Lehman Brothers: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...

More interesting facts on Lehman Brothers

Include this on your site/blog:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lehman Brothers
Fate Chapter 11 bankruptcy
Founded Montgomery, Alabama, United States (1850)
Founder(s) Henry Lehman
Emanuel Lehman
Mayer Lehman
Defunct New York City, New York, United States (2008)
Headquarters New York City, New York, United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people Richard S. Fuld, Jr.
Former (Chairman) & (CEO)[1]
Industry Investment services
Products Financial Services
Investment Banking
Investment management
Employees 26,200 (2008)

Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (Pink Sheets: LEHMQ, former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) (pronounced /ˈliːmən/) was a global financial-services firm which, until declaring bankruptcy in 2008, participated in business in investment banking, equity and fixed-income sales, research and trading, investment management, private equity, and private banking. It was a primary dealer in the U.S. Treasury securities market. Its primary subsidiaries included Lehman Brothers Inc., Neuberger Berman Inc., Aurora Loan Services, Inc., SIB Mortgage Corporation, Lehman Brothers Bank, FSB, Eagle Energy Partners, and the Crossroads Group. The firm's worldwide headquarters were in New York City, with regional headquarters in London and Tokyo, as well as offices located throughout the world.

On September 15, 2008, the firm filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection following the massive exodus of most of its clients, drastic losses in its stock, and devaluation of its assets by credit rating agencies. The filing marked the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history.[2] The following day, the British bank Barclays announced its agreement to purchase, subject to regulatory approval, Lehman's North American investment-banking and trading divisions along with its New York headquarters building.[3][4] On September 20, 2008, a revised version of that agreement was approved by Judge James Peck.[5]

During the week of September 22, 2008, Nomura Holdings announced that it would acquire Lehman Brothers' franchise in the Asia Pacific region, including Japan, Hong Kong and Australia.[6] as well as, Lehman Brothers' investment banking and equities businesses in Europe and the Middle East. The deal became effective on Monday, 13 October.[7] In 2007, non-U.S. subsidiaries of Lehman Brothers were responsible for over 50% of global revenue produced.[8]

Lehman Brothers' Investment Management business, including Neuberger Berman, was sold to its management on December 3, 2008. Creditors of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. retain a 49% common equity interest in the firm, now known as Neuberger Berman Group LLC.[9]

A March 2010 report by the court-appointed examiner indicated that Lehman executives regularly used cosmetic accounting gimmicks at the end of each quarter to make its finances appear less shaky than they really were. This practice was a type of repurchase agreement that temporarily removed securities from the company's balance sheet. However, unlike typical repurchase agreements, these deals were described by Lehman as the outright sale of securities and created "a materially misleading picture of the firm’s financial condition in late 2007 and 2008."[10]



Under the Lehman family (1850–1969)

Emanuel and Mayer Lehman

In 1844, 23-year-old Henry Lehman,[11] the son of a cattle merchant, emigrated to the United States from Rimpar, Bavaria.[12] He settled in Montgomery, Alabama,[11] where he opened a dry-goods store, "H. Lehman".[13] In 1847, following the arrival of his brother Emanuel Lehman, the firm became "H. Lehman and Bro."[14] With the arrival of their youngest brother, Mayer Lehman, in 1850, the firm changed its name again and "Lehman Brothers" was founded.[13][15]

In the 1850s Southern United States, cotton was one of the most important crops. Capitalizing on cotton's high market value, the three brothers began to routinely accept raw cotton from customers as payment for merchandise, eventually beginning a second business trading in cotton. Within a few years this business grew to become the most significant part of their operation. Following Henry's death from yellow fever in 1855,[13][16] the remaining brothers continued to focus on their commodities-trading/brokerage operations.

By 1858, the center of cotton trading had shifted from the South to New York City, where factors and commission houses were based. Lehman opened its first branch office in New York City's Manhattan borough at 119 Liberty Street,[16] and 32-year-old Emanuel relocated there to run the office.[13] In 1862, facing difficulties as a result of the Civil War, the firm teamed up with a cotton merchant named John Durr to form Lehman, Durr & Co.[17][18] Following the war the company helped finance Alabama's reconstruction. The firm's headquarters were eventually moved to New York City, where it helped found the New York Cotton Exchange in 1870;[16][19] Emanuel sat on the Board of Governors until 1884. The firm also dealt in the emerging market for railroad bonds and entered the financial-advisory business.

Lehman became a member of the Coffee Exchange as early as 1883 and finally the New York Stock Exchange in 1887.[16][19] In 1899, it underwrote its first public offering, the preferred and common stock of the International Steam Pump Company.

