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Left anarchism or left-wing anarchism[I] refers to forms of anarchism that are seen by some on the 'left of politics'. It posits a future society in which private property does not exist and is replaced by reciprocity and non-hierarchical society.[1][2] Left-wing anarchism is thus distinguished from free-market anarchism[3] or "right-wing" anarchism (such as that of Murray Rothbard).[4]

Ulrike Heider,[II] a syndicalist, categorizes anarchism into left anarchism, right anarchism (anarcho-capitalism), and green anarchism in Anarchism: Left, Right and Green.[5] Left-wing anarchism has been visible in anti-globalization protests, such as in Seattle in 1999 against the World Trade Organization.[6]


I.^  Left anarchism is sometimes used synonymously with libertarian socialism,[7] left libertarianism,[7] communitarian anarchism,[8] or social anarchism.[9]
II.^  Heider's work has been strongly criticised by anarchist academics including Bryan Caplan and Murray Bookchin for the allegedly poor quality of its research and presentation.[10][11]


  1. ^ Peacock, Adrian. 1999. Two Hundred Pharaohs, Five Billion Slaves. Ellipsis London
  2. ^ Goodwin, Barbara. 2007. Using Political Ideas. John Wiley & Sons
  3. ^ Paul, Ellen Frankel. Miller, Fred Dycus. Paul, Jeffrey. 1993. (no title listed) Cambridge University Press. p. 115
  4. ^ Chomsky, Noam. 2003. Chomsky on Democracy & Education. Routledge. p. 398
    Chomsky, Noam. Language and Politics. AK Press. p. 153
  5. ^ Heider, Ulrike. Anarchism: Left, Right and Green San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1994.
  6. ^ Rosser, John Barkley. 2004. Comparative Economics in Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 63
  7. ^ a b Brooks, Thom. (2002) Book Reviews. Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1) , 75–90 doi:10.1111/1468-5930.00206
  8. ^ Morris, Christopher W. 1998. An Essay on the Modern State. Cambridge University Press. p. 74
  9. ^ Thagard, Paul. 2002. Coherence in Thought and Action. MIT Press. p. 153
  10. ^ Caplan, Bryan. "Factual Errors in Marshall and Heider". Retrieved 2008-03-08.  
  11. ^ Bookchin, Murray (Winter 1994). "A Meditation on Anarchist Ethics". The Raven: Anarchist Quarterly, 7 (4): 328–46. Retrieved 2008-03-08.  

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