The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the third floor in 1178.
  • Leaning Towers | Weirdomatic 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.weirdomatic.com [Source type: General]

.This first floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals.^ This first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical capitals, leaning against blind arches.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the third floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-meter foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design that was flawed from the beginning.^ Construction began on the tower in 1173.
  • Dec. 15, 2001: Leaning Tower of Pisa Reopens With New Angle 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1178 three floors were completed and the tower tilted noticeably.
  • FREE article: Defining Brand & Messaging, Part 1 of 2 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.serviceperformance.com [Source type: General]

^ The tower began to sink after construction progressed to the third floor in 1178.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Pisans were almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca and Florence.^ Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Pisans were almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca and Florence.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, construction of the tower was interrupted because of wars in 1178 with Florence, 1185 with Florence again, and in 1284 with Genoa, It was during one of these breaks in construction that the tower's infamous tilt was discovered.
  • The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre Pendente di Pisa) : Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa, Tuscany :: Glass Steel and Stone 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.glasssteelandstone.com [Source type: General]

.This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle.^ This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ If work had continued before allowing underlying soils to settle, the tower would certainly have collapsed.
  • ArchitectureWeek - News - Stabilizing the Leaning Tower - 2001.0711 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.architectureweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled.^ The problem was that if the tower started leaning too far in one direction, it would topple over.
  • The Straight-up Tower of Pisa? | A Moment of Science - Indiana Public Media 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC indianapublicmedia.org [Source type: General]

^ The tower on the far right would never be seen to topple because this would conflict too much with the relatively accurate encoding of its spatial layout.
  • Leaning tower illusion - Scholarpedia 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It might be supposed that if a series of Pisa towers were placed next to one another the illusion would accumulate, with the comical result that the tower on the far right would topple over altogether!
  • Leaning tower illusion - Scholarpedia 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction.^ In 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ During the initial stages of construction, builders only got to the third floor before the building began to sink into the unstable clay.

^ As Wikipedia says: “The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the third floor in 1178.
  • Leaning Towers | Weirdomatic 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.weirdomatic.com [Source type: General]

.In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto.^ In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The construction process was halted almost for a century and then began in 1272 under the architect Giovanni di Simone.
  • Constructing the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time construction resumed in 1272, the building was leaning the opposite way, toward the south.
  • The Straight Dope: What was the Leaning Tower of Pisa for? 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

.In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other.^ In order to prevent any further tilt, the engineers made one side of the building taller than the other.
  • Constructing the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built higher floors with one side taller than the other.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The next four floors were built at an angle to compensate for the tilt.
  • FREE article: Defining Brand & Messaging, Part 1 of 2 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.serviceperformance.com [Source type: General]

.This made the tower begin to lean in the other direction.^ This made the tower begin to lean in the other direction.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Lol someone actually made a leaning tower of pizza.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa.... - Playfish - Forum 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC forum.playfish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imagine Aristotle at the top of the leaning tower of Pisa, dropping off two cannonballs, one twice as heavy as the other.
  • Challenge - Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of this, the tower is actually curved.^ Because of this, the tower is actually curved.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[6] .Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria.^ On the 6th of August 1284 the great battle of Meloria took place.

^ In 1284 Pisa was defeated in battle by the Genoese and from then on its days of hegemony in the western Mediterranean were over.
  • Guide and Travel Facts: Pisa, Italy 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.passports.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later Construction Stop: 1284 (War with Genoa, Major Sea Battle Defeat) .
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The seventh floor was completed in 1319. The bell-chamber was not finally added until 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower.^ The seventh floor was completed in 1319 and the bell chamber in 1372.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa's saviours predict 300 years’ stability - Times Online 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC entertainment.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The bell-chamber was not finally added until 1372.
  • Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ For various reasons it was not until 1372 that the final stage, a bell chamber, was added.
  • Challenge - Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scale.^ Bell Tower Completed: 1350 First Bells added: 1198 (Third Floor) Total Number of Bells: 7, tuned to musical scale Largest Bell: L'Assunta (The Assumption).
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The largest one was installed in 1655.
.After a phase (1990–2001) of structural strengthening,[7] the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visual damage, mostly corrosion and blackening.^ Engineers worked to stabilize the foundation, straightening the tower only slightly to help prevent irreparable damage without taking away the uniqueness of the structure.
  • Culture and Recreation - What Caused The Tower Of Pisa To Lean Sideways?: History Fact Finder 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These are particularly strong due to the tower's age and to its particular exposure to wind and rain.[8]

Timeline

.
  • On January 5, 1172, Donna Berta di Bernardo, a widow and resident of the house of dell'Opera di Santa Maria, bequeathed sessanta soldi or "sixty coins" to the Opera Campanilis petrarum Sancte Marie.^ Porta di Santa Maria .
    • Pisa - Wikimedia Commons 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Santa Maria di Leuca .
    • Pisa Reviews | Reviews of Pisa Italy 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.boo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Legend has it that when she died on 5 January, 1172 in her will she left 60 coins to pay for the first building blocks of the tower.
    • The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre Pendente di Pisa) : Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa, Tuscany :: Glass Steel and Stone 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.glasssteelandstone.com [Source type: General]