Despite the offering of International Steam, the firm's real shift from being a commodities house to a house of issue did not begin until 1906. In that year, under Philip Lehman, the firm partnered with Goldman, Sachs & Co.,[20][21] to bring the General Cigar Co. to market,[22] followed closely by Sears, Roebuck and Company.[22] During the following two decades, almost one hundred new issues were underwritten by Lehman, many times in conjunction with Goldman, Sachs. Among these were F.W. Woolworth Company,[22][23] May Department Stores Company, Gimbel Brothers, Inc.,[24] R.H. Macy & Company,[24] The Studebaker Corporation,[23] the B.F. Goodrich Co. and Endicott Johnson Corporation.

Following Philip Lehman's retirement in 1925, his son Robert "Bobbie" Lehman took over as head of the firm. During Bobbie's tenure, the company weathered the capital crisis of the Great Depression by focusing on venture capital while the equities market recovered.

Traditionally, a family-only partnership, in 1924 John M. Hancock became the first non-family member to join the firm,[20][25] followed by Monroe C. Gutman and Paul Mazur in 1927. By 1928, the firm moved to its now famous One William Street location.

Pete Peterson

In the 1950s, Lehman underwrote the IPO of Digital Equipment Corporation.

In the 1930s, Lehman underwrote the initial public offering of the first television manufacturer, DuMont, and helped fund the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).[26] It also helped finance the rapidly growing oil industry, including the companies Halliburton and Kerr-McGee. Later, it arranged the acquisition of Digital by Compaq.

An evolving partnership (1969-1984)

Robert Lehman died in 1969 after forty-four years as the patriarch of the firm, leaving no member of the Lehman family actively involved with the partnership.[27] Robert's death, coupled with a lack of a clear successor from within the Lehman family left a void in the company. At the same time, Lehman was facing strong headwinds amidst the difficult economic environment of the early 1970s. By 1972, the firm was facing hard times and in 1973, Pete Peterson, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Bell & Howell Corporation, was brought in to save the firm.[27]

Under Peterson's leadership as Chairman and CEO, the firm acquired Abraham & Co. in 1975, and two years later merged with the venerable, but struggling, Kuhn, Loeb & Co.,[27] to form Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc., the country's fourth-largest investment bank, behind Salomon Brothers, Goldman Sachs and First Boston.[28] Peterson led the firm from significant operating losses to five consecutive years of record profits with a return on equity among the highest in the investment-banking industry.

By the early 1980s, hostilities between the firm's investment bankers and traders (who were driving most of the firm's profits) prompted Peterson to promote Lewis Glucksman, the firm's President, COO and former trader, to be his co-CEO in May 1983. Glucksman introduced a number of changes that had the effect of increasing tensions, which when coupled with Glucksman’s management style and a downturn in the markets, resulted in a power struggle that ousted Peterson and left Glucksman as the sole CEO.[29]

Upset bankers, who had soured over the power struggle, left the company. Steve Schwarzman, chairman of the firm's M&A committee, recalled in a February 2003 interview with Private Equity International that "Lehman Brothers had an extremely competitive internal environment, which ultimately became dysfunctional." The company suffered under the disintegration, and Glucksman was pressured into selling the firm.

Merger with American Express (1984–94)

Shearson/American Express, an American Express-owned securities company focused on brokerage rather than investment banking, acquired Lehman in 1984, for $360 million. On May 11, the combined firms became Shearson Lehman/American Express.[29] In 1988, Shearson Lehman/American Express and E.F. Hutton & Co. merged as Shearson Lehman Hutton Inc.[30]

From 1983 to 1990, Peter A. Cohen was CEO and Chairman of Shearson Lehman Brothers,[31] where he led the one billion dollar purchase of E.F. Hutton to form Shearson Lehman Hutton.[32] During this period, Shearson Lehman was aggressive in building its leveraged finance business in the model of rival Drexel Burnham Lambert. In 1989, Shearson backed F. Ross Johnson's management team in its attempted management buyout of RJR Nabisco but were ultimately outbid by private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, who were backed by Drexel.

Divestment and independence (1994–2008)

In 1993, under newly appointed CEO, Harvey Golub, American Express began to divest itself of its banking and brokerage operations. It sold its retail brokerage and asset management operations to Primerica[33] and in 1994 it spun off Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb in an initial public offering, as Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc.[34]

Despite rumors that it would be acquired again, Lehman performed quite well under CEO Richard S. Fuld, Jr.. In 2001, the firm acquired the private-client services, or "PCS", business of Cowen & Co.[35] and later, in 2003, aggressively re-entered the asset-management business, which it had exited in 1989.[36] Beginning with $2 billion in assets under management, the firm acquired the Crossroads Group, the fixed-income division of Lincoln Capital Management[36] and Neuberger Berman.[37] These businesses, together with the PCS business and Lehman's private-equity business, comprised the Investment Management Division, which generated approximately $3.1 billion in net revenue and almost $800 million in pre-tax income in 2007. Prior to going bankrupt, the firm had in excess of $275 billion in assets under management. Altogether, since going public in 1994, the firm had increased net revenues over 600% from $2.73 billion to $19.2 billion and had increased employee headcount over 230% from 8,500 to almost 28,600.

