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Republic of Lebanon
اَلْجُمْهُورِيَّةاَللُّبْنَانِيَّة (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah
République libanaise (French)
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemLebanese National Anthem
Location of Lebanon
Capital
(and largest city)
Beirut
33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.9°N 35.533°E / 33.9; 35.533
Official language(s) Arabic, French (conditional)1
Spoken languages Arabic (Lebanese dialect), French, English, Armenian
Ethnic groups  95% Arab2, 4% Armenian, 1% other[1]
Demonym Lebanese
Government Confessionalist, parliamentary republic[2]
 -  President Michel Suleiman
 -  Prime Minister Saad Hariri
 -  Speaker of Parliament Nabih Berri
Independence from France 
 -  Declared 26 November 1941 
 -  Recognized 22 November 1943 
Area
 -  Total 10,452 km2 (166th)
4,035 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  2009 estimate 4 224 000[3] (124th)
 -  Density 404/km2 (25th)
1,046/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $53.818 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $13,952[4] 
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $32.660 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $8,467[4] 
HDI (2009) 0.803[5] (high) (83rd)
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .lb
Calling code 961[6]
1 ^ Article 11 of the Constitution of Lebanon states that "Arabic is the official national language. A law shall determine the cases in which the French language is to be used."[2]
2 ^ The Lebanese are ethnically a mixture of Phoenician, Greek, Armenian, and Arab elements.[7] Many Christian Lebanese do not identify as Arab, and prefer to be called Phoenician.[1]
Lebanon (pronounced /ˈlɛbənɒn/ ( listen) or /ˈlɛbənən/; Arabic: لُبْنَانLubnān; French: Liban), officially the Republic of Lebanon[note 1] (Arabic: اَلْجُمْهُورِيَّة اَللُّبْنَانِيَّة al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah; French: République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has dictated its rich history, and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.[8]
.The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than 7,000 years—predating recorded history.^ Vehicle fleet in Lebanon has considerably improved following the ban on the import of cars older than 8 years.
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[9] Lebanon was the home of the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for nearly 2,500 years (3000–539 BC). Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the five provinces that comprise modern Lebanon were mandated to France. The French expanded the borders of Mount Lebanon, which was mostly populated by Maronite Catholics and Druze, to include more Muslim elements. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, and established a unique political system, known as confessionalism, a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. French troops withdrew in 1946.
Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, and banking.[10] Because of its financial power and diversity, Lebanon was known in its heyday as the "Switzerland of the East".[11] It attracted large numbers of tourists,[12] such that the capital Beirut was referred to as "Paris of the Middle East." At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure.[13]
.Until July 2006, Lebanon enjoyed considerable stability, Beirut's reconstruction was almost complete,[14] and increasing numbers of tourists poured into the nation's resorts.^ Since almost one-half of the national small vehicles fleet operates in Greater Beirut, and the rest spread all over the territory, a 20% reduction will translate into a 10% reduction in automobile related trip making at the national level.
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^ Finally, the Association Libanaise pour la Maitrise de l’Energie (ALME), a national NGO, has performed a number of energy audits with the support of ADEME. .
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^ Since 1992, Lebanon has entered into, or initialed, a number of treaties for the promotion and protection of investments and the avoidance of double taxation .
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[12] Then, the month long 2006 War between Israel and Hezbollah caused significant civilian death and heavy damage to Lebanon's civil infrastructure. .However, due to its tightly regulated financial system, Lebanese banks have largely avoided the Financial crisis of 2007–2010.^ However, this regulation is not homogeneously enforced all over the Lebanese territory.
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In 2009, despite a global recession, Lebanon enjoyed nine percent economic growth and hosted the largest number of tourists in its history.

Contents

Etymology

The name Lebanon comes from the Semitic root lbn, meaning "white", likely a reference to the snow-capped Mount Lebanon.[15]
Occurrences of the name have been found in texts from the library of Ebla,[16] which date to the third millennium BC, nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh (perhaps as early as 2100 BC)[17].
The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L.[18]
Carthage and its dependencies in the 3rd century BC. It was one of a number of Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean.
Faraya, Mount Lebanon

History

Sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos, now in the National Museum of Beirut
Inscription in Greek on one of the tombs found in the Roman-Byzantine necropolis in Tyre

Ancient history

Evidence of the earliest known settlements in Lebanon was found in Byblos, which is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world,[9] and date back to earlier than 5000 BC. Archaeologists discovered remnants of prehistoric huts with crushed limestone floors, primitive weapons, and burial jars left by the Neolithic and Chalcolithic fishing communities who lived on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea over 7,000 years ago.[19]
Lebanon was the homeland of the Phoenicians, a seafaring people that spread across the Mediterranean before the rise of Cyrus the Great.[20] After two centuries of Persian rule, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great attacked and burned Tyre, the most prominent Phoenician city. Throughout the subsequent centuries leading up to recent times, the country became part of numerous succeeding empires, among them Persian, Armenian, Assyrian, Hellenistic, Roman, Eastern Roman, Arab, Seljuk, Mamluk, Crusader, Ottoman and Syrians.

Medieval times

Prince Bashir II "the Great" was Emir of Mt. Lebanon from 1788 until 1840.
In 1516, Sultan Selim I took control of Mt. Lebanon and the mountainous regions of Syria and Palestine. The administration of these areas, belonging to Fakhr al-Din I, whose family was concerned, made loyalty to the higher section. As a strategy to evade the payment of tribute to them, Sultan Selim's attempts managed to rattle his Turkish masters. He decided to extend his direct influence across Lebanon, but the landowners and peasants of Mt. Lebanon both resisted. In 1544, the sultan, already poisoned, died on the floor of Fakhr al-Din Pasha, in Damascus. His son, Korkmaz, was martyred in 1585 while fighting the Turks.[21]
In 1590, Fakhr-al-Din II became successor to Korkmaz. He was a skilled politician and described as a pupil of Machiavelli. He adjusted to the lifestyles of the Druzes, Christianity and Islam, according to his needs. He paid tribute to the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire and shared the spoils of war with his masters. Eventually, Fakhr-al-Din II was appointed Sultan of Mt. Lebanon, with full authority. He was considered one of the greatest rulers of the region, also across the Middle of Lebanon. But, his enemies and governors angered the Ottoman Sultanate. Hence, a campaign, calling for the arrest of Fakhr-al-Din II, found the deposed leader in Istanbul, where he was executed by hanging.[22] Shortly afterwards, the Emirate of Mt. .Lebanon that lasted more than five hundred years was replaced, instead of the emirate meteor.^ Vehicle fleet in Lebanon has considerably improved following the ban on the import of cars older than 8 years.
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French mandate and independence

.Lebanon was part of the Ottoman Empire for over 400 years, until 1918 when the area became a part of the French Mandate of Syria following World War I. By the end of the war, famine had killed an estimated 100,000 people in Beirut and Mount Lebanon.^ Build a stronger competitive platform for Lebanon’s firms and people to compete in the world economy.
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^ However, it is thought that around 30.000 to 60.000 people are employed, distributed among the following: .
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^ On the national level, the Mount Lebanon area could be considered as a model tourism destination for nature, historical and cultural aspects.
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[23] On 1 September 1920, France formed the State of Greater Lebanon as one of several ethnic enclaves within Syria.[24] Lebanon was a largely Christian (mainly Maronite) enclave but also included areas containing many Muslims (including Druze). On 1 September 1926, France formed the Lebanese Republic. The Republic was afterward a separate entity from Syria (related to the country Syria) but still administered under the French Mandate of Syria.
Lebanon gained independence in 1943, while France was occupied by Germany.[25] General Henri Dentz, the Vichy High Commissioner for Syria and Lebanon, played a major role in the independence of the nation. The Vichy authorities in 1941 allowed Germany to move aircraft and supplies through Syria to Iraq where they were used against British forces. .The United Kingdom, fearing that Nazi Germany would gain full control of Lebanon and Syria by pressure on the weak Vichy government, sent its army into Syria and Lebanon.^ Free trade agreements were entered into force with Syria, Egypt, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates.
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After the fighting ended in Lebanon, General Charles de Gaulle visited the area. Under political pressure from both inside and outside Lebanon, de Gaulle recognized the independence of Lebanon. .On 26 November 1941 General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government.^ At the end of 1999, the Government reactivated the Investment Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL).
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^ The railway and Public Transport Authority (RTPA) is an independent public authority under the supervision of the Ministry of Transport.
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Elections were held in 1943 and on 8 November 1943 the new Lebanese government unilaterally abolished the mandate. The French reacted by throwing the new government into prison. In the face of international pressure, the French released the government officials on 22 November 1943 and accepted the independence of Lebanon.
The allies kept the region under control until the end of World War II. The last French troops withdrew in 1946. Lebanon's unwritten National Pact of 1943 required that its president be Maronite Christian, its speaker of the parliament to be a Shiite Muslim, its prime minister be Sunni Muslim, and the deputy speaker of Parliament be Greek Orthodox.[26]
.Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil (including a civil conflict in 1958) interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade.^ Since 1990, Lebanon has undertaken important achievements and initiatives to reconstruct its economy and achieve a stable macroeconomic environment.
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[27]

1948 Arab-Israeli war

.In May 1948, Lebanon supported neighbouring Arab countries against Israel.^ Also, Lebanon is party to the Arab Free Trade Agreement and, tariffs on certain goods are being reduced by 10% annually among 14 Arab countries .
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While some irregular forces crossed the border and carried out minor skirmishes against Israel, it was without the support of the Lebanese government, and Lebanese troops did not officially invade.[28]
During the war, some 100,000 Palestinians fled to Lebanon, and Israel did not permit their return at the end of hostilities.[29] Because of the tense sectarian balance that exists in Lebanon,[30] the Palestinians and their descendants are denied citizenship and suffer from institutional discrimination.[29] Palestinians are forbidden to work in 20 professions.[31] .Today, more than 400,000 refugees remain in limbo, about half in camps.^ In fact more than half of external assistance disbursements was from bilateral sources (55%).
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^ But it is estimated that about 400.000 tourists came to Lebanon in 1995, compared to 1.9 million visitor arrivals, including 500.000 Syrians in 1974.
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[32]

Civil war and beyond

In 1975, civil war broke out in Lebanon. The Lebanese Civil War lasted fifteen years, devastating the country's economy, and resulting in massive loss of human life and property. It is estimated that 150,000 people were killed and another 200,000 wounded.[33] Some 900,000 people, representing one-fifth of the pre-war population, were displaced from their homes.[34] .The war ended in 1990 with the signing of the Taif Agreement and parts of Lebanon were left in ruins.^ The bilateral cooperation between Lebanon and Syria witnessed a far-reaching agreement on environmental issues (signed in February 2000).
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^ Lebanon signed and ratified several international agreements, these are: .
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^ The Law 86, date 14/6/1999, allowed the government to sign an agreement relative to the international terrestrial transport between Lebanon and UAE, signed 27/5/1998.
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[35]
GDP Change in Lebanon before and during the civil war (in real terms)
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
GDP change (in real terms) 12.2% 4.7% 2.4% -30.3% -57.0% 67.7% -2.6% 2.4% 1.5% 0.6% -36.8%
GDP per capita (US$, current values) 893 1132 1423 1186 527 1005 1091 1274 1526 1470 1006
Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook
During the civil war, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) used Lebanon to launch attacks against Israel. Lebanon was twice invaded and occupied by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in 1978 and 1982,[36] with the PLO expelled in the second invasion. Israel remained in control of Southern Lebanon until 2000, when there was a general decision, led by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, to withdraw because of continuous attacks executed by Hezbollah, and a belief that the violence would diminish and dissolve without the Israeli presence in Lebanon.[37] The UN determined that the withdrawal of Israeli troops beyond the blue line was in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425, although a border region called the Shebaa Farms is still disputed. Hezbollah declared that it would not stop its operations against Israel until this area was liberated.[38]

Cedar Revolution

On 14 February 2005, former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated in a car bomb explosion near the Saint George Bay in Beirut.[39] Leaders of the March 14 Alliance, a pro-Western coalition, accused Syria of the attack[40] because of its extensive military and intelligence presence in Lebanon, and the public rift between Hariri and Damascus over the Syrian-backed constitutional amendment extending President Lahoud's term in office. Others, namely the March 8 Alliance and Syrian officials, claimed that the assassination may have been executed by the Israeli Mossad in an attempt to destabilize the country.[41]
This incident triggered a series of demonstrations, dubbed the 'Cedar Revolution' by the media, which demanded the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and the establishment of an international commission to investigate the assassination. .The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1595 on 7 April 2005, which called for an investigation into the assassination of Rafik Hariri.^ However, the Ministry of Environment adopted a claim mechanism where industrial investigation is based on complaints and calls.
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[42] .Preliminary findings of the investigation were officially published on 20 October 2005 in the Mehlis report, which cited indications that high-ranking members of the Syrian and Lebanese governments were involved in the assassination.^ The Law signed in February 1994 allowed to establish a cooperation agreement between the Lebanese Government and the Syrian Government, signed in 16/9/1993.
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[43] .Eventually, and under pressure from the West, Syria began withdrawing its 15,000-strong army troops from Lebanon.^ A Lebanese –UAE free trade agreement was signed on 15 April 2000; it could set the stage for a three way trade zone (Lebanon, Syria and UAE).
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[44] By 26 April 2005, all uniformed Syrian soldiers had already crossed the border back to Syria.[45] The Hariri assassination marked the beginning of a series of assassination attempts that resulted in the loss of many prominent Lebanese figures.[46]

2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence. Of the seven Israeli soldiers in the two jeeps, two were wounded, three were killed, and two were captured and taken to Lebanon. Five more were killed in a failed Israeli rescue attempt. In Lebanon, air strikes caused serious damage to Lebanon's civil infrastructure (including Beirut's airport), and were followed by Israel's ground forces moving into areas of Lebanon militarily controlled by Hezbollah fighters. Israel rained as many as 4.6 million cluster sub-munitions across southern Lebanon in at least 962 separate strikes, the vast majority over the final three days of the war when Israel knew a settlement was imminent.[47] In Israel, 3,970 Hezbollah rockets landed on northern Israel, many in urban areas. The month-long conflict caused a significant loss of life; some 1,200 Lebanese—mostly civilians—and nearly 160 Israelis—mostly soldiers—were killed in the conflict. .The conflict officially ended on 14 August 2006, when the United Nations Security Council issued resolution 1701 ordering a ceasefire between Hezbollah and Israel.^ However, all tourism issues are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Tourism, supported by the National Council for Tourism.
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[48] (Goldwasser and Regev were held for two years, without indication as to their health, until their remains were returned by Hezbollah to Israel on July 16, 2008 in a trade for living prisoners.)