    .This money was to be used toward the purchase of a few stones which still form the base of the bell tower today.^ Please register at our site to earn Hazelnut Kids loyalty points to be used toward future purchases (signing up is free and easy!
    • Haba Leaning Tower of Pisa Architectural Blocks | Hazelnut Kids 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.hazelnutkids.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Bear in mind that it was now 187 years after the first stone was laid, the tower was dangerously out of true, and there were still no bells in it.
    • The Straight Dope: What was the Leaning Tower of Pisa for? 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Designed as a bell-tower for the cathedral, work began in 1174 based on a project by Bonanno Pisano.
    • Pisa Museums - Pisa Churches - Pisa Campo dei Miracoli - Pisa The Duomo - Pisa The Baptistery - Pisa - The Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.travelplan.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [9]
  • .
  • On August 9, 1173, the foundations of the Tower were laid.^ Although intended to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose substrate that has allowed the foundation to shift direction.
    • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was intended to stand vertically so as to serve as a bell tower, but began leaning soon after construction started in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation.

    ^ Work on the Tower began on 9th August 1173.

    [10]
  • .
  • Nearly four centuries later Giorgio Vasari wrote : "Guglielmo, according to what is being said, in [this] year 1174 with Bonanno as sculptor, laid the foundations of the belltower of the cathedral in Pisa."
  • Another possible builder is Gerardo di Gerardo.^ The tower's construction started in 1173 but was completed nearly 200 years later due to design glitches and intervening wars.
    • Historic tilt: Leaning tower at Pisa- ET Travel-Features-The Economic Times 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC economictimes.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The Cathedral and Baptistery in Pisa belong to the Vatican, being an independent State they can close without any prior notice.
    • Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.carnival.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Leaning Tower is the campanile , or belltower, of the cathedral and as constructed in three stages, starting in 1173 at the height of Pisa’s military and economic power, and completed two centuries later.
    • Leaning Tower of Pisa's saviours predict 300 years’ stability - Times Online 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC entertainment.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .His name appears as a witness to the above legacy of Berta di Bernardo as "Master Gerardo", and as a worker whose name was Gerardo.
  • A more probable builder is Diotisalvi, because of the construction period and the structure's affinities with other buildings in Pisa.^ In other words, there were two construction delays of nearly a century— and that was lucky, because otherwise the clay would have failed right then under the growing load.
    • Antigravity in Pisa | Physics & Math | DISCOVER Magazine 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Leaning Tower of Pisa is an exiting building to learn about and i hope they dont staightin it any more than what they have all readly .
    • The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre Pendente di Pisa) : Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa, Tuscany :: Glass Steel and Stone 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.glasssteelandstone.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And from what I have read from structural engineers who have experience in these sort of buildings the WTC was not overly robust, not like some older buildings constructed in the traditional grid fashion.

    .But he usually signed his works, and there is no signature by him in the belltower.
  • Giovanni di Simone was heavily involved in the work of completing the tower, under the direction of Giovanni Pisano, who at the time was master builder of the Opera di Santa Maria Maggiore.^ There can be no doubt that, had work continued, the Tower would have fallen over.

    ^ Santa Maria di Leuca .
    • Pisa Reviews | Reviews of Pisa Italy 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.boo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The tower was intended to serve as the campanile (bell tower) for Santa Maria Maggiore, the citys cathedral, and stands next to it on the Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles).
    • Challenge - Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He could be the same Giovanni Pisano who completed the belfry tower.
  • Giorgio Vasari indicates that Tommaso di Andrea Pisano was the designer of the belfry between 1360 and 1370.
  • On December 27, 1233 the worker Benenato, son of Gerardo Bottici, oversaw the continuation of the construction of the belltower.^ Ilg was an admirer of Galileo, who legend says dropped things from the Italian tower to prove that objects of different weights fall at the same speed.
    • **Leaning Tower of Niles :: CHICAGO SUN-TIMES :: Chicagopedia 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.suntimes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Leaning Tower is the campanile , or belltower, of the cathedral and as constructed in three stages, starting in 1173 at the height of Pisa’s military and economic power, and completed two centuries later.
    • Leaning Tower of Pisa's saviours predict 300 years’ stability - Times Online 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC entertainment.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Finally, according to Vasari, Nicola Pisano deserves the credit, along with his son Giovanni, who could not have been strangers to the construction of the best of the Pisan towers (whether or not the temporal references would specifically recognize it).
    • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]
  • .
  • On February 23, 1260 Guido Speziale, son of Giovanni, a worker on the cathedral Santa Maria Maggiore, was elected to oversee the building of the Tower.^ Relais Under The Tower Hotel Pisa Via Santa Maria 165 0.4 mi This Pisa accommodation is located in the center of the city.
    • Pisa Hotels Italy: 68 Cheap Accommodation Deals 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The 180 ft (55m) Leaning Tower is the bell tower, or campanile, for the Dome of Santa Maria Assunta.
    • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The design calls for the tower to be in a plaza that also would include two shorter buildings that recall Pisa's cathedral and the baptistry, which are next to the original Leaning Tower.
    • Pisa plans a second 'leaning tower' - Breaking News - http://www.theage.com.au 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: News]

