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Leon Trotsky


In office
13 March 1918 – 15 January 1925
Deputy Ephraim Sklyansky
Preceded by Nikolai Podvoisky
Succeeded by Mikhail Frunze

In office
8 November 1917 – 13 March 1918
Deputy Georgy Chicherin
Preceded by Mikhail Tereshchenko
Succeeded by Georgy Chicherin

In office
8 October 1917 – 8 November 1917

Born 7 November 1879(1879-11-07)
Kherson, Russian Empire
Died 21 August 1940 (aged 60)
Coyoacán, DF, México
Citizenship Soviet
Political party RSDLP, SDPS, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Left Opposition, IV International
Spouse(s) Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, Natalia Sedova
Profession Statesman, editor
Religion None
Signature
.Leon Trotsky (Russian: About this sound Лев Давидович Троцкий , Ukrainian: Лев Давидович Троцький (Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Lyev, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) 7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Russian: Лев Давидович Бронштéйн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist.^ Bibliography Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940.

^ Leon Davidovich Trotsky ( Russian : Лев Давидович Троцкий) ( Latinized: Lev Davidovič Tro ʦ kij ; also transliterated Leo , Lev , Trotskii , Trotski , Trotskij , Trockij and Trotzky ) ( November 7, 1879 [ O.S. October 26] – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist.

^ This was the beginning of the revolutionary activity of Leon Trotsky.
  • Ted Grant - Trotsky’s relevance today 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tedgrant.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was one of the leaders of the Russian October Revolution, second only to Vladimir Lenin.^ The second Russian revolution had begun.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All of Lenin is contained in the Russian revolution.
  • Leon Trotsky - a knol by Richard Tyler 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At one time sympathetic to the Mensheviks, who had formed a Provisional Government, Leon soon joined with Lenin, and eventually organized the Bolshevik insurrection that took control of the revolution by October of 1917.
  • "The Secret Life of Leon Trotsky" - Robert Elias 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC robelias.com [Source type: General]

.During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War.^ He was an influential politician in the early days of the Soviet Union , first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War.

^ During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and the People's Commissar of War.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky and the Soviet government responded with a full-fledged mobilization, which increased the size of the Red Army from less than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October 1918, and an introduction of political commissars into the Red Army.

.He was also among the first members of the Politburo.^ He was also among the first members of the Politburo.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the surface, he weathered them successfully and was elected one of only five full members of the first Politburo after the Congress.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the surface, he weathered all of them successfully and was elected one of only five full members of the first Politburo after the Congress.

.After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union.^ Following a power struggle with Joseph Stalin in the 1920s, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union.

^ Trotsky and the Left Opposition insistently warned of the danger of such a policy.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Its agenda is: The struggle against world Trotskyism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An early advocate of Red Army intervention against European fascism,[1] Trotsky also opposed Stalin's peace agreements with Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.^ Trotsky led the Red Army to victory?
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for Trotsky advocating Red Terror, lets not forget which side of the front line displaced Jewish communities took refuge (I’ll help you out, it wasn’t behind Churchill’s stooge army).

^ In 1925, Trotsky was forced to resign as Commisar of War, and by 1926 he had formed a political alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev against Stalin.
  • "The Secret Life of Leon Trotsky" - Robert Elias 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC robelias.com [Source type: General]

.As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent.^ He was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent, with an ice axe.

^ As the head of the International Left Opposition and then of the Fourth International, he continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For decades the Stalinists claimed that Trotsky had sought the destruction of the Soviet Union, that he had entered into conspiracies with the imperialists to dismember the USSR. For such alleged crimes Trotsky had been sentenced to death in absentia by the Soviet regime.
  • Leon Trotsky - a knol by Richard Tyler 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a term coined as early as 1905 by his opponents in order to separate it from Marxism.^ But it was Trotsky who provided the necessary theoretical basis upon which the Russian revolution could resurrect itself from the defeat of 1905 and go on to victory.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From this it follows that the dictatorship of the proletariat also will have a highly varied character in terms of the social basis, the political forms, the immediate tasks and the tempo of work in the various capitalist countries.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky's energy in advancing this idea brought him into the leadership of the Petersburg Council of Workers Deputies, which was the political high point of the 1905 Revolution.
  • Trotsky photo album 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trotsky's ideas remain a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism.^ Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, his variation of Communist theory, and Trotskyism remains a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism and Maoism.

^ Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories and practices of Stalinism.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This idea was later developed by Trotsky, notably in his 1907 pamphlet "Results and Prospects", and gained fame as the Theory of Permanent Revolution.
  • Trotsky photo album 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was one of the few Soviet political figures who were never rehabilitated by the Soviet administration.^ The Soviet bureaucracy never rehabilitated Leon Trotsky.
  • Leon Trotsky - a knol by Richard Tyler 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Randyhen please name one liberal today who venerates anyone who committed atrocities in the Soviet Union.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pyatakov is too important an administrative figure to make the trip in such a manner that it would not be known to the Soviet Government.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Before the 1917 Revolution

8 years old Lev Davidovich Bronstein, 1888
Lev Davidovich Bronstein, 1897

Childhood and family (1879–1895)

.Leon Trotsky was born Leiba Davidovich Bronstein (Russian: Лейба Давидович Бронштейн) on 7 November 1879, in Yanovka, Kherson Province of the Russian Empire (today's Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukraine), a small village 15 miles (24 km) from the nearest post office.^ Bibliography Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940.

^ Lev Davidovich Bronshtein (he assumed the name Leon Trotsky in 1902) was born in Yanovka, Russia , on 7th November, 1879.

^ Congresses Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940.

.He was the fifth, and favorite child of a well-to-do farmer, David Leontyevich Bronstein (1847–1922) and Anna Bronstein (1850-1910).^ He was the fifth child of a wealthy but illiterate Jewish farmer, David Leontyevich Bronstein, or Bronshtein (1847–1922), and Anna Bronstein (d.

^ He was the fifth child of a wealthy but illiterate Jewish farmer, David Leontyevich Bronstein (1847–1922) and Anna Bronstein (d.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Below: his father David Leontievich Bronstein, a well to do farmer in the village of Yanovka in the Kherson guberniia in the south of Ukraine.
  • Trotsky photo album 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The family was Jewish, although it was not religious.^ Although the family was Jewish, it was not religious, and the languages spoken at home were Russian and Ukrainian instead of Yiddish.

^ Consequently, although the family was ethnically Jewish, they were not particularly religious, and the languages spoken at home were Russian and Ukrainian instead of Yiddish.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The languages spoken in his home were Russian and Ukrainian instead of Yiddish.^ Although the family was Jewish, it was not religious, and the languages spoken at home were Russian and Ukrainian instead of Yiddish.

^ Consequently, although the family was ethnically Jewish, they were not particularly religious, and the languages spoken at home were Russian and Ukrainian instead of Yiddish.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it is stated in his autobiography My Life that he was never perfectly fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian, Raymond Molinier wrote that Trotsky spoke French fluently.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky's younger sister, Olga, married Lev Kamenev, a leading Bolshevik.^ Bronstein's younger sister, Olga, married Lev Kamenev, a leading Bolshevik.

^ Trotsky's younger sister, Olga, married Lev Kamenev, a leading Bolshevik.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky quotes leading Bolshevik theorist Nikolai Bukharin: “The letter (of Lenin) was written with extraordinary force and threatened us with all sorts of punishments.
  • Untitled Document 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: Original source]

.When Trotsky was nine, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated and he was enrolled in a historically German school, which became Russified during his years in Odessa, consequent to the Imperial government's policy of Russification.^ He was enrolled in a historically German school, which became increasingly Russified during his years in Odessa due to the government's policy of Russification.

^ When Trotsky was eight years old his father sent him to Odessa to be educated.

^ When Bronstein was nine, his father sent him to Odessa for education.

.June 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] As Isaac Deutscher points out in his biography of Trotsky, Odessa was then a bustling cosmopolitan port city, very unlike the typical Russian city of the time.^ As Deutscher points out in his biography, Odessa was then a bustling cosmopolitan port city, very unlike the typical Russian city of the time.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Isaac Deutscher Outside the USSR, the treatment of Trotsky was very different.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that time Trotsky was working on his biography of Stalin and some of the manuscript sheets were covered in his blood.
  • Trotsky photo album 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook.^ This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although it is stated in his autobiography My Life that he was never perfectly fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian, Raymond Molinier wrote that Trotsky spoke fluent French.^ My life; an attempt at an autobiography.

^ Although it is stated in his autobiography My Life that he was never perfectly fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian, Raymond Molinier wrote that Trotsky spoke French fluently.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He wrote about these negotiations in his autobiography, My Life .

[3]

Revolutionary activity and exile (1896–1902)

.Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to Nikolayev (now Mykolaiv).^ Revolutionary activity and exile (1896-1902) .

^ Bronstein became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to Nikolayev.

^ Revolutionary activity and exile (1896-1902) Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to Nikolayev (now Mykolaiv).
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.At first a narodnik (revolutionary populist), he was introduced to Marxism later that year and was originally opposed to it.^ At first a narodnik (revolutionary populist), he was introduced to Marxism later that year and was originally opposed to it.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first a narodnik (revolutionary populist), he was introduced to Marxism later that year and gradually became a Marxist.

^ Six years later he was transferred to Nikolayev where he was first introduced to the ideas of Karl Marx .

.But during periods of exile and imprisonment he gradually became a Marxist.^ But during periods of exile and imprisonment he gradually became a Marxist.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first a narodnik (revolutionary populist), he was introduced to Marxism later that year and gradually became a Marxist.

.Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name 'Lvov',[4] he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets and popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.^ Using the name 'Lvov' , he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets and popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.

^ Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Bronstein helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897.

^ Using the name 'Lvov',[5] he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets and popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In January 1898, over 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested, and he spent the next two years in prison awaiting trial.^ In January 1898, over 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested, and he spent the next two years in prison awaiting trial.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1898, over 200 members of the Union, including Bronstein, were arrested and he spent the next two years in prison awaiting trial.

^ The following year Trotsky's son Sergi was arrested in the Soviet Union.

.Two months after his imprisonment, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) was held, and from then on Trotsky considered himself a member of the party.^ He cites a comment that Stalin made at the conclusion of an early congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two months after his imprisonment, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) was held, and from then on Trotsky considered himself a member of the party.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two months after Bronstein's arrest and imprisonment, the 1st Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) was held and from that point on, Bronstein considered himself a member of the party.

.While in prison, he married fellow Marxist Aleksandra Sokolovskaya.^ While in prison, he married fellow Marxist Aleksandra Sokolovskaya.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While in prison, he married a fellow Marxist, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, and studied philosophy.

.While serving his sentence he studied philosophy.^ While serving his sentence he studied philosophy.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1900 he was sentenced to four years in exile in Ust-Kut and Verkholensk (see map) in the Irkutsk region of Siberia, where his first two daughters, Nina Nevelson and Zinaida Volkova, were born.^ In 1900 he was sentenced to four years in exile in Ust-Kut and Verkholensk (see map) in the Irkutsk region of Siberia, where his first two daughters, Nina Nevelson and Zinaida Volkova, were born.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his exile in Vienna, Trotsky is hit in rapid succession by a series of troubling events – the death of his mother, a painful accident at the dentist from which he gradually recovers, the sudden appearance of his eleven year old daughter from his first marriage (after five years of not seeing her), who visits from the Ukraine in the company of his father.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His first station in exile was the Turkish island of Prinkipo (now Büyükada) off the Istanbul coast, where he stayed four years.

.In Siberia, Trotsky became aware of the differences within the party, which had been decimated by arrests in 1898 and 1899. Some social democrats known as "economists" argued that the party should focus on helping industrial workers improve their lot in life.^ It was in Siberia that Bronstein became aware of the differences within the party, which had been decimated by arrests in the last two years of the 19th century.

^ Some social democrats known as "economists" were arguing that the party should concentrate on helping industrial workers improve their lot in life.

^ In Siberia Trotsky became aware of the differences within the party, which had been decimated by arrests in 1898 and 1899.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Others argued that overthrowing the monarchy was more important and that a well organized and disciplined revolutionary party was essential.^ Others argued that overthrowing the monarchy was more important and that a well organized and disciplined revolutionary party was essential.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cadet Party writes: "As to the left groups in the narrower sense of the word, that is, the socialist and revolutionary groups, an agreement with them will be more difficult.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ And much in the thinking/actions of Che Guevara (as well as many, many other revolutionaries) also overlaps and intersects with this revolutionary Marxism.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter were led by the London-based newspaper Iskra,Or in English, Spark, which was founded in 1900. Trotsky quickly sided with the Iskra position.^ The latter were led by the London -based newspaper Iskra , which was founded in 1900.

^ Bronstein quickly sided with the Iskra position.

