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Leiomyoma
Classification and external resources

Uterine lipoleiomyoma, a type of leiomyoma. H&E stain.
ICD-10 D21, D25
ICD-9 218
ICD-O: M8890/0-8894
MeSH D007889

A leiomyoma (plural is 'leiomyomata') is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel and the esophagus.

Contents

Etymology

Leiomyoma enucleated from a uterus. External surface on left; cut surface on right

Uterine leiomyomata

Uterine fibroids are leiomyomata of the uterine smooth muscle. As other leiomyomata, they are benign, but may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), often cause anemia and may lead to infertility. Enucleation is removal of fibroids without removing the uterus (hysterectomy), which is also commonly performed. Laser surgery (called myolysis) is increasingly used, and provides a viable alternative to traditional surgeries.

Oral contraceptive pills can be used to decrease excessive menstrual bleeding and pain associated with uterine fibroids. [1]

Uterine leiomyomas originate in the myometrium and are classified by location:

Esophageal

They are also the most common benign esophageal tumour, though this accounts for less than 1% of esophageal neoplasms. The remainder consists mainly of carcinomas. Although the vast majority of benign esophageal tumors are clinically silent and go undetected, large or strategically located tumors may become symptomatic.[2]

Cutaneous

Leiomyomas of the skin are generally (1) acquired, and (2) divided into several categories[3][4]:627:

Leiomyoma of jejunum

Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of small bowel. Approximately 50% of cases are found in the jejunum, followed by the ileum in 31% of cases. Almost one half of all lesions are less than 5 centimeters.[5]

Treatment

Diagnosis depends on position of the myomas. Traditional Transabdominal or Transvaginal ultrasonogram can detect large submucosal and transmural myomas. For submucosal myomas saline infusion sonography is the best.

Medical treatment

GnRH analogues for 3–6 months are used to reduce the size of the myomas. It usually reduces the size by 60% to 70%, but once the medication is stopped the myomas will grow back.

Surgical treatment

Myomectomy is a choice to remove myomas. It is usually done when the patient wants to preserve their fertility. This can be performed with either traditional surgery or through laparoscopy.

Total Abdominal or Vaginal hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy is another treatment.

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jun;107(6):1453-72.
  2. ^ James C. Chou, MD & Frank G. Gress, MD. "Benign Esophageal Tumors". Esophageal Cancer Overview (Cancer of the Esophagus). Armenian Health Network, Health.am. http://www.health.am/cr/benign-esophageal-tumors/. Retrieved 2007-03-21.  
  3. ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). Page 1033. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071380760.
  4. ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0721629210.
  5. ^ By Michael P. Buetow, M.D.. "Leiomyoma of Jejunum". Applied Radiology Online. http://www.appliedradiology.com/case/case.asp?ID=88&SubCatID=97&CatID=43&ThreadID=. Retrieved 2007-03-21.  

External links








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