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A depiction of the legendary Rütlischwur.

A legend (Latin, legenda, "things to be read") is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility", defined by a highly flexible set of parameters, which may include miracles that are perceived as actually having happened, within the specific tradition of indoctrination where the legend arises, and within which it may be transformed over time, in order to keep it fresh and vital, and realistic. The Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale historically grounded.[1] A modern folklorist's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R. Tangherlini in 1990:[2]

Legend, typically, is a short (mono-) episodic, traditional, highly ecotypified[3] historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode, reflecting on a psychological level a symbolic representation of folk belief and collective experiences and serving as a reaffirmation of commonly held values of the group to whose tradition it belongs."

Contents

Etymology and origin

Holger Danske, a legendary character.

The word "legend" appeared in the English language circa 1340, transmitted from mediaeval Latin language through French.[citation needed] Its blurred extended (and essentially Protestant) sense of a non-historical narrative or myth was first recorded in 1613. By emphasizing the unrealistic character of "legends" of the saints, English-speaking Protestants were able to introduce a note of contrast to the "real" saints and martyrs of the Reformation, whose authentic narratives could be found in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.[citation needed] Thus "legend" gained its modern connotations of "undocumented" and "spurious". Before the invention of the printing press, stories were passed on via oral tradition. Storytellers learned their stock in trade: their stories, typically received from an older storyteller, who might, though more likely not, have claimed to have actually known a witness, rendered the narrative as "history". Legend is distinguished from the genre of chronicle by the fact that legends apply structures that reveal a moral definition to events, providing meaning that lifts them above the repetitions and constraints of average human lives and giving them a universality that makes them worth repeating through many generations. In German-speaking and northern European countries, "legend", which involves Christian origins, is distinguished from "Saga", being from any other (usually, but not necessarily older) origin.

The modern characterisation of what may be termed a "legend" may be said to begin 1865 with Jacob Grimm's observation, "The fairy tale is poetic, legend, historic." [4] Early scholars such as Karl Wehrhahn[5] Friedrich Ranke[6] and Will-Erich Peukert[7] followed Grimm's example in focussing solely on the literary narrative, an approach that was enriched particularly after the 1960s ,[8] by addressing questions of performance and the anthropological and psychological insights provided in considering legends' social context. Questions of categorising legends, in hopes of compiling a content-based series of categories on the line of the Aarne-Thompson folktale index, provoked a search for a broader new synthesis.

In an early attempt at defining some basic questions operative in examining folk tales, Friedrich Ranke in 1925[9] characterised the folk legend as "a popular narrative with an objectively untrue imaginary content" a dismissive position that was subsequently largely abandoned.[10]

Compared to the highly-structured folktale, legend is comparatively amorphous, Helmut de Boor noted in 1928.[11] The narrative content of legend is in realistic mode, rather than the wry irony of folktale;[12] Wilhelm Heiske[13] remarked on the similarity of motifs in legend and folktale and concluded that, in spite of its realistic mode, legend is not more historical than folktale.

Legend is often considered in connection with rumour, also believable and concentrating on a single episode. Ernst Bernheim suggested that legend is simply the survival of rumour.[14] Gordon Allport credited the staying-power of certain rumours to the persistent cultural state-of-mind that they embody and capsulise;[15] thus "Urban legends" are a feature of rumour.[16] When Willian Jansen suggested that legends that disappear quickly were "short-term legends" and the persistent ones be termed "long-term legends", the distinction between legend and rumour was effectively obliterated, Tangherlini concluded.[17]

In the painting of Lady Godiva by Jules Joseph Lefebvre, the authentic historical person is fully submerged in the legend, presented in an anachronistic high mediaeval setting.

Related concepts

Legends are tales that, because of the tie to a historical event or location, are believable, although not necessarily believed. For the purpose of the study of legends, in the academic discipline of folkloristics, the truth value of legends is irrelevant because, whether the story told is true or not, the fact that the story is being told at all allows scholars to use it as commentary upon the cultures that produce or circulate the legends.

The mediaeval legend of Genevieve of Brabant connected her to Treves.

Hippolyte Delehaye, (in his Preface to The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography, 1907) distinguished legend from myth: "The legend, on the other hand, has, of necessity, some historical or topographical connection. It refers imaginary events to some real personage, or it localizes romantic stories in some definite spot."

From the moment a legend is retold as fiction its authentic legendary qualities begin to fade and recede: in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Washington Irving transformed a local Hudson River Valley legend into a literary anecdote with "Gothic" overtones, which actually tended to diminish its character as genuine legend.

Stories that exceed these boundaries of "realism" are called "fables". For example, the talking animal formula of Aesop identifies his brief stories as fables, not legends. The parable of the Prodigal Son would be a legend if it were told as having actually happened to a specific son of a historical father. If it included an ass that gave sage advice to the Prodigal Son it would be a fable.

Legend may be transmitted orally, passed on person-to-person, or, in the original sense, through written text. Jacob de Voragine's Legenda Aurea or "The Golden Legend" comprises a series of vitae or instructive biographical narratives, tied to the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. They are presented as lives of the saints, but the profusion of miraculous happenings and above all their uncritical context are characteristics of hagiography. The Legenda was intended to inspire extemporized homilies and sermons appropriate to the saint of the day.