Nahr al-Bared conflict

.Nahr al-Bared (Arabic: نهر البارد, literally: Cold River) is a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon, 16 km from the city of Tripoli.^ The Fayhaa Municipal Union Observatory was initiated a tool to help the municipal union (within the City of Tripoli, North Lebanon) in the management of environment issues.
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.Some 30,000 displaced Palestinians and their descendants live in and around the camp, which was named after the river that runs south of the camp.^ However, it is thought that around 30.000 to 60.000 people are employed, distributed among the following: .
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The camp was established in December 1949 by the League of Red Cross Societies in order to accommodate the Palestinian refugees suffering from the difficult winter conditions in the Beqaa Valley and the suburbs of Tripoli. The Lebanese Army is banned from entering all Palestinian camps under the 1969 Cairo Agreement.
Late in the night of Saturday May 19, 2007, a building was surrounded by Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) in which a group of Fatah al-Islam militants accused of taking part in a bank robbery earlier that day were hiding. The ISF attacked the building early on Sunday May 20, 2007, unleashing a day long battle between the ISF and Fatah al-Islam militants. As a response, members of Fatah al-Islam in Nahr al-Bared Camp attacked an army checkpoint, killing several soldiers in their sleep. The army immediately responded by shelling the camp.
The camp became the center of the fighting between the Lebanese Army and Fatah al-Islam. It sustained heavy shelling while under siege. UNRWA estimates the battle between the army and Islamic militant group Fatah al-Islam destroyed or rendered uninhabitable as much as 85 percent of homes in the camp and ruined infrastructure. .The camp’s up to 40,000 residents were forced to flee, many of them sheltering in the already overcrowded Beddawi camp, 10 km south.^ On the other hand, the number of red-plated vehicles has increased significantly from around 10.000 vehicles in 1994 up to 32.000 in 1999.
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At least 169 soldiers, 287 insurgents and 47 civilians were killed in the army’s battle with the al-Qaeda-inspired militants. Funds for the reconstruction of the area have been slow to materialize, and life for the displaced refugees is difficult.[49]

2008 internal strife

When Émile Lahoud's presidential term ended in October 2007, the opposition refused to vote for a successor unless a power-sharing deal was reached, leaving Lebanon without a president. On 9 May 2008, Hezbollah and Amal forces, sparked by a government declaration that Hezbollah's communications network was illegal, seized western Beirut[50] in Lebanon's worst internal violence since the 1975-90 civil war.[51] Moreover, the violence, decried by the Lebanese government as an attempted coup,[52] threatened to escalate into another civil war.[53] At least 62 people died in the resulting clashes between pro-government and opposition militias.[54]
.On 21 May 2008, after five days of negotiation under Arab League mediation in Qatar, all major parties signed the Doha Agreement, which ended the fighting.^ Enhance capacity to negotiate effective trade agreements with the Arab markets as well as with EU; .
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^ The Agreement held between Countries member of the Arab League stating the establishment of a Council of Civil Aviation for Arab Countries; .
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^ Also, Lebanon is party to the Arab Free Trade Agreement and, tariffs on certain goods are being reduced by 10% annually among 14 Arab countries .
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[50][54] Under the accord, both sides agreed to elect former army head Michel Suleiman president and establish a national unity government with a veto share for the opposition.[50] This ended 18 months of political paralysis.[53] The agreement was a victory for opposition forces, who received concessions regarding the composition of the cabinet, Hezbollah's telecommunications network, and the airport security chief, increasing their political clout.[54]

Geography and climate

Lebanon from space. Snow cover can be seen on the western and eastern mountain ranges
Mountain scenery in Barouk
A view from Beaufort Castle in south Lebanon
Lebanon is located in Western Asia. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west along a 225-kilometre (140 mi) coastline, by Syria to the east and north, and by Israel to the south. The Lebanon-Syria border stretches for 375 kilometres (233 mi) and the Lebanon-Israel border for 79 kilometres (49 mi). The border with the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights in Syria is disputed by Lebanon in a small area called Shebaa Farms, but the border has been demarcated by the United Nations.[55]
.Most of Lebanon's area is mountainous terrain,[7] except for the narrow coastline and the Beqaa Valley, which plays an integral role in Lebanon's agriculture.^ The classified road network plays an important role in activating the socio-economic sector in Lebanon.
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.However, climate change and political differences threaten conflict over water resources in the Valley.^ However, regarding water, the national average net per capita daily water supply could be as high as 167 litres in presence of current water resources.
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[56]
Lebanon has a moderate Mediterranean climate. In coastal areas, winters are generally cool and rainy whilst summers are hot and humid. In more elevated areas, temperatures usually drop below freezing during the winter with frequent, sometimes heavy snow; summers are warm and dry.[57] .Although most of Lebanon receives a relatively large amount of rainfall annually (compared to its arid surroundings), certain areas in north-eastern Lebanon receive little because of the high peaks of the western mountain front blocking much of the rain clouds that originate over the Mediterranean Sea.^ Tourism in Lebanon was based on a mix of beaches and mountains, with skiing in the winter months and the presence of a large number of archaeological and historical sites.
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[58]
In ancient times, Lebanon housed large forests of the Cedars of Lebanon, which now serve as the country's national emblem.[59] However, centuries of trading cedar trees, used by mariners for boats, and the absence of any efforts to replant them have depleted the country's once-flourishing cedar forests.[59]

Government and politics

The Lebanese parliament building at the Place de l'Étoile
Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy, which implements a special system known as confessionalism.[60] This system is intended to deter sectarian conflict and attempts to fairly represent the demographic distribution of the 18 recognized religious groups in government.[61][62] High-ranking offices are reserved for members of specific religious groups. The President, for example, has to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the Parliament a Shi’a Muslim.[63][64]
Lebanon's national legislature is the unicameral Parliament of Lebanon. Its 128 seats are divided equally between Christians and Muslims, proportionately between the 18 different denominations and proportionately between its 26 regions.[65] Prior to 1990, the ratio stood at 6:5 in favor of Christians; however, the Taif Accord, which put an end to the 1975–1990 civil war, adjusted the ratio to grant equal representation to followers of the two religions.[63] The Parliament is elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage[1] although the civil war usually precluded the exercise of this right.
.The executive branch consists of the President, the head of state, and the Prime Minister, the head of government.^ To advise the Council of Ministers on models of execution, finance and control of the government approved programmes and projects; .
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The parliament elects the president for a non-renewable six-year term by a two-third majority. The president appoints the Prime Minister.[66] Following consultations with the parliament and the President, the Prime Minister forms the Cabinet, which must also adhere to the sectarian distribution set out by confessionalism.
.On June 27, 2009, Lebanon's president Michel Sleiman appointed parliamentary majority leader Saad Hariri as prime minister after his pro-Western coalition, the March 14 Alliance, defeated a Hezbollah-led alliance in a June 2009 election.^ The Law 86, date 14/6/1999, allowed the government to sign an agreement relative to the international terrestrial transport between Lebanon and UAE, signed 27/5/1998.
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[67] In November, after five months of cabinet negotiations, Hariri formed a national unity government.[68]
.Lebanon's judicial system is a mixture of Ottoman law, Napoleonic code, canon law and civil law.^ A long list of laws and decrees are present to regulate the transport system and traffic in Lebanon.
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^ Lebanon signed the Three protocols for the amendment of the international civil aviation set in Chicago in 1944 (law no.
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The Lebanese court system consists of three levels: courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation. The Constitutional Council rules on constitutionality of laws and electoral frauds. There also is a system of religious courts having jurisdiction over personal status matters within their own communities, with rules on matters such as marriage and inheritance.[69]

Foreign relations

The Grand Serail, the government headquarters in downtown Beirut
.Lebanon concluded negotiations on an association agreement with the European Union in late 2001, and both sides initialed the accord in January 2002. Lebanon also has bilateral trade agreements with several Arab states and is working toward accession to the World Trade Organization.^ Lebanon ratified several bilateral agreements to regulate the transport system.
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^ Enhance capacity to negotiate effective trade agreements with the Arab markets as well as with EU; .
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^ Lebanon established bilateral and multilateral agreements with many countries (refer to questions no.
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.Lebanon enjoys good relations with virtually all of the other Arab countries (despite historic tensions with Libya, the Palestinians, Syria and Iraq), and hosted an Arab League Summit in March 2002 for the first time in more than 35 years.^ Lebanon will join Turkey, Iraq, Egypt, Syria and Jordan in a power-grid connection project, which will help Arab countries provide cheaper and more electricity to consumers.
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^ The UNDP- Lebanon Country Office organized a UNDP MEDIA Award for Sustainable Human Development, a contest open to all Lebanese Journalists.
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^ In addition, in February 1988, an agreement was entered into force between Lebanon and Syria, pursuant to which tariffs on industrial goods are being reduced by 25% per year, since 1999.
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Lebanon is a member of the Francophone countries and hosted the Francophone Summit in October 2002.[10]

Lebanese Military

The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has 72,100 active personnel,[70] including 1,100 in the air force, and 1,000 in the navy.[71] .The Lebanese Armed Forces' primary missions include defending Lebanon and its citizens against external aggression, maintaining internal stability and security, confronting threats against the country's vital interests, engaging in social development activities, and undertaking relief operations in coordination with public and humanitarian institutions.^ The distribution external assistance focused on social development, health care, energy, human resources, transport, humanitarian and development administration, and area development implemented through programmes and projects targeting the totality of the Lebanese territory.
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^ The current impact of tourism on other issues related to sustainable development, including those that are environmental, social, institutional and cultural, including the preservation of cultural heritage.
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^ To ask various ministries, municipalities and other public institutions to prepare projects that suit public reconstruction and development goals; .
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[72]
Lebanon is a major recipient of foreign military aid.[73] .With $400 million since 2005, it is the second largest per capita recipient of American military aid behind Israel.^ Official Development Assistance amounted to 175 million US$ in 1999 equivalent to 41.7 US$ per capita.
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[74]

Governorates and districts

Lebanon is divided into six governorates (mohaafazaat, Arabic: محافظات —‎;singular mohafazah, Arabic: محافظة‎) which are further subdivided into twenty-five districts (aqdya—singular: qadaa).[75] The districts themselves are also divided into several municipalities, each enclosing a group of cities or villages. The governorates and their respective districts are listed below:

Economy

Coat of Arms of Lebanon.svg
Tourism
Agriculture
Beirut Stock Exchange
Companies listed on BSE
Companies
Bank of Lebanon
Shipping
Topics of Lebanon
Culture - Geography
History - Politics
The urban population in Lebanon is noted for its commercial enterprise.[76] Over the course of time, emigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world.[77] .As a result, remittances from Lebanese abroad to family members within the country total $5.6 billion[78] and account for one fifth of the country's economy.^ Cancel the requirement for importers to obtain legalization from the Lebanese Embassy in the country of origin, the total annual revenues of which are currently used to support embassies; .
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[79] Lebanon has a high proportion of skilled labor comparable to most European nations and the highest among Arabic speaking countries.[80]
.Although Lebanon is ideally suited for agricultural activities in terms of water availability and soil fertility, as it possesses the highest proportion of cultivable land in the Arabic speaking world,[81] it does not have a large agricultural sector.^ The only report available on Internet that could be of valuable importance for this sector is the http://www.agriculture.gov.lb/ biological diversity report.
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.Attracting only 12% of the total workforce,[82] agriculture is the least popular economic sector in Lebanon.^ The classified road network plays an important role in activating the socio-economic sector in Lebanon.
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It contributes approximately 11.7% of the country's GDP, also placing it in the lowest rank compared to other economic sectors. Major produce includes apples, peaches, oranges, and lemons.[10]
.Industry in Lebanon is mainly limited to small businesses that reassemble and package imported parts.^ The project aims at supporting the development of private sector manufacturing in Lebanon, with particular emphasis on established small and medium size enterprises in the food processing, printing and packaging industries.
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In 2004, industry ranked second in workforce, with 26% of the Lebanese working population,[82] and second in GDP contribution, with 21% of Lebanon's GDP.[10]
.A combination of beautiful climate, many historic landmarks and World Heritage Sites continues to attract large numbers of tourists to Lebanon.^ Tourism in Lebanon was based on a mix of beaches and mountains, with skiing in the winter months and the presence of a large number of archaeological and historical sites.
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^ Also, many seminars, conferences, exhibitions and awareness campaigns about promoting reuse and recycling took place in a large number of schools and universities.
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.In addition, Lebanon's strict financial secrecy and capitalist economy have given it significant, though no longer dominant, economic status among Arab countries.^ Also, Lebanon is party to the Arab Free Trade Agreement and, tariffs on certain goods are being reduced by 10% annually among 14 Arab countries .
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^ In this respect, the 1977 Economic and Financial Cooperation Agreement made with EU regulate trade relationship between EU and Lebanon.
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.The thriving tourism and banking activities have naturally made the services sector the most important pillar of the Lebanese economy.^ Sustainable tourism practices are currently left to non governmental organisations to be promoted indirectly within their environmental and awareness activities, such as promoting locally made products, nature tours, etc.
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^ It is to note that most, if not all tourist activities (except the archaeological sites) are in the hands of the private sector.
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^ This Council is made of representatives from the Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Economy and Trade, Ministry of Defense, Customs, and the Service for vehicle registration).
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The majority of the Lebanese workforce (nearly 65%)[82] attains employment in the services sector as a result of the abundant job opportunities. The GDP contribution, accordingly, amounts to roughly 67.3% of the annual Lebanese GDP.[10] However, dependence on the tourism and banking sectors leaves the economy vulnerable to political instability.[83]
The Kadisha Valley is a World Heritage Site
.The 1975–1990 civil war heavily damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a West Asian entrepôt and banking hub.^ At the end of the war, the Government set a ten-year reconstruction plan designed to rebuild the necessary basic infrastructure damaged during the war, taking into account the economic and social constraints.
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[1] The subsequent period of relative peace enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes (though not always successfully), and regain access to key port and government facilities. .Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers, with family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid as the main sources of foreign exchange.^ Lebanon Invest Global Loan Risk Capital : The European Investment Bank made funds available to Lebanon Invest, to take equity participation and help finance small and medium size industrial projects.
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^ Nowadays, international business tourism is the main source of international tourism of Lebanon (75% of Beirut hotel occupancy).
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^ The main sources of technical cooperation in 1999 were France (US$ 9.2 million), the UN System (US$ 8.8 million), the European Union (US$ 6.4 million), and the United States of America (US$ 5.9 million).
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[84]
.Until the 2006 Lebanon War, Lebanon's economy witnessed excellent growth, with bank assets reaching over 75 billion US dollars,[85] By the end of the first half of 2006, the influx of tourists to Lebanon had already registered a 49.3% increase over 2005 figures (which was a low figure, making the 49.3% increase seem more spectacular than it was).^ Until now, more than 30 joint European and Lebanese NGO projects were financed under different budget lines.
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^ The estimated total cost is US$67.8 million, shared between the Government of Lebanon (US$25.8 million) and the World Bank (US$42 million).
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^ The bilateral cooperation between Lebanon and Syria witnessed a far-reaching agreement on environmental issues (signed in February 2000).
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[85] Market capitalization was also at an all time high, estimated at $10.9 billion at the end of the second quarter of 2006, just weeks before the fighting started.[85]
The war severely damaged Lebanon's fragile economy, especially the tourism sector. .According to a preliminary report published by the Lebanese Ministry of Finance on 30 August 2006, a major economic decline was expected as a result of the fighting.^ Until now, more than 30 joint European and Lebanese NGO projects were financed under different budget lines.
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^ The Unit of Planning and Programming, implemented at the Ministry of Environment, conducted an DSS System, an auditing programme applied on 30 industrial settlements all over the Lebanese territory.
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[86]
Rafiq Hariri International Airport re-opened in September 2006, and the efforts to revive the Lebanese economy have proceeded at a slow pace. .Major contributors to the reconstruction of Lebanon include Saudi Arabia (with US$ 1.5 billion pledged),[87] the European Union (with about $1 billion)[88] and a few other Persian Gulf countries with contributions of up to $800 million.^ Together with the agricultural sector, they used to provide 25% of GDP. Since 1972, pleasure trips have been considered as the main reasons to travel to Lebanon (84% of tourist stays), mainly for Gulf and European countries.
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^ However, the reconstruction entailed major public debt combined with ineffective taxation system, creating serious fiscal challenges to the country.
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^ Lebanon has similar free trade agreements with Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
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[89]
.According to the CIA World Factbook, Lebanon's 2008 public debt exceeded 164% of GDP, ranking third highest in the world as a percentage of GDP, though down from 178% in 2004.[1] Finance minister Mohammad Chatah stated that the debt reached $47 billion in 2008 and would increase to $49 billion if privatization of two telecoms companies did not occur.^ In addition, as the government recognizes the potential for accelerated privatization both to increase government revenues to pay public debt and to increase productivity of public services, a Privatization Unit is proposed by FYDP to be implemented in order to handle privatization related-issues.
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^ Total aid flows as a percentage of public investment amounted to 18.3 in 1999, slightly down from 18.7 in 1998, but significantly better than 16.4 in 1997.
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^ On the other hand, it is expected that buses used for private and public transport will increase due to the government intention to expand public transport in the entire territory.
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[90] The Daily Star wrote that exorbitant debt levels have "slowed down the economy and reduced the government's spending on essential development projects."[91]
.Given the frequent security turmoil it has faced, the Lebanese banking system has adopted a conservative approach, with strict regulations imposed by the central bank to protect the economy from political instability.^ The main achievements were: (1) a new and reinforced information and accounts system at the Central Bank, and (2) a redesign of the customer services provided by the Ministry of Economy and Trade, a proposal to reform the norms regulating insurance, silos and consumer protection, and the provision of new information networks at the ministry level (EU funding).
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.These regulations have generally left Lebanese banks unscathed by the Financial crisis of 2007–2010.^ These incentives stated that the relative distributions of the Lebanese financial companies are decreased from 10% to 5% in the following cases (after issuing this law): .
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Lebanese banks remain, under the current circumstances, high on liquidity and reputed for their security.[92] .Consequently, Lebanon is one of the only seven countries in the world in which the value of the stock markets increased in 2008.[93] Moreover, in 2009, Lebanon hosted the largest number of tourists to date, eclipsing the previous record set before the Lebanese Civil War.^ A Lebanese –UAE free trade agreement was signed on 15 April 2000; it could set the stage for a three way trade zone (Lebanon, Syria and UAE).
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^ Lebanon signed the Three protocols for the amendment of the international civil aviation set in Chicago in 1944 (law no.
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^ Two main factors are characterising this evolution: the increasing number of destinations towards Europe and Middle East countries, and the increase in the internal air market within the Middle East region itself.
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[94] The Lebanese economy grew 8.5 percent in 2008 and a revised 9 percent in 2009[95] despite a global recession.[96] .Furthermore, the World Bank estimated GDP growth in 2010 to be seven percent.^ The estimated total cost is US$67.8 million, shared between the Government of Lebanon (US$25.8 million) and the World Bank (US$42 million).
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^ The project cost is estimated to be around US$ 100 million; the World Bank, being likely to provide part of the funding (between US$ 60 to 70 million).
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[96]