At the 2008 ALB China Law Awards,[38] Lehman Brothers was crowned:

  • Deal of the Year - Debt Market Deal of the Year
  • Deal of the Year - Equity Market Deal of the Year

Response to September 11 terrorist attacks

The Former New York City headquarters now owned by Barclays.

On September 11, 2001, Lehman occupied three floors of One World Trade Center where one employee was killed. Its global headquarters in Three World Financial Center were severely damaged and rendered unusable by falling debris, displacing over 6,500 employees. The bank recovered quickly and rebuilt its presence. Trading operations moved across the Hudson River to its Jersey City, New Jersey, facilities, where an impromptu trading floor was built and brought online less than forty-eight hours after the attacks. When stock markets reopened on September 17, 2001, Lehman's sales and trading capabilities were restored.

In the ensuing months, the firm fanned out its operations across the New York City metropolitan area in over forty temporary locations. Notably, the investment-banking division converted the first-floor lounges, restaurants, and all 665 guestrooms of the Sheraton Manhattan Hotel into office space.

The bank also experimented with flextime (to share office space) and telecommuting via virtual private networking. In October 2001, Lehman purchased a 32-story, 1,050,000-square-foot (98,000 m2) office building for a reported sum of $700 million. The building, located at 745 Seventh Avenue, had recently been built, and not yet occupied, by rival Morgan Stanley.

With Morgan Stanley's world headquarters located only two blocks away at 1585 Broadway, in the wake of the attacks the firm was re-evaluating its office plans which would have put over 10,000 employees in the Times Square area of New York City. Lehman began moving into the new facility in January and finished in March 2002, a move that significantly boosted morale throughout the firm.

The firm was criticized for not moving back to its former headquarters in lower Manhattan. Following the attacks, only Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs, and Merrill Lynch of the major firms remained in the downtown area. Lehman, however, points to the facts that it was committed to stay in New York City, that the new headquarters represented an ideal circumstance where the firm was desperate to buy and Morgan Stanley was desperate to sell, that when the new building was purchased, the structural integrity of Three World Financial Center had not yet been given a clean bill of health, and that in any case, the company could not have waited until May 2002 for repairs to Three World Financial Center to conclude.

After the attacks, Lehman's management placed increased emphasis on business continuity planning. Unlike its rivals, the company was unusually concentrated for a bulge-bracket investment bank. For example, Morgan Stanley maintains a 750,000-square-foot (70,000 m2) trading-and-banking facility in Westchester County, New York. The trading floor of UBS is located in Stamford, Connecticut. Merrill Lynch's asset-management division is located in Plainsboro Township, New Jersey. Aside from its headquarters in Three World Financial Center, Lehman maintained operations-and-backoffice facilities in Jersey City, space that the firm considered leaving prior to 9/11. The space was not only retained, but expanded, including the construction of a backup-trading facility. In addition, telecommuting technology first rolled out in the days following the attacks to allow employees to work from home was expanded and enhanced for general use throughout the firm.[39]

2003 SEC litigation

In 2003, the company was one of ten firms which simultaneously entered into a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Office of the New York State Attorney General and various other securities regulators, regarding undue influence over each firm's research analysts by their investment-banking divisions. Specifically, regulators alleged that the firms had improperly associated analyst compensation with the firms' investment-banking revenues, and promised favorable, market-moving research coverage, in exchange for underwriting opportunities. The settlement, known as the “global settlement”, provided for total financial penalties of $1.4 billion, including $80 million against Lehman, and structural reforms, including a complete separation of investment banking departments from research departments, no analyst compensation, directly or indirectly, from investment-banking revenues, and the provision of free, independent, third-party, research to the firms' clients.

Subprime mortgage crisis

In August 2007, the firm closed its subprime lender, BNC Mortgage, eliminating 1,200 positions in 23 locations, and took an after-tax charge of $25 million and a $27 million reduction in goodwill. Lehman said that poor market conditions in the mortgage space "necessitated a substantial reduction in its resources and capacity in the subprime space".[40]

In 2008, Lehman faced an unprecedented loss to the continuing subprime mortgage crisis. Lehman's loss was a result of having held on to large positions in subprime and other lower-rated mortgage tranches when securitizing the underlying mortgages; whether Lehman did this because it was simply unable to sell the lower-rated bonds, or made a conscious decision to hold them, is unclear. In any event, huge losses accrued in lower-rated mortgage-backed securities throughout 2008. In the second fiscal quarter, Lehman reported losses of $2.8 billion and was forced to sell off $6 billion in assets.[41] In the first half of 2008 alone, Lehman stock lost 73% of its value as the credit market continued to tighten.[41] In August 2008, Lehman reported that it intended to release 6% of its work force, 1,500 people, just ahead of its third-quarter-reporting deadline in September.[41]