^ Trotsky quickly sided with the Iskra position.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

First emigration and second marriage (1902–1903)

.Trotsky escaped from Siberia in the summer of 1902. It is said he adopted the name of a jailer of the Odessa prison in which he had earlier been held,[5] and this became his primary revolutionary pseudonym.^ Bronstein escaped from Siberia in the summer of 1902, having stolen a passport in the name of Leon Trotsky (a former jailer in Odessa), which became his primary revolutionary pseudonym.

^ First emigration and second marriage (1902-1903) Trotsky escaped from Siberia in the summer of 1902.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said he adopted the name of a jailer of the Odessa prison in which he had earlier been held,[6] and this became his primary revolutionary pseudonym.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once abroad, he moved to London to join Georgy Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov and other editors of Iskra.^ Once abroad, he moved to London to join Georgy Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin , Julius Martov and other editors of Iskra .

^ Once abroad, he moved to London to join Georgy Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov and other editors of Iskra.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the Iskra editors, my closest connections were with Martov, Zasulich and Axelrod.

.Under the pen name Pero ("feather" or "pen" in Russian), Trotsky soon became one of the paper's leading authors.^ Under the pen name Pero ("feather" or "pen" in Russian), Trotsky soon became one of the paper's leading authors.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the penname Pero ("feather" or "pen" in Russian) Trotsky soon became one of the paper's leading authors.

^ Trotsky's ashes stolen and baked in cookies Authored by: Wargasm on Wednesday, April 15 2009 @ 12:28 AM CDT Now that's a good one!
  • Trotsky's ashes stolen and baked in cookies - Infoshop News 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC news.infoshop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unknown to Trotsky, the six editors of Iskra were evenly split between the "old guard" led by Plekhanov and the "new guard" led by Lenin and Martov.^ In a surprise development, Trotsky and most of the Iskra editors supported Martov and the Mensheviks while Plekhanov supported Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unknown to Trotsky, the six editors of Iskra were evenly split between the "old guard" led by Plekhanov and the "new guard" led by Lenin and Martov.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Central Committee was split almost evenly between Lenin's and Trotsky's supporters, with all three Secretaries of the Central Committee (Krestinky, Yevgeny Preobrazhensky and Leonid Serebryakov) supporting Trotsky.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Not only were Plekhanov's supporters older (in their 40s and 50s), but they had also spent the previous 20 years in European exile together.^ Not only were Plekhanov's supporters older (in their 40s and 50s), but they had also spent the previous 20 years in European exile together.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only 40 years before, Marx had lived in London as an impoverished and isolated revolutionary exile.
  • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The countless hours they had spent studying Das Kapital were enriched by many years of observing capital in action.
  • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

.Members of the new guard were in their early 30s and had only recently come from Russia.^ Members of the new guard were in their early 30s and had only recently come from Russia.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of my visitors will confirm that it was possible to come in contact with me only through the members of the family of our host, Knudsen, or through my secretaries, who remained on permanent guard duty before my room.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With this insistence was connected his belief in the necessity of recognizing as party members only those who were also actual members of the secret organizations in Russia.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Lenin, who was trying to establish a permanent majority against Plekhanov within Iskra, expected Trotsky, then 23, to side with the new guard and wrote in March 1903:[6]
.I suggest to all the members of the editorial board that they co-opt 'Pero' as a member of the board on the same basis as other members.^ "Pero" as a full member of the Board.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a letter to Plekhanov, he wrote: "I am submitting to all members of the Editorial Board a proposal to co-opt .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin, who was trying to establish a permanent majority against Plekhanov within Iskra , expected Trotsky, then 23, to side with the new guard and wrote in March 1903: I suggest to all the members of the editorial board that they co-opt 'Pero' as a member of the board on the same basis as other members.

[...] .We very much need a seventh member, both as a convenience in voting (six being an even number), and as an addition to our forces.^ We very much need a seventh member, both as a convenience in voting (six being an even number), and as an addition to our forces.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We are very much in need of a seventh member both because it would simplify voting (six being an even number) and reinforce the Board.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Emphasizing the exhaustion of the Soviet forces and the need of a breathing spell, Lenin stood for signing the proposed peace treaty, even though it meant agreement to Russia’s being despoiled of vast territories and forced to pay tribute to the Germans.
  • Leon Trotsky: The Stalin School of Falsification (Letter to the Bureau of Party History - 2) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.'Pero' has been contributing to every issue for several months now; he works in general most energetically for the Iskra; he gives lectures (in which he has been very successful).^ In general he is working for Iskra most energetically, delivering lectures (and with tremendous success) etc.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Pero' has been contributing to every issue for several months now; he works in general most energetically for the Iskra; he gives lectures (in which he has been very successful).
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "'Pero' has been writing in every issue for several months now.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the section of articles and notes on the events of the day, he will not only be very useful, but absolutely necessary.^ In the section of articles and notes on the events of the day, he will not only be very useful, but absolutely necessary.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet leadership denounced Eastman's account and used party discipline to force Trotsky to write an article denying Eastman's version of the events.

^ For our department of topical articles and items he will be not only very useful but quite indispensable.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Unquestionably a man of rare abilities, he has conviction and energy, and he will go much farther.^ Unquestionably a man of rare abilities, he has conviction and energy, and he will go much farther.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is unquestionably a man of more than average ability, convinced, energetic, and promising .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And then Pyatakov – a man undoubtedly distinguished in will and ability, but too much given over to administration and the administrative side of things to be relied on in a serious political question.
  • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Because of Plekhanov's opposition, Trotsky did not become a full member of the board, but from then on participated in its meetings in an advisory capacity, which earned him Plekhanov's enmity.^ Due to Plekhanov's opposition, Trotsky did not become a full member of the board, but from then on participated in its meetings in an advisory capacity, which earned him Plekhanov's enmity.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Pero" as a full member of the Board.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Due to Plekhanov's opposition, Trotsky did not become a full member of the editorial board, but from that point on he participated in its meetings in an advisory capacity, which earned him Plekhanov's enmity.

.In late 1902, Trotsky met Natalia Sedova, who soon became his companion and, from 1903 until his death, his wife.^ In late 1902, Trotsky met Natalia Sedova, who soon became his companion and, from 1903 until his death, his wife.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In late 1902, Trotsky met Natalia Sedova, who soon became his companion and, from 1903 until his death, wife.

^ Leon Trotsky and Natalia Sedova -- friends, companions and comrades since 1902.
  • Trotsky photo album 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They had two children together, Lev Sedov (b.^ They had two children together, Lev Sedov (b.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had two children together, Leon Sedov (b.

1906) and Sergei Sedov (b. 1908). As Trotsky later explained,[7] after the 1917 revolution:
.In order not to oblige my sons to change their name, I, for "citizenship" requirements, took on the name of my wife.^ As Trotsky later explained,[8] after the 1917 revolution: In order not to oblige my sons to change their name, I, for "citizenship" requirements, took on the name of my wife.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the name of my wife and my legal Soviet name.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As Trotsky later explained, after the 1917 revolution: In order not to oblige my sons to change their name, I, for "citizenship" requirements, took on the name of my wife.

.But the name change remained a technicality and he never used the name "Sedov" either privately or publicly.^ However, the name change remained a technicality and he never used the name "Sedov" either privately or publicly.

^ But the name change remained a technicality and he never used the name "Sedov" either privately or publicly.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Romm did not pay a personal visit either to Sedov or any individual designated by Sedov, for in that case it would have been necessary to state the latter’s name and address, and that was far too risky.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Natalia Sedova sometimes signed her name "Sedova-Trotskaya". Trotsky and his first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, maintained a friendly relationship until she disappeared in 1935 during the Great Purges.^ Trotsky and his first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, maintained a friendly relationship until she disappeared in 1935 during the Great Purges.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky and his first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, maintained a friendly relationship until Sokolovskaya disappeared in 1935 during the Great Purges.

^ Lara disappeared off the street during Stalin's Great Purge.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Split with Lenin (1903–1904)

.In the meantime, after a period of secret police repression and internal confusion that followed the first party Congress in 1898, Iskra succeeded in convening the party's 2nd congress in London in August 1903, Trotsky and other Iskra editors attended.^ In the meantime, after a period of secret police repression and internal confusion that followed the first party Congress in 1898, Iskra succeeded in convening the party's 2nd congress in London in August 1903, with Trotsky and other Iskra editors in attendance.

^ Split with Lenin (1903-1904) In the meantime, after a period of secret police repression and internal confusion that followed the first party Congress in 1898, Iskra succeeded in convening the party's 2nd congress in London in August 1903, Trotsky and other Iskra editors attended.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress also adopted a secret resolution on "Party unity", which banned factions within the Party except during pre-Congress discussions.

.The first congress went as planned, with Iskra supporters handily defeating the few "economist" delegates.^ The first congress went as planned, with Iskra supporters handily defeating the few "economist" delegates.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first the Congress went as planned, with Iskra supporters handily defeating the few "economist" delegates at the Congress.

.Then the congress discussed the position of the Jewish Bund, which had co-founded the RSDLP in 1898 but wanted to remain autonomous within the party.^ Then the Congress discussed the position of the Jewish Bund, which had co-founded the RSDLP in 1898 but wanted to remain autonomous within the Party.

^ Then the congress discussed the position of the Jewish Bund, which had co-founded the RSDLP in 1898 but wanted to remain autonomous within the party.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress also adopted a secret resolution on "Party unity", which banned factions within the Party except during pre-Congress discussions.

.Shortly thereafter, pro-Iskra delegates unexpectedly split into two factions.^ Shortly thereafter, pro-Iskra delegates unexpectedly split into two factions.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly thereafter, pro- Iskra delegates unexpectedly split in two factions.

^ Russian social democrats were split into at least six groups and the Bolsheviks were waiting for the next party Congress to determine which factions to merge with.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lenin and his supporters (known as Bolsheviks) argued for a smaller but highly organized party.^ Lenin and his supporters (known as " Bolsheviks") argued for a smaller but highly organized party.

^ The illusion of a "monolithic Bolshevik leadership" was thus shattered and a lively intra-Party discussion ensued, both in local Party organizations and in the pages of Pravda .

^ Lenin and his supporters (known as "Bolsheviks") argued for a smaller but highly organized party, implying that future policy and strategy would be created by an disciplined elite, and that party activity would be centrally directed by them.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Martov and his supporters (known as Mensheviks) argued for a larger and less disciplined party.^ Martov and his supporters (known as " Mensheviks") argued for a larger and less disciplined party.

^ Martov and his supporters (known as "Mensheviks") argued for a larger and less disciplined party.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who remained loyal to Martov became known as Mensheviks .

.In a surprise development, Trotsky and most of the Iskra editors supported Martov and the Mensheviks while Plekhanov supported Lenin and the Bolsheviks.^ In a surprise development, Trotsky and most of the Iskra editors supported Martov and the Mensheviks while Plekhanov supported Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

^ Trotsky supported Julius Martov .

^ Lenin wrote to Trotsky asking for his support.

.During 1903 and 1904, many members changed sides in the factions.^ During 1903 and 1904, many members changed sides in the factions.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two factions were in a state of flux in 1903-1904 with many members changing sides.

^ His anti-Bolshevik past also made him unpopular with those who had been members of the Bolshevik faction since 1903.

.Plekhanov soon parted ways with the Bolsheviks.^ Plekhanov soon parted ways with the Bolsheviks.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A considerable part of the Bolsheviks were in favour of giving way so far as to create a joint all-socialist government.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky left the Mensheviks in September 1904 over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks.^ Trotsky left the Mensheviks in September 1904 over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

^ In what appeared to be a minor development at the time, in April 1913 Trotsky was so upset by what he saw as a usurpation of 'his' newspaper's name that he wrote a letter to Nikolay Chkheidze, a Menshevik leader, bitterly denouncing Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

^ After the death of Lenin, Joseph Stalin joined forces with two left-wing members of the Politburo, Gregory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev to keep Trotsky from power.

From then until 1917 he described himself as a "non-factional social democrat".
.Trotsky spent much of his time between 1904 and 1917 trying to reconcile different groups within the party, which resulted in many clashes with Lenin and other prominent party members.^ From 1917 to 1924 not a word was spoken of the contrast between Trotskyism and Leninism.
  • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky spent much of his time between 1904 and 1917 trying to reconcile different groups within the party, which resulted in many clashes with Lenin and other prominent party members.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of 1917, Trotsky was unquestionably the second man in the Bolshevik Party after Lenin, overshadowing the ambitious Zinoviev, who had been Lenin's top lieutenant over the previous decade, but whose star appeared to be fading.

.Trotsky later conceded he had been wrong in opposing Lenin on the issue of the party.^ Trotsky later conceded he had been wrong in opposing Lenin on the issue of the party.

^ In general, Trotsky’s position was very close to that of the Bolsheviks, as Lenin himself was later to admit.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At first opposed to it, in the end Lenin voted for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists.