Education

Schools

.All Lebanese schools are required to follow a prescribed curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education.^ Source: Ministry of Education- the guidebook "Environmental education: curriculum and goals"- Pre-university levels (1998).
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^ A cleaner production office at the Ministry of Environment is being established in order to identify alternatives for substitute technologies in all areas of Lebanese industry.
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^ This guidebook was published by the Ministry of Education and disseminated to all schools in 1998 based on law no.
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.Private schools, approximately 1,400 in all,[97] may also add more courses to their curriculum with approval from the Ministry of Education.^ Source: Ministry of Education- the guidebook "Environmental education: curriculum and goals"- Pre-university levels (1998).
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^ This guidebook was published by the Ministry of Education and disseminated to all schools in 1998 based on law no.
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.The main subjects taught are mathematics, sciences, Arabic, and at least one secondary language (either French or English).^ Progress Report (March 2000), Council for Development and Reconstruction; also available on the website: www.cdr.org.lb in three languages (Arabic, French and English).
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The subjects gradually increase in difficulty and in number.
The government introduces a mild form of selectivity into the curriculum by giving 11th graders choice between two "concentrations": sciences, humanities, and 12th graders choose between four concentrations: life sciences, general sciences, sociology and economics, and humanities and literature. The choices in concentration do not include major changes in the number of subjects taken (if at all). However, subjects that fall out of the concentration are given less weight in grading and are less rigorous, while subjects that fall within the concentration are more challenging and contribute significantly to the final grade.
Students go through three academic phases:
Name Number of years Annotations
Elementary 6
Intermediate 3 students earn Intermediate Certification (Lebanese Brevet) at completion
Secondary 3 students who pass official exams earn a Baccalaureate Certificate (Baccalauréat Libanais) in the concentration they chose in 12th grade. Students studying at French-system schools or American-system schools may also graduate with a French Baccalaureate that is considered equivalent to the Lebanese Baccalaureate. Students can also graduate with an International Baccalaureate (current in some of the private schools).
These three phases are provided free to all students and the first eight years are, by law, compulsory.[10] Nevertheless, this requirement currently falls short of being fully enforced.

Higher education

.Following secondary school, Lebanese students may choose to study at a university, a college, or a vocational training institute.^ Study the necessary programmes to train pedestrians- including students- in various available means including radios, TV, and newspapers; .
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^ Regarding scientific bodies, several conferences and training courses were given at the Faculty of Agriculture, Lebanese University, in 1995.
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The number of years to complete each program varies. .While the Lebanese educational system offer a very high quality and international class of education, the local employment market lacks sufficient opportunities, thus encouraging many of the young educated to travel abroad.^ Therefore, it is very frequent to see vehicles with only one rider per car, thus inducing high traffic congestion especially in urban areas.
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^ Establishment of an Export Promotion Board to formulate export promotion strategies and monitor international markets for new opportunities; .
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Lebanon has forty-one nationally accredited universities, several of which are internationally recognized.[98][99] The American University of Beirut (AUB) and the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) were the first Anglophone and the first Francophone universities to open in Lebanon, respectively.[100][101] The universities, both public and private, largely operate in French or English.[102] The Lebanese American Univesrity (LAU) is currently one of the most powerful higher education institutions based on the American system in Lebanon. .It offers the only doctoral degree in pharmacy outside North America and houses the only School of Architecture and Design in the Middle East.^ For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here: For information about issues and projects in Middle East and North Africa from the World Bank, click here: .
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[103]
At the English universities, students who have graduated from an American-style high school program enter at the freshman level to earn their baccalaureate equivalence from the Lebanese Ministry of Higher Education. This qualifies them to continue studying at the higher levels. Such students are required to have already taken the SAT I and the SAT II upon applying to college, in lieu of the official exams. .On the other hand, students who have graduated from a school that follows the Lebanese educational system are directly admitted to the sophomore year.^ On the other hand, tourism technical highschools started this year to introduce sustainable tourism (eco-tourism and nature-based tourism) within their curricula.
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^ On the other hand, the FYDP (2000-2004) indicated the following steps as alternatives to the administrative procedures considered as being barriers hindering the effectiveness of trade: .
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^ The UNDP educational programme for health and environment prepared with support of WHO, UNESCO and other international organizations was made available to all schools by the Center for Education Research and Development in the last quarter of 1999.
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These students are still required to take the SAT I, but not the SAT II. The university academic degrees for the first stage are the Bachelor or the Licence, for the second stage are the Master or the DEA and the third stage is the doctorate.
.The United Nations assigned Lebanon an education index of 0.871 in 2008. The index, which is determined by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio, ranked the country 88th out of the 177 countries participating.^ The United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea: Signed by Lebanon.
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[104]

Demographics

.The population of Lebanon was estimated to be 4,017,095 in July 2009.[1] As of 2007, Lebanon was host to over 375,000 refugees and asylum seekers: 270,800 Palestinians, 50,000 from Iraq,[105] and 4,500 from Sudan.^ It is worth mentioning that estimates on the size of the vehicle fleet vary according to sources, estimated to be ranging between 500.000 privately owned cars to 800.000 vehicles.
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^ The estimated expenditures over 2000-2004 are respectively 1.436.500.000 US$ (corresponding to 1.492.500.000 US$ from the national budget and 244.000.000 US$ of foreign funding) and 105.693.000 US$ (143.347.000 US$ from the national budget and 2.346.000 US$ of foreign sources).
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^ But it is estimated that about 400.000 tourists came to Lebanon in 1995, compared to 1.9 million visitor arrivals, including 500.000 Syrians in 1974.
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Lebanon forcibly repatriated more than 300 refugees and asylum seekers in 2007.[106]
Religions in Lebanon by sect (2007)[107]
Lebanon is one of the most religiously diverse places in the Middle East
No official census has been taken since 1932, reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon over confessional balance between different religious groups.[108] The main religious groups of Lebanon consists of the Christians, Muslims,and the Druze.[107] Over the past 60 years, there has been a steady decline in the number of Christians as compared to Muslims, because of higher emigration rates among Christians and a higher birth rate among the Muslim population. In 2007, approximately 28% of the population was Sunni Muslim, 28% Shi'a Muslim, 22% Maronite Christian, 8% Greek Orthodox, 5% Druze, 4% Greek Catholic.[107] There are 18 state-recognized religious sects.[109]
Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution states that "Arabic is the official national language. .A law determines the cases in which the French language may be used".[110] The majority of Lebanese people speak Lebanese Arabic and sometimes also French.^ Progress Report (March 2000), Council for Development and Reconstruction; also available on the website: www.cdr.org.lb in three languages (Arabic, French and English).
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^ These incentives stated that the relative distributions of the Lebanese financial companies are decreased from 10% to 5% in the following cases (after issuing this law): .
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The Arabic language is mostly used in magazines and newspapers. The use of French is a legacy of the post-World War I League of Nations mandate over Lebanon given to France; as of 2004, some 20% of the population used French on a daily basis.[7] .English is being used more and more in science and business but French is still the language generally used by intellectuals.^ Others are still using collection wells, which are a major source of ground water pollution due to their lack of being up to sanitary standards.
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^ Progress Report (March 2000), Council for Development and Reconstruction; also available on the website: www.cdr.org.lb in three languages (Arabic, French and English).
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[111] Lebanese people of Armenian or Greek descent often speak Armenian or Greek fluently. .Kurdish Lebanese are estimated between 100,000 and 150,000, most of whom live around Beirut.^ It is worth mentioning that estimates on the size of the vehicle fleet vary according to sources, estimated to be ranging between 500.000 privately owned cars to 800.000 vehicles.
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^ Fuel Prices: The difference between leaded and unleaded fuel is as low as 100 Lebanese pounds; not much an incentive to change from leaded to unleaded fuel.
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^ The project cost is estimated to be around US$ 100 million; the World Bank, being likely to provide part of the funding (between US$ 60 to 70 million).
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There are currently around 150,000 Armenians in Lebanon, or around 4% of the population.[112]
.Between 11 and 13 million people of Lebanese descent are spread throughout the world,[113] especially in Latin America.^ The estimated total cost is US$67.8 million, shared between the Government of Lebanon (US$25.8 million) and the World Bank (US$42 million).
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^ The project cost is estimated to be around US$ 100 million; the World Bank, being likely to provide part of the funding (between US$ 60 to 70 million).
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[114] Brazil has the largest expatriate population, with 7 million Lebanese Brazilians.[115] Large numbers of Lebanese migrated to West Africa, particularly in the Ivory Coast (home to over 100,000 Lebanese)[116] and Senegal (roughly 30,000 Lebanese).[117] Australia is home to over 270,000 Lebanese (1999 est.).[118]
In the last three decades, lengthy and destructive armed conflicts have ravaged the country. The majority of Lebanese have been affected by armed conflict; those with direct personal experience include 75% of the population, and most others report suffering a range of hardships. In total, almost the entire population (96%) has been affected in some way – either personally or because of the wider consequences of armed conflict.[119]

Culture

Overview

Phoenicia and its colonies.
The area including modern Lebanon has been home to various civilizations and cultures for thousands of years. Originally home to the Phoenicians, and then subsequently conquered and occupied by the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Arabs, the Crusaders, the Ottoman Turks and most recently the French, Lebanese culture has over the millennia evolved by borrowing from all of these groups. Lebanon's diverse population, composed of different ethnic and religious groups, has further contributed to the country's festivals, musical styles and literature as well as cuisine, and numerous violent clashes amongst different religious and ethnic groups. When compared to the rest of the Southwest Asia, Lebanese society as a whole is well educated and, as of 2003, 87.4% of the population was literate.[1] Lebanese society is very modern and similar to certain cultures of Mediterranean Europe. It is often considered as Europe's gateway to Western Asia as well as Asia's gateway to the Western World.[120]

National flag

The original design
The national flag of Lebanon, created shortly after independence in 1943,[121] consists of three horizontal bands; the top and bottom bands are red and of equivalent size, each consisting of 1/4 of the flag's surface, while the larger, middle band is white with a green cedar tree fixed at its center and consists of 1/2 of the flag's surface.[1] The cedar tree, an emblem of Lebanon, symbolizes survival,[122] the white band symbolises the eternal snow on its mountain peaks and red symbolizes the blood shed for independence. The top and bottom of the cedar touch the edge of both red bands.[123]

Holidays

Lebanon observes Christian and Muslim holidays; national holidays are also observed.

Television

Television was introduced in 1959, with the launch of Télé Liban. Lebanon has nine national television channels, most channels in Lebanon are affiliated or supported by certain political parties or alliances.

Sports

Both summer and winter sports thrive in Lebanon because of the unique geography. In autumn and spring, for example, it is possible to go skiing in the morning and swimming in the Mediterranean Sea in the afternoon. At the competitive level, basketball and football are among Lebanon’s most popular sports. In recent years, Lebanon has hosted the AFC Asian Cup and the Pan Arab Games.
Lebanon has six ski resorts, with opportunities also available for cross-country skiing, snowshoeing, and snowmobiling. In the summer, skilifts can be used to access hiking trails, with views stretching as far as Cyprus to the west and Syria to the east on clear days. Canoeing, cycling, rafting, climbing, swimming, sailing and caving are among the other common leisure sports in Lebanon. Adventure and extreme sports are also possible throughout the country. The Beirut Marathon is held every fall, drawing top runners from Lebanon and abroad. Race day is promoted as a fun, family event, and it has become a tradition for many to participate in costumes or outlandish clothing.
Dance is also a popular activity in Lebanon that may fall under the category of 'sports'.
Lebanon hosted the 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie from September 27 to October 6.
Prominent Lebanese bodybuilders include Samir Bannout, Mohammad Bannout and Ahmad Haidar.
Rugby league has enjoyed growth in Lebanon with a seven team domestic competition. An international team made up of domestic players recently played a two match tour in Dubai. The Lebanon national rugby league team has recently taken part in the 2009 European Cup. After narrowly failing to qualify for the final, the team defeated Ireland to finish 3rd in the tournament.
Hazem El Masri, who is the National Rugby League's all time highest points scorer, moved from Lebanon to Australia as a child and has represented Lebanon at international level, including playing at the 2000 Rugby League World Cup

Arts and literature

By the turn of the 20th century, Beirut was vying with Cairo to be the major center for modern Arab thought, with many newspapers, magazines and literary societies.
In literature, Khalil Gibran, who was born in Bsharri, is particularly known for his book The Prophet, which has been translated into more than twenty different languages.[124] Several contemporary Lebanese writers have also achieved international success; including Elias Khoury, Amin Maalouf, and Hanan al-Shaykh.
In art, Moustafa Farroukh was one of Lebanon's most prominent painters of the 20th century. Formally trained in Rome and Paris, he exhibited in venues from Paris to New York to Beirut over his career. His work was applauded for its representation of real life in Lebanon in pictures of the country, its people and its customs. Farroukh became highly regarded as a Lebanese nationalist painter at a time when Lebanon was asserting its political independence. His art captured the spirit and character of the Lebanese people and he became recognized as the outstanding Lebanese painter of his generation. He also wrote five books and taught art at the American University of Beirut.