On August 22, 2008, shares in Lehman closed up 5% (16% for the week) on reports that the state-controlled Korea Development Bank was considering buying the bank.[42] Most of those gains were quickly eroded as news came in that Korea Development Bank was "facing difficulties pleasing regulators and attracting partners for the deal."[43] It culminated on September 9, when Lehman's shares plunged 45% to $7.79, after it was reported that the state-run South Korean firm had put talks on hold.[44]

On September 17, 2008 Swiss Re estimates its overall net exposure to Lehman Brothers as approximately CHF 50 million.[45]

Investor confidence continued to erode as Lehman's stock lost roughly half its value and pushed the S&P 500 down 3.4% on September 9. The Dow Jones lost 300 points the same day on investors' concerns about the security of the bank.[46] The U.S. government did not announce any plans to assist with any possible financial crisis that emerged at Lehman.[47]

The next day, Lehman announced a loss of $3.9 billion and their intent to sell off a majority stake in their investment-management business, which includes Neuberger Berman.[48][49] The stock slid seven percent that day.[49][50] Lehman, after earlier rejecting questions on the sale of the company, was reportedly searching for a buyer as its stock price dropped another 40 percent on September 11, 2008.[50]

Just before the collapse of Lehman Brothers, executives at Neuberger Berman sent e-mail memos suggesting, among other things, that the Lehman Brothers' top people forgo multi-million dollar bonuses to "send a strong message to both employees and investors that management is not shirking accountability for recent performance."[51]

Lehman Brothers Investment Management Director George Herbert Walker IV dismissed the proposal, going so far as to actually apologize to other members of the Lehman Brothers executive committee for the idea of bonus reduction having been suggested. He wrote, "Sorry team. I am not sure what's in the water at Neuberger Berman. I'm embarrassed and I apologize."[51]


On Saturday September 13, 2008, Timothy F. Geithner, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York called a meeting on the future of Lehman, which included the possibility of an emergency liquidation of its assets.[52] Lehman reported that it had been in talks with Bank of America and Barclays for the company's possible sale. However, both Barclays and Bank of America ultimately declined to purchase the entire company.[52][53]

The International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) offered an exceptional trading session on Sunday, September 14, 2008, to allow market participants to offset positions in various derivatives on the condition of a Lehman bankruptcy later that day.[54][55] Although the bankruptcy filing missed the deadline, many dealers honored the trades they made in the special session.[56]

Lehman Brothers headquarters in New York City on September 15, 2008
Lehman Brothers - now part of history

In New York, shortly before 1 a.m. the next morning, Lehman Brothers Holdings announced it would file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection[57] citing bank debt of $613 billion, $155 billion in bond debt, and assets worth $639 billion.[58] It further announced that its subsidiaries would continue to operate as normal.[59] A group of Wall Street firms agreed to provide capital and financial assistance for the bank's orderly liquidation and the Federal Reserve, in turn, agreed to a swap of lower-quality assets in exchange for loans and other assistance from the government.[60]

The morning of Monday, September 15 witnessed scenes of Lehman employees removing files, items with the company logo, and other belongings from the world headquarters at 745 Seventh Avenue. The spectacle continued throughout the day and into the following day.

Lehman's bankruptcy is the largest failure of an investment bank since Drexel Burnham Lambert collapsed amid fraud allegations 18 years prior.[60] Later that day, the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) suspended Lehman's Australian subsidiary as a market participant after clearing-houses terminated their contracts with the firm.[61]

Lehman shares tumbled over 90% on September 15, 2008.[62][63] The Dow Jones closed down just over 500 points on September 15, 2008, which was at the time the largest drop in a single day since the days following the attacks on September 11, 2001.[64]

In the United Kingdom, the investment bank went into administration with PricewaterhouseCoopers appointed as administrators.[65] In Japan, the Japanese branch, Lehman Brothers Japan Inc., and its holding company filed for civil reorganization on September 16, 2008, in Tokyo District Court.[66]

On Tuesday, September 16, 2008, Barclays plc announced that they will acquire a "stripped clean" portion of Lehman for $1.75 billion, including most of Lehman's North America operations.[3][67] On September 20, this transaction was approved by U.S. Bankruptcy Judge James Peck.[68][69] On September 17, 2008, the New York Stock Exchange delisted Lehman Brothers.[70]

On September 17, 2008, Paul Brough, Edward Middleton, and Patrick Cowley of KPMG China became the provisional liquidators appointed over Lehman's two Hong Kong based units, Lehman Brothers Securities Asia Limited and Lehman Brothers Futures Asia Limited.[71] They are also appointed as the provisional liquidators for three further Hong Kong based Lehman Brothers companies, Lehman Brothers Asia Holdings Limited, Lehman Brothers Asia Limited and Lehman Brothers Commercial Corporation Asia Limited on 18 September 2008.[72]

Nomura Holdings, Japan's top brokerage firm, agreed to buy the Asian division of Lehman Brothers for $225 million and parts of the European division for a nominal fee of $2.[73][74] It would not take on any trading assets or liabilities in the European units. Nomura negotiated such a low price because it acquired only Lehman's employees in the regions, and not its stocks, bonds or other assets. The last Lehman Brothers Annual Report identified that these non-US subsidiaries of Lehman Brothers were responsible for over 50% of global revenue produced.[8]