During these years Trotsky began developing his theory of permanent revolution, which led to a close working relationship with Alexander Parvus in 1904–1907.

1905 revolution and trial (1905–1906)

.After the events of Bloody Sunday, Trotsky secretly returned to Russia in February 1905. At first he wrote leaflets for an underground printing press in Kiev, but soon moved to the capital, Saint Petersburg, where he worked with both Bolsheviks, such as Central Committee member Leonid Krasin, and the local Menshevik committee, which he pushed in a more radical direction.^ L. Trotsky in 1905 argued more logically and consistently than either the Bolsheviks or the Mensheviks.
  • Leon Trotsky: The Stalin School of Falsification (Letter to the Bureau of Party History - 2) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky returned to Russia during the 1905 Revolution .

^ Leon Trotsky After the events of Bloody Sunday (1905), Trotsky secretly returned to Russia in February 1905.

.The latter, however, were betrayed by a secret police agent in May, and Trotsky had to flee to rural Finland.^ The latter, however, were betrayed by a secret police agent in May.

^ Leon Trotsky—the co-leader of the October Revolution, opponent of Stalinism, and founder of the Fourth International—was assassinated by an agent of the Soviet secret police, the GPU, in August 1940.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky had to flee to rural Finland where he worked on fleshing out his theory of permanent revolution until October, when a nationwide strike made it possible for him to return to St. Petersburg.

There he worked on fleshing out his theory of permanent revolution until October, when a nationwide strike made it possible for him to return to St. Petersburg.
.After returning to the capital, Trotsky and Parvus took over the newspaper Russian Gazette and increased its circulation to 500,000. Trotsky also co-founded Nachalo ("The Beginning") with Parvus and the Mensheviks, which proved to be very successful.^ Trotsky also co-founded Nachalo ("The Beginning") with Parvus and the Mensheviks, which proved to be very successful.

^ After returning to the capital, Trotsky and Parvus took over the newspaper Russian Gazette and increased its circulation to 500,000.

^ While in Vienna, Trotsky continuously published articles in radical Russian and Ukrainian newspapers like Kievskaya Mysl under a variety of pseudonyms, often "Antid Oto".

.Just before Trotsky's return, the Mensheviks had independently come up with the same idea that Trotsky had—an elected non-party revolutionary organization representing the capital's workers, the first Soviet ("Council") of Workers.^ He organized the League for a Revolutionary Workers Party, which soon disappeared.

^ Leon Trotsky returned to Petersburg while the strike was on, and simultaneously with the Mensheviks he conceived the idea of forming a non-partisan "Council of Workers' Delegates" to represent the interests of the masses and to keep up the revolutionary spirit.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just before Trotsky's return, the Mensheviks had independently come up with the same idea that Trotsky had - an elected non-party revolutionary organization representing the capital's workers, the first Soviet ("Council") of Workers.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

By the time of Trotsky's arrival, the St. Petersburg Soviet was already functioning headed by Khrustalyov-Nosar (Georgy Nosar, alias Pyotr Khrustalyov), a compromise figure, and proved to be very popular with the workers in spite of the Bolsheviks' original opposition. .Trotsky joined the Soviet under the name "Yanovsky" (after the village he was born in, Yanovka) and was elected vice-Chairman.^ Trotsky was released and on 23rd September, he was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet .

^ Trotsky joined the Soviet under the name "Yanovsky" (after the village he was born in, Yanovka) and was elected vice-Chairman.

^ Lev Davidovich Bronshtein (he assumed the name Leon Trotsky in 1902) was born in Yanovka, Russia , on 7th November, 1879.

.He did much of the actual work at the Soviet and, after Khrustalev-Nosar's arrest on 26 November, was elected its chairman.^ He did much of the actual work at the Soviet and, after Khrustalev-Nosar's arrest on November 26, was elected its Chairman.

^ After the Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet, Trotsky was elected Chairman on October 8 ( New Style).

^ Trotsky was released and on 23rd September, he was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet .

On 2 December, the Soviet issued a proclamation which included the following statement about the Tsarist government and its foreign debts:[8]
.The autocracy never enjoyed the confidence of the people and was never granted any authority by the people.^ On December 2, the Soviet issued a proclamation which included the following statement about the Tsarist government and its foreign debts: The autocracy never enjoyed the confidence of the people and was never granted any authority by the people.

^ The People’s Commissariat of Rabkrin does not enjoy at the present moment a shadow of authority.
  • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.We have therefore decided not to allow the repayment of such loans as have been made by the Tsarist government when openly engaged in a war with the entire people.^ We have therefore decided not to allow the repayment of such loans as have been made by the Czarist government when openly engaged in a war with the entire people.

^ The struggle against war is decided not by pressure upon the government but only by the revolutionary struggle for power.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, the attempt has been made to rewrite the entire history of the Civil War for the sole purpose of the struggle against “Trotskyism” or, to put it more precisely, the struggle against Trotsky.
  • Leon Trotsky: The Stalin School of Falsification (Letter to the Bureau of Party History - 2) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The following day, the Soviet was surrounded by troops loyal to the government and the deputies were arrested.^ The following day, December 3, the Soviet was surrounded by troops loyal to the government and the deputies were arrested.

^ The same day, while Trotsky was already in the South, Vatsetis was suddenly arrested by the Cheka on suspicion of involvement in an anti-Soviet plot and replaced by Sergei Kamenev.

^ 'Does the Soviet government still follow the principles adopted 20 years ago?'
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Trotsky and other Soviet leaders were tried in 1906 on charges of supporting an armed rebellion.^ Trotsky and other Soviet leaders were put on trial in 1906 on charges of supporting an armed rebellion.

^ Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abstract: Papers of Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky including correspondence from his years in the Soviet Union and writings.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.At the trial, Trotsky delivered some of the best speeches of his life and solidified his reputation as an effective public speaker, which he confirmed in 1917–1920. He was convicted and sentenced to deportation.^ At the trial, Trotsky delivered some of the best speeches of his life and solidified his reputation as an effective public speaker, which he confirmed in 1917-1920.

^ He was convicted and sentenced to exile for life.

^ Trotsky's popularity among the St. Petersburg proletariat was very great by the time of his arrest, and this was increased still further by his strikingly effective and heroic behaviour at the trial.

Second emigration (1907–1914)

.En route to exhile in Obdorsk, Siberia in January 1907, Trotsky escaped at Berezov[9] and once again made his way to London, where he attended the 5th Congress of the RSDLP.^ In January 1907, Trotsky escaped en route to exile and once again made his way to London , where he attended the 5th Congress of the RSDLP. In October 1907, he moved to Vienna where he frequently participated in the activities of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and, occasionally, of the German Social Democratic Party, for the next seven years.

^ After four years in captivity, he escaped and eventually made his way to London .

^ Second emigration (1907-1914) En route to deportation to Siberia in January 1907, Trotsky escaped and once again made his way to London, where he attended the 5th Congress of the RSDLP. In October, he moved to Vienna where he often took part in the activities of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and, occasionally, of the German Social Democratic Party, for seven years.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In October, he moved to Vienna where he often took part in the activities of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and, occasionally, of the German Social Democratic Party, for seven years.^ The Social-Democrats took a similar attitude.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1907, Trotsky escaped en route to exile and once again made his way to London , where he attended the 5th Congress of the RSDLP. In October 1907, he moved to Vienna where he frequently participated in the activities of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and, occasionally, of the German Social Democratic Party, for the next seven years.

^ He assumed that the peasant party, which would control the government jointly with the Social-Democrats, would not agree to these reforms and thus would come into conflict with the workers.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Vienna, Trotsky became close to Adolph Joffe, his friend for the next 20 years, who introduced him to psychoanalysis.^ It was in Vienna that Trotsky became close to Adolph Joffe, his friend for the next 20 years, who introduced Trotsky to psychoanalysis.

^ What interests him is portraying Trotsky as some sort of irresponsible and callous philanderer, who thoughtlessly and egotistically abandoned his first wife, Alexandra Sokolovskaya.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, that friend, Judy Tenenbaum, the mother of Linda Tenenbaum who is chairing this International Summer School, died early last year.
  • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] .In October 1908 he started a bi-weekly Russian language Social Democratic paper aimed at Russian workers called Pravda ("Truth"), which he co-edited with Joffe, Matvey Skobelev and Victor Kopp and which was smuggled into Russia.^ In October 1908 he started a bi-weekly Russian language Social Democratic paper aimed at Russian workers called Pravda ("The Truth"), which he co-edited with Joffe, Matvey Skobelev and Victor Kopp and which was smuggled into Russia.

^ In October 1908 he started a bi-weekly Russian language Social Democratic paper aimed at Russian workers called Pravda ("Truth"), which he co-edited with Joffe, Matvey Skobelev and Victor Kopp and which was smuggled into Russia.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He assumed that the peasant party, which would control the government jointly with the Social-Democrats, would not agree to these reforms and thus would come into conflict with the workers.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The paper avoided factional politics and proved popular with Russian industrial workers.^ When speaking about it to the workers, however, the Russian intellectuals preferred to use the expression "political revolution" or "democratic revolution."
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their eyes directed towards the success of the political revolution, both papers were in favor of a reconciliation of the two factions.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks split multiple times after the failure of the 1905–1907 revolution.^ Both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks split multiple times after the failure of the 1905-1907 revolution.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions (both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks split multiple times after the failure of the 1905-1907 revolution) tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'.

^ At last the Revolution broke out early in 1905; but it offered no opportunity for applying either the Menshevik formula of helping the establishment of a bourgeois-liberal regime or the Bolshevik "democratic dictatorship" of the radical intelligentsia.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'. Lev Kamenev, Trotsky's brother-in-law, was added to the editorial board from the Bolsheviks, but the unification attempts failed in August 1910 when Kamenev resigned from the board amid mutual recriminations.^ Lev Kamenev, Trotsky's brother-in-law, was added to the editorial board from the Bolsheviks, but the unification attempts failed in August 1910 when Kamenev resigned from the board amid mutual recriminations.

^ When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions (both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks split multiple times after the failure of the 1905-1907 revolution) tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'.

^ "The August Bloc") and tried to re-unite the party.

Trotsky continued publishing Pravda for another two years until it finally folded in April 1912.
The Bolsheviks started a new workers-oriented newspaper in St. Petersburg on 22 April 1912, and also called it Pravda. .Trotsky was so upset by what he saw as a usurpation of his newspaper's name that in April 1913 he wrote a letter to Nikolay Chkheidze, a Menshevik leader, bitterly denouncing Lenin and the Bolsheviks.^ Lenin saw the dangers of Trotsky's attitude.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In what appeared to be a minor development at the time, in April 1913 Trotsky was so upset by what he saw as a usurpation of 'his' newspaper's name that he wrote a letter to Nikolay Chkheidze, a Menshevik leader, bitterly denouncing Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

^ At that point Lenin amended his Testament suggesting that Stalin should be replaced as the party's General Secretary, although the thrust of his argument was somewhat weakened by the fact that he also mildly criticized other Bolshevik leaders, including Trotsky.

.Though he quickly got over the disagreement, the letter was intercepted by the police, and a copy was put into their archives.^ Though he quickly got over the disagreement, the letter was intercepted by the police, and a copy was put into their archives.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly after Lenin's death in 1924, the letter was pulled out of the archives and made public by his opponents within the Communist Party, and was used to paint him as Lenin's enemy.^ Trotsky was able to suppress the contents of the letter in 1921 to avoid embarrassment, but once he started losing power in the early 1920s, the letter was made public by his opponents within the Communist Party in 1924 and used to paint him as Lenin's enemy.

^ Shortly after Lenin's death in 1924, the letter was pulled out of the archives and made public by Trotsky's opponents within the Communist Party, and was used to paint him as Lenin's enemy.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a fit of temper Stalin made an abusive phone-call to Lenin's life, Nadezhda Krupskaya , accusing her of endangering Lenin's life by allowing him to write letters when he was so ill.

.This was a period of heightened tension within the RSDLP and led to numerous frictions between Trotsky, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.^ This was a period of heightened tension within the RSDLP and led to numerous frictions between Trotsky, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.

^ Trotsky had the same position as the Bolsheviks, which led him to break with the Mensheviks.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This has led to the false account that Trotsky was a “Menshevik”.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The most serious disagreement that Trotsky and the Mensheviks had with Lenin at the time was over the issue of "expropriations",[11] i.e., armed robberies of banks and other companies by Bolshevik groups to procure money for the Party, which had been banned by the 5th Congress, but continued by the Bolsheviks.^ It was on this issue that Trotsky broke with the Mensheviks in 1904.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ That was the aim of the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most serious disagreement that Trotsky and the Mensheviks had with Lenin at the time was over the issue of "expropriations", i.e.

.In January 1912, the majority of the Bolshevik faction led by Lenin and a few Mensheviks held a conference in Prague and expelled their opponents from the party.^ In January 1912, the majority of the Bolshevik faction led by Lenin and a few Mensheviks held a conference in Prague and expelled their opponents from the party.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions (both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks split multiple times after the failure of the 1905-1907 revolution) tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'.