Music

Music is pervasive in Lebanese society.[125] While traditional folk music remains popular in Lebanon, modern music reconciling Western and traditional Arabic styles, pop, and fusion are rapidly advancing in popularity.[126] Radio stations feature a variety of music, including traditional Lebanese, classical Arabic, and modern French, English, American, and Latin tunes.[127] Prominent traditional musicians include Fairuz, an icon during the civil war, and Najwa Karam, who built an international audience for the genre.[125] Marcel Khalife, a musician who blends classical Arab music with modern sounds, boasts immense[128] popularity for his politically charged lyrics.[125][126] Distinguished pop artists include Nancy Ajram, whose albums sell into the millions, the vocalist Haifa, The 4 Cats—an all female group—and Fadl Shaker.[125]
According to the World Intellectual Property Organization, Lebanon's music industry is growing and could attain leading status in the region.[129] Lebanese performers are celebrated throughout the Arab World,[130] and with the notable exception of Egypt enjoy increasing regional popularity.[129] Rising demand for Arabic music outside the Middle East has provided Lebanese artists with a small but significant global audience. However, widespread piracy continues to inhibit the music industry's growth.[129]

Festivals

Music festivals, often hosted at historical sites, are a customary element of Lebanese culture.[131] Among the most famous are Baalbeck International Festival, Byblos International Festival, Beiteddine Festival, Batroun Festival, and Tyr Festival.[131][132] These festivals are promoted by Lebanon's Ministry of Tourism.[133]

Film

There are several movies, which are filmed in or based on Lebanon, including:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Republic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names, is also used, but less frequently.

References

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  131. ^ a b Sheehan, Sean; Latif (2007-08-30). "Leisure". Lebanon. Cultures of the World. 13. Zawiah. Marshall Cavendish Children's Books. pp. 123. ISBN 9780761420811. http://books.google.com/books?id=cA-RDzlwVVAC&pg=PA123&dq=festivals+Lebanon&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=festivals%20Lebanon&f=false. 
  132. ^ Carter, Terry; Dunston Lara (2004-08-01). "Getting Started". Syria & Lebanon. Guidebook Series. Humphreys Andrew (2 ed.). Lonely Planet. pp. 11. ISBN 9781864503333. http://books.google.com/books?id=EskzgI-229IC&pg=PA11&dq=festivals+Lebanon&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=festivals%20Lebanon&f=false1. 
  133. ^ "Lebanon Summer & Winter Festivals". Lebanese Ministry of Tourism. http://www.lebanon-tourism.gov.lb/news/Details.aspx?NewsId=10. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 

Further reading

  • Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Nation Books, 2002.
  • Firzli, Nicola Y. Al-Baath wa-Lubnân [Arabic only] ("The Baath and Lebanon"). Beirut: Dar-al-Tali'a Books, 1973
  • Glass, Charles, "Tribes with Flags: A Dangerous Passage Through the Chaos of the Middle East", Atlantic Monthly Press (New York) and Picador (London), 1990 ISBN 0436181304
  • Hitti Philip K. History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine, Vol. 2 (2002) (ISBN 1-931956-61-8)
  • Holst, Sanford. Phoenicians: Lebanon's Epic Heritage. Los Angeles: Cambridge and Boston Press, 2005.
  • Norton, Augustus R. Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1987.
  • Plonka Arkadiusz, L’idée de langue libanaise d’après Sa‘īd ‘Aql, Paris, Geuthner, 2004 (French) ISBN 2705337393
  • Sobelman, Daniel. New Rules of the Game: Israel and Hizbollah After the Withdrawal From Lebanon, Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel-Aviv University, 2004.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Salibi, Kamal. A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Location of Lebanon
.Lebanon (Arabic: لبنان Lubnān), officially the Lebanese Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية), is a small, largely mountainous country in the Middle East, located at the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea.^ When any Lebanese Corporation allocates a percentage not less than 20% of its capital to Arabic companies whose bonds are operating in their respective bourse’ countries, or to foreign countries whose bonds are operating in the Bourse of OECD countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in 2000, GEF had approved the inclusion of Lebanon in the list of countries to benefit from small-scale grants for NGOs and local associations.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourism in Lebanon was based on a mix of beaches and mountains, with skiing in the winter months and the presence of a large number of archaeological and historical sites.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to its sectarian diversity, Lebanon follows a special political system known as confessionalism, meant to distribute power as evenly as possible among different sects.^ A number of smaller parties existed, or were in the process of forming, but the larger, sectarian-based parties still maintained the greatest influence in the country's political system.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Analysts are questioning whether the rival factions will be able to form a unity government and to ensure Lebanon does not begin another cycle of political instability and sectarian violence.

^ The deal was meant to end Lebanon's worst sectarian violence since the 1975-1990 civil war.

[1] .The country enjoyed relative calm and prosperity, driven by the tourism, agriculture, and banking sectors of the economy,[2] until the onset of wars beginning with the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) and continuing through recent conflicts like the 2006 Lebanon War.^ Oberservers said that the scene was a reminder of the beginning of the 1975-1990 civil war.

^ But he says the cost of the conflict to his country's economy as well as tourism, agriculture and industry will run into billions of dollars.

^ Similar clashes in May led Lebanon to the brink of civil war, but fighting halted when a deal was reached between Arab leaders in Qatar to elect a new Lebanese president.

Contents

Sourced

Political killings

  • Darweesh: Why were they late until they killed him?
    [Both laugh.]
    Off-Screen Man: We are not gloaters.
    Darweesh: It's not gloating, but we're tired of this. There's still Ahmed Fatfat, I'm counting them.
    Off-Screen Man: We still need ... four, five. .
    • Conversation between news anchor Darweesh and an off-screen man during a 13 June 2007 news broadcast on "the NBN channel of pro-Syrian Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri", reporting on the bombing death of anti-Syrian Lebanese lawmaker Walid Eido
    • "Lebanon minister sues TV anchor over on-air gaffe", Reuters, 15 June 2007.^ Monday Dec 3, 2007 Lebanon on Sunday edged closer to choosing a new president.

      ^ Thursday 13 December 2007 A Lebanese general died in a car bombing in the Beirut suburb of Baabda on Wednesday.

      ^ During talks with senior government officials, she urged Lebanon to hold an open and free election in June without outside interference.

      .URL accessed on 2007-06-15.
    • "Lebanon minister sues TV anchor over on-air gaffe", Middle East Online, 15 June 2007.^ There were no developments in the June 2005 case against Al-Mustaqbal reporter and Future TV anchor Zahi Wehbe.
      • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Monday 06 August 2007 Opposition Has Edge in Lebanon Vote ROUMIEH, Lebanon , Aug.

      URL accessed on 2007-06-15.

References

  1. Countries Quest. "Lebanon, Government". Retrieved December 14, 2006.
  2. U.S. Department of State. "Background Note: Lebanon (History) August 2005" Retrieved December 2, 2006.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Middle East : Lebanon
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:le-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Beirut
Government Republic
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)
Area total: 10,452 km2
water: 170 km2
land: 10,230 km2
Population 3,874,050 (2006 est.)
Language Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Electricity 110-220V/50Hz (European and UK plugs)
Calling Code 961
Internet TLD .lb
Time Zone UTC +2
For other places with the same name, see Lebanon (disambiguation).
.The Republic of Lebanon لبنان [1] is a small country (10,452 sq km or 4076 sq mi in area with 3.7 million inhabitants) within the Middle East region with its capital being Beirut.^ Lebanon (Arabic Lubnan ) is a country in the Middle East .
  • Lebanon - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: The Republic of Lebanon is a parliamentary republic.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I cannot travel in my country, nor I can go to the capital, Beirut.
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has a long coastline on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and shares a long land border with its much larger neighbour Syria to the north and the east, a much shorter (and currently "hot") border with Israel to the south.^ The country is bordered on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, on the north and east by Syria and on the south by Israel.
  • Lebanon News - Breaking World Lebanon News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ It borders Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west.
  • Lebanon - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today's Lebanon, a narrow country stretched along the eastern Mediterranean coast was once the land of the Phoenicians.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

Understand

History

.Lebanon is a country with a long and rich history.^ By then the Maronites had established themselves-a cardinal fact in the history of Lebanon, which long remained predominantly Christian while Syria became Muslim.
  • Lebanon News - Breaking World Lebanon News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The minister also says he hoping for a long-term solution in Lebanon and repeated his support for the idea of the UN Security Council dispatching an international peacekeeping for to that country.

^ By then the Maronites had established themselves—a cardinal fact in the history of Lebanon, which long remained predominantly Christian while Syria became Muslim.
  • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Roman ruins are scattered about the country and are easily accessible. .Byblos, Beirut, and Sidon are among the oldest, continuously populated cities in the world.^ Less tolerant administrators laid heavy hands on the Christian maritime cities of Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Byblos, Tripoli, Latakia and even holy Antioch, where the very name "Christian" had first been used.
  • Phoenicia, Phoenician Christians, The First Converts Outside the Jews 9 October 2009 19:55 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Urban specialists and the public at large continue to participate in the debate[21] at the heart of which is Beirut's historic city center is at the very heart of it.
  • LEBANON�S ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.lcps-lebanon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same can be said about other Phoenician cities like Sidon, Berytus (Beirut), Byblos, Botrys (Batroun) and Tripoli.
  • Phoenicia, Phoenician Christians, The First Converts Outside the Jews 9 October 2009 19:55 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

There are Roman baths in Beirut, as well as the Cardio Maximus - to name a few. Byblos is also rich in Roman ruins and for a small fee you can view them (they are located near the bazaar). There are a lot of ancient mosques, synagogues, and churches in Lebanon. .Also be sure to visit the Place de Martyrs (Place of the Martyrs) in Beirut, a statue erected in memory of the Lebanese nationalists who were hanged by the Ottomans for revolting during World War 1. (The statue is now riddled with bullet holes from the civil war, but is still beautiful.^ Approximately 17,000-20,000 people are still "missing" or unaccounted for from the civil war period.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War I, the French (the main patrons of the Mutasarifiya and the Maronite community) fought the Ottomans, allowing them to finally end the Mutasarifiya in 1915.
  • Lebanon - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The so called civilized world may offer these two war criminals the titles they wish for, in the eyes of the Lebanese they will remain war criminals and no less than war criminals.
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

)

People

.The people of Lebanon comprise a wide variety of ethnic groups and religions, with the majority split between Christian (Maronite, Greek Orthodox, Greek-Catholic Melkites, Armenians, Protestant, Coptic Christians) and Muslim (Shi'a, Sunni, Druze).^ What happened after the tentative peace accord between Christians and Muslims in Lebanon?
  • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenian Orthodox and Armenian Catholics - Fee not specified .

^ PEOPLE The population of Lebanon comprises various Christian and Muslim sects as well as Druze.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other smaller groups include Alawites. .There are a large number (over 250,000) of Palestinian refugees in the country.^ During the year there were 223,956 Palestinian refugees in UNRWAs 12 refugee camps throughout the country.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this number did not include a substantial number of refugees from Iraq who entered the country illegally in search of jobs, education, and security.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Within a year following Israel's 1967 war during which an additional 200,000 Palestinian refugees had fled the country, Israel first launched massive ground and air attacks against this country.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

.The population increases dramatically in the Summer months (June to September), due to the large influx of tourists and the temporary return of a large number of the Lebanese diaspora.^ This generated increasing friction with the Lebanese population.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the principal objectives of this office was to approve and increase the number of humanitarian projects designed to assist the Palestinian refugee population, with an emphasis on health and education.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourism in Lebanon was based on a mix of beaches and mountains, with skiing in the winter months and the presence of a large number of archaeological and historical sites.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

People are very easy-going and welcoming. .You should not be scared of talking to people on the streets and asking information, since most of them will do their best to help you.^ For now, it is crucial to end the killing and help the people suffering in the streets.

^ The agencies try to stay clear of the political stickiness as much as possible, instead focusing on the suffering; “you have to pick the people who need help the most,” says Kevin McCort of CARE Canada.

^ If you are asked to provide proof that a document from the United States is authentic, we can help.

In general, though, avoid any comment on politics and religion.
.Lebanon is populated by a very open and highly educated people.they are known for their love of life,generosity and wild spirit.they tend to neglect regulation and insist on respecting all others.^ War weariness affects Lebanese of all political colors, but there are other factors that mitigate against the rise, let alone the success, of open resistance.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon's democratic foundations and its diverse political landscape have all but crumbled as a result of Syrian tampering with parliamentary elections and other rampant forms of corruption.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On Friday, about 800,000 people or one-quarter of Lebanon's population, turned out to demonstrate.

.Lebanon had once been called Switzerland and Paris of the East.^ Beirut became the commericial, banking, and tourist hub of the Arab world, and was often called the "Paris of the Midddle East".
  • Lebanon - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The recent wars have diminished this status but the Lebanese have always acted in unexpected ways. Their pursuit of happiness and fun overshadows their financial capabilities.

Climate

.Lebanon has a temperate Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cooler, wet winters.^ Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Summer is generally considered the best time to visit, as there is virtually no rain between June and August, and the temperatures range between about 20-30°C (68-86°F).^ There were no developments in the June 2005 case against Al-Mustaqbal reporter and Future TV anchor Zahi Wehbe.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, there is no one Aramaic language, but each time and place has had its own variety.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9BcmFtYWljX2xhbmd1YWdl 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ No updated reliable survey exists to determine the current number, and estimates varied hugely, ranging between 16,750 and 600,000.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

At this time it is very humid on the coast, but dryer and somewhat cooler (but not cold) in the mountains.
Autumn and spring are also good times to visit, with a bit more rain but without the tourist crowds attracted in summer.
.Snow falls for a large part of winter in the mountain regions that form a large portion of the country, and there are numerous ski resorts.^ Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inland the ground rises quickly, to two ranges of high mountains, where there is much winter frost and snow.
  • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forced by persecution to leave their homes in northern Syria, they settled in the northern part of the mountain and absorbed the Phoenician population to form the present Maronite Church.
  • Phoenicia, Phoenician Christians, The First Converts Outside the Jews 9 October 2009 19:55 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

However, the coast is still relatively mild, with maximums rarely falling below 13°C (55°F).

Time zone

.Lebanon is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and observes daylight savings from end-March to end-October.^ Beirut geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 15 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In times of meager financial means, the media in Lebanon have bent over backwards to satisfy the local authorities, and behind them, the Syrians.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is time for the Executive Branch openly to call on Damascus to end the occupation of Lebanon.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Talk

.The official language of Lebanon is Arabic.^ In Asia, French is an official language in Lebanon .
  • Reference for French language - Search.com 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC chemmvp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Literary Arabic or classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages.
  • Arabic_language 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC hewgill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In course of time, virtually all sections of the population adopted Arabic, the language of the Muslim states in which ancient Phoenician (now Lebanon) was included.
  • Phoenicia, Phoenician Christians, The First Converts Outside the Jews 9 October 2009 19:55 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Lebanese dialect is similar to other Arabic dialects, like those of Syria and Jordan.^ Neither the Lebanese nor Syria nor the Hezbulla forces are likely to accept this offer.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

^ To handle those Arabic letters that cannot be accurately represented using the Latin script, numerals and other characters were appropriated.

^ Like other languages, Modern Standard Arabic continues to evolve.

.However, The Lebanese dialect of Arabic is very different from some other dialects, particularly the dialects from Persian Gulf countries.^ Some dialects have different stress rules.
  • Arabic_language 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC hewgill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arabic Language | Credit Shakedown 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC www.creditshakedown.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When any Lebanese Corporation allocates a percentage not less than 20% of its capital to Arabic companies whose bonds are operating in their respective bourse’ countries, or to foreign countries whose bonds are operating in the Bourse of OECD countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Semitic [p] became [f] extremely early on in Arabic before it was written down; a few modern Arabic dialects, such as Iraqi (influenced by Persian and Turkish ) distinguish between [p] and [b] .