Short-selling allegations

During hearings on the bankruptcy filing by Lehman Brothers and bailout of AIG before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,[75] former Lehman Brothers CEO Richard Fuld said a host of factors including a crisis of confidence and naked short-selling attacks followed by false rumors contributed to both the collapse of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers. House committee Chairman Henry Waxman said the committee received thousands of pages of internal documents from Lehman and these documents portray a company in which there was “no accountability for failure".[76][77][78]

An article by journalist Matt Taibbi in Rolling Stone contended that naked short selling contributed to the demise of both Lehman and Bear Stearns.[79] A study by finance researchers at the University of Oklahoma Price College of Business studied trading in financial stocks, including Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns, and found "no evidence that stock price declines were caused by naked short selling.".[80]

Liquidation via bankruptcy court

On September 20, 2008, a revised version of the deal, a $1.35 billion (£700 million) plan for Barclays to acquire the core business of Lehman (mainly its $960-million headquarters, a 38-story office building[81] in Midtown Manhattan, with responsibility for 9,000 former employees), was approved. Manhattan court bankruptcy Judge James Peck, after a 7-hour hearing, ruled: "I have to approve this transaction because it is the only available transaction. Lehman Brothers became a victim, in effect the only true icon to fall in a tsunami that has befallen the credit markets. This is the most momentous bankruptcy hearing I've ever sat through. It can never be deemed precedent for future cases. It's hard for me to imagine a similar emergency."[82]

Luc Despins, then a partner at Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, the creditors committee counsel, said: "The reason we're not objecting is really based on the lack of a viable alternative. We did not support the transaction because there had not been enough time to properly review it."[citation needed] In the amended agreement, Barclays would absorb $47.4 billion in securities and assume $45.5 billion in trading liabilities. Lehman's attorney Harvey R. Miller of Weil, Gotshal & Manges, said "the purchase price for the real estate components of the deal would be $1.29 billion, including $960 million for Lehman's New York headquarters and $330 million for two New Jersey data centers. Lehman's original estimate valued its headquarters at $1.02 billion but an appraisal from CB Richard Ellis this week valued it at $900 million."[citation needed] Further, Barclays will not acquire Lehman's Eagle Energy unit, but will have entities known as Lehman Brothers Canada Inc, Lehman Brothers Sudamerica, Lehman Brothers Uruguay and its Private Investment Management business for high net-worth individuals. Finally, Lehman will retain $20 billion of securities assets in Lehman Brothers Inc that are not being transferred to Barclays.[83] Barclays acquired a potential liability of $2.5 billion to be paid as severance, if it chooses not to retain some Lehman employees beyond the guaranteed 90 days.[84][85]

On September 29, 2008, Lehman agreed to sell Neuberger Berman to a pair of private-equity firms, Bain Capital Partners and Hellman & Friedman, for $2.15 billion.[86] The transaction was expected to close in early 2009, subject to approval by the U.S. Bankruptcy Court;[87] however, a competing bid was entered by the firm's management, who ultimately prevailed in a bankruptcy auction, held on December 3, which scuttled the deal with Bain and Hellman.[9]

The fall of Lehman has also had a strong effect on small private investors such as bond holders and holders of so-called Minibonds. In Germany structured products, often based on an index, were sold mostly to private investors, elderly, retired persons, students and families. Most of those now worthless derivatives were sold by the German arm of Citigroup, the German Citibank now owned by Credit Mutuel.

Financial fallout

Immediately following the bankruptcy filing, an already distressed financial market began a period of extreme volatility, during which the Dow experienced its largest one day point loss, largest intra-day range (more than 1,000 points) and largest daily point gain. What followed was what many have called the “perfect storm” of economic distress factors and eventually a $700bn bailout package (Troubled Asset Relief Program) prepared by Henry Paulson, Secretary of the Treasury, and approved by Congress. The Dow eventually closed at a new six-year low of 7,552.29 on November 20.

Ongoing litigation

On March 11, 2010, Jenner & Block, a court-appointed examiner, published the results of its year-long investigation into the finances of Lehman Brothers.[88] This report revealed that Lehman Brothers used an accounting procedure termed repo 105 to temporarily exchange $50 billion of assets into cash just before publishing its financial statements.[89] The action could be seen to implicate both Ernst & Young, the bank's accountancy firm and Richard S. Fuld, Jr, the former CEO.[90] This could potentially lead to Ernst & Young being found guilty of financial malpractice and Fuld facing time in prison.[91]

Board of directors

Former officers

See also

Principal locations (first year of occupancy)

* Henry Lehman established his first store location on Commerce Street, in Montgomery, in 1845. In 1848, one year after Emanuel's arrival, the brothers moved "H. Lehman & Bro." to 17 Court Square, where it remained when Mayer arrived in 1850, forming "Lehman Brothers".
** Designated as a landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Committee in 1996.
*** Sales and trading personnel had been in this location since 1977, when they were joined by the firm's investment bankers and brokers.