Some famous legends

References

  1. ^ Norbert Krapf, Beneath the Cherry Sapling: Legends from Franconia (New York: Fordham University Press) 1988, devotes his opening section to distinguishing the genre of legend from other narrative forms, such as fairy tale; he "reiterates the Grimms' definition of legend as a folktale historically grounded", according to Hans Sebald's review in German Studies Review 13.2 (May 1990), p 312.
  2. ^ Tangherlini, "'It Happened Not Too Far from Here...': A Survey of Legend Theory and Characterization" Western Folklore 49.4 (October 1990:371-390) p. 85.
  3. ^ That is to say, specifically located in place and time.
  4. ^ "Das Märchen ist poetischer, die Sage, historischer"; quoted at the commencement of Tangherlini's survey of legend scholarship (Tangherlini 1990:371), which is in large part the basis of this section.
  5. ^ Wehrhahn Die Sage (Leipzig) 1908.
  6. ^ Ranke, "Grundfragen der Volkssagen Forshung", in Leander Petzoldt (ed.), Vergleichende Sagenforschung 1971:1-20, noted by Tangherlini 1990.)
  7. ^ Peukert , Sagen (Munich: E Schmidt) 1965.
  8. ^ Stimulated in part, Tangherlini suggests, by the 1962 congress of the International Society for Folk Narrative Research.
  9. ^ Ranke, "Grundfragen der Volkssagenforschung", Niederdeutsche Zeitschrift fur Volkskunde 3 (1925, reprinted 1969)
  10. ^ Charles L. Perdue Jt., reviewing Linda Dégh and Andrew Vászony's essay "The crack on the red goblet or truth and the modern legend" in Richard M. Dorson, ed. Folklore in the Modern World, (The Hague: Mouton)1978, in The Journal of American Folklore 93 No. 369 (July-September 1980:367), remarked on Ranke's definition, criticised in the essay, as a "dead issue". A more recent examination of the balance between oral performance and literal truth at work in legends forms Gillian Bennett's chaprer "Legend: Performance and Truth" in Gillian Bennett and Paul Smith, eds. Contemporary Legend (Garland) 1996:17-40.
  11. ^ de Boor, "Märchenforschung", Zeitschrift für Deutschkunde 42 1928:563-81.
  12. ^ Lutz Röhrich, Märchen und Wirklichkeit: Eine volkskundliche Untersuchung (Wiesbaden: Steiner Verlag) 1956:9-26.
  13. ^ Heiske, "Das Märchen ist poetischer, die Sage, historischer: Versuch einer Kritik", Deutschunterricht14 1962:69-75..
  14. ^ Bernheim, Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft(Berlin: de Gruyter) 1928.
  15. ^ Allport, The Psychology of Rumor (New York: Holt, Rinehart) 1947:164.
  16. ^ Bengt af Klintberg, "Folksägner i dag" Fataburen 1976:269-96.
  17. ^ Jansen, "Legend: oral tradition in the modern experience", Folklore Today, A Festschrift for William Dorson (Bloomington: Indiana University Press) 1972:265-72, noted in Tangherlini 1990:375.
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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Legendary
Image:LegendaryCover.jpg
Developer(s) Spark Unlimited
Publisher(s) Gamecock Media Group
Engine Unreal Engine 3
Release date Q3 2008
Genre First-person shooter
Mode(s) Single-player
Age rating(s) ESRB: M
Platform(s) PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, PC
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough

Legendary is a first-person shooter video game developed by Spark Unlimited and published by Gamecock Media Group. The game is scheduled to be released on PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and PC formats.

The game takes place in modern day New York City as well as other undisclosed locales. When a thief named Charles Deckard opens Pandora's Box and releases the evils within it, mythological creatures begin to wage war against the world. It is the task of the player, in the role of Charles Deckard, to stop the invasion and save Earth.

Gameplay

Unique to Legendary is an expansive three way enemy AI. During gameplay, the player is attacked by both human and monstrous opponents. During these exchanges, the AI for both the humans and the monsters are not only focused on the player, but on each other depending on which party is a bigger threat. This mechanic allows for behavioral changes from play session to play session depending on how both the player and the AI approach a given scenario.

Legendary Beasts: Throughout the game the player will face various legendary monsters varying from Werewolves to Gryphons. Each creature is promised to be a unique challenge of their own. Not to mention that each creature has two classes. There are "Beta" and "Alpha" of each form, Alpha being the more aggressive, more powerful versions. Creatures will also have three "moods" The First being a passive, only attacking out of defense. The second phase is where they attack when attacked, the final phase is where they are actively trying to kill the player, using their environment to their advantage.

Confirmed Creatures:

  • Werewolves
  • Minotaurs
  • Gryphons
  • Golems
  • Echidnas
  • Kraken
  • Fire Drakes
  • Dragons (not confirmed, concept art only)
  • Nari
  • Salamanders

Plot

When tasked to break into a museum and steal Pandora's Box, master thief Charles Deckard inadvertently opens the box and unleashes evil on the world. In the process of opening the box, Deckard receives strange powers allowing him to defeat the creatures that have emerged in the aftermath of the box's opening. Using these powers, Deckard fights alongside a clandestine organization against both the monsters that have been released and the Black Order, an occult group who seek to tap into the power of the box for their own selfish ends.

Smallwikipedialogo.png This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Legendary. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Wikia Gaming, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (unported) license.

This article uses material from the "Legendary" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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