The large majority of the Lebanese are trilingual. .French is widely spoken and understood and many signs are in both Arabic (first) and French (second), owing to Lebanon's period as a French mandated territory after the First World War.^ The French were given the mandate of Syria after World War I by the League of Nations; Lebanon was a part of that mandate.
  • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French is also spoken by many immigrants of French or Maghrebin origin and their descendants in Israel .
  • Reference for French language - Search.com 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC chemmvp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lebanon is the battleground on which Israel fights its wars, first with the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), now with Hizbullah.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

English is increasingly more widely used, especially in the cities, and among the younger crowd. .Most young people will understand French, English, and Arabic.^ Progress Report (March 2000), Council for Development and Reconstruction; also available on the website: www.cdr.org.lb in three languages (Arabic, French and English).
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Koranic fish List of Arabic loanwords in English List of French words of Arabic origin List of Islamic terms in Arabic List of Portuguese words of Arabic origin List of replaced loanwords in Turkish Literary Arabic Varieties of Arabic .

^ In addition, English has quite a few Arabic loan words, some directly but most through the medium of other Mediterranean languages.

Generally, signs and outdoors are written in at least two languages.

Holidays

.Lebanon has a number of both Christian and Islamic holidays.^ It also saw the rise of radicalism among a small number of Lebanese Muslim factions who believed that the successive Israeli and U.S. interventions in Lebanon were serving primarily Christian interests.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Holidays that are observed by the Lebanese Government are indicated in bold letters.
  • New Year's Day(January 1)
  • St. Valentine's Day(February 14)
  • St. Maroun's Day(February 9)- Christian religious observances.
  • Prophet's Day(March 9)- Islamic religious observances
  • Easter(A Sunday in March or April)- Christian religious observances.
  • Labor Day(May 1)- most businesses and schools closed.
  • Liberation of the South(May 25)
  • St. Elias's Day(July 20)- A lot of fireworks and festivals.
  • Assumption Day(August 15)
  • Ramadan(variable)-Islamic religious observances
  • Eid el Fiitr(variable)-Islamic religious observances
  • Independence Day(November 22)- All businesses and schools closed.
  • St. Barbara's Day, Halloween(December 4)
  • Christmas(December 25)- Most businesses and restaurants closed the evening before and all day; family gathering, exchanging gifts, Christian religious observances.
  • New Year's Eve(December 31)
.All in all, Beirut, Lebanon's capitol city, is a vibrant, stylish metropolis with all of the fun fashion and flare that any city lover would look for ranking it among the world's top tourist destinations.^ Lebanon to major touristic destinations around the world.

^ The capital and largest city of Lebanon is Beirut .
  • Lebanon - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clashes over who was in charge between the Palestinians and Lebanese security and military led to armed incidents flaring up all over Lebanon, as the Palestinians were operating from refugee camps in the South, in and around Beirut, and in the North.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

Being perched on the shore of the marvelous Mediterranean Sea, Beirut has a special climate that is perfect for year round visits. Beirut has something to offer that no other world capitol has. .The exuberant Lebanese people who enjoy a variety ranging from roadside a la Parisienne coffee shops, to rooftop open air cafes, with cutting edge fashion and the latest in world trends hosting the world class Lebanese designer boutiques such as Issam Chammas, Elie Saab, and Bassil.^ Lebanese people around the world .

^ Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora asked how the world could look on as his people is the victim of "callous retribution by the state of Israel."

^ One question is how the Lebanese people, many of whom support Hezbollah and view it as a legitimate resistance movement, would greet such a mission.

(Lebanese designers have dressed stars such as Angelina Jolie, Salma Hayek, Brad Pitt, Anne Hathaway, Katy Perry, Paula Abdul, Carrie Underwood, Helen Mirren, Halle Berry, and Beyonce for the Oscars, Cannes Film Festival, Grammy Awards, and many others). .Boss, Teddy Smith, Paco Rabban, Marc Jacob, Valentino, Christian Louboutin and any other name that might come to mind - Lebanon's got it!^ The United Nations peacekeepers of in south Lebanon (UNIFIL) come from around the world and other elements came from the Soviet Union, Iraq, Egypt, and Algeria.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With these aims in mind, Israeli forces drove 25 miles into Lebanon, moving into East Beirut with the support of Maronite Christian leaders and militia.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Don't forget exploring the treasures of the country's national museum or dancing till the break of dawn at one of the many many Lebanese trendy clubs or lounges or even relaxing away at one of the country's numerous relaxation spas or leisure clubs.^ As Lebanon goes to the polls in one of the most crucial elections of a generation, one Lebanese-American returns to his native country to cast his ballot.
  • Lebanon News - Breaking World Lebanon News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ By ROBERT F. WORTH Prime Minister Saad Hariri’s trip to Syria had historical echoes for many Lebanese, and epitomized their national story.
  • Lebanon News - Breaking World Lebanon News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ One question is how the Lebanese people, many of whom support Hezbollah and view it as a legitimate resistance movement, would greet such a mission.

Regions

Lebanon can be divided into five regions:
Regions of Lebanon
Regions of Lebanon
Beirut
Bekaa
Mount Lebanon
North Lebanon
South Lebanon

Cities

.Many cities in Lebanon have English names which are significantly different to their Arabic names; the Roman versions of the Arabic names in given in parentheses below.^ Colloquial Arabic has many different regional variants; these sometimes differ enough to be mutually unintelligible and some linguists consider them distinct languages.

^ Later come the Safaitic inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BC, and the many Arabic personal names attested in Nabataean inscriptions (which are, however, written in Aramaic).

^ Lebanon-area historical earthquake activity is significantly below Tennessee state average.
  • Lebanon, Tennessee (TN) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, move, moving, houses news, sex offenders 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Beirut - the capital and largest city
  • Baalbek - a Phoenician and Roman archaeological site
  • Byblos (Joubeil) - another city with plenty of remains, castles and museums
  • Jezzine - main summer resort and tourist destination of South Lebanon
  • Jounieh - known for its seaside resorts and nightclubs
  • Sidon (Saida) - plenty of medieval remains
  • Tripoli (Trablus) - still unspoilt by mass-tourism
  • Tyre (Sour) - has a number of ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Zahle - capital of Bekaa Valley
  • Barouk
  • Bcharre
  • Jeita - a cave
  • Kadisha Valley and visit the home of the (now deceased) Lebanese poet Khalil Gibran.
Travel Warning
Visa Restrictions:
.Entry will be refused to citizens of Israel and travelers with any evidence of visiting Israel: not just Israeli entry stamps, but Egyptian/Jordanian neighboring land borders with Israel, any products with Hebrew labeling, etc.^ Tourist Visa: Required Business Visa: Required Student Visa: Required Canadians have been denied entry into Lebanon because their passports bore: a) an Israeli visa; b) an Israeli border stamp; or c) an Egyptian or Jordanian border stamp issued by an office bordering Israel (such a stamp would indicate the traveller has been to Israel ).
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Yet, for the first 20 years or so of Israel's independence, Israelis living near the Lebanese border were the safest of all the frontiersmen.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

^ Israeli troops did not let it reach the border.  In 1981, PLO guerrillas rained Katyusha rockets into northern Israel and the border strip.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

Non-nationals must have a visa to enter Lebanon.
.Three-month visas are free for nationals from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Jordan.^ Extensions of one month (on three-month visas) are given by the Airport Branch of General Security.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The government did not issue visitors visas to Jordanian nationals who were born in the country and were of Palestinian origin.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Other nationals can obtain a 15-day visa for LL25,000 (US$17), or a three-month visa for LL50,000 (US$35).^ Lebanon's gross national product (GNP) today is $15 billion, and per capita income is just under $4,000.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The children earned between $2 and $15 (3,000 to 25,000 pounds) per day.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ One of four Soviet diplomats kidnapped by the Islamic Liberation Organization on September 30, 1985, was killed by his captors; the other three were released a month later.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These visas are single-entry; nationals of many countries can also obtain multiple-entry visas ($75 valid for six months).^ Your passport must show a Lebanese entry visa and immigration entry stamp to exit the country.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Although tourist visas are now available at a port of entry, Canadians should ensure that they obtain their Lebanese visa prior to their arrival.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Lebanese-Canadians travelling on a Canadian passport must obtain an exit visa if they have not obtained an entry visa in their Canadian passport upon arrival or are not in possession of a valid Lebanese passport.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The 48 hour free of charge transit visas (valid for three calendar days) are not issued anymore, eventhough the signbord at the border still mentions it.^ The SG issues residence permits, valid for three months, during which time UNHCR must make a refugee status determination.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If a detainee is held more than 48 hours without formal charges, the arrest is considered arbitrary and the detainee must be released.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If a suspect is held more than 48 hours without formal charges, the arrest is considered arbitrary and the detainee must be released.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Visas can be obtained at Lebanese embassies and consulates in other countries, or upon arrival at Beirut airport and other points of entry.^ According to source country embassies and consulates, many workers did not report violations of their labor contracts until after returning to their countries.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Your passport must show a Lebanese entry visa and immigration entry stamp to exit the country.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Approximately 200 Lebanese Army soldiers withdrew from the vicinity of Beirut International Airport, leaving the area in the control of Amal.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

An updated visa requirements text can always be found on the visa to Lebanon page.

By plane

.Beirut International Airport (BEY), is located 5 km (3 mi) south of the city centre) - Middle East Airlines services daily to Abidjan, Abu Dhabi, Accra, Amman, Athens, Cairo, Cologne, Copenhagen, Dammam, Doha, Dubai, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul-Ataturk, Jeddah, Kano, Kuwait, Lagos, Larnaca, London-Heathrow, Milan-Malpensa, Nice, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Riyadh and Rome-Fiumicino.^ What catches on in Beirut is quickly imitated in Cairo, Amman, and Dubai.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Downtown Beirut the heartbeat of the Middle East!
  • Lebanon Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Lebanon with Instant Confirmation and Last Minute Booking 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: News]

^ The Beirut International Airport has been subject to a thorough rehabilitation and expansion.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition the Airport is served by foreign airlines
Middle East (Arabic countries)
  1. Air Algérie (Algiers)
  2. Air Arabia (Sharjah, United Arab Emirates) (http://www.airarabia.com)
  3. EgyptAir (Cairo, Alexandria-El Nohza)
  4. Emirates Airline (Dubai)
  5. Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi)
  6. FlyDubai (Dubai)
  7. Gulf Air (Bahrain)
  8. Iran Air (Tehran-Imam Khomeini)
  9. Jazeera Airways (Dubai, Kuwait)
  10. Kuwait Airways (Kuwait)
  11. Oman Air (Dubai, Muscat)
  12. Qatar Airways (Doha)
  13. RAK Airways (Ras Al Khaimah)
  14. Royal Air Maroc (Casablanca)
  15. Royal Jordanian (Amman)
  16. Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah, Riyadh)
  17. Tunisair (Tunis)
  18. Yemenia (Amman, Sanaa)
Europe
  1. Aeroflot (Moscow-Sheremetyevo)
  2. Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle)
  3. Alitalia (Rome-Fiumicino)
  4. Armavia (Yerevan)
  5. BMI (Khartoum, London-Heathrow)
  6. Bulgaria Air (Sofia)
  7. Cyprus Airways (Larnaca)
  8. Czech Airlines (Prague)
  9. Lufthansa (Frankfurt)
  10. Malév Hungarian Airlines (Budapest)
  11. Olympic Airlines (Athens)
  12. Tarom (Bucharest-Otopeni)
  13. Turkish Airlines (Istanbul-Ataturk)
  14. Viking Airlines (Stockholm-Arlanda)
Asia
  1. Malaysia Airlines (Dubai, Kuala Lumpur)
Africa
  1. Ethiopian Airlines (Addis Ababa)
For flights from the United Kingdom try Turkish Airlines, Cyprus Airways or Czech Airlines. These three airlines are often cheaper even than MEA or BMI direct from Heathrow. Czech airlines are consistently the cheapest bet from Manchester.
.Direct flights from the U.S were again permitted by the U.S Government effective June 9, 2007; however, at present no airline offers direct service to the Americas from Beirut.^ The Government has no separate program to provide medical assistance to battered women; however, it provides legal assistance to victims who cannot afford it regardless of the gender of the victim.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The government had no separate program to provide medical assistance to battered women; however, it provided legal assistance to victims who could not afford it regardless of their gender.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ For however well organized, however many, however frequently staged, no protest will bring down a government in Lebanon that is supported by the majority of Parliament.

By bus

Buses leave Damascus every hour and typically cost 400 or 500 SYP. The trip is normally 4-5 hours, depending on traffic at the border. .Note that when leaving Syria, you must pay an exit fee of 550 SYP and must acquire a Lebanese visa on the other side of the border (48 hrs Transit Visa is free, 15 day Transit Visa is LL25,000 (US$17), single-entry 30 day Tourist Visa is LL50,000 (US$34), payable in Lebanese Pounds only.^ An expired entry visa must be extended by Lebanese authorities or else you will not be allowed to leave the country.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 15 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2006, Hizballah kidnapped two Israeli soldiers leading to a 34-day conflict with Israel in which approximately 1,200 Lebanese civilians were killed.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 15 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Money changers can exchange currency, typically with a $1 exchange fee).

By ship

.There are no such services available, but there are many companies that offer visits to Lebanon on a cruise.^ Software and books with tapes are also important part of Arabic learning, as many of Arabic learners may live in places where there are no academic or Arabic language school classes available.

^ Many continue to own property back in Lebanon and make periodic trips to visit relatives and take care of business.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no legal barriers to proselytizing; however, traditional attitudes and edicts of the clerical establishment strongly discouraged such activity.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Get around

.Lebanon is a small country and it is possible to drive from north to south in under 3 hours.^ The country is bordered on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, on the north and east by Syria and on the south by Israel.
  • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in 2000, GEF had approved the inclusion of Lebanon in the list of countries to benefit from small-scale grants for NGOs and local associations.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lebanon A country of the Middle East at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Syria on the north and east and Israel on the south.
  • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The main means of transport are service taxis, bus and car.

By Taxi

The majority of travelers use service taxis to get from place to place. ."Service" taxis often operate like buses on set routes between towns and cities, though they can be hired to visit other places with some negotiation.^ Foreign domestic servants often were mistreated, abused, and in some cases, raped or placed in slavery-like conditions (see section 5, Trafficking).
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest crowds were in Germany, where some 20,000 people demonstrated in Berlin and two other cities.

^ The government provided vaccination and other pediatric health services in dispensaries operated by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Social Affairs.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Each taxi carries between 4 (inside Metropolitan areas) to 6 (farther distances) passengers, who share the fare between them. .The Fare is 1750 LL (Lebanese Lira),although since most don't have change it is expected to pay 2000 which is about $1.33 for short distances of a couple of Kilometers/miles, and increases depending on both distance to be traveled, traffic on that specific road and of course, like everything in Lebanon, persuasion/negotiation skills.^ Second, it signed the Fez Declaration in September 1982, that committed it to "start negotiations" with the Lebanese government about "an end to the mission of the Arab deterrent forces in Lebanon [i.e., the Syrian troops]."
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon concluded negotiations on an association agreement with the European Union in late 2001, and both sides initialed the accord in January 2002.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lebanon, like most Arab states, does not recognize Israel, with which it has been technically at war since Israel's establishment.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A private Taxi ride, without having to share with other passengers is similar to a "Service" Taxi, in that the same pre-negotiation is required to determine the fare, and as a rule of thumb, costs the same as a fully loaded "Service" Taxi (the fare * number of passengers). note that the mostly known taxi company is Allo Taxi, you simply can reach them by dialing 12 13 from any phone. Allo Taxi's website
Taxis and "service" taxis are basically the same, and the mode of operation depends on the availability of passengers and their demands. .The majority of "service" taxis in Lebanon are 1975 Mercedes cars that roam the streets searching for passengers using their car-horns.^ The security services used checkpoints to conduct warrantless searches for smuggled goods, weapons, narcotics, and subversive literature.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Computer Sales & Service Computer RX 1644 Lynn Street Lebanon, MO 65536 (417) 588-2284 .