  1. ^ Executive compensation at Lehman Brothers
  2. ^ "Lehman folds with record $613 billion debt". Marketwatch. 2005-09-15. http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/story.aspx?guid={2FE5AC05-597A-4E71-A2D5-9B9FCC290520}&siteid=rss. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  3. ^ a b "Barclays announces agreement to acquire Lehman Brothers North American investment banking and capital markets businesses". Barclays PLC.. 2008-09-17. http://www.newsroom.barclays.com/Content/Detail.asp?ReleaseID=1435. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  4. ^ "Barclays buys core Lehman assets". BBC News. 2008-09-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7620306.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  5. ^ "Judge approves $1.3bn Lehman deal". BBC News. 2008-09-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7626624.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  6. ^ "Nomura to acquire Lehman Brothers' Asia Pacific franchise". http://www.nomuraholdings.com/news/nr/holdings/20080922/20080922.html. 
  7. ^ "Nomura to close acquisition of Lehman Brothers' Europe and Middle East investment banking and equities businesses on October 13". http://www.nomuraholdings.com/news/nr/europe/20081006/20081006_a.html. 
  8. ^ a b "Lehman Brothers 2007 Annual Report". http://www.lehman.com/annual/2007/div_regions/intro.htm. 
  9. ^ a b http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/04/business/04lehman.html Managers Win Auction for a Part of Lehman
  10. ^ Trumbull, Mark. Lehman Bros. used accounting trick amid financial crisis – and earlier. The Christian Science Monitor. March 12, 2010.
  11. ^ a b Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 49
  12. ^ Bernhard, William, L., Birge, June Rossbach Bingham, Loeb, John L., Jr.. Lots of Lehmans - The Family of Mayer Lehman of Lehman Brothers, Remembered by His Descendants. Center For Jewish History, 2007, page 1
  13. ^ a b c d Wechsberg, Joseph. The Merchant Bankers. Pocket Books, 1966, page 233
  14. ^ Bernhard, William, L., Birge, June Rossbach Bingham, Loeb, John L., Jr.. Lots of Lehmans - The Family of Mayer Lehman of Lehman Brothers, Remembered by His Descendants. Center For Jewish History, 2007, page 5
  15. ^ Birmingham, Stephen. Our Crowd- The Great Jewish Family's of New York. Harper and Row, 1967, page 47
  16. ^ a b c d Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 50
  17. ^ Birmingham, Stephen. Our Crowd- The Great Jewish Family's of New York. Harper and Row, 1967, page 77
  18. ^ Bernhard, William, L., Birge, June Rossbach Bingham, Loeb, John L., Jr.. Lots of Lehmans - The Family of Mayer Lehman of Lehman Brothers, Remembered by His Descendants. Center For Jewish History, 2007, page 8
  19. ^ a b c d e Wechsberg, Joseph. The Merchant Bankers. Pocket Books, 1966, page 235
  20. ^ a b Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 51
  21. ^ Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 285
  22. ^ a b c Wechsberg, Joseph. The Merchant Bankers. Pocket Books, 1966, page 238
  23. ^ a b Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 53
  24. ^ a b Wechsberg, Joseph. The Merchant Bankers. Pocket Books, 1966, page 241
  25. ^ "John M. Hancock Papers". University of North Dakota. http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/library/Collections/og55.html. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  26. ^ Ingham, John N. (1983). Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders. Greenwood Publishing Group. http://books.google.com/books?id=J9nXHgKQ49EC&pg=PA786&lpg=PA786&dq=lehman+brothers+rca&source=web&ots=nghwZDeZJw&sig=7O0Bjyd5L46Fq20jiSb5fLLpdR4&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  27. ^ a b c Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 77
  28. ^ Sloane, Leonard (1977-11-29). "Lehman and Kuhn Loeb to Merge; Lehman Brothers and Kuhn Loeb Sign Agreement to Merge December 16". NY Times. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F60814F93F5B117B93CBAB178AD95F438785F9. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  29. ^ a b Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 78
  30. ^ "Company News - Hutton-Shearson Deal Announced". New York Times. 1987-12-04. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE5DC1239F937A35751C1A961948260&scp=77&sq=shearson+lehman+hutton&st=nyt. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  31. ^ http://people.forbes.com/profile/peter-a-cohen/48145
  32. ^ http://pro.corbis.com/search/Enlargement.aspx?CID=isg&mediauid=%7B56850BCA-B9AB-46D6-931A-D184A7C0A95A%7D
  33. ^ "Primerica Will Buy Shearson for $1 Billion". New York Times. 1993-03-13. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE0D8143AF930A25750C0A965958260&scp=14&sq=american+express+shearson&st=nyt. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  34. ^ Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997, page 79
  35. ^ "Lehman Brothers to take over SG Cowen's brokerage division". Financial Express. 2000-07-18. http://www.financialexpress.com/old/fe/daily/20000718/fec18038.html. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  36. ^ a b "BACK AGAIN: Lehman returns to institutional management with Lincoln deal; Purchase of fixed-income business ends 13-year absence.(News: Lehman Brothers, Lincoln Capital Management Co.)". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5266/is_200212/ai_n20444216. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  37. ^ Thomas, Landon Jr. (2003-07-23). "Market Place; Lehman to Buy Neuberger Berman For $2.6 Billion". NYTimes.com. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9507EFDB143FF930A15754C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  38. ^ www.legalbusinessonline.com.au
  39. ^ "Citrix Systems » Lehman Brothers". Citrix.com. http://www.citrix.com/English/aboutCitrix/caseStudies/caseStudy.asp?storyID=7110. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  40. ^ Kulikowski, Laura (2007-08-22). "Lehman Brothers Amputates Mortgage Arm". TheStreet.com. http://www.thestreet.com/story/10375812/1/lehman-brothers-amputates-mortgage-arm.html. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  41. ^ a b c Jenny Anderson; Eric Dash (2008-08-29). "Struggling Lehman Plans to Lay Off 1,500". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/29/business/29wall.html?em. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  42. ^ New York Times, World Business, article by Jenny Anderson and Landon Thomas, 22 August 2008
  43. ^ "Financials slip as Korea snags weigh on Lehman and Merrill - MarketWatch". Marketwatch.com. http://www.marketwatch.com/News/Story/Story.aspx?guid={9E9BDC4C-06D1-4EBD-971B-FCD4A4249F24}&siteid=yhoof2. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  44. ^ 5 days ago (5 days ago). "AFP: Lehman Brothers in freefall as hopes fade for new capital". Afp.google.com. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iB5zn0q4MyPe4UpwVXIT03heWOEA. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  45. ^ http://www.swissre.com/pws/media%20centre/news/news%20releases%202008/nr_lehman_aig_20080917.html