    [12]
  • .
  • On April 12, 1264 the master builder Giovanni di Simone and 23 workers went to the mountains close to Pisa to cut marble.^ Pisa by car Posted: Mon April 6, 2009 12:37 PM UTC I am planning to drive to Pisa from florence in order to see the famous tower.
    • Pisa, Italy Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Posted: Tue April 21, 2009 12:22 AM UTC I read about people being fined for driving in the restricted traffic zones in Pisa.
    • Pisa, Italy Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Opening Hours: Shops in Pisa are usually open between 9-12,30 and 15,30-19,30 (closed on Sundays).
    • Pisa destination guide - easyJet Holidays 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC holidays.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

    The cut stones were given to Rainaldo Speziale, worker of St. Francesco.[13]

The architect

.There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa.^ What caused the Tower of Pisa to lean sideways?
  • Culture and Recreation - What Caused The Tower Of Pisa To Lean Sideways?: History Fact Finder 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Architect who realized that the Leaning Tower could not be straightened: .
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nothing really in Pisa except that one leaning tower!!
  • "leaning tower of pisa" - My Budget Travel - 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC mybt.budgettravel.com [Source type: Original source]

.For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano,[14] a well-known 12th-century resident artist of Pisa, famous for his bronze casting, particularly in the Pisa Duomo.^ The medieval collection is very impressive with around two hundred paintings dating from the beginning of the XII to the sixteenth-century, with names such as Giunta Pisano, Simone Martini, Masaccio and Beato Angelico among the many artists.
  • Pisa Museums - Pisa Churches - Pisa Campo dei Miracoli - Pisa The Duomo - Pisa The Baptistery - Pisa - The Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.travelplan.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy The Netherlands The Tower of Pisa is being challenged by a lesser-known 12th-century building in the northern Dutch town of Bedum as Europe's most steeply leaning tower.
  • Dutch say Pisa no longer the most leaning tower - News - Travel - smh.com.au 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Duomo, the Baptistery of San Giovanni, the Camposanto (the cemetery), and the most famous bell tower in the world, that is, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the history of the square is interesting in itself.
  • The Leaning Tower of Pisa | Field of Miracles of Pisa | Campo dei Miracoli | Behind the Tower 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.behindthetower.com [Source type: General]

.Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town.^ Spend a good morning in Pisa, go to Sienna for the afternoon or the Mediterranean Sea to watch the sunset, then head back to your originating town.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa - Pisa - TravBuddy 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.travbuddy.com [Source type: General]

^ Architect Bonanno Pisano began construction of the original tower in 1173 to celebrate the glory of Pisa, in those years a wealthy maritime republic.
  • Pisa plans a second 'leaning tower' - Breaking News - http://www.theage.com.au 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: News]

^ The Grand Hotel Bonanno Pisa is also only a few km away from San Rossore Natural Park or the San Giuliano thermal baths.
  • Pisa Hotels Italy: 68 Cheap Accommodation Deals 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

.A piece of cast with his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, but this may be related to the bronze door in the façade of the cathedral that was destroyed in 1595. However recent studies[15] seem to indicate Diotisalvi as the original architect due to the time of construction and affinity with other Diotisalvi works, notably the bell tower of San Nicola (Pisa) and the Baptistery in Pisa.^ Fig 3: Phases of the construction of the Pisa Tower .

^ Torre pendente (Leaning tower of Pisa) The Tower of Pisa is the bell tower of the Cathedral.
  • Pisa destination guide - easyJet Holidays 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC holidays.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, construction of the tower was interrupted because of wars in 1178 with Florence, 1185 with Florence again, and in 1284 with Genoa, It was during one of these breaks in construction that the tower's infamous tilt was discovered.
  • The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre Pendente di Pisa) : Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa, Tuscany :: Glass Steel and Stone 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.glasssteelandstone.com [Source type: General]

.However, he usually signed his works and there is no signature by him in the bell tower which leads to further speculation.^ There can be no doubt that, had work continued, the Tower would have fallen over.