^ Manpower Staffing Services 1120 Lynn Street Lebanon, MO 65536 (417) 532-1212 .

.Newer car models working as mainly "service" taxis are appearing on the Lebanese streets with nevertheless the same price tag as their elder sisters.^ On April 18, a car bomb exploded at the U.S. embassy in Beirut, killing 17 U.S. foreign service and military personnel and over forty Lebanese employees and citizens.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

.All types of public transportation vehicles in Lebanon (taxis, buses, mini-vans and even trucks) can be recognized by their Red-colored licence plate.^ Syria regularly invades Lebanon's markets - through the unregulated intrusion en masse of Syrian taxi cabs, trucks for the transport of goods, or imported labor - thus rendering nearly all economic traffic in one direction.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, the number of red-plated vehicles has increased significantly from around 10.000 vehicles in 1994 up to 32.000 in 1999.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Definition of conditions for use and monitor trucks, buses and vehicles operating on diesel fuel, regulation of smoke emissions and quality; .
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By bus

City link bus routes are available and cheap. .Most buses for north Lebanon depart from the Charles Helou Station (east of downtown), while most buses to regions south or southeast of Beirut (including Damascus and Baalbek) depart from the Cola "Station" (which is really an intersection adjacent to the Cola bridge\overpass).^ Downtown Beirut the heartbeat of the Middle East!
  • Lebanon Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Lebanon with Instant Confirmation and Last Minute Booking 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: News]

^ Clashes over who was in charge between the Palestinians and Lebanese security and military led to armed incidents flaring up all over Lebanon, as the Palestinians were operating from refugee camps in the South, in and around Beirut, and in the North.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Call me naive, but I caught myself more than once daydreaming about the time were people (including me) will travel freely in the Middle East - how about an afternoon hibiscus tea in Damascus, before or after an hammam bath in Lebanon?

By train

No trains in Lebanon.

By car

Car rental is relatively expensive in Lebanon compared to elsewhere in the region. Reasonable, if not exactly cheap rates can, however, be found with perseverance and negotiation and - once you have your rental - fuel is easy to get.
.Lebanon's roads are generally in quite poor condition and Lebanese drivers are not known for their caution and demonstrate very little respect for other road users.^ Rehabilitation of road in poor and critical conditions; .
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rural roads are poorly maintained, and drivers have little regard for traffic laws.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Prisons were overcrowded, and sanitary conditions in the women's prison, in particular, were very poor.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Road rules are practically non-existent (apart from driving on the right - well, mostly....^ For example, non-Arabic [v] is used in the Maghrebi dialects as well in the written language mostly for foreign names.

), traffic is often jammed in big cities and there are no speed limits. Exercise extreme caution when driving in Lebanon. .Note that even in central Beirut, even in areas undamaged by the Israeli assault, there can be massive potholes on busy multi-lane roads (at best you will crack a hubcap if you go over one).^ Some smugglers who live in the occupied border area under the control of the Israeli Army have been monitored and arrested for drug smuggling when entering areas controlled by the central government.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no reports that Hizballah conducted arbitrary arrests in areas outside central government control during the year 2001.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no serious threats to health, but indirect threats were noted, such as physical and mental stress; the latter were especially noteworthy in Yarze prison, southeast of Beirut.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The dangers of driving in Lebanon can't be emphasized enough. .Driving in Lebanon should be considered an extreme activity for Western drivers accustomed to safe driving.^ Separated or divorced parents should carefully consider the risks of allowing their children to travel to Lebanon with the non-custodial parent.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Law enforcement, traffic lights, traffic control, road markings, street names and rights of way are virtually non-existent in a country of 4 million people but with cars outnumbering them.^ Rural roads are poorly maintained, and drivers have little regard for traffic laws.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The installation of 220 traffic signals, 30 traffic monitoring cameras, road signs, road marking, the construction of traffic surveillance and management centers as well as pavements works; .
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As far as Beirut is concerned, besides the completion of projects which are underway or currently under preparation, the focus will be on the improvement of existing roads (traffic lights, over/underpasses).
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mountain driving is particularly hazardous, often involving 1-car roads zig-zagging back and forth up the mountain over shear valleys with no safety barriers.^ Poor children often are compelled by their parents to seek employment and often take jobs that jeopardize their safety, including in industry, car mechanic shops, and carpentry.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Back in the day, as I stashed them away, I told myself that maybe 10 years down the road I'd pick them up again and get a glimpse into my past.

There exists one road called "Wadi Jamajim" (Skull Valley)which links Bickfaya to Baskinta.
Simply trying to park a car is a discouraging activity. .The ability to park a car in Lebanon is a tourist attraction in itself, often accomplished in non-existent spaces while under pressure from traffic.^ Lebanon, when it had eventually fought itself to a standstill, ended up under Syrian control.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Atrocities - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC jewwatch.com [Source type: News]

^ Governmental oversight has marred Lebanon's proverbial attraction as a coveted tourist destination.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parking management programme for 5,000 car spaces by using parking meters.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See

.Lebanon is a country rich in natural scenery from beautiful beaches to mountains and valleys.^ Terrain: Narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourism in Lebanon was based on a mix of beaches and mountains, with skiing in the winter months and the presence of a large number of archaeological and historical sites.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 15 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lebanese people take pride that Lebanon is one of the few countries that gives you the opportunity to go skiing in the morning and going to the beach in the afternoon.^ The implication for Lebanon is that the country is going no where.

^ For one, it may prove difficult to find countries willing to contribute to a force that would take Israel’s side in the conflict.

^ In fact, I'll take it one step further and say: Lebanon no longer matters now.

Beirut Downtown Visitors from all around get astonished by the beautiful downtown. .Beirut also has a vast array of nightclubs, restaurants and other entertaining places, including the famous Place de l'Etoile, where hundreds of tourists pass by and enjoy a delightful meal or a cup of coffee at the outdoor cafes.^ Hezbollah maintains a presence in the southern suburbs of Beirut, southern Lebanon, and several other areas, including the Bekaa Valley.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.In addition to those, the capital provides other restaurants and hangouts that people of all ages can enjoy and have a wild time with Electronic, Oriental, Pop, Blues, and Jazz Music provided by many fine bars, nightclubs and live music venues.^ All other extension cases are treated by the Foreign Department of General Security at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which provides one-week extensions.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The Bar Association operates an office for those who cannot afford a lawyer, and the court panel on many occasions has asked the Bar Association to appoint lawyers for defendants.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Baalbeck Roman Temples in the city of Baalbeck are among the largest and most beautiful Roman ruins.
.Al Bass Archaeological Site, Tyre, a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of the largest and best preserved Roman archeological sites in the world.^ Visit OUR 1,600 pages the world's largest Phoenician site .
  • Phoenicia, Phoenician Christians, The First Converts Outside the Jews 9 October 2009 19:55 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Saudi Arabia, for example, (the most influential Arab state) is nothing but Saudi Aramco - the largest company in the world, by the way - with a country and two holy sites attached to it.

.The site is made up of a huge Necropolis, a massive monumental arch leading to a Roman Road, alongside which there is an excellent example of an acqueduct as well as the largest and best preserved Roman Hippodrome found to date.^ Saudi Arabia, for example, (the most influential Arab state) is nothing but Saudi Aramco - the largest company in the world, by the way - with a country and two holy sites attached to it.

^ Troops set up checkpoints along roads leading from the mainly Shiite neighbourhoods of southern Beirut to Christian areas.

Jeita Grotto Jeita Grotto is nominated to be one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. .Jeita Grotto is the jewel of tourism in Lebanon offering to its visitors qualified modern services and accommodation in harmony with a fascinating nature.^ On the national level, the Mount Lebanon area could be considered as a model tourism destination for nature, historical and cultural aspects.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It creates a magical trip which enables them to spend a day of wonder-filled adventure by being carried away from a tangible world to a wonderland where are found 2 fabulous grottoes full of an unimaginable beauty and of a magical fascination! .It is a source of attraction for whole the families wishing to discover a mysterious world in the heart of the earth.The “Touristic Site of Jeita” gathers all elements of nature such as stone, water, trees, flowers, air and animals in a venturous environment and with a touch of Lebanese cultural heritage.^ Sleeveless garments and shorts may be acceptable at tourist locations but should be avoided elsewhere, especially when visiting sites of religious significance, such as churches and mosques.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ It is to note that most, if not all tourist activities (except the archaeological sites) are in the hands of the private sector.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Decision 52/1 (1996) issued by the Ministry of Environment, and pertaining to specifications and rates relative to reducing pollution of air, water and soil.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of the most impressive and interesting natural sites in the world.^ When the very nature of the peace to come and advancement of democracy is at stake, the question ceases to be one of altruism; it becomes a basic American national interest.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Saudi Arabia, for example, (the most influential Arab state) is nothing but Saudi Aramco - the largest company in the world, by the way - with a country and two holy sites attached to it.

.Beiteddin One of the most precious Arabic architectural jewels is the palace of Beiteddine.^ It is one of the most understood varieties of Arabic.

.This historic monument comprises of two large courtyards: the “midane”, a vast rectangular place for visitors, and a smaller one for the royal private apartments, with a magnificent fountain in its centre.^ These cars compete with two operational bus services, one publicly owned while the other is private and being more efficient.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Qadisha Valley (Holy Valley) In north Lebanon, the “Holy Valley” spreads from Bcharreh to the coast. .Classified under UNESCO's world heritage, its countless caves, chapels and monasteries as well as its luxuriant vegetation transformed it into the most famous natural site of Lebanon.^ Lebanon's agriculturally fertile Bekaa Valley, for example, was transformed into a notorious training ground for terrorists and a place to plan their operations.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This trend threatens to transform liberal education in Lebanon into a monochromatic shadow of itself thereby draining it of everything that upbuilds and enriches.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So far in 2009, the region bordering Israel has been the site of five rocket launches from Lebanon into Israel, most recently in October 2009.
  • Lebanon Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Anjar is a city in the Beqaa Valley with tens of local restaurants where you can enjoy the unique Lebanese cuisine.^ Humor # With a camera in hand, Lebanese blogger “ Beirut Drive-By Shooting ” brings you outdoor advertisements from Beirut - to enjoy or suffer along with them.

The city is home to the unique ruins of an 8th century Omayyad city.
." Byblos" is a must see as well being a competitor as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.^ It is a burning issue in Lebanon today, as well as being a Christian demand, that these people continue to be counted in any census and that they be allowed to vote regardless of where they reside.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

. http://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotos-g294005-Beirut.html#21068316 is a cite that offers some insight to lebanon's beauty.^ Steak n' Shake 1160 Rye Lane Lebanon, MO 65536 (417) 532-2795 www.steaknshake.com .

^ Cole-N-Sons Tire 935 S. Jefferson Lebanon, MO 65536 (417) 588-4468 www.cole-n-sons.com .

^ Edward Jones Investments Jim Kueny P. O. Box 84 Lebanon, MO 65536 (417) 588-2286 www.EdwardJones.com .

Do

.Lebanon offers a wide variety of tourism attractions and activities all year round.^ The golden years of U.S.-Lebanese relations existed between the establishment of Lebanon's embassy in Washington in 1945 and the earliest inception of Palestinian guerrilla activity in Lebanon in the mid-1960s.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all, it is estimated that more than 100,000 were killed, and another 100,000 left handicapped, during Lebanon's 16-year civil war.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, it is estimated that more than 100,000 were killed, and another 100,000 handicapped by injuries, during Lebanon's 16 year civil war.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Swimming, skiing, clubbing, cultural visits, adventure and much more. A highly recommended website offering detailed information is tourism in Lebanon.

Night-Life

.The Lebanese people know how to live despite political turmoil.^ Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora asked how the world could look on as his people is the victim of "callous retribution by the state of Israel."

^ One question is how the Lebanese people, many of whom support Hezbollah and view it as a legitimate resistance movement, would greet such a mission.

.Lebanon is a world-class party destination and has been rated by the New York Times as the number 1 tourist destination in the year of 2009. This is partly due to its spectacular nightlife.^ The New York Times writes that as he spoke, he "showed no indication that he was inclined to change goals or pull out of Iraq."

^ Governmental oversight has marred Lebanon's proverbial attraction as a coveted tourist destination.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Saturday 25 July 2009 NEW YORK`: LEBANESE GROUP ACCUSED OF VIOLATING CEASEFIRE The United States and Israel have accused Hezbollah of violating a United Nations weapons embargo in southern Lebanon and undermining the efforts of UN peacekeepers there.

It features several clubbing locations such as the thrilling Gemmayze district or the Monot Street where people party far past dawn. .It boasts several renowned DJs but it has also been visited by some of the world's most famous such as Tiesto, David Guetta, Armen Van Buren, Paul van Dyk who frequently visit Lebanon in tribute to its party animals.^ Politicians and parties in Lebanon have always been so much more responsive to foreign actors than to their own constituents (all of them have the illusion of being "bigger" than Lebanon, for some reason).

^ There has been criticism that the government was not prepared for the evacuation of some 10,000 Canadians who had been stranded in Lebanon, mostly in Beirut.

^ Most Berber varieties (such as Kabyle ), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic.

.Many world famous bands and performers have performed in Lebanon (or have shows planned)as well such as Keane, Deep Purple, The Pussycat Dolls, Akon, Snoop Dog and Gad Elmaleh.^ For example, many prominent leaders throughout the Arab world graduated with an American education from Lebanon.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For however well organized, however many, however frequently staged, no protest will bring down a government in Lebanon that is supported by the majority of Parliament.

.Pamela Anderson and Paris Hilton have both hosted parties in Lebanon and The Pussycat Dolls spent a night in the lebanese nightclubs.^ While Lebanon and Syria initially agreed to respect the Blue Line, both since have registered objections and continue to argue that Israel has not fully withdrawn from Lebanese soil.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lebanon is also known for it's skyhigh rooftop bars such as Sky Bar , White and Beiruf. .Not to forget the beautiful island centered in Beirut called Riviera.Lebanese clubs and bars are world-class, marvelous, and fascinating destinations.^ For over a century, Beirut has been (along with Cairo) one of the Arab world's two centers for free expression, information, and dissent.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

.Greater Beirut is a sleepless city, as the great majority of it open 24 hours a day.^ Passport information is available 24 hours, 7 days a week.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And for those who like trendiest arabic songs , the One-man show places will entertain you till dawn like Cassino , Concerto , Richello and ,many others.^ Early in the expansion of Arabic, the separate emphatic phonemes [dˁ] and [ðˁ] coallesced into a single phoneme, becoming one or the other.

^ As in many other Semitic languages, Arabic verb formation is based on a (usually) triconsonantal root , which is not a word in itself but contains the semantic core.

^ Like other languages, Modern Standard Arabic continues to evolve.

.Lebanon also has a huge beach party scene having exquisite beaches and beach resorts such as Oceana, Laguava or Edde Sands and Janna Sur Mer.^ Lebanon Hotels and Beach Resorts Online Hotel Reservation Center with up to 76% Discount on Published Rates !!!
  • Lebanon Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Lebanon with Instant Confirmation and Last Minute Booking 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: News]

^ Byblos Sur Mer Hotel Lebanon .
  • Lebanon Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Lebanon with Instant Confirmation and Last Minute Booking 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: News]

.Lebanese locations are widely diverse and exhibit "occidental" life style that is omnipresent to the degree that you will no doubt commit the mistake of thinking you're in a grand European capital in one moment and Las Vegas in another.^ However, at this point in history, I see no reason why the Hizb does not decommission and commit more of an effort into integrating into the Lebanese political system.

  • Lebanon Mountain Trail (LMT) - 350-plus km national hiking trail extending from Al Qobaiyat in the north to Marjaayoun in the south.

Ski

.Lebanon has six ski resorts with groomed slopes, catering to skiers and snowboarders of all levels.^ Indeed, a six-word statement would suffice: All Syrian forces must leave Lebanon.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Beyond the ski-able domains await you kilometers of cross-country skiing and snowshoeing trails waiting to be explored; Lebanon has something for everyone. Each of the ski resorts has a different flavor; however, it is Faraya Mzaar (Kfardebian) that offers world-class infrastructure and facilities for the tourists, at less then 40 minutes drive from Beirut.

Buy

Currency

.The Lebanese currency is the Lebanese pound, abbreviated "LBP" or "Lebanese Lira" abbreviated "LL", which is the most common abbreviation.^ Lebanese pound (LBP) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its value is kept stable relative to the US dollar, with a value of about LL1,500 to US$1. Either Lebanese pounds or US dollars are accepted almost everywhere, and it is common to pay in dollars but receive change in pounds (in which case, make sure you don't get short-changed).^ The government also has maintained a firm commitment to the Lebanese pound, which has been pegged to the dollar since September 1999.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2008 est.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 15 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absent Friends About Us NP story NBs Thank you Contributors Contact Us mail.google Clusty .

Bills used are LL1000, LL5000, LL10,000, LL20,000, LL50,000 and LL100,000.
There are LL50, LL100, LL250 and LL500 coins. LL50 coins are virtually never used.

Exchange rates

Correct as of November 2009:
$ US Dollar USD$1.00 = LL1,504 LL1,000 = USD$0.67
£ Pound Sterling £1.00 = LL2,529 LL1,000 = £0.40
€ Euro €1.00 = LL2,251 LL1,000 = €0.44
$ Australian Dollar AUD$1.00 = LL1,407 LL1,000 = AUD$0.71
$ New Zealand Dollar NZD$1.00 = LL1,126 LL1,000 = NZD$0.89
$ Canadian Dollar CAD$1.00 = LL1,435 LL1,000 = CAD$0.70
¥ Japanese Yen ¥1.00 = LL16.87 LL1,000 = ¥59

Eat

Lebanon fosters exquisite cuisine ranging from a mezza of vegetarian dishes such as tabouleh, fattoush, and warak anab to delicious dips like hommos and moutabal.
.Must haves include Lebanese barbeque such as shish tawouk (barbequed chicken) - usually consumed with garlic, lahm mishwe (barbequed meat), and kafta (barbequed seasoned minced meat).^ Other subjugated institutions include the Lebanese judiciary, schools and labor unions which are all shadows of their former selves having been forced to bow to Syrian manipulation.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

.A full meal at an Arabic restaurant can cost as little as 15 us dollars (22500 LL) depending on where you go.^ Total cost funded amount to 4.073.727 US dollars.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Lebanese fast food" is also available as sandwiches offered in roadside shops, such as shawarma sandwiches (known in other countries as doner - or gyros in greece. Shawarma, as opposed to doner is seasoned with tarator sauce based on sesame oil, vegetables and is rolled in lebanese thin bread)the best place to eat "Lebanese fast food" is at BarBar Restaurant in Hamra . Various barbequed meat sandwiches are also available, and even things such as lamb or chicken spleen, brains, lamb bone marrow or lamb testicles can be served as sandwiches.
Breakfast usually consists of maneesh which looks like a folded pizza, most common toppings are zaatar ( a sort of paste made from thyme,oregano, sesame seeds and olive oil), jebneh (cheese) and lahm bi ajin (minced meat). .Some new trendy places such as "zaatar w zeit" and "Leil nhar" experiment with new toppings, such as "halloum and bacon". Both places stay open 24 hours a day and partygoers often go there for a bite at 4 in the morning.^ Domestic workers often worked 18 hours per day and, in many cases did not receive vacations or holidays.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Foreign domestic servants often were mistreated, abused, and in some cases, raped or placed in slavery-like conditions (see section 5, Trafficking).
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although there was some effort to keep pretrial detainees separate from convicted prisoners, overcrowding often prevented such separation.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Another traditional breakfast food is knefeh; a special kind of breaded cheese that is served with a simple syrup in a sesame seed bread. It is also served as dessert, but somehow it tastes better in the morning; it is also extremely filling!
Lebanon is also very famous for its arabic sweets which can be found at leading restaurants. The city of Tripoli, however, is THE city for Lebanese sweets. .Many critics refer to it as the "Sweet Capital" of Lebanon, the Hallab sweets is the place to visit when making a trip to Tripoli.^ Many continue to own property back in Lebanon and make periodic trips to visit relatives and take care of business.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon established bilateral and multilateral agreements with many countries (refer to questions no.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lebanon has a number of abiding features that make it a significant place worthy and requiring of American attention.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

If taking a trip to the Bekaa, the restuarants known as the El-Wadi restuarants in Zahle serve exquisite Lebanese food. .In Beirut, Abd el-Wahab in the "Monot" area also serves axcellent lebanese food in a traditional setting.^ Approximately 200 Lebanese Army soldiers withdrew from the vicinity of Beirut International Airport, leaving the area in the control of Amal.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

world famous fast food chains such as kfc,mcdonald's,pizza hut,burger king or domino's pizza and many other are widely spread and easily found across the country. french,chineese,italian,american,and japanese cuisine are also widely spread and are found in virtually all of the country's malls.(such as chopsticks,sushi-ko,bob's,creapaway,water mellon...)
cafe's also exist virtually everywhere(starbucks,dunkin donuts,moka and more...)

Drink

Lebanon's wines have an international reputation. .Grapes have been grown since antiquity, and the vineyards, largely in the Bekaa Valley, produce the base wine for distillation into the national spirit Arak, which, like Ouzo, is flavoured with aniseed and becomes cloudy when diluted with water.^ Since the emergence of the post-1943 state, national policy has been determined largely by a relatively restricted group of traditional regional and sectarian leaders.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lebanon's agriculturally fertile Bekaa Valley, for example, was transformed into a notorious training ground for terrorists and a place to plan their operations.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Arak is the traditional accompniment to Meze.
But the grapes have also historically been used to make wine. .This used to be predominantly white and sweet, but the soliders and administrators that came to administer the French mandate after World War One created a demand for red wine, and large acreages were planted especially with the Cinsault grape.^ November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lebanon 15 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the League of Nations mandated the five provinces that comprise present-day Lebanon to France.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the League of Nations mandated the five provinces that had comprised present-day Lebanon to France.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Over the last 20 years these have been supplemented with the most popular international varieties, such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay.^ Also, such dissemination is ensured by local partners to these international entities.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wineries often offer wine tasting and are very welcoming. The highly individual, old fashioned, Chateau Musar, is based at Ghazir, 15 miles north of Beirut, and trucks in the grapes from Bekaa. In Bekaa itself, wineries include the large Kefraya, Ksara, the oldest winery of all, Massaya, a fashionable new producer in Tanail, and Nakad in Jdeita, which like Musar has stuck with an idiosyncratic old fashioned approach. Kefraya, in the West Bekaa region, also has a nice restaurant attached and the region itself is beautiful to pass through.
Lebanon and specially Beirut is famous for its excellent night life. .The choice can vary from international nightclubs such as the famous "Buddha Bar" or "Crobar" to many local clubs that cater from teens to seniors.^ In September, 2001, the Beirut Bar Association organized a conference composed of local and international participants to underscore the need for local penal reform.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, such dissemination is ensured by local partners to these international entities.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Favourite areas to go out are "Monot" and "Gemmeyzeh" Streets in "Ashrafieh" area of Beirut and the newly built "down town" area.^ Cycleways and footways are still restricted to old centers (Beirut down town, Byblos, Jounieh, Zouk).
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The downtown area is popular with tourists, particularly Arabs from the Gulf. .As for Westerners the Gemmayzeh area would be more appealing, Monot has died down in recent years and all of he pre-clubbing activity is mostly centered in Gemmayzeh.^ Concerning waste water, the government's target is to have primary treatment with sea outfalls operational for all of the urban areas of the coastal zone by the year 2002.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, it is estimated that more than 100,000 were killed, and another 100,000 left handicapped, during Lebanon's 16-year civil war.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, it is estimated that more than 100,000 were killed, and another 100,000 handicapped by injuries, during Lebanon's 16 year civil war.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is worth mentionining that in Beirut, one would usually have dinner aroung 9, go for a few drinks in the pubs in Gemmayzeh at 11, and then go to a club at around 1:00 am and then continue to B018 at aroung 3:00 to 4:00 am.^ Speaking on Hezbollah-run television, the militants said that they would nevertheless continue a civil disobedience campaign in Beirut until their demands are met.

If amazing night life does not interest you, or you prefer to get to bed earlier then I would recommend having a drink in Gemmayzeh where most of the pubs are done in very good taste and it will give you the opportunity to get a good idea of Lebanese culture.
.For adults and especially the 30 plus,"Crystal" (Monot Street) used to be the place but now it turned into "Palais". Many Lebanese enjoy frequenting "Element" (Ashrafieh), which tends to rarely play any Arabic music.^ Why turn the political podium into a place where sheikhs conduct their Friday sermons?

^ Nonetheless, many of the provisions of the national pact were codified in the 1989 Ta'if Agreement, perpetuating sectarianism as a key element of Lebanese political life.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dialect is based on Achaemenid with a little influence from Arabic: 'l' is often turned into 'n', and there are a few Arabic loan words.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9BcmFtYWljX2xhbmd1YWdl 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Reference]

."Al Mandaloun" (Ashrafieh) focuses more on Arab-pop music than Western dance music and is a good place to more typical lebanese society.^ Until now, more than 30 joint European and Lebanese NGO projects were financed under different budget lines.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliamentary and more recently municipal elections have been held with fewer irregularities and more popular participation than in the immediate aftermath of the conflict, and Lebanese civil society generally enjoys significantly more freedoms than elsewhere in the Arab world.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Tuesday 21 August 2007 The Lebanese justice department has charged more than 200 alleged militants of the Islamist group Fatah al-Islam with murder and terrorist acts.

.If you are going to Lebanon in the summer then you cannot miss going to Skybar and White which are two rooftop clubs in the downtown area of Bierut, White is more laid back and I would say it is an excellent place for an older crowd.^ Hold On: I know what you're saying: what the hell does this have to do with Lebanon?

^ The departure of two more ministers would bring down the government.

^ Saad Hariri says the plan put forward Saturday by members of the Arab League, including Syria, would quickly resolve Lebanon's political crisis.

Skybar is phenomenal, a must-see in the months it's open (June to September/October). Situated on the top of the Biel exhibition centre it offers an exquisite view of Beirut's coast and the mountains around it. It does not get very crowded early in the night and is, therefore, good for a more quiet drink at 9 to 10 p.m. but after that you will encounter a line, a crowd of impeccably dressed lebanese, more upbeat music and during the weekend you usually need to have connections in order to get in.

Sleep

. Intercontinantal Pheonicia- Le Royal Le Vendome- Le Meridien- Radisson Sas- Grand Hills Hotel- Metropolitan ( Habtour )- those are all 5 stars hotels and there are many others.^ War weariness affects Lebanese of all political colors, but there are other factors that mitigate against the rise, let alone the success, of open resistance.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sunnis and Shi'is are actually able to stop killing each other over there - or at least minimize the killing - we'll all be better off.

^ Le Meridien Commodore Hotel .
  • Lebanon Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Lebanon with Instant Confirmation and Last Minute Booking 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: News]

There is also the intercontinetel phoneicia,the habtoor and the sofitel. .Le gray hotel Beirut and the four points by sheraton are schedueled to open in lebanon.^ Nowadays, international business tourism is the main source of international tourism of Lebanon (75% of Beirut hotel occupancy).
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tension increased in Beirut on Friday when a massive car bomb killed one of Lebanon's senior intelligence officers and four other people.

  • Hotels in Beirut (Budget to Luxury hotels), Beirut, +961.70.103222, [2]. checkin: 2PM; checkout: Noon. A locally operated travel portal providing tips and booking facilities to traveler wanting to visit Beirut and discover the city. $60.  .'sleep', 'Lebanon');return false;" title="click to edit Hotels in Beirut">edit
  • L'HOTE LIBANAIS [3] a network of Bed & Breakfasts across Beirut and the country, see website for room availability.^ Markazia Monroe Hotel Beirut Lebanon .
    • Lebanon Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Lebanon with Instant Confirmation and Last Minute Booking 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Nowadays, international business tourism is the main source of international tourism of Lebanon (75% of Beirut hotel occupancy).
    • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unscrupulous employers sometimes falsely accused the employee of theft to relinquish responsibility for the employee as well as the taxes and a return airline ticket (see section 6.e.
    • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    (Tel: +961 3 513766). Double room including breakfast: $65.

Learn

.A handful of private schools, such as the Lycée Français (several branches over the country), the Collège Protestant Français college notre dame de jamhour and college elysee amongst others follow the official French curriculum.^ Today, the country of approximately 3-3.5 million has a market-based economy, in which the majority of the private sector work force is employed in the service sector such as banking and commerce.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Coinciding with the protests, a number of progovernment rallies were held in several areas around the country.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, it is expected that buses used for private and public transport will increase due to the government intention to expand public transport in the entire territory.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The official French Baccalaureate exams can be taken in Lebanon.^ No official census has been taken since 1932, reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon over confessional (religious) balance.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1936, the French Mandate established the first official law regarding sects in Syria and Lebanon.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some schools (such as I.C. or "ACS")teach English as a first language and follow the english curriculum.^ In addition, English has quite a few Arabic loan words, some directly but most through the medium of other Mediterranean languages.

^ In the course of its history the language has adopted numerous loanwords, phonetic and phonological features, and even some grammatical patterns, from Italian , Sicilian , and English .

^ Some words in English and other European languages are derived from Arabic, often through other European languages, especially Spanish and Italian .

.The American University of Beirut - AUB is considered the best English university in Middle East.^ Syria's impact on Lebanon does not bode well for American efforts in the Middle East.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This collision makes me worry that Putin will continue to play the role of "spoiler" to American policy in the Middle East until he gets the kind of recognition from the Americans that he wants.

^ The Lebanese government refused to say whether the planes had arrived directly from the U.S. or from American depots in the Middle East.

The teaching language there,is English. .Other anglophone private universities are: Antonine University - UPA | Notre Dame University - NDU | LAU ...^ Alan Dowty is professor of government and international relations, and fellow at the Kroc Institute of International Peace Studies, at the University of Notre Dame.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Some private universities have French as the main teaching language. .Université St.Joseph - USJ is one of these, it is an old and respected institution in Lebanon, and probably offers the best price/quality ratio among private universities in the country.^ Also, the Plan proposes means to attract foreign investors that are hindered by administrative procedures inside Lebanon and in their respective countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seemingly vigorous legislation emanating from these parliaments, for its part, had only one objective: to hand Lebanon over to Syria on an ever-more polished silver platter.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All appropriations for Lebanon should be directed away from the Syrian-controlled government and in favor of credible private organizations and institutions - universities, schools, hospitals, and groups working in the areas of human rights, environmental issues, and so forth.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is the private university which has enrolled most of the Lebanon students as well as foreign students from other countries in Middle East, Africa and Europe.^ Also, the Plan proposes means to attract foreign investors that are hindered by administrative procedures inside Lebanon and in their respective countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither power mentions the other in their discussions - nor even institutions or entities designed to foster at least a facade of cooperation (like the Middle East Quartet).

^ He uses oil and natural gas for leverage in Europe, and he'll use weapons (as well as the nuclear issue) as leverage in the Middle East.

Other francophone private universities are USEK and Balamand.
.The Lebanese University is the state owned / public university and is the largest learning institution in the country.^ Ties between the two countries have seen American businesses and academic institutions flourish in Lebanon and Lebanese immigrants establish a strong community of close to three million in the United States.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that our state institutions can be strengthened through this integration and would be a move that would make Hizbullah popular across the country, as opposed to what Hizbullah is doing right now.

^ Saudi Arabia, for example, (the most influential Arab state) is nothing but Saudi Aramco - the largest company in the world, by the way - with a country and two holy sites attached to it.

It offers virtually free tertiary education.

Stay safe

.It is recommended you inquire about the political situation in the country before visiting.^ Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain country because the situation is dangerous or unstable.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since a new president has been elected in April 2008, the political situation has been relatively stable, and tourism has flourished.^ Parliament, in turn, is tasked to elect a new president every 6 years.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 1990, parliament and the new President agreed on constitutional amendments embodying some of the political reforms envisioned at Ta'if.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arab League foreign ministers are calling on Lebanese politicians to elect a new president to fill a post that has been vacant since November 24.

.You should know that Lebanon is still included on the US State Department's Travel Warnings list, which is reserved for only 29 countries in which long-term conditions make the country relatively dangerous.^ A letter from the US Department of State, sending department, or agency, addressed to "Embassy of Lebanon, Washington D.C. ", explaining purpose of travel and dates of the trip.
  • Lebanon Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Lebanese Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC lebanon.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1997, reflecting improvements in Lebanon's security climate, the United States lifted the ban it had imposed on American-citizen travel to Lebanon in 1985.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of State encourages all U.S. citizens traveling or residing abroad to register via the State Department's travel registration website or at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate abroad.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though the State Department advises against travel to Lebanon, this does not mean that the country is truly unsafe to visit; there is much to see there, the vast majority of Lebanese are friendly, and most tourists experience no problems whatsoever.^ The implication for Lebanon is that the country is going no where.

^ There are no country-specific U.S. trade sanctions against Lebanon.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Together with the agricultural sector, they used to provide 25% of GDP. Since 1972, pleasure trips have been considered as the main reasons to travel to Lebanon (84% of tourist stays), mainly for Gulf and European countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nonetheless, travelers should be more vigilant than usual, particularly Westerners.^ At times it is more explicit, flatly stating that Lebanon does not deserve independence and should be no more than a province of Syria.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is highly recommended that you register with your embassy before you go, and that you review your country's respective travel warnings and country specific information.^ All men between 18 and 21 years of age are required to obtain a travel authorization document from the government before leaving the country.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The SG reviews and censorsall foreign newspapers, magazines, and books before they enter the country.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Department of State encourages all U.S. citizens traveling or residing abroad to register via the State Department's travel registration website or at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate abroad.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following general rules should keep you safe:
Do not travel after dark. .You may visit well-lit and secure areas of cities like downtown Beirut, but be observant at all times.^ In May 2001, members of the Parliamentary Commission for Human Rights visited all prisons in the country with the exception of those controlled by the Ministry of Defense.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Vehicle emissions in urban areas, and especially in Greater Beirut, are likely to be causing elevated lead and ozone concentrations.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Be aware that employees of most Western governments must adhere to strict security measures and curfews.^ Trial delays resulted from the difficulty of conducting investigations when most of the country remained outside government control, from a shortage of judges, and from the general breakdown in security.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Call ahead for taxis or arrange your transportation through a trustworthy hotel. Be wary of overly friendly strangers and solicitors.
Do not discuss your itinerary in public.
.Try to avoid political or religious discussions with people other than those you know well and trust.^ "Nobody knows how many rebellions, besides political rebellions, ferment in the masses of life which people earth."

^ The agencies try to stay clear of the political stickiness as much as possible, instead focusing on the suffering; “you have to pick the people who need help the most,” says Kevin McCort of CARE Canada.

Avoid demonstrations, large gatherings and any form of political unrest.
.DO NOT enter Palestinian refugee camps, regardless of your nationality, without protection.^ During the year there were 223,956 Palestinian refugees in UNRWAs 12 refugee camps throughout the country.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2003 the SG signed an agreement with the UNHCR recognizing and granting protection to non-Palestinian refugees, providing temporary relief for those seeking determination of refugee status.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and Yasir Arafat, for their part, exercise a significant degree of control inside Lebanon's Palestinian refugee camps.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Try not to loiter near areas where many foreigners are known to congregate, such as night clubs. .While attacks are still very unlikely, these are prime targets for terrorist organizations.^ This terrorist organization was offered sanctuary inside Syria and Lebanon, from where it launched violent attacks against Turks for nearly fifteen years, killing tens of thousands.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Be particularly careful when traveling to or from airports.
.Like in any country, particular regions and cities are more dangerous; be aware of these before you visit.^ These were originally aspectual , but developed into something more like a preterite and future .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9BcmFtYWljX2xhbmd1YWdl 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In general, southern Lebanon is more dangerous than the north - avoid the Israeli border at all costs, and consider the risks carefully before going south of the Litani river.^ Lebanon is the historic home of the Phoenicians, Semitic traders whose maritime culture flourished there for more than 2,000 years (c.2700-450 B.C.).
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After a PLO attack on a bus in northern Israel and the Israeli retaliation caused heavy casualties, Israel invaded Lebanon in March 1978, occupying most of the area south of the Litani River.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Fighting raged on in southern Lebanon between Israeli troops and Hezbollah guerrillas on the 17th day of Israel's military offensive against them.

.Tripoli (Tarabulus) in the north has witnessed several terrorist attacks.^ This period of chaos witnessed the beginning of terrorist attacks launched against U.S. and Western interests.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Lebanon 22 September 2009 22:29 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.While the Bekaa valley and Beirut are largely safe, certain areas of both should be avoided and again, you should be observant at all times.^ Although Asad in 1989 (in the so-called Ta'if Accord) accepted a redeployment of Syrian troops from Beirut to the Bekaa Valley within two years, he did not withdraw the troops.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Asad in October 1989 accepted a provision that Syrian troops would be redeployed from their positions in Beirut to the Bekaa Valley two years after four conditions had been met.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other areas of the country, however, notably the South, North, and Bekaa Valley, remained poor in comparison.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Do not enter the southern suburbs of Beirut.^ There were no developments in the 2004 car bombing that killed Hizballah member Ghalib Awwali in the southern suburbs of Beirut.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Be certain your hotel, your emergency contacts, and your embassy always know your travel plans.^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Memorize or carry your embassy's phone number at all times.
.While you must decidedly be more vigilant in visiting Lebanon, danger is very unlikely if you adhere to these rules.^ The seemingly vigorous legislation emanating from these parliaments, for its part, had only one objective: to hand Lebanon over to Syria on an ever-more polished silver platter.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite its inclusion in most travel warnings lists, Lebanon is NOT in the same category as places like Somalia, the eastern DRC and Chechnya.^ Early in 2000, GEF had approved the inclusion of Lebanon in the list of countries to benefit from small-scale grants for NGOs and local associations.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, for example Urmia , Christians and Jews speak unintelligible dialects of Modern Eastern Aramaic in the same place.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9BcmFtYWljX2xhbmd1YWdl 22 September 2009 22:25 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Reference]

.Assuming that war is not immediately imminent and that the political situation is largely stable, you should not hesitate to visit the country; general common sense and consistent communication with your embassy will eliminate nearly all dangers.^ War weariness affects Lebanese of all political colors, but there are other factors that mitigate against the rise, let alone the success, of open resistance.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Country Specific Information exists for all countries and includes information on entry and exit requirements, currency regulations, health conditions, safety and security, crime, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. embassies and consulates abroad.
  • Lebanon (01/09) 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emerson says the bombing threatens the recent moves by the Lebanese government to consolidate the country's political stability.

Useful phone numbers:
  • Police: 112
  • Fire brigade: 175
  • The Red Cross (Medic Response): 140
  • Directory Inquiry: 120

Stay healthy

.As a key destination for health tourism in the region, Lebanon has a professional and private healthcare system.^ On the national level, the Mount Lebanon area could be considered as a model tourism destination for nature, historical and cultural aspects.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many references have mentioned Cyprus as a model sustainable tourism destination that could be replicated in Lebanon.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Located mainly in Beirut , key hospitals include:
  • AUH (American University Hospital), Hamra area: +961-1-344704.
  • RHUH (Rafic Hariri University Hospital), Bir Hassan area: +961-1-830000.
  • Hotel Dieu de France, Ashrafieh area: +961-1-386791.
  • Rizik Hospital, Ashrafieh area: +961-1-200800.
  • Mont Liban Hospital, Hazmieh area: +961-1-955444.
  • Sacré Coeur Hospital, Hazmieh area: +961-1-451704.
  • Tel Shiha - Zahle, Beqaa
  • Sahel Hospital - Airport Ave Area: +961-1-858333
  • Jabal Amel Hospital - Jal Al Baher Area, Tyre: +961-7-740343, 07-740198, 07-343852, 03-280580
  • Labib Medical Center - Abou Zahr Street, Sidon Area: +961-7-723444, 07-750715/6
  • Bahman Hospital - Beirut, Haret Hreik Area: +961-1-544000 or 961-3-544000

Respect

.Lebanon is a country of many different religious sects and so, it is wise to respect the religious differences of the Lebanese population.^ When any Lebanese Corporation allocates a percentage not less than 20% of its capital to Arabic companies whose bonds are operating in their respective bourse’ countries, or to foreign countries whose bonds are operating in the Bourse of OECD countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the Plan proposes means to attract foreign investors that are hindered by administrative procedures inside Lebanon and in their respective countries.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lebanon established bilateral and multilateral agreements with many countries (refer to questions no.
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is recommended to wear modest clothing when visiting religious sites (Churches, mosques, etc) and when visiting rural towns and villages. However, Beirut is very much a cosmopolitan city. .Clothing considered 'western' is generally acceptable, thus Westerners would probably feel more comfortable in Beirut, and along the coast, which is dotted with sea-resorts where thongs and "topless" are not uncommon.^ More generally, it is arresting to see how many breaks Washington cut Damascus in Lebanon - breaks neither Tehran nor Baghdad would dream of receiving.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

In Tripoli, especially in the old city, it is recommended that women dress conservatively. The same applies on most traditional'souks" in the country. .The Southern Suburb of Beirut, known as 'Al-Dahiye' in Arabic, is a Hizbollah stronghold and hence there too it would be advisable that women travellers dress modest.^ There were no developments in the 2004 car bombing that killed Hizballah member Ghalib Awwali in the southern suburbs of Beirut.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In general, Lebanese are accustomed to different lifestyles and some do not take offence easily, especially with matters related to dress.^ Government officials generally were cooperative, except when some of these groups sought to publicize the alleged detention in Syria of hundreds of Lebanese citizens.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The lebanese are people of diversity and respect and accept all others.^ War weariness affects Lebanese of all political colors, but there are other factors that mitigate against the rise, let alone the success, of open resistance.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon's democratic foundations and its diverse political landscape have all but crumbled as a result of Syrian tampering with parliamentary elections and other rampant forms of corruption.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other subjugated institutions include the Lebanese judiciary, schools and labor unions which are all shadows of their former selves having been forced to bow to Syrian manipulation.
  • The Lebanon Study Group Report :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

Because of political tensions and the conflict with Israel and tension with Syria, tourists should definately avoid discussing politics!

Offensive Hand Gestures

The equivalent to the middle finger is the gesture of sticking your hand out with your palm out like you're telling someone to stop with your fingers evenly spaced out and slightly bending your middle finger (the middle finger) so that it reaches halfway to your palm. If you want a word to say with it you can say: "khod" which means take, or here.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Lebanon
Plural
-
Lebanon
.
  1. Country in the Middle East.^ Situated in the Middle East, Lebanon is a small country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
    • Lebanon - Location and size, Population, Industry, Manufacturing, Mining, Services, Tourism, Financial services, Construction, Retail 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Middle East Internet Directory - Country Statistics - Lebanon .
    • Middle East Internet Directory - Country Statistics - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.middleeastdirectory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lebanon A country of the Middle East at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Syria on the north and east and Israel on the south.
    • Lebanon Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Official name: Lebanese Republic.^ Official name: Republic of Lebanon .
    • Lebanon Travel Information and Travel Guide - Lonely Planet 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Official Name: Republic of Lebanon Location: Lebanon is mountainous, bounded on the north and east by Syria , on the west by the Mediterranean and on the south by Israel.
    • Lebanon : Location, Map, Area, Capital, Population, Religion, Language - Country Information 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.arab.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lebanon, officially the Lebanese Republic, is a Middle Eastern country which borders Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west.
    • http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3284170,00.html 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.ynetnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Also (especially formerly) known as The Lebanon.

Translations

See also

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

white, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh 11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, "the valley," a prolongation of the valley of the Jordan.
.Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, "the entering of Hamath" (Num 34:8; 1 Kg 8:65), in all about 90 geographical miles in extent.^ The soldiers captured a key hilltop village overlooking the strategic Litani River, about 30 kilometres north of the border.

^ UN Security Council resolution 1701, which ended the 34-day war in 2006 between Israel and the Hezbollah guerrilla movement, banned all unauthorized weapons between the Litani River and the Blue Line.

^ For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here: For information about issues and projects in Middle East and North Africa from the World Bank, click here: .
  • Agenda 21 - Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average height of this range is from 6,000 to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about 10,200 feet, and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are covered with perpetual snow and ice.^ Ain al-Helweh is the biggest of the 12 camps in Lebanon where about 200,000 Palestinians live.

In the recesses of the range wild beasts as of old still abound (2Kg 14:9; Song 4:8). The scenes of the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Ps 295, 6; 72:16; 104:16-18; Song 4:15; Isa 2:13; 35:2; 60:13; Hos 14:5). It is famous for its cedars (Song 5:15), its wines (Hos 14:7), and its cool waters (Jer 18:14). The ancient inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites (Josh 13:5; Jdg 3:3). It was part of the Phoenician kingdom (1 Kg 5:2-6).
The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or "Lebanon towards the sunrising," runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet. Its highest peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser ranges radiate.
Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary of Palestine (Deut 1:7; 11:24). It was assigned to Israel, but was never conquered (Josh 13:2-6; Jdg 3:1-3).
.The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about 300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a Christian governor.^ Lebanon, with a population of approximately 4 million, is a parliamentary republic in which the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the chamber of deputies a Shi'a Muslim.
  • Lebanon 28 January 2010 0:16 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On Friday, about 800,000 people or one-quarter of Lebanon's population, turned out to demonstrate.

^ Between 350,000 and 400,000 Palestinian refugees live in Lebanon, a nation with a population of four million.

The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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This article needs to be merged with LEBANON (Jewish Encyclopedia).
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Simple English

Lebanon
الجمهورية اللبنانية
Al-Jumhūrīyyah al-Lubnānīyyah
Lebanese Republic''
Official flag
National information
National anthem: None
About the people
Official languages: {{{officiallanguages}}}
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: {{{populationtotal}}}
Geography / Places
[[Image:{{{image_location}}}|250px|none|country map]] Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: {{{countrycapital}}}
Largest city: {{{countrylargestcity}}}
Area
  - Total: {{{areatotal}}}
Politics / Government
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Lebanese pound (LL)
International information
Time zone: {{{utcoffset}}}
Telephone dialing code: {{{dialingcode}}}
Internet domain: {{{internettld}}}

Lebanon is a country in the Middle East (also called west Asia), on the Mediterranean Sea. It has a border with Israel to the south, and Syria to the east and north. Lebanon has been independent since 1943, and almost 4 million people live there. There are 16 million Lebanese people living in other countries. Its capital city is Beirut. Lebanon has 2 chains of mountains. It is often called the ruby of the Middle East. It has a coastline stretching all the way up.The area of Lebanon is 10452 square kilometres. 59.70% of Lebanese people are Muslim and 39% are Christian[1]. The remaining 1.3% is made up of other religions including Judaism, Buddhism, and Bahá'í followers.

Symbols

The cedar tree, which is on Lebanon's flag, is considered to be an important symbol of Lebanon.[2]

References



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Lebanon, which are similar to those in the above article.








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