  46. ^ "Dow plunges nearly 300 points on concern about Lehman". Times-Picayune. 2008-09-09. http://www.nola.com/business/index.ssf/2008/09/dow_plunges_nearly_300_points.html. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  47. ^ Jenny Anderson (2008-09-09). "Wall Street’s Fears on Lehman Bros. Batter Markets". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/10/business/10place.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  48. ^ Ben White (2008-09-10). "Lehman Sees $3.9 Billion Loss and Plans to Shed Assets". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/11/business/11lehman.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  49. ^ a b Joe Bel Bruno (2008-09-10). "Lehman shares slip on plans to auction off unit, consider sale of company". The Associated Press. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2008171076_weblehman10.html. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  50. ^ a b Jenny Anderson (2008-09-11). "As Pressure Builds, Lehman Said to Be Looking for a Buyer". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/11/business/11lehman.html?hp. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  51. ^ a b http://biz.yahoo.com/ap/081006/meltdown_lehman.html
  52. ^ a b Jenny Anderson; Eric Dash, Vikas Bajaj, Edmund Andrews (2008-09-13). "U.S. Gives Banks Urgent Warning to Solve Crisis". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/13/business/13rescue.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  53. ^ Ben White; Jenny Anderson (2008-09-14). "Lehman Heads Toward Brink as Barclays Ends Talks". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/15/business/15lehman.html. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  54. ^ Lehman Risk Reduction Trading Session and Protocol Agreement ISDA
  55. ^ US special session to cut Lehman risk extended-ISDA Forbes.com
  56. ^ "CDS dealers honour trades to cut Lehman risk". Reuters. 2008-09-15. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssFinancialServicesAndRealEstateNews/idUSLF13895120080915. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  57. ^ "Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. Announces It Intends to File Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Petition" (PDF). Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.. 2008-09-15. http://www.lehman.com/press/pdf_2008/091508_lbhi_chapter11_announce.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  58. ^ "Lehman Lists Debts Of $613 Billion In Chapter 11 Filing Monday". Money.cnn.com. http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/djf500/200809150751DOWJONESDJONLINE000296_FORTUNE5.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  59. ^ http://www.lehman.com/press/pdf_2008/091508_lbhi_chapter11_announce.pdf
  60. ^ a b Andrew Ross Sorkin (2008-09-15). "In Frantic Day, Wall Street Banks Teeter". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/15/business/15lehman.html?hp. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  61. ^ "ASX suspends Lehman Brothers". The Australian. 2008-09-15. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24348205-36418,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  62. ^ marketwatch.com, FINANCIAL STOCKS Lehman falls 80% as firm readies bankruptcy filing
  63. ^ afp.google.com, Lehman bankruptcy shakes world financial system
  64. ^ Michael Grynbaum (2008-09-15). "Wall St.’s Turmoil Sends Stocks Reeling". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/16/business/worldbusiness/16markets.html?hp. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  65. ^ "Lehman Bros files for bankruptcy". News.bbc.co.uk. 15 September 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7615931.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  66. ^ "Lehman Bros files for Civil Reorganization Law". Yomiuri Online. 16 September 2008. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/atmoney/news/20080916-OYT1T00087.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  67. ^ "Lehman, Workers Score Reprieve". The Wall Street Journal. Page last updated at 1:59 GMT, Monday, 17 September 2008 14:00 UK. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122156586985742907.html. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  68. ^ "US judge approves Lehman's asset sale to Barclays". Reuters/Forbes. 2008-09-20. http://www.forbes.com/reuters/feeds/reuters/2008/09/20/2008-09-20T061038Z_01_SP337267_RTRIDST_0_LEHMAN-BARCLAYS-UPDATE-3-PIX.html. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  69. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7626624.stm
  70. ^ NYSE Euronext (2008-09-17). "NYSE to Suspend Trading in Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. and Related Securities listed on NYSE and NYSE Arca; Moves to Remove from the List". Press release. http://www.nyse.com/press/1221647871334.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  71. ^ Provisional Liquidators appointed over Lehman's units - KPMG China website, 17 September 2008
  72. ^ Provisional Liquidators appointed over further Lehman Brothers' units - KPMG China website, 18 September 2008
  73. ^ Nomura paying two dollars for Lehman's Europe ops: report, AFP, September 25, 2008
  74. ^ Nomura Buys Lehman's Europe Banking, Equities Units, Bloomberg, September 23, 2008
  75. ^ http://oversight.house.gov/story.asp?ID=2176
  76. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2008/10/06/news/companies/lehman_hearing/?postversion=2008100612
  77. ^ http://blogs.wsj.com/deals/2008/10/07/dick-fulds-vendetta-against-short-sellers-and-goldman-sachs/
  78. ^ http://news.hereisthecity.com/news/business_news/8317.cntns
  79. ^ Taibbi, Matt (October 2009). "Wall Street's Naked Swindle". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/30481512/wall_streets_naked_swindle. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  80. ^ [1]
  81. ^ [2]
  82. ^ news.bbc.co.uk, Judge approves $1.3bn Lehman deal
  83. ^ reuters.com, Judge approves Lehman, Barclays pact
  84. ^ ap.google.com, Judge says Lehman can sell units to Barclays
  85. ^ guardian.co.uk, US judge approves Lehman's asset sale to Barclay
  86. ^ Durchslag, Adam (1 October 2008) "Bain and Hellman secure Neuberger: private equity houses Bain Capital and Hellman & Friedman acquire Neuberger Berman from Lehman for US$2.15bn" Acquisitions Monthly from Access My Library
  87. ^ [3] Neuberger Berman sold for $2.15B, September 29, 2008
  88. ^ http://lehmanreport.jenner.com/
  89. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/2e412d50-2d6e-11df-a262-00144feabdc0.html?nclick_check=1
  90. ^ http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/banking_and_finance/article7060424.ece
  91. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/andrew-clark-on-america/2010/mar/12/lehmanbrothers-bear-stearns
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Board of Directors". Lehman Brothers. http://www.lehman.com/who/bios/board_directors.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  93. ^ a b c d e f g Lehman Brothers. A Centennial - Lehman Brothers 1850 - 1950. Spiral Press, 1950, pages 62-63
  94. ^ "Lehman's Office Move Marks End of an Aura; Lehman Leaves One William Street 'The Place Is a Pigsty' High Return on Capital". NY Times. 1980-12-20. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F10617FB3F5E12728DDDA90A94DA415B8084F1D3. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  96. ^ Lehman Brothers to Remain in New York with Purchase of Morgan Stanley's New Office Tower

Further reading

  • Auletta, Ken. Greed and Glory on Wall Street: The Fall of the House of Lehman. Random House, 1985
  • Bernhard, William, L., Birge, June Rossbach Bingham, Loeb, John L., Jr.. Lots of Lehmans - The Family of Mayer Lehman of Lehman Brothers, Remembered by His Descendants. Center For Jewish History, 2007
  • Birmingham, Stephen. Our Crowd - The Great Jewish Families of New York. Harper and Row, 1967.
  • Geisst, Charles R. The Last Partnerships. McGraw-Hill, 1997
  • Shirkhedkar, Jayant. Saving Lehman, One person at a time. McGraw-Hill, 2007
  • Lehman Brothers. A Centennial - Lehman Brothers 1850 - 1950. Spiral Press, 1950
  • Schack, Justin. (May 2005). "Restoring the House of Lehman". Institutional Investor, p. 24-32.
  • Wechsberg, Joseph. The Merchant Bankers. Pocket Books, 1968
  • Nocera, Joe (September 11, 2009). "Lehman Had to Die So Global Finance Could Live". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/12/business/12nocera.html. 
  • Lawrence, G. McDonald . (Jul 2009) A Colossal Failure of Common Sense: The Inside Story of the Collapse of Lehman Brothers. Crown Business .

External links

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address