^ There is an inscription at the entrance which reads "A.D. MCLXXIV. CAMPANILE HOC FUIT FUNDATUM MENSE AUGUSTI" (In the month of August, A.D. 1174, this bell tower was founded.
  • The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre Pendente di Pisa) : Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa, Tuscany :: Glass Steel and Stone 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.glasssteelandstone.com [Source type: General]

^ Designed as a bell-tower for the cathedral, work began in 1174 based on a project by Bonanno Pisano.
  • Pisa Museums - Pisa Churches - Pisa Campo dei Miracoli - Pisa The Duomo - Pisa The Baptistery - Pisa - The Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.travelplan.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History following construction

.Galileo Galilei is said to have dropped two cannon balls of different masses from the tower to demonstrate that their speed of descent was independent of their mass.^ Adobe Audition vs. Soundbooth (and The Leaning Tower of Pisa) While visiting the leaning tower of Pisa where according to scientific folklore Galileo dropped two objects to prove his theories about gravity, Kush contemplates about the relationship between Audition and Soundbooth.
  • Ask the Adobe Ones - 42: Adobe Audition vs. Soundbooth (and The Leaning Tower of Pisa) | Adobe TV 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC tv.adobe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galileo Galilei is reported (see addendum) to have dropped a ten-pound weight and a one-pound weight off the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and proved that both fall at the same speed.
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, this is considered an apocryphal tale, its only source being Galileo's secretary.[16]
.During World War II, the Allies discovered that the Nazis were using it as an observation post.^ Unfortunately, it was severely damaged by fire during World War II (1944), but it is still well worth a visit.
  • The Leaning Tower of Pisa | Field of Miracles of Pisa | Campo dei Miracoli | Behind the Tower 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.behindthetower.com [Source type: General]

^ Since World War II, America has prided itself on providing whatever its servicemen and women needed to get the job done.
  • Republican General: Rummy responsible for deaths, failure, Abu Ghraib, the leaning tower of Pisa... | Video | AlterNet 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These systems worked well for our forces in World War I and World War II, but were failing by the time of Korea and broke down badly in Vietnam.
  • Republican General: Rummy responsible for deaths, failure, Abu Ghraib, the leaning tower of Pisa... | Video | AlterNet 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A U.S. Army sergeant was briefly entrusted with the fate of the tower and his decision not to call in an artillery strike saved the tower from destruction.[17]
Lead counterweights
On February 27, 1964, the government of Italy requested aid in preventing the tower from toppling. .It was, however, considered important to retain the current tilt, due to the vital role that this element played in promoting the tourism industry of Pisa.^ Why is The Divine Comedy such an important work, and what role does the character Beatrice play?
  • Culture and Recreation - What Caused The Tower Of Pisa To Lean Sideways?: History Fact Finder 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] A multinational task force of engineers, mathematicians and historians was assigned and met on the Azores islands to discuss stabilization methods. .It was found that the tilt was increasing in combination with the softer foundations on the lower side.^ If the north side of the foundation was rising, as Burland had found, there was an obvious option: Add a counterweight to stop it.
  • Antigravity in Pisa | Physics & Math | DISCOVER Magazine 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many methods were proposed to stabilize the tower, including the addition of 800 metric tonnes of lead counterweights to the raised end of the base.^ Conservationists lean on British architect Instant weekend: Pisa The tower reopened at the end of 2001, after a €30 million operation in which it was anchored to cables and lead counterweights while 70 tonnes of soil was removed from the north side – away from the lean – and cement was injected into the ground to relieve the pressure.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa's saviours predict 300 years’ stability - Times Online 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC entertainment.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Recently it has been discovered that the method was first used by a British architect in 1832 to stabilise the tower of St Chad in Wybunbury, Cheshire.

[19]
.In 1987, the tower was declared as part of the Piazza del Duomo UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the neighbouring cathedral, baptistery and cemetery.^ Admission to Piazza del Duomo (tel.
  • Attractions in Pisa at Frommer's 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Piazza del Duomo.
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holidaymakers staying in Tuscany villas will find the tower in Pisa's Piazza del Duomo, or Cathedral Square, where it stands alongside the Duomo, the Baptistery and the Camposanto.
  • Leaning tower of Pisa 'safe for centuries to come' 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.villacentre.co.uk [Source type: General]

.On January 7, 1990, after over two decades of work on the subject, the tower was closed to the public.^ Work has been taking place for more than a decade to stabilise the famous monument and the tower has now stopped leaning for the first time in 800 years.
  • Leaning tower of Pisa 'safe for centuries to come' 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.villacentre.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The tower leans a little bit more each year and was closed for repairs in 1990, when it was leaning fourteen and one-half feet to one side.
  • Culture and Recreation - What Caused The Tower Of Pisa To Lean Sideways?: History Fact Finder 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But now, 18 years after it was closed to the public for fears that it might topple over, the Leaning Tower of Pisa has been stabilised and has been declared safe for at least another three centuries.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa's saviours predict 300 years’ stability - Times Online 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC entertainment.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

.While the tower was closed, the bells were removed to relieve some weight, and cables were cinched around the third level and anchored several hundred meters away.^ At 3:25pm on January 7, 1990, with the tower's bells sounding a death knell, the doors were closed indefinitely.
  • Attractions in Pisa at Frommer's 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are lucky enough to climb the Leaning Tower make sure you are not standing too close to the giant bells when they toll.
  • The Tower - Pisa Warnings - VirtualTourist.com 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ In an effort to remove the pile, they came close to bringing the tower down.
  • Antigravity in Pisa | Physics & Math | DISCOVER Magazine 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Apartments and houses in the path of the tower were vacated for safety. .The final solution to prevent the collapse of the tower was to slightly straighten the tower to a safer angle, by removing 38 cubic metres (50 cu yd) of soil from underneath the raised end.^ The tower leans at an angle of 3.97 degrees.This means that the top of the tower is 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) from where it would stand if the tower were perfectly vertical.
  • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burland steers the tower, and tries to keep it on an even northward course, by deciding how much soil to remove through each pipe on any given day.
  • Antigravity in Pisa | Physics & Math | DISCOVER Magazine 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tower is tilting at a dangerously sharp angle, and the solution to save the medieval masterpiece is not a simple one.
  • NOVA: Fall of the Leaning Tower (1999) - Synopsis - MSN Movies 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC movies.msn.com [Source type: General]

.The tower was straightened by 18 inches (45 centimetres), returning to the exact position that it occupied in 1838. After a decade of corrective reconstruction and stabilization efforts, the tower was reopened to the public on December 15, 2001, and has been declared stable for at least another 300 years.^ This climbing of the tower requires a substantial physical effort, which can be individually estimated, considering the spiral staircase with about 300 steps.
  • The Tower - Pisa Warnings - VirtualTourist.com 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Work has been taking place for more than a decade to stabilise the famous monument and the tower has now stopped leaning for the first time in 800 years.
  • Leaning tower of Pisa 'safe for centuries to come' 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.villacentre.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In December 2001, righted to its more stable lean of 1838 (when it was a mere 4m/13 ft.
  • Attractions in Pisa at Frommer's 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

[19]
.In May 2008, after the removal of another 70 metric tons (77 short tons) of earth, engineers announced that the Tower had been stabilized such that it had stopped moving for the first time in its history.^ "For the first time in the history of the tower the tilt was stopped," says site engineer Paolo Heiniger.
  • Antigravity in Pisa | Physics & Math | DISCOVER Magazine 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Work has been taking place for more than a decade to stabilise the famous monument and the tower has now stopped leaning for the first time in 800 years.
  • Leaning tower of Pisa 'safe for centuries to come' 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.villacentre.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This picture represents the state of the Leaning Tower of Pisa and demonstrates why its stabilisation represents the ultimate civil engineering challenge.

They stated it would be stable for at least 200 years.[20] .Two German churches have challenged the tower's status as the world's most lop-sided building: the 15th century square Leaning Tower of Suurhusen and the 14th century bell tower in the town of Bad Frankenhausen[21].^ Leaning bell tower and apse .
  • Pisa - Wikimedia Commons 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North side, from the Leaning Tower .
  • Pisa - Wikimedia Commons 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy The Netherlands The Tower of Pisa is being challenged by a lesser-known 12th-century building in the northern Dutch town of Bedum as Europe's most steeply leaning tower.
  • Dutch say Pisa no longer the most leaning tower - News - Travel - smh.com.au 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

.Guinness World Records measured the Pisa and Suurhusen towers, finding the former's tilt to be 3.97 degrees.^ The tower leans at an angle of 3.97 degrees.This means that the top of the tower is 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) from where it would stand if the tower were perfectly vertical.
  • The Leaning Tower Of Pisa, Italy on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1003 we find records of a war between Pisa and Lucca , which, according to Muratori, was the first waged between Italian cities in the middle ages .

^ Yes people the Tower of Pisa is nothing more than a bell tower, but because my last name is Pisa I find it a very interesting tower.
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Technical information

View looking up
  • Elevation of Piazza del Duomo: about 2 metres (6 feet, DMS)
  • Height: 55.863 metres (183 ft 3 in), 8 stories
  • Outer diameter of base: 15.484 metres (50 ft 9.6 in)
  • Inner diameter of base: 7.368 metres (24 ft 2.1 in)
  • Angle of slant: 3.97 degrees[23] or 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) from the vertical[24]
  • Weight: 14,700 metric tons (16,200 short tons)
  • Thickness of walls at the base: 8 ft (2.4 m)
  • Total number of bells: 7, tuned to musical scale, clockwise
    • 1st bell: L'Assunta, cast in 1654 by Giovanni Pietro Orlandi, weight 3,620 kg (7,981 lb)
    • 2nd bell: Il Crocifisso, cast in 1572 by Vincenzo Possenti, weight 2,462 kg (5,428 lb)
    • 3rd bell: San Ranieri, cast in 1719-1721 by Giovanni Andrea Moreni, weight 1,448 kg (3,192 lb)
    • 4th bell: La Terza (1st small one), cast in 1473, weight 300 kg (661 lb)
    • 5th bell: La Pasquereccia or La Giustizia, cast in 1262 by Lotteringo, weight 1,014 kg (2,235 lb)
    • 6th bell: Il Vespruccio (2nd small one), cast in the 14th century and again in 1501 by Nicola di Jacopo, weight 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)
    • 7th bell: Dal Pozzo, cast in 1606 and again in 2004, weight 652 kg (1,437 lb) [25]
  • Number of steps to the top: 296[26]
.A special note on the 5th bell: The name Pasquareccia comes from Easter, because it used to ring on Easter day.^ Yes people the Tower of Pisa is nothing more than a bell tower, but because my last name is Pisa I find it a very interesting tower.
  • Secrets and Beauty of the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this bell is older than the bell-chamber itself, and comes from the tower Vergata in Palazzo Pretorio in Pisa, where it was called La Giustizia (The Justice).^ The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply The Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa.
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When people first think of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the first thing that usually comes to mind is the fact that it's leaning.  It's easy to overlook the fact that the tower is a beautiful example of Romanesque architecture.
  • Bryce - Building the Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.mulawa.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tower was originally built as bell-tower for the Pisa cathedral.
  • Wonder: Leaning Tower of Pisa - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bell was tolled to announce capital executions of criminals and traitors, including Count Ugolino in 1289.[27] A new bell was transferred on the belltower to replace the broken Pasquareccia bell at the end of the 18th century.^ Construction lasted until the end of the fourteenth-century and included the work of various architects, explaining the Romanesque and Gothic mix in the monument.
  • Pisa Museums - Pisa Churches - Pisa Campo dei Miracoli - Pisa The Duomo - Pisa The Baptistery - Pisa - The Leaning Tower of Pisa 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.travelplan.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gallery

See also

.
  • List of leaning towers
  • Round tower, for other types of round towers.
  • Leaning Tower of Niles, a replica of the Tower of Pisa
  • Torre delle Milizie, a tilting medieval tower in Rome
  • Machang - another leaning tower
  • The Greyfriars Tower - the remains of a Franciscan monastery in King's Lynn.^ The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply The Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa.
    • Leaning Tower of Pisa on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Climb the Leaning Towers 294 steps for a breathtaking view of Pisas cathedral, baptistery and beyond.
    • HeraldNet: Tower’s just start of Pisa’s charms 11 January 2010 16:52 UTC www.heraldnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Dave // Aug 28, 2008 at 2:32 pm Are you actually comparing the Leaning Tower of Pisa to any of the buildings that collapsed on 9/11/01?

    It is also leaning and is consequently nicknamed 'The Leaning Tower of Lynn' in reference to the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Notes

  1. ^ "EUROPE | Saving the Leaning Tower". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/793432.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  2. ^ "Tower of Pisa". Archidose.org. 2001-06-17. http://www.archidose.org/Jul00/071000.html. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  3. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa (tower, Pisa, Italy) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/333926/Leaning-Tower-of-Pisa. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  4. ^ "E la Torre di Pisa non oscilla più". Scienze.TV. 2008-05-28. http://www.scienze.tv/node/3952. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  5. ^ tan(3.98 degrees) * (55.86 m + 56.70 m)/2 = 3.9 m
  6. ^ McLain, Bill. Do Fish Drink Water?. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. pp. 291–292. ISBN 0-688-16512-5. 
  7. ^ A profile of an engineer employed to straighten the tower Ingenia, March 2005
  8. ^ Restoration work is mentioned inside the official website of the square [1]
  9. ^ Capitular Record Offices of Pisa, parchment n. 248
  10. ^ Stone in the basement of the Tower
  11. ^ Public Record Offices of Pisa, Opera della Primaziale, 27 December 1234
  12. ^ Public Record Offices of Pisa, Opera della Primaziale, 23 February 1260
  13. ^ Public Record Offices of Pisa, Roncioni, 12 April 1265.
  14. ^ Controversy about the identity of the architect
  15. ^ Pierotti, Piero. (2001). Deotisalvi - L'architetto pisano del secolo d'oro. Pisa: Pacini Editore.
  16. ^ "Sci Tech : Science history: setting the record straight". The Hindu. 2005-06-30. http://www.hindu.com/seta/2005/06/30/stories/2005063000351500.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  17. ^ Shrady, Nicholas (2003): Tilt: a skewed history of the Tower of Pisa
  18. ^ "Securing the Lean In Tower of Pisa". The New York Times. November 1, 1987. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE5DE153EF932A35752C1A961948260. 
  19. ^ a b "Tipping the Balance". TIME Magazine. June 25, 2001. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1000167-1,00.html. 
  20. ^ Duff, Mark (2008-05-28). "Europe | Pisa's leaning tower 'stabilised'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7423957.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  21. ^ (Sunday Telegraph no 2,406- 22 July 2007)
  22. ^ "German steeple beats Leaning Tower of Pisa into Guinness book". The Raw Story. http://rawstory.com/news/afp/German_steeple_beats_Leaning_Tower__11082007.html. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  23. ^ "German steeple beats Leaning Tower of Pisa into Guinness book", The Raw Story
  24. ^ tan(3.97 degrees) * (55.86m + 56.70m)/2 = 3.9m
  25. ^ Bell Dal Pozzo
  26. ^ Davies, Andrew (2005). The Children's Visual World Atlas. Sydney, Australia: The Fog Press. ISBN 1-740893-17-4. 
  27. ^ "Torre pendente (In Italian)". Lucca turismo. http://www.luccaturismo.com/umutesiadd.asp?id=56. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 

External links


Leaning Tower of Pisa
File:Leaning tower of pisa
Basic information
Location  Italy
Geographic coordinates 43°43′23″N 10°23′47″E / 43.72306°N 10.39639°E / 43.72306; 10.39639Coordinates: 43°43′23″N 10°23′47″E / 43.72306°N 10.39639°E / 43.72306; 10.39639
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Province Pisa
District Tuscany
Ecclesiastical or organizational status open
Website http://www.opapisa.it/en/home-page.html

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. It is situated behind the Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in Pisa's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo) after the Cathedral and the Baptistry.

Although intended to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose substrate that has allowed the foundation to shift direction.

The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the low side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons). The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees,[1][2][3] but the tower now leans at about 3.99 degrees.[4] This means that the top of the tower stands 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) lower from where it would stand if the structure were perfectly vertical.[5]

Contents

Construction

Construction of the tower occurred in three stages across 177 years. Work on the first floor of the white marble campanile began on August 8, 1173, during a period of military success and prosperity. This first floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals.

The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the third floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design that was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled. In 1198 clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction.

In 1272 construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is actually curved.[6] Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria.

The seventh floor was completed in 1319. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scale. The largest one was installed in 1655. The bell-chamber was finally added in 1372.

After a phase (1990–2001) of structural strengthening,[7] the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visual damage, mostly corrosion and blackening. These are particularly pronounced due to the tower's age and its exposure to wind and rain.[8]

Timeline

  • On January 5, 1172 Donna Berta di Bernardo, a widow and resident of the house of dell'Opera di Santa Maria, bequeathed sixty soldi to the Opera Campanilis petrarum Sancte Marie. The sum was then used toward the purchase of a few stones which still form the base of the bell tower.[9]
  • On August 9, 1173 the foundations of the Tower were laid.
  • Nearly four centuries later Giorgio Vasari wrote : "Guglielmo, according to what is being said, in [this] year 1174 with Bonanno as sculptor, laid the foundations of the belltower of the cathedral in Pisa."
  • Another possible builder is Gerardo di Gerardo. His name appears as a witness to the above legacy of Berta di Bernardo as "Master Gerardo", and as a worker whose name was Gerardo.
  • A more probable builder is Diotisalvi, because of the construction period and the structure's affinities with other buildings in Pisa. But he usually signed his works, and there is no signature by him in the belltower.
  • Giovanni di Simone was heavily involved in the completion of the tower, under the direction of Giovanni Pisano, who at the time was master builder of the Opera di Santa Maria Maggiore. He could be the same Giovanni Pisano who completed the belfry tower.
  • Giorgio Vasari indicates that Tommaso di Andrea Pisano was the designer of the belfry between 1360 and 1370.
  • On December 27, 1233 the worker Benenato, son of Gerardo Bottici, oversaw the continuation of the construction of the belltower.[10]
  • On February 23, 1260 Guido Speziale, son of Giovanni, a worker on the cathedral Santa Maria Maggiore, was elected to oversee the building of the Tower.[11]
  • On April 12, 1264 the master builder Giovanni di Simone and 23 workers went to the mountains close to Pisa to cut marble. The cut stones were given to Rainaldo Speziale, worker of St. Francesco.[12]

Architect

There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano,[13] a well-known 12th-century resident artist of Pisa, famous for his bronze casting, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast with his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, but this may be related to the bronze door in the façade of the cathedral that was destroyed in 1595. However recent studies[14] seem to indicate Diotisalvi as the original architect due to the time of construction and affinity with other Diotisalvi works, notably the bell tower of San Nicola and the Baptistery, both in Pisa. However, he usually signed his works and there is no signature by him in the bell tower which leads to further speculation.

History following construction

Galileo Galilei is said to have dropped two cannon balls of different masses from the tower to demonstrate that their speed of descent was independent of their mass. However, this is considered an apocryphal tale, its only source being Galileo's secretary.[15]

During World War II, the Allies discovered that the Nazis were using the tower as an observation post. A U.S. Army sergeant was briefly entrusted with the fate of the tower and his decision not to call in an artillery strike kept the tower from being destroyed.[16]

On February 27, 1964 the government of Italy requested aid in preventing the tower from toppling. It was, however, considered important to retain the current tilt, due to the vital role that this element played in promoting the tourism industry of Pisa.[17]

A multinational task force of engineers, mathematicians and historians gathered on the Azores islands to discuss stabilization methods. It was found that the tilt was increasing in combination with the softer foundations on the lower side. Many methods were proposed to stabilize the tower, including the addition of 800 metric tonnes of lead counterweights to the raised end of the base.[18]

In 1987 the tower was declared as part of the Piazza del Duomo UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the neighbouring cathedral, baptistery and cemetery.

On January 7, 1990, after over two decades of stabilization studies, the tower was closed to the public. The bells were removed to relieve some weight, and cables were cinched around the third level and anchored several hundred metres away. Apartments and houses in the path of the tower were vacated for safety. The final solution to prevent the collapse of the tower was to slightly straighten the tower to a safer angle, by removing 38 cubic metres (50 cu yd) of soil from underneath the raised end. The tower was straightened by 18 inches (45 centimetres), returning to its 1838 position. After a decade of corrective reconstruction and stabilization efforts, the tower was reopened to the public on December 15, 2001, and was declared stable for at least another 300 years.[18]

In May 2008, after the removal of another 70 metric tons (77 short tons) of earth, engineers announced that the Tower had been stabilized such that it had stopped moving for the first time in its history. They stated it would be stable for at least 200 years.[19] Two German churches have challenged the tower's status as the world's most lop-sided building: the 15th-century square Leaning Tower of Suurhusen and the 14th century bell tower in the town of Bad Frankenhausen.[20] Guinness World Records measured the Pisa and Suurhusen towers, finding the former's tilt to be 3.97 degrees.[21] In June 2010 Guinness World Records certified the Capital Gate building in Abu Dhabi, UAE as the "World's Furthest Leaning Man-made Tower".[22] The Capital Gate tower has an 18-degree slope, almost five times more than the Pisa Tower; however that tower has been deliberately engineered to slant.

Technical information

File:Lightmatter
View looking up
File:Leaning tower of pisa
An elevation image of the Leaning Tower of Pisa cut from a 2007 laser scan, with source image accurate down to 5mm
  • Elevation of Piazza del Duomo: about 2 metres (6 feet, DMS)
  • Height from the ground floor: 55.863 metres (183 ft 3 in), 8 stories
  • Height from the foundation floor: 58.36 metres (191 ft 47 in)
  • Outer diameter of base: 15.484 metres (50 ft 9.6 in)
  • Inner diameter of base: 7.368 metres (24 ft 2.1 in)
  • Angle of slant: 3.97 degrees[21] or 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) from the vertical[23]
  • Weight: 14,700 metric tons (16,200 short tons)
  • Thickness of walls at the base: 8 ft (2.4 m)
  • Total number of bells: 7, tuned to musical scale, clockwise
    • 1st bell: L'Assunta, cast in 1654 by Giovanni Pietro Orlandi, weight 3,620 kg (7,981 lb)
    • 2nd bell: Il Crocifisso, cast in 1572 by Vincenzo Possenti, weight 2,462 kg (5,428 lb)
    • 3rd bell: San Ranieri, cast in 1719-1721 by Giovanni Andrea Moreni, weight 1,448 kg (3,192 lb)
    • 4th bell: La Terza (1st small one), cast in 1473, weight 300 kg (661 lb)
    • 5th bell: La Pasquereccia or La Giustizia, cast in 1262 by Lotteringo, weight 1,014 kg (2,235 lb)
    • 6th bell: Il Vespruccio (2nd small one), cast in the 14th century and again in 1501 by Nicola di Jacopo, weight 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)
    • 7th bell: Dal Pozzo, cast in 1606 and again in 2004, weight 652 kg (1,437 lb)[24]
  • Number of steps to the top: 296[25]

About the 5th bell: The name Pasquareccia comes from Easter, because it used to ring on Easter day. However, this bell is older than the bell-chamber itself, and comes from the tower Vergata in Palazzo Pretorio in Pisa, where it was called La Giustizia (The Justice). The bell was tolled to announce executions of criminals and traitors, including Count Ugolino in 1289.[26] A new bell was installed in the belltower at the end of the 18th century to replace the broken Pasquareccia.

Gallery

See also

References

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Plural
-
  1. A famous bell tower in the Italian town of Pisa, known for its irregular lean.

Translations

  • Italian: torre pendente di Pisa it(it) f., torre pendente it(it) f.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|The Leaning Tower of Pisa]] The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a building in Pisa, Italy. It is a bell tower. It is famous because it leans to one side. The tower was once leaning more and more to the ground, but recently it has stopped falling. Researchers say, as cited in newspapers, that the tower would have completely collapsed by 2030 to 2050.[needs proof]

The height of the tower is about 55 metres from the ground. Its weight is about 14,500 tonnes. It currently leans at about 5.5 degrees. The tower has 294 steps.

After the third floor was built in 1178, the tower started to lean, due to having a small three-meter foundation in soft soil. The design of this tower was bad from the beginning. Construction was stopped for almost 100 years because the Pisans were often at war with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Leaning Tower of Pisa, which are similar to those in the above article.








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