^ When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In response, Trotsky organized a "unification" conference of social democratic factions in Vienna in August 1912 (a.k.a.^ In response, Trotsky organized a "unification" conference of social democratic factions in Vienna in August 1912 (a.k.a.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From that point until 1917 he remained a self-described "non-factional social democrat".

^ Lev Kamenev, Trotsky's brother-in-law, was added to the editorial board from the Bolsheviks, but the unification attempts failed in August 1910 when Kamenev resigned from the board amid mutual recriminations.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."The August Bloc") and tried to re-unite the party.^ "The August Bloc") and tried to re-unite the party.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When various Bolshevik and Menshevik factions tried to re-unite at the January 1910 RSDLP Central Committee meeting in Paris over Lenin's objections, Trotsky's Pravda was made a party-financed 'central organ'.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The attempt was generally unsuccessful.^ The attempt was generally unsuccessful.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Vienna, Trotsky continuously published articles in radical Russian and Ukrainian newspapers like Kievskaya Mysl under a variety of pseudonyms, often "Antid Oto". In September 1912, Kievskaya Mysl sent him to the Balkans as its war correspondent, where he covered the two Balkan Wars for the next year and became a close friend of Christian Rakovsky, later a leading Soviet politician and Trotsky's ally in the Soviet Communist Party.^ Trotsky, at twenty-six, became the soul of the first Russian Soviet.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While in Vienna, Trotsky continuously published articles in radical Russian and Ukrainian newspapers like Kievskaya Mysl under a variety of pseudonyms, often "Antid Oto".

^ It was in Vienna that Trotsky became close to Adolph Joffe, his friend for the next 20 years, who introduced Trotsky to psychoanalysis.

.On 3 August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I which pitted Austria-Hungary against the Russian empire, Trotsky was forced to flee Vienna for neutral Switzerland to avoid arrest as a Russian émigré.^ Its agenda is: The struggle against world Trotskyism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 3 1914, at the outbreak of World War I which pitted Austria-Hungary against the Russian empire, Trotsky was forced to flee Vienna for neutral Switzerland to avoid arrest as a Russian émigré.

^ After initial hesitation by the Russian foreign minister Pavel Milyukov, he was forced to demand that Trotsky be released and the British government freed Trotsky on April 29.

World War I (1914–1917)

.The outbreak of World War I caused a sudden realignment within the RSDLP and other European social democratic parties over the issues of war, revolution, pacifism and internationalism.^ World War I (1914-1917) The outbreak of WWI caused a sudden realignment within the RSDLP and other European social democratic parties over the issues of war, revolution, pacifism and internationalism.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The outbreak of WWI caused a sudden realignment within the RSDLP and other European social democratic parties over the issues of war, revolution, pacifism and internationalism.

^ He assumed that the peasant party, which would control the government jointly with the Social-Democrats, would not agree to these reforms and thus would come into conflict with the workers.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Within the RSDLP, Lenin, Trotsky and Martov advocated various internationalist anti-war positions, while Plekhanov and other social democrats (both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) supported the Russian government to some extent.^ In a surprise development, Trotsky and most of the Iskra editors supported Martov and the Mensheviks while Plekhanov supported Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the RSDLP, Lenin, Trotsky and Martov advocated various internationalist anti-war positions, while Plekhanov and other social democrats (both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) supported the Russian government to some extent.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky had the same position as the Bolsheviks, which led him to break with the Mensheviks.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Switzerland, Trotsky briefly worked within the Swiss Socialist Party, prompting it to adopt an internationalist resolution, and wrote a book against the war, The War and the International.^ Trotsky’s estimate of his work as War Commissar.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While in Switzerland, Trotsky briefly worked within the Swiss Socialist Party, prompting it to adopt an internationalist resolution, and wrote a book against the war, The War and the International .

^ In Switzerland, Trotsky briefly worked within the Swiss Socialist Party, prompting it to adopt an internationalist resolution, and wrote a book against the war, The War and the International.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The thrust of the book was against the pro-war position taken by the European social democratic parties, primarily the German party.^ The thrust of the book was against the pro-war position taken by the European social democratic parties, primarily the German party.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He assumed that the peasant party, which would control the government jointly with the Social-Democrats, would not agree to these reforms and thus would come into conflict with the workers.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Hobsbawm’s super-deterministic position provides not only an apology for Stalin — "objective conditions made him do it" — but also vindicates the classical liberal bourgeois democratic argument against revolution as an instrument of social change.
  • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

Leon Trotsky with his daughter Nina
.Trotsky moved to France on 19 November 1914, as a war correspondent for the Kievskaya Mysl.^ Leon Trotsky with his daughter NinaTrotsky moved to France on November 19, 1914, as a war correspondent for the Kievskaya Mysl.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Trotsky with his daughter Nina in France, 1915 Trotsky moved to France on November 19, 1914, as a war correspondent for the Kievskaya Mysl .

^ Living on what he called “a planet without a visa,” Trotsky moved from Turkey, to France, to Norway and finally, in 1937, to Mexico.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In January 1915 he began editing (at first with Martov, who soon resigned as the paper moved to the Left) Nashe Slovo ("Our Word"), an internationalist socialist newspaper, in Paris.^ In January 1915 he began editing (at first with Martov, who soon resigned as the paper moved to the Left) Nashe Slovo ("Our Word"), an internationalist socialist newspaper, in Paris.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1915 he began editing (at first with Martov, who soon resigned as the paper moved to the Left) Nashe Slovo ["Our Word"], an internationalist socialist newspaper, in Paris.

^ What is peculiar about our position is that we – at the crossroads of the capitalist West and the colonial-peasant East – were the first to carry out a socialist revolution.
  • Leon Trotsky - Culture and Socialism - 1927 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

.He adopted the slogan of "peace without indemnities or annexations, peace without conquerors or conquered", which didn't go quite as far as Lenin, who advocated Russia's defeat in the war and demanded a complete break with the Second International.^ He adopted the slogan of "peace without indemnities or annexations, peace without conquerors or conquered", which didn't go quite as far as Lenin, who advocated Russia's defeat in the war and demanded a complete break with the Second International.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky attended the Zimmerwald Conference of anti-war socialists in September 1915 and advocated a middle course between those who, like Martov, would stay within the Second International at any cost and those who, like Lenin, would break with the Second International and form a Third International.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky attended the Zimmerwald Conference of anti-war socialists in September 1915 and advocated a middle course between those who, like Martov, would stay within the Second International at any cost and those who would, like Lenin, break with the Second International and form a Third International.

.Trotsky attended the Zimmerwald Conference of anti-war socialists in September 1915 and advocated a middle course between those who, like Martov, would stay within the Second International at any cost and those who, like Lenin, would break with the Second International and form a Third International.^ Who I'd like to meet: Lenin on anti-semitism: .
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotskyism after Trotsky : the origins of the international socialists.

^ Trotsky attended the Zimmerwald Conference of anti-war socialists in September 1915 and advocated a middle course between those who, like Martov, would stay within the Second International at any cost and those who, like Lenin, would break with the Second International and form a Third International.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The conference adopted the middle line proposed by Trotsky.^ The conference adopted the middle line proposed by Trotsky.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At first opposed to it, in the end Lenin voted[12] for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists.^ At first opposed to it, in the end Lenin voted for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists.

^ At first opposed to it, in the end Lenin voted[15] for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin at first opposed it as he opposed the theory of the permanent revolution.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 31 March Trotsky was deported from France to Spain for his anti-war activities.^ In September 1916, Trotsky was deported from France to Spain for his anti-war activities.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first opposed to it, in the end Lenin voted for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists.

^ Leon Trotsky with his daughter NinaTrotsky moved to France on November 19, 1914, as a war correspondent for the Kievskaya Mysl.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Spanish authorities did not let him stay and he was deported to the United States on 25 December 1916. He arrived in New York City on 13 January 1917 where he stayed for nearly three months at 1522 Vyse Avenue in Bronx (New York City).^ Spanish authorities wouldn't let him stay and he was deported to the United States on December 25, 1916.

^ Spanish authorities did not let him stay and he was deported to the United States on December 25, 1916.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He arrived in New York City on January 13, 1917.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In New York, he wrote articles for the local Russian language socialist newspaper Novy Mir and the Yiddish language daily Der Forverts (The Forward) in translation and made speeches to Russian émigrés.^ In New York, he wrote articles for the local Russian language socialist newspaper Novy Mir and the Yiddish language daily Der Forverts (The Forward) in translation and made speeches to Russian émigrés.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (New translation from the original Russian text) [return] .
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His articles, in spite of all the author’s caution, are loaded not only with theoretical blunders and naivetes, but also with crude sins against the Russian language.
  • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

He was officially earning some $15 a week.[citation needed]
.Trotsky was living in New York City when the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew Tsar Nicholas II.^ He arrived in New York City on January 13, 1917.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky was living in New York City when the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew Tzar Nicholas II. He left New York on March 27, but his ship was intercepted by British naval officials in Halifax, Nova Scotia and he spent a month detained at Amherst, Nova Scotia.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky was living in New York City when the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew Tsar Nicholas II. He left New York on March 27, but his ship was intercepted by British naval officials in Halifax, Nova Scotia and he spent a month detained at Amherst, Nova Scotia.

.He left New York on 27 March but his ship was intercepted by British naval officials in Halifax, Nova Scotia and he spent a month detained at Amherst, Nova Scotia.^ Trotsky was living in New York City when the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew Tzar Nicholas II. He left New York on March 27, but his ship was intercepted by British naval officials in Halifax, Nova Scotia and he spent a month detained at Amherst, Nova Scotia.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky was living in New York City when the February Revolution of 1917 overthrew Tsar Nicholas II. He left New York on March 27, but his ship was intercepted by British naval officials in Halifax, Nova Scotia and he spent a month detained at Amherst, Nova Scotia.

^ The ship that brought Mr. Trotsky from Turkey to Marseilles in 1933 docked after he had slipped secretly ashore, according to a Marseilles dispatch to the New York Times of July 25th, 1933.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After initial hesitation, the Russian foreign minister Pavel Milyukov was forced to demand that Trotsky be released, and the British government freed Trotsky on 29 April.^ After initial hesitation by the Russian foreign minister Pavel Milyukov, he was forced to demand that Trotsky be released and the British government freed Trotsky on April 29.

^ After initial hesitation, the Russian foreign minister Pavel Milyukov was forced to demand that Trotsky be released, and the British government freed Trotsky on April 29.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Embassy in the Russian capital tried to impress Trotsky's countrymen with stories of German subsidies granted for the overthrow of the Provisional Government and for the betrayal of the country.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.He finally made his way back to Russia on 4 May.^ He finally made his way back to Russia on May 4.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon his return, Trotsky was in substantive agreement with the Bolshevik position, but did not join them right away.^ Upon his return, Trotsky was in substantive agreement with the Bolshevik position, but did not join them right away.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon his return, Trotsky was in substantive agreement with the Bolshevik position, but he didn't join them right away.

^ In general, Trotsky’s position was very close to that of the Bolsheviks, as Lenin himself was later to admit.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Russian social democrats were split into at least 6 groups and the Bolsheviks were waiting for the next party Congress to determine which factions to merge with.^ At the time, Russian social democrats were split in at least 6 groups and the Bolsheviks were waiting for the next party Congress to determine which factions they would merge with.

^ Russian social democrats were split into at least six groups and the Bolsheviks were waiting for the next party Congress to determine which factions to merge with.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1908 he started a bi-weekly Russian language Social Democratic paper aimed at Russian workers called Pravda ("The Truth"), which he co-edited with Joffe, Matvey Skobelev and Victor Kopp and which was smuggled into Russia.

Trotsky temporarily joined the Mezhraiontsy, a regional social democratic organization in St. Petersburg, and became one of its leaders. .At the First Congress of Soviets in June, he was elected a member of the first All-Russian Central Executive Committee ("VTsIK") from the Mezhraiontsy faction.^ At the First Congress of Soviets in June, he was elected a member of the first All-Russian Central Executive Committee ("VTsIK") from the Mezhraiontsy faction.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the First Congress of Soviets in June, he was elected member of the first All-Russian Central Executive Committee ("VTsIK") from the Mezhraiontsy faction.

^ In the first Russian Revolution of 1905, he was the chairman of the Petersburg Soviet.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.After an unsuccessful pro-Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd, Trotsky was arrested on 7 August 1917, but was released 40 days later in the aftermath of the failed counter-revolutionary uprising by Lavr Kornilov.^ Trotsky was arrested on August 7, 1917 ( New Style) after an unsuccessful pro-Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd, but was released 40 days later in the aftermath of the failed counter-revolutionary uprising by Lavr Kornilov.

^ After an unsuccessful pro-Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd, Trotsky was arrested on August 7, 1917, but was released 40 days later in the aftermath of the failed counter-revolutionary uprising by Lavr Kornilov.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same day, while Trotsky was already in the south, Vatsetis was suddenly arrested by the Cheka on suspicion of involvement in an anti-Soviet plot, and replaced by Sergei Kamenev.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet, Trotsky was elected Chairman on 8 October.^ He played a major role, as chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, in the 1905 Revolution.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the vote taken in October for the election of the presiding board, the Bolsheviks had a majority, and Trotsky was elected Chairman.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet, Trotsky was elected Chairman on October 8.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.He sided with Lenin against Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev when the Bolshevik Central Committee discussed staging an armed uprising and he led the efforts to overthrow the Provisional Government headed by Aleksandr Kerensky.^ He led the Military-Revolutionary Committee which carried out the overthrow of the Provisional Government in October.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He sided with Lenin against Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev when the Bolshevik Central Committee discussed staging an armed uprising and he led the efforts to overthrow the Provisional Government headed by Aleksandr Kerensky.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all the prominent Bolsheviks favored the undertaking: Zinoviev and Kamenev were against it.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Leon Trotsky in 1918.
The following summary of Trotsky's Role in 1917 was written by Stalin in Pravda, 10 November 1918. (Although this passage was quoted in Stalin's book "The October Revolution" issued in 1934, it was expunged in Stalin's Works released in 1949.)
.All practical work in connection with the organization of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet.^ All practical work in connection with the organisation of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All practical work in connection with the organization of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "All practical work in connection with the organisation of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet.

.It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organized.^ It is possible to declare with certainty that the swift passing of the garrison to the side of the Soviet, and the bold execution of the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee, the Party owes principally and above all to Comrade Trotsky."
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organised."

^ It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organized.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the success of the uprising on 7–8 November, Trotsky led the efforts to repel a counter-attack by Cossacks under General Pyotr Krasnov and other troops still loyal to the overthrown Provisional Government at Gatchina.^ After the success of the uprising on November 7-8 ( New Style), Trotsky led the efforts to repel a counter-attack by Cossaks under General Pyotr Krasnov and other troops still loyal to the overthrown Provisional Government at Gatchina.

^ After the success of the uprising on 7-8 November, Trotsky led the efforts to repel a counter-attack by Cossacks under General Pyotr Krasnov and other troops still loyal to the overthrown Provisional Government at Gatchina.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sharpness of Lenin’s language in these polemics was dictated by the fact that, under the guise of “Trotskyism”, he was really attacking conciliationist tendencies in the leadership of his own faction.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Allied with Lenin, he successfully defeated attempts by other Bolshevik Central Committee members (Zinoviev, Kamenev, Alexei Rykov, etc.^ I will not further characterize the other members of the Central Committee as to their personal qualities.
  • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Allied with Lenin, he successfully defeated attempts by other Bolshevik Central Committee members (Zinoviev, Kamenev, Alexei Rykov, etc) to share power with other socialist parties.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as St. George slaying the reactionary dragon Throughout January and February of 1918, Lenin's position was supported by 7 members of the Bolshevik Central Committee and Bukharin's by 4.

) to share power with other socialist parties.
.By the end of 1917, Trotsky was unquestionably the second man in the Bolshevik Party after Lenin, overshadowing the ambitious Zinoviev, who had been Lenin's top lieutenant over the previous decade, but whose star appeared to be fading.^ Lenin and Trotsky in 1917 .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ That was the aim of the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was Lenin’s last word on Trotsky and his relation to the Bolshevik Party, before 1917.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.This turnaround led to enmity between the two Bolshevik leaders which lasted until 1926 and did much to destroy them both.^ This turnaround planted the seeds of the two Bolshevik leaders' mutual enmity, which lasted until 1926 and, in the end, did much to destroy them both.

^ Lenin did not solve in advance the question of what the political relationships would be between the two participants in the assumed democratic dictatorship, that is, the proletariat and the peasantry.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a period of heightened tension within the RSDLP and led to numerous frictions between Trotsky, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After the Russian Revolution

Trotsky with troops at the Polish front, 1919.

Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Brest-Litovsk (1917–1918)

.After the Bolsheviks came to power, Trotsky became the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and published the secret treaties previously signed by the Triple Entente that detailed plans for post-war reallocation of colonies and redrawing state borders.^ Trotsky’s estimate of his work as War Commissar.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Russian Revolution Trotsky with troops at the Polish front, 1919 Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Brest-Litovsk (1917-1918) After the Bolsheviks came to power, Trotsky became the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and published the secret treaties previously signed by the Triple Entente that detailed plans for post-war reallocation of colonies and redrawing state borders.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Bolsheviks came to power, Trotsky became the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and published the secret treaties previously signed by the Triple Entente and the United States that detailed plans for post-war reallocation of colonies and redrawing state borders.

.Trotsky led the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk from 22 December 1917 to 10 February 1918. At that time the Soviet government was split on the issue.^ At that time the Soviet government was split on the issue.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky was the head of the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk between December 22, 1917 and February 10, 1918.

^ Folder 22 February 10 .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

.Left Communists, led by Nikolai Bukharin, continued to believe that there could be no peace between a Soviet republic and a capitalist country and that only a revolutionary war leading to a pan-European Soviet republic would bring a durable peace.^ The European war would be brought to an end.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left Communists, led by Nikolai Bukharin, continued to believe that there could be no peace between a Soviet republic and a capitalist country and that only a revolutionary war leading to a pan-European Soviet republic would bring a durable peace.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can’t happen here and could only happen there?
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.They cited the successes of the newly formed (15 January 1918) voluntary Red Army against Polish forces of Gen.^ They cited the successes of the newly formed ( January 15, 1918) voluntary Red Army against Polish forces of Gen.

^ At the head of the Red Army (Spring 1918) .

^ Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus , White forces in the Don region and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could successfully repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used.

.Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus, White forces in the Don region, and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used.^ Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus, White forces in the Don region, and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus , White forces in the Don region and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could successfully repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used.

^ Like Lenin, he admitted that the old Russian military, inherited from the monarchy and the Provisional Government and in advanced stages of decomposition, was unable to fight:[16] That we could no longer fight was perfectly clear to me and that the newly formed Red Guard and Red Army detachments were too small and poorly trained to resist the Germans.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.They did not mind holding talks with the Germans as a means of exposing German imperial ambitions (territorial gains, reparations, etc) in hopes of accelerating the hoped−for Soviet revolution in the West, but they were dead set against signing any peace treaty.^ They got that from Stalin who did not want to be bothered with any German revolution.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Left Communists didn't mind holding talks with the Germans as a means of exposing German imperial ambitions (territorial gains, reparations, etc) in hopes of accelerating the hoped for Soviet revolution in the West, but they were dead set against signing any peace treaty.

^ Undaunted by the brutal threats of the German militarists and unhurried by the impatience of Lenin, who was rightly afraid lest the postponement of the signing might lead to stiffer peace terms, he persisted in his attempts to gain time, hoping against hope that the workers of Germany and Austria would rise and restrain the iron fist that was trying to crush the Russian revolution.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.In case of a German ultimatum, they advocated proclaiming a revolutionary war against Germany in order to inspire Russian and European workers to fight for socialism.^ In case of a German ultimatum, they advocated proclaiming a revolutionary war against Germany in order to inspire Russian and European workers to fight for socialism.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As soon as an opportunity presented itself, Chiang, responding to the pressures of his imperialist and bourgeois patrons, would turn savagely against the CP and the revolutionary Shanghai workers.
  • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In case of a German ultimatum, Trotsky argued, the best policy was to refuse to accept it, which had a good chance of being the last drop that would lead to an uprising within Germany or, at the very least, inspire German soldiers to refuse to obey their officers since any German offensive would be a naked grab for territories.

.This opinion was shared by Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who were then the Bolsheviks' junior partners in a coalition government.^ This opinion was shared by Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who were then the Bolsheviks' junior partners in a coalition government.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their opinion was shared by Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who were then the Bolsheviks' junior partners in a coalition government.

^ Cadet Party writes: "As to the left groups in the narrower sense of the word, that is, the socialist and revolutionary groups, an agreement with them will be more difficult.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

1918 Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as St. George slaying the reactionary dragon. The image of St. George and the dragon comes from the Moscow Coat of Arms.
.Lenin, who had earlier hoped for a speedy Soviet revolution in Germany and other parts of Europe, quickly decided that the imperial government of Germany was still firmly in control and that, without a strong Russian military, an armed conflict with Germany would lead to a collapse of the Soviet government in Russia.^ Lenin, who had earlier hoped for a speedy Soviet revolution in Germany and other parts of Europe, quickly decided that the imperial government of Germany was still firmly in control and that, absent a strong Russian military, an armed conflict with Germany would lead to a collapse of the Soviet government in Russia.

^ Left to itself the Russian Revolution would certainly collapse.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders, however, thought that the Red Army's successes in the Russian Civil War and against the Poles meant that, as Lenin said later: The defensive period of the war with worldwide imperialism was over, and we could, and had the obligation to, exploit the military situation to launch an offensive war.

.He agreed with the Left Communists that ultimately a pan-European Soviet revolution would solve all problems, but until then the Bolsheviks had to stay in power.^ All the problems of the revolution were posed anew.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He agreed with the Left Communists that ultimately a pan-European Soviet revolution would solve all problems, but until then the Bolsheviks needed to be able to survive and stay in power.

^ He agreed with the Left Communists that ultimately a pan-European Soviet revolution would solve all problems, but until then the Bolsheviks had to stay in power.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lenin did not mind prolonging the negotiating process for maximum propaganda effect, but, from January 1918 on, advocated signing a separate peace treaty if faced with a German ultimatum.^ Lenin did not mind prolonging the negotiating process for maximum propaganda effect, but, from January 1918 on, advocated signing a separate peace treaty if faced with a German ultimatum.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin didn't mind prolonging the negotiating process for maximum propaganda effect, but, from January 1918 on, he advocated signing a separate peace treaty if faced with a German ultimatum.

^ On the other hand, he agreed with the Left Communists that signing a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible moral and material blow to the Soviet government, negating all of its military and political successes in late 1917-early 1918, resurrecting the notion that the Bolsheviks were secretly allied with the German government, and causing an upsurge of internal resistance.

.Trotsky's position was between these two Bolshevik factions.^ Trotsky's position during this period was in between these two Bolshevik factions.

^ In general, Trotsky’s position was very close to that of the Bolsheviks, as Lenin himself was later to admit.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Only after the arrival of Lenin did the Bolshevik Party change its position, after an internal struggle around Lenin’s “April Theses” published in Pravda under his signature.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Like Lenin, he admitted that the old Russian military, inherited from the monarchy and the Provisional Government and in advanced stages of decomposition, was unable to fight:[13]
.That we could no longer fight was perfectly clear to me and that the newly formed Red Guard and Red Army detachments were too small and poorly trained to resist the Germans.^ Like Lenin, he admitted that the old Russian military, inherited from the monarchy and the Provisional Government and in advanced stages of decomposition, was unable to fight: That we could no longer fight was perfectly clear to me and that the newly formed Red Guard and Red Army detachments were too small and poorly trained to resist the Germans.

^ Like Lenin, he admitted that the old Russian military, inherited from the monarchy and the Provisional Government and in advanced stages of decomposition, was unable to fight:[16] That we could no longer fight was perfectly clear to me and that the newly formed Red Guard and Red Army detachments were too small and poorly trained to resist the Germans.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus, White forces in the Don region, and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.But he agreed with the Left Communists that a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible moral and material blow to the Soviet government, negate all its military and political successes of 1917 and 1918, resurrect the notion that the Bolsheviks secretly allied with the German government, and cause an upsurge of internal resistance.^ On the other hand, he agreed with the Left Communists that signing a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible moral and material blow to the Soviet government, negating all of its military and political successes in late 1917-early 1918, resurrecting the notion that the Bolsheviks were secretly allied with the German government, and causing an upsurge of internal resistance.

^ Soviet Union--Politics and government .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ But he agreed with the Left Communists that a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible moral and material blow to the Soviet government, negate all its military and political successes of 1917 and 1918, resurrect the notion that the Bolsheviks secretly allied with the German government, and cause an upsurge of internal resistance.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.He argued that any German ultimatum should be refused, and that this may well lead to an uprising in Germany, or at least inspire German soldiers to disobey their officers since any German offensive would be a naked grab for territories.^ In case of a German ultimatum, Trotsky argued, the best policy was to refuse to accept it, which had a good chance of being the last drop that would lead to an uprising within Germany or, at the very least, inspire German soldiers to refuse to obey their officers since any German offensive would be a naked grab for territories.

^ He argued that any German ultimatum should be refused, and that this may well lead to an uprising in Germany, or at least inspire German soldiers to disobey their officers since any German offensive would be a naked grab for territories.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky refused to support Lenin since he was waiting to see whether German workers would rebel and whether German soldiers would refuse to follow orders.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

He wrote in 1925:[14]
.We began peace negotiations in the hope of arousing the workmen's party of Germany and Austria-Hungary as well as of the Entente countries.^ He wrote in 1925:[17] We began peace negotiations in the hope of arousing the workmen's party of Germany and Austria-Hungary as well as of the Entente countries.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After it came the post-war revolutions in Germany, Austria and Hungary, in Turkey and Italy, in Egypt and India, in China, in Spain.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In their bitterness against the official communist parties, many of the communist dissenters in Germany, France and other countries, went much further than their champion was ever prepared to go.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason we were obliged to delay the negotiations as long as possible to give the European workman time to understand the main fact of the Soviet revolution itself and particularly its peace policy.^ For this reason we were obliged to delay the negotiations as long as possible to give the European workman time to understand the main fact of the Soviet revolution itself and particularly its peace policy.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where all the great European Marxists looked upon the coming Russian Revolution as one which would give Russia a bourgeois republic, Trotsky stated that this was impossible.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ West, particularly hindered, or retarded, the understanding of the role of the Soviets'.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]


.But there was the other question: Can the Germans still fight?^ But there was the other question: Can the Germans still fight?
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there any other questions that you want to take up with reference to that matter?
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There was (and still is) a conspiracy theory that the true gunman was someone other than Sirhan.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Are they in a position to begin an attack on the revolution that will explain the cessation of the war?^ Are they in a position to begin an attack on the revolution that will explain the cessation of the war?
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the very beginning Trotsky adopted a clear revolutionary position against the war, as expressed in his book The War and the International.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A note to the works of Lenin published in Russia after the revolution states: “On the war question the Mezhrayontsi occupied an internationalist position, and in their tactics were close to the Bolsheviks.” (Lenin, Collected Works , vol.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.How can we find out the state of mind of the German soldiers, how to fathom it?^ How can we find out the state of mind of the German soldiers, how to fathom it?
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'In a postscript to the recent published book, How Did The Elections To The Second State Duma Turn Out?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.
White Army propaganda poster.
^ White Army propaganda poster.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

The caption reads, "Peace and Liberty in Sovdepiya".
.Throughout January and February 1918, Lenin's position was supported by 7 members of the Bolshevik Central Committee and Bukharin's by 4. Trotsky had 4 votes (his own, Felix Dzerzhinsky's, Nikolai Krestinsky's and Adolph Joffe's) and, since he held the balance of power, he was able to pursue his policy in Brest-Litovsk.^ Krestinsky was replaced as a member of the Politburo by Zinoviev, who had supported Lenin.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The caption reads, "Peace and Liberty in Sovdepiya".Throughout January and February 1918, Lenin's position was supported by 7 members of the Bolshevik Central Committee and Bukharin's by 4.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, in the evening of February 18, 1918, Trotsky and his supporters in the Bolshevik Central Committee abstained.

.When he could no longer delay the negotiations, he withdrew from the talks on 10 February 1918, refusing to sign on Germany's harsh terms.^ When he could no longer delay the negotiations, he withdrew from the talks on February 10, 1918, refusing to sign on Germany's harsh terms.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he could no longer delay the negotiations, he withdrew from the talks on ( February 10, 1918), refusing to sign on Germany's harsh terms.

^ After a brief hiatus, the Central Powers notified the Soviet government that they would no longer observe the truce after February 17.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a brief hiatus, the Central Powers notified the Soviet government that they would no longer observe the truce after 17 February.^ After a brief hiatus, the Central Powers notified the Soviet government that they would no longer observe the truce after February 17.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He admitted no necessity for a centralization of power behind which he was inclined to suspect Lenin's ambition for personal dictatorship, and he bitterly denounced that ambition.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Provisional Government is in power along with workers’ councils, or “soviets.” Both Lenin and Trotsky opposed the Provisional Government and called for “All Power to the Soviets.” .
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At this point Lenin again argued that the Soviet government had done all it could to explain its position to Western workers and that it was time to accept the terms.^ At that time the Soviet government was split on the issue.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point Lenin again argued that the Soviet government had done all it could to explain its position to Western workers and that it was time to accept the terms.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At one time there were more government officials in Moscow than there were industrial workers, though Moscow was an industrial city and not merely a bureaucratic capital, like Washington.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky refused to support Lenin since he was waiting to see whether German workers would rebel and whether German soldiers would refuse to follow orders.^ Trotsky refused to support Lenin since he was waiting to see whether German workers would rebel and whether German soldiers would refuse to follow orders.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky praises Lenin in order to praise Trotsky.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One can therefore appreciate the motives of those who, using the name of Marx, complacently ask, “What difference would it have made to Russia if Trotsky had won in the struggle with Stalin?” We shall soon see what difference it would have made to the German proletariat.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Germany resumed military operations on 18 February.^ Germany resumed military operations on February 18.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Within a day, it became clear that the German army was capable of conducting offensive operations and that Red Army detachments, which were relatively small, poorly organized and poorly led, were no match for it.^ Trotsky led the Red Army to victory?
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within a day, it became clear that the German army was capable of conducting offensive operations and that Red Army detachments, which were relatively small, poorly organized and poorly led, were no match for it.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Celebrated and feared Baltic Fleet sailors, one of the bastions of the new regime led by Pavel Dybenko, were easily routed by the German army at Narva.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the evening of 18 February 1918, Trotsky and his supporters in the committee abstained and Lenin's proposal was accepted 7-4. The Soviet government sent a telegram to the German side accepting the final Brest-Litovsk peace terms.^ The Soviet government sent a telegram to the German side accepting the final Brest-Litovsk peace terms.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the evening of February 18, 1918, Trotsky and his supporters in the committee abstained and Lenin's proposal was accepted 7-4.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky led the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk from December 22, 1917 to February 10, 1918.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Germany did not respond for three days, and continued its offensive encountering little resistance.^ Germany did not respond for three days, and continued its offensive encountering little resistance.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The response arrived on 21 February but the proposed terms were so harsh that even Lenin briefly thought that the Soviet government had no choice but to fight.^ The response arrived on February 21, but the proposed terms were so harsh that even Lenin briefly thought that the Soviet government had no choice but to fight.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After a brief hiatus, the Central Powers notified the Soviet government that they would no longer observe the truce after February 17.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (There was no economic equality in the Soviet Republic, even during the period of "military communism."
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.But in the end, the committee again voted 7-4 on 23 February 1918; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on 3 March and ratified on 15 March 1918. Since he was so closely associated with the policy previously followed by the Soviet delegation at Brest-Litovsk, Trotsky resigned from his position as Commissar for Foreign Affairs in order to remove a potential obstacle to the new policy.^ After signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Trotsky gave up his post of Commissar for Eoreign Affairs and was entrusted with the organization of the Red Army.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since he was so closely associated with the policy previously followed by the Soviet delegation at Brest-Litovsk, Trotsky resigned from his position as Commissar for Foreign Affairs in order to remove a potential obstacle to the new policy.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky led the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk from December 22, 1917 to February 10, 1918.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Head of the Red Army (spring 1918)

Trotsky with Lenin and soldiers in Petrograd in 1921
.The failure of the recently formed Red Army to resist the German offensive in February 1918 revealed its weaknesses: insufficient numbers, lack of knowledgeable officers, and near absence of coordination and subordination.^ Head of the Red Army (spring 1918) Trotsky with Lenin and soldiers in Petrograd in 1921The failure of the recently formed Red Army to resist the German offensive in February 1918 revealed its weaknesses: insufficient numbers, lack of knowledgeable officers, and near absence of coordination and subordination.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like Lenin, he admitted that the old Russian military, inherited from the monarchy and the Provisional Government and in advanced stages of decomposition, was unable to fight:[16] That we could no longer fight was perfectly clear to me and that the newly formed Red Guard and Red Army detachments were too small and poorly trained to resist the Germans.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red Army had defeated the White Army's spring offensive in the east and was about to cross the Ural mountains and enter Siberia in pursuit of Admiral Alexander Kolchak's forces.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Celebrated and feared Baltic Fleet sailors, one of the bastions of the new regime led by Pavel Dybenko, shamefully fled from the German army at Narva.^ Celebrated and feared Baltic Fleet sailors, one of the bastions of the new regime led by Pavel Dybenko, were easily routed by the German army at Narva.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He joined the army as a volunteer during the World War One and fought in the German lines.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the chief arguments advanced during the struggle by the new opposition was that under Stalin's regime the bourgeois elements were taking the upper hand.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The notion that the Soviet state could have an effective voluntary or militia type military was seriously undermined.^ The notion that the Soviet state could have an effective voluntary or militia type military was seriously undermined.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky was one of the first Bolshevik leaders to recognize the problem and he pushed for the formation of a military council of former Russian generals that would function as an advisory body.^ Trotsky was one of the first Bolshevik leaders to recognize the problem and he pushed for the formation of a military council of former Russian generals that would function as an advisory body.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let us give the final word on Trotsky’s role in the Russian Revolution and Civil War to Lunacharsky, the veteran Bolshevik who became the first Soviet Commissar for Education and Culture: “It would be wrong to imagine,” he wrote, “that the second great leader of the Russian revolution is inferior to his colleague [i.e.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Without Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks would undoubtedly have corrected their mistakes.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Lenin and the Bolshevik Central Committee agreed on 4 March to create the Supreme Military Council, headed by former chief of the imperial General Staff Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich.^ Lenin and the Bolshevik Central Committee agreed on March 4 to create the Supreme Military Council, headed by former chief of the imperial General Staff Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Folder 74 Bonch-Bruevich, Mikhail.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ The Supreme Military Council was abolished and the position of commander-in-chief was restored, filled by the commander of the Red Latvian Rifleman Ioakim Vatsetis (aka Jukums Vācietis), who had formerly led the Eastern Front against the Czechoslovak Legions.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the entire Bolshevik leadership of the Red Army, including People's Commissar (defense minister) Nikolai Podvoisky and commander-in-chief Nikolai Krylenko, protested vigorously and eventually resigned.^ But the entire Bolshevik leadership of the Red Army, including People's Commissar (defense minister) Nikolai Podvoisky and commander-in-chief Nikolai Krylenko, protested vigorously and eventually resigned.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Trotsky gave up his post of Commissar for Eoreign Affairs and was entrusted with the organization of the Red Army.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red "War Lord" was not always infallible in his judgment, and in at least one very important case his opinion was superseded by the Council of People's Commissars.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.They believed that the Red Army should consist only of dedicated revolutionaries, rely on propaganda and force, and have elected officers.^ TROTSKY: I believe they only had to knock.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They believed that the Red Army should consist only of dedicated revolutionaries, rely on propaganda and force, and have elected officers.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki in Belarus, White forces in the Don region, and newly independent Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could repel German forces, especially if propaganda and asymmetrical warfare were used.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.They viewed former imperial officers and generals as potential traitors who should be kept out of the new military, much less put in charge of it.^ They viewed former imperial officers and generals as potential traitors who should be kept out of the new military, much less put in charge of it.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who, then, should be named General Secretary?
  • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why it suddenly turns out that in the summer of 1931, while passing through Berlin, Romm met Putna, who offered to “put him in touch with” Sedov.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Their views continued to be popular with many Bolsheviks throughout most of the Russian Civil War and their supporters, including Podvoisky, who became one of Trotsky's deputies, were a constant thorn in Trotsky's side.^ Their views continued to be popular with many Bolsheviks throughout most of the Russian Civil War and their supporters, including Podvoisky, who became one of Trotsky's deputies, were a constant thorn in Trotsky's side.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cheka became ill famous for large-scale human rights abuses, including torture and mass summary executions, carried out especially during the Russian Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the all-Russian Congress of Soviets held in the beginning of June, which was still dominated by Mensheviks and Social-Revolutionaries, E. H. Carr, referring to Trotsky and the Mezhrayontsy, observes that: “Trotsky and Lunacharsky were among the ten delegates of the ‘united social-democrats’ who solidly supported the Bolsheviks throughout the three weeks of the congress.” (Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution , vol.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

The discontent with Trotsky's policies of strict discipline, conscription and reliance on carefully supervised non-Communist military experts eventually led to the Military Opposition, which was active within the Communist Party in late 1918–1919.
.On 13 March 1918, Trotsky's resignation as Commissar for Foreign Affairs was officially accepted and he was appointed People's Commissar of Army and Navy Affairs - in place of Podvoisky - and chairman of the Supreme Military Council.^ On March 13, 1918 Trotsky's resignation as Commissar for Foreign Affairs was officially accepted and he was appointed People's Commissar of Army and Navy Affairs - in place of Podvoisky - and chairman of the Supreme Military Council.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilization, which increased the size of the Red Army from less than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Russian Revolution Trotsky with troops at the Polish front, 1919 Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Brest-Litovsk (1917-1918) After the Bolsheviks came to power, Trotsky became the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and published the secret treaties previously signed by the Triple Entente that detailed plans for post-war reallocation of colonies and redrawing state borders.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The post of commander-in-chief was abolished, and Trotsky gained full control of the Red Army, responsible only to the Communist Party leadership, whose Left Socialist Revolutionary allies had left the government over Brest-Litovsk.^ Trotsky led the Red Army to victory?
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The post of commander-in-chief was abolished, and Trotsky gained full control of the Red Army, responsible only to the Communist Party leadership, whose Left Socialist Revolutionary allies had left the government over Brest-Litovsk.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Military Council was abolished and the position of commander-in-chief was restored, filled by the commander of the Red Latvian Rifleman Ioakim Vatsetis (aka Jukums Vācietis), who had formerly led the Eastern Front against the Czechoslovak Legions.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the help of his faithful deputy Ephraim Sklyansky, Trotsky spent the rest of the Civil War transforming the Red Army from a ragtag network of small and fiercely independent detachments into a large and disciplined military machine, through forced conscription, party controlled blocking squads, compulsory obedience and officers chosen by the leadership instead of the rank and file.^ Leon Trotsky formed the Red Army that fought with the White Guard in the Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TROTSKY: Putna is an officer of the General Staff, a military scholar and a good officer of the Red Army during the Civil War.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky led the Red Army to victory?
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He defended these positions throughout his life.^ He defended these positions throughout his life.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Civil War (1918–1920)

1918

.Trotsky's managerial and organization-building skills with the Soviet military were soon tested in many ways.^ Civil War (1918-1920) Main article: Russian Civil War 1918 Trotsky's managerial and organization-building skills with the Soviet military were soon tested in many ways.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organized.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the organization of a revolution and the conduct of a civil war, such military features appealed to many as indispensable.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.In May–June 1918, the Czechoslovak Legions en route from European Russia to Vladivostok rose against the Soviet government.^ In May-June 1918, the Czechoslovak Legions en route from European Russia to Vladivostok rose against the Soviet government.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today it may seem incredible, but already in 1929 we were confronted with accusations against the Trotskyites of “sabotage,” “espionage,” “preparation of railroad wrecks,” etc., in the Soviet press.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this he differed sharply from Stalin who was, from May through October 1918, the top commissar in the South of Russia.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.This left the Bolsheviks with the loss of most of the country's territory, an increasingly well organized resistance by Russian anti-Communist forces (usually referred to as the White Army after their best known component) and widespread defection by the military experts that Trotsky relied on.^ This left the Bolsheviks with the loss of most of the country's territory, an increasingly well-organized resistance by Russian anti-Communist forces (usually referred to as the White Army after their best known component) and widespread defection by the military experts that Trotsky relied on.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But he agreed with the Left Communists that a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible moral and material blow to the Soviet government, negate all its military and political successes of 1917 and 1918, resurrect the notion that the Bolsheviks secretly allied with the German government, and cause an upsurge of internal resistance.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red Army had defeated the White Army's spring offensive in the east and was about to cross the Ural mountains and enter Siberia in pursuit of Admiral Alexander Kolchak's forces.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilization, which increased the size of the Red Army from less than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army.^ Trotsky led the Red Army to victory?
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilization, which increased the size of the Red Army from less than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He became, in 1918, the Commissar for Military Affairs, and, in that position, played the leading role in the organization and command of the Red Army.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter were responsible for ensuring the loyalty of military experts (who were mostly former officers in the imperial army) and co-signing their orders.^ The latter were responsible for ensuring the loyalty of military experts (who were mostly former officers in the imperial army) and co-signing their orders.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They viewed former imperial officers and generals as potential traitors who should be kept out of the new military, much less put in charge of it.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TROTSKY: Putna is an officer of the General Staff, a military scholar and a good officer of the Red Army during the Civil War.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky claimed that the Red Army's organization was built on the ideas of the October Revolution.^ Trotsky led the Red Army to victory?
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilization, which increased the size of the Red Army from less than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He became, in 1918, the Commissar for Military Affairs, and, in that position, played the leading role in the organization and command of the Red Army.
  • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As he later wrote in his autobiography:[15]
.An army cannot be built without reprisals.^ As he later wrote in his autobiography:[18] An army cannot be built without reprisals.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Masses of men cannot be led to death unless the army command has the death-penalty in its arsenal.^ Masses of men cannot be led to death unless the army command has the death-penalty in its arsenal.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.So long as those malicious tailless apes that are so proud of their technical achievements—the animals that we call men—will build armies and wage wars, the command will always be obliged to place the soldiers between the possible death in the front and the inevitable one in the rear.^ The Red "War Lord" was not always infallible in his judgment, and in at least one very important case his opinion was superseded by the Council of People's Commissars.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lionel Trilling : English prof, critic, and one-book novelist, he still generates interest long after his death, while his contemporaries are forgotten...
  • Arts & Letters Daily - ideas, criticism, debate 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC aldaily.com [Source type: General]

^ Only from a theoretical height is it possible to observe it fully and correctly understand it.” At the tensest moments of revolution and war he way always looking at events from a theoretical height.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.And yet armies are not built on fear.^ And yet armies are not built on fear.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

The Tsar's army fell to pieces not because of any lack of reprisals. In his attempt to save it by restoring the death-penalty, Kerensky only finished it. .Upon the ashes of the great war, the Bolsheviks created a new army.^ 'The proletariat creates city-wide "soviets" which direct the fighting actions of the urban masses, and puts upon the order of the day the fighting alliance with the army and the peasantry.'
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But was it liquidated in Russia on April 4, 1917, when Lenin declared war upon the whole upper stratum of the 'old Bolsheviks'?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.These facts demand no explanation for any one who has even the slightest knowledge of the language of history.^ In these moments the whole historical process depends on the activities of a small group of individuals and, even of one single person.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the basic reasons for the crisis in bourgeois society is the fact that the productive forces created by it can no longer be reconciled with the framework of the national state.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The sharpness of Lenin’s language in these polemics was dictated by the fact that, under the guise of “Trotskyism”, he was really attacking conciliationist tendencies in the leadership of his own faction.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The strongest cement in the new army was the ideas of the October revolution, and the train supplied the front with this cement.^ But there was one fundamental difference: the new ruling caste in the USSR based itself on the new property relations, established by the October revolution.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most striking expression of this new 'quality' in politics is the October Revolution.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan’s adventure in China can lead to revolution in Japan for the Chinese, despite their weakness, will always improvise new armies.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.In dealing with deserters, Trotsky often appealed to them politically; arousing them with the ideas of the Revolution.^ When, prior to the First World War, Trotsky defended the idea of the possibility of a proletarian revolution in Russia before the revolution in Western Europe, nobody took him seriously.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How often Trotsky must have talked about the revolution to ordinary folks.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky rendered inestimable services to Russia but twice his enthusiasm, his love of the idea, nearly wrecked the Russian Revolution.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the provinces of Kaluga, Voronezh, and Ryazan, tens of thousands of young peasants had failed to answer the first recruiting summons by the Soviets … The war commissariat of Ryazan succeeded in gathering in some fifteen thousand of such deserters.^ With huge student debt and more young people than ever failing to complete a degree, it’s time to ask and honestly answer, Are too many students going to college ?...
  • Arts & Letters Daily - ideas, criticism, debate 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC aldaily.com [Source type: General]

^ Leon Trotsky spent his time during the civil war in a train traveling widely across the young Soviet Union.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and the People's Commissar of War.
  • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

While passing through Ryazan, I decided to take a look at them. Some of our men tried to dissuade me. "Something might happen," they warned me. But everything went off beautifully. The men were called out of their barracks. "Comrade-deserters – come to the meeting. Comrade Trotsky has come to speak to you." They ran out excited, boisterous, as curious as schoolboys. I had imagined them much worse, and they had imagined me as more terrible. In a few minutes, I was surrounded by a huge crowd of unbridled, utterly undisciplined, but not at all hostile men. .The "comrade-deserters" were looking at me with such curiosity that it seemed as if their eyes would pop out of their heads.^ It would seem that in such circumstances Pyatakov could not, after a separation of eight years.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

I climbed on a table there in the yard, and spoke to them for about an hour and a half. It was a most responsive audience. .I tried to raise them in their own eyes; concluding, I asked them to lift their hands in token of their loyalty to the revolution.^ Why, Patenaude asks, does Trotsky downplay his own role in the Russian Revolution to Lenin’s advantage?
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new ideas infected them before my very eyes.^ The picture just now came up before my eyes.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But if this very insufficient outline serves to encourage the new generation to read Trotsky’s writings for themselves, my purpose will have been achieved.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

They were genuinely enthusiastic; they followed me to the automobile, devoured me with their eyes, not fearfully, as before, but rapturously, and shouted at the tops of their voices. They would hardly let me go. .I learned afterward, with some pride, that one of the best ways to educate them was to remind them: "What did you promise Comrade Trotsky?"^ Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
  • Browse By Author: T - Project Gutenberg 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ GOLDMAN: I forgot to ask you one question, Mr. Trotsky.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the best books on this question is Trotsky’s 1905 , a classical work of Marxism, the value of which is enhanced by the fact that it was written by one of the most outstanding leaders of that revolution.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Later on, regiments of Ryazan "deserters" fought well at the fronts.
.Given the lack of man power and the invading 16 foreign armies, Trotsky also insisted that former Tsar officers should be used as military specialists within the Red Army, with a combination of Bolshevik political commissars to ensure the revolutionary nature of the Red Army.^ Leon Trotsky formed the Red Army that fought with the White Guard in the Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the October Revolution Trotsky was the first Commissar for Foreign Affairs and was in charge of the negotiations with the Germans at Brest Litovsk.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What this really means is that there is no reason to pay any attention whatsoever to the political struggles that raged within the Bolshevik Party during the 1920s.

Lenin commented on this:
.When Comrade Trotsky recently informed me that in our military department the officers are numbered in tens of thousands, I gained a concrete conception of what constitutes the secret of making proper use of our enemy ...^ This is what he said: “When comrade Trotsky recently informed me that in our military department the officers are numbered in tens of thousands, I gained a concrete conception of what constitutes the secret of making proper use of our enemy of how to build communism out of the bricks that the capitalists had gathered to use against us.” ( My Life , pp.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These facts are enough for me to recognize that Trotsky is drawing closer to our conceptions.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Chiangs troops entered Shanghai where, as Trotsky and the Left Opposition had warned, they proceeded to slaughter tens of thousands of Communist workers.

of how to build communism out of the bricks that the capitalists had gathered to use against us.
.In September 1918, the government, facing continuous military difficulties, declared what amounted to martial law and reorganized the Red Army.^ TROTSKY: Putna is an officer of the General Staff, a military scholar and a good officer of the Red Army during the Civil War.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red Army, as soon as it was faced with a really serious situation, had to give up the principle of election of officers and other idyllic liberties at first enjoyed by its soldiers.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1918, when the Soviet power, in Trotsky’s words, had reached its lowest point, the government passed a special decree declaring tat the socialist fatherland was in danger.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Supreme Military Council was abolished and the position of commander-in-chief was restored, filled by the commander of the Latvian Riflemen Ioakim Vatsetis (aka Jukums Vācietis), who had formerly led the Eastern Front against the Czechoslovak Legions.^ Trotsky TO Troops of Eastern Front Sviiazhsk 1s 1p 1i T incl excerpt USSR Internal/ Military (T 55*) 27 Aug 1918.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ That is why our chief efforts were directed to the eastern front, and these efforts gave good results.” ( Leon Trotsky Speaks , p.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At this difficult time, Trotsky was dispatched to the decisive eastern front, where the military situation was catastrophic.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Vatsetis was put in charge of day-to-day operations of the army while Trotsky became chairman of the newly formed Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic and retained overall control of the military.^ Lieutenant Razin could be Kliment Voroshilov who was the commissar of the 1st Cavalry Army and later became the People’s Commissioner for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. Voroshilov gave his full support to Joseph Stalin’s 1930 Great Purge, denouncing a large number of his colleagues who served in the Army.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'The proletariat creates city-wide "soviets" which direct the fighting actions of the urban masses, and puts upon the order of the day the fighting alliance with the army and the peasantry.'
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The organization of a Red Army had become an urgent necessity with counter-revolutionary armed forces threatening the young republic from all corners of its vast territory.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky and Vatsetis had clashed earlier in 1918 while Vatsetis and Trotsky's adviser Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich were also on unfriendly terms.^ Folder 20 Bonch-Bruevich, Mikhail, 1918 August 21 .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Folder 45 Bonch-Bruevich, Mikhail, 1918 August 22 .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Folder 74 Bonch-Bruevich, Mikhail.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

Nevertheless, Trotsky eventually established a working relationship with the often prickly Vatsetis.
.The reorganization caused yet another conflict between Trotsky and Stalin in late September.^ What Trotsky wrote about Stalinism, the criticisms he made of Soviet policy, the conflict between the long-term strategy he advanced and that of the Stalinist leadership is, as far as Hobsbawm is concerned, of very little importance.

^ Ignace Reiss, an officer of the GPU who publicly broke with Stalin and declared in favour of Trotsky, was yet another victim of Stalin’s murder machine, gunned down by a GPU agent in Switzerland.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin wrote secretly to the Georgian Bolshevik-Leninists (sending copies to Trotsky and Kamenev) taking up their cause against Stalin “with all my heart”.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky appointed former imperial general Pavel Sytin to command the Southern Front, but in early October 1918 Stalin refused to accept him and so was recalled from the front.^ Trotsky TO Troops of Eastern Front Sviiazhsk 1s 1p 1i T incl excerpt USSR Internal/ Military (T 55*) 27 Aug 1918.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stalin and the privileged caste he represented could never forgive Trotsky for exposing them as usurpers and the gravediggers of October.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Beginning with Zinoviev and Kamenev, one former Oppositionist after another capitulated to Stalin, in the hope of being accepted back into the Party.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov tried to make Trotsky and Stalin reconcile, but their meeting was unsuccessful.^ Stalin supported Lenin and Trotsky, but he was at that time still quite inconspicuous and unknown to the public at large.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is therefore not surprising that his lecture makes absolutely no reference to the struggle of Trotsky and the Left Opposition against Stalinism.

1919

.Throughout late 1918 and early 1919, there were a number of attacks on Trotsky's leadership of the Red Army, including veiled accusations in newspaper articles inspired by Stalin and a direct attack by the Military Opposition at the VIIIth Party Congress in March 1919. On the surface, he weathered them successfully and was elected one of only five full members of the first Politburo after the Congress.^ The following was said by Lenin at the party congress in March 1919 : .
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One on the first floor – on the ground floor there were five rooms.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotskyite Bulletin of the Opposition , Nos.36-37, of October 1933 in which we find a number of direct references to terrorism as a method of fighting the Soviet government.” Then follows a quotation from the Bulletin : “It would be childish to think that the Stalin bureaucracy can be removed by means of a Party or Soviet Congress.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

But he later wrote:[16]
.It is no wonder that my military work created so many enemies for me.^ I declared many times, and I repeat again, that Pyatakov, like Radek, has been during the last nine years not my friend but my bitterest and most perfidious enemy, and that there could be no question of negotiations between us.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You have no idea how many of my relatives were killed in the Holocaust.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This success was due in no small measure to Trotsky’s indefatigable work in creating the Red Army.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.I did not look to the side, I elbowed away those who interfered with military success, or in the haste of the work trod on the toes of the unheeding and was too busy even to apologize.^ But even capitulation did not save the lives of those who surrendered.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But if it is assumed that such a false theory was mirrored in my politics, then why did those who are now the consuls remain silent at that time?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Some people remember such things.^ We need to be reaching out to such people more and more, in multiple ways and about about multiple things.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dissatisfied and those whose feelings had been hurt found their way to Stalin or Zinoviev, for these two also nourished hurts.^ Trotsky, in a pamphlet that aroused very much bitterness in the ruling Stalin-Zinoviev-Kamenev group, had said: "The Party lives on two floors.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These two books are, each in its own way, the image and crown of the epoch of ideological reaction.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He acknowledges, in writing about Lenin and Stalin, that "Without the input of these two men, the history of the Russian Revolution would certainly have been very different."

In mid-1919 the dissatisfied had an opportunity to mount a serious challenge to Trotsky's leadership. .The Red Army had defeated the White Army's spring offensive in the east and was about to cross the Ural Mountains and enter Siberia in pursuit of Admiral Alexander Kolchak's forces.^ Some White companies were composed exclusively of officers and proved more than a match for the poorly trained and ill-disciplined Red forces.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The organization of a Red Army had become an urgent necessity with counter-revolutionary armed forces threatening the young republic from all corners of its vast territory.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Trotsky formed the Red Army that fought with the White Guard in the Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But in the south, General Anton Denikin's White Russian forces advanced, and the situation deteriorated rapidly.^ This moral holds good for the American C.P., and the British, and the South African and the Serbian, but&emdash;not for the Russian, whose activity is based not on the 'general features' but precisely on the 'peculiarities.'
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.On 6 June commander-in-chief Vatsetis ordered the Eastern Front to stop the offensive so that he could use its forces in the south.^ That is why our chief efforts were directed to the eastern front, and these efforts gave good results.” ( Leon Trotsky Speaks , p.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.But the leadership of the Eastern Front, including its commander Sergei Kamenev (a colonel in the imperial army, not to be confused with the Politburo member Lev Kamenev), and Eastern Front Revolutionary Military Council members Ivar Smilga, Mikhail Lashevich and Sergei Gusev vigorously protested and wanted to keep emphasis on the Eastern Front.^ Without this, there could have been no question of finding the necessary military cadres to staff more than fifteen armies on different fronts.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky TO Troops of Eastern Front Sviiazhsk 1s 1p 1i T incl excerpt USSR Internal/ Military (T 55*) 27 Aug 1918.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of them wanted a constitutional monarchy, while others believed in a military dictatorship, revolutionary in scope, preliminary to the establishment of a republic.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.They insisted that it was vital to capture Siberia before the onset of winter and that once Kolchak's forces were broken, many more divisions would be freed up for the Southern Front.^ They give society or more often a class an image of itself, not as it was but as it thought it was, or as it would have liked to be.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They believed that the working class would inevitably become disillusioned with the various socialist schools and would eventually force many of their old leaders to change their course.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one has ever summed up the longing for the warmth of family life and a front porch more eloquently than Christopher Lasch when he wrote...
  • Arts & Letters Daily - ideas, criticism, debate 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC aldaily.com [Source type: General]

.Trotsky, who had earlier had conflicts with the leadership of the Eastern Front, including a temporary removal of Kamenev in May 1919, supported Vatsetis.^ Trotsky TO Troops of Eastern Front Sviiazhsk 1s 1p 1i T incl excerpt USSR Internal/ Military (T 55*) 27 Aug 1918.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ That is why our chief efforts were directed to the eastern front, and these efforts gave good results.” ( Leon Trotsky Speaks , p.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is that the Trotsky who farmed rabbits continued to defend his earlier actions as a "Murderous" Bolshevik.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the 3-4 July Central Committee meeting, after a heated exchange the majority supported Kamenev and Smilga against Vatsetis and Trotsky.^ Zinovev Trotsky I Smilga Evdokimov TO Central Committee VIA Politbureau Central Control Commission VIA Politbureau "Peregovory s frantsiei i vopros o priznanii dolgov" np.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this Paris meeting, Kamenev and Zinoviev, now Lenin’s closest collaborators proposed the closing down of Proletary and moved that Pravda should be accepted as the official organ of the Central Committee of the RSDLP. This position was also supported by others like Tomsky.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As he was unable to pursue the affair in person, he wrote to Trotsky requesting him to undertake the defence of the Georgians in the Central Committee.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky's plan was rejected and he was much criticized for various alleged shortcomings in his leadership style, much of it of a personal nature.^ Repression by the party leadership prevented the opposition from growing, but its influence was still much greater than indicated by the various votes taken in the party cells."

^ The second character Pavel Antipov or Strelnikov’s personality is much similar to Leon Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronshtein).
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By its very nature, as Trotsky explained on innumerable occasions, efficient economic planning requires the interested and democratic participation of the masses in the decision-making process.

.Stalin used this opportunity to pressure Lenin[17] to dismiss Trotsky from his post.^ Stalin supported Lenin and Trotsky, but he was at that time still quite inconspicuous and unknown to the public at large.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He seems to use what happened in this intense five-year period to dismiss everything that Trotsky thinks, says and does afterward, and to question all that went before.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But when, on 5 July Trotsky offered his resignation, the Politburo and the Orgburo of the Central Committee unanimously rejected it.^ Zinovev Trotsky I Smilga Evdokimov TO Central Committee VIA Politbureau Central Control Commission VIA Politbureau "Peregovory s frantsiei i vopros o priznanii dolgov" np.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As he was unable to pursue the affair in person, he wrote to Trotsky requesting him to undertake the defence of the Georgians in the Central Committee.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Muralov Krupskaia Kamenev Piatakov Zinovev Lashevich Peterson Trotsky TO (Central Committee -) (Central Control Commission) "Pochemu my golosuem protiv rezoliutsii..."
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

Yet, a number of significant changes to the leadership of the Red Army were made. .Trotsky was temporarily sent to the Southern Front, while the work in Moscow was informally coordinated by Smilga.^ Lenin TO Revolutionary Military Council of Southern Front COPY TO Trotsky.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ T USSR Internal/ Military (T 227) (23 May 1919) Trotsky TO Revolutionary Military Council (of Southern Front).
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Shliapnikov TO Lenin Trotsky Revolutionary Military Council (of the Republic) Revolutionary Military Council (of the Southern Front).
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Most members of the bloated Revolutionary Military Council who were not involved in its day to day operations, were relieved of their duties on 8 July while new members including Smilga were added.^ The radical intelligentsia, who for more than a decade had been lying low, began to feel the coming of a new day.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the perspective that emerges from a new book by the British historian, Eric Hobsbawm, who was for many years a member of the Communist Party.

^ Whoever has not thought this out to the end, and who has not understood the events from the fresh trail they have left behind, had better not get involved in revolutionary politics.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The same day, while Trotsky was already in the south, Vatsetis was suddenly arrested by the Cheka on suspicion of involvement in an anti-Soviet plot, and replaced by Sergei Kamenev.^ If he came to Berlin openly, he must have left secretly; it is impossible to conceive of the Soviet Government sending Pyatakov to plot with Trotsky.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death in 1924, Trotsky led the struggle against the bureaucratic degeneration of the Soviet State—a fight that Lenin had already begun from his death-bed.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky remains to this day "The Great Unmentionable" in Soviet history.

.After a few weeks in the south, Trotsky returned to Moscow and resumed control of the Red Army.^ Trotsky had taken up the cause with his usual enthusiasm, single-mindedness and the emotional drive which had swept everything before it in 1905, 1917 and in the formation of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Trotsky gave up his post of Commissar for Eoreign Affairs and was entrusted with the organization of the Red Army.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Trotsky formed the Red Army that fought with the White Guard in the Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A year later, Smilga and Tukhachevsky were defeated during the Battle of Warsaw, but Trotsky refused this opportunity to pay Smilga back, which earned him Smilga's friendship and later support during the intra-Party battles of the 1920s.^ TROTSKY: During more than a year.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A year later he was one of the loudest champions of democracy in the party!
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain, which had earlier given refuge to Marx, Lenin and Trotsky himself, now under a Labour government, refused him entry.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.By October 1919 the government was in the worst crisis of the Civil War: Denikin's troops approached Tula and Moscow from the south, and General Nikolay Yudenich's troops approached Petrograd from the west.^ In the summer of 1905, that is, before the October general strike and before the December uprising in Moscow, I wrote in the foreword to one of Lassalle's speeches: .
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin’s father was a government official, a Director of primary schools whose place in the civil service hierarchy ultimately equaled the rank of a general.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TROTSKY: Putna is an officer of the General Staff, a military scholar and a good officer of the Red Army during the Civil War.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Lenin decided that since it was more important to defend Moscow, Petrograd would have to be abandoned.^ A literature that would fill dozens of shelves has since been turned out, in Russia and abroad, on the various ''interpretations" of Lenin's and Trotsky's respective formulas.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still more noteworthy in this respect is Lenin's speech at the November 1 (14), 1917, session of the Petrograd Committee.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ What relationships would develop in the early days between Hitler, Schleicher and the Center leaders, is more important for them than it is for the German people.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky argued[19] that Petrograd needed to be defended, at least in part to prevent Estonia and Finland from intervening.^ (Here I am, not just defending Trotsky, but arguing that Stalin probably didn't kill his own wife.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a rare reversal, Trotsky was supported by Stalin and Zinoviev and prevailed against Lenin in the Central Committee.^ Initially Trotsky had supported the minority against Lenin.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Central Committee, backing Stalin, opposed the demand for Trotsky's expulsion, Zinoviev was indignant at the spirit of "semi-Trotskyism" prevailing in that body, and protested against too much intra-party democracy.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.He immediately went to Petrograd, whose leadership headed by Zinoviev he found demoralized, and organized its defense, sometimes personally stopping fleeing soldiers.^ We took immediate steps to stop the soldiers from coming out.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.By 22 October the Red Army was on the offensive and in early November Yudenich's troops were driven back to Estonia, where they were disarmed and interned.^ We have no need to retail here the leadership of the revolution which earned him the title of the Man of October, or his organization of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Zarkov ( mail ): From Wikipedia on Red Terror: The Internal Troops of Cheka and the Red Army practiced the terror tactics of taking and executing numerous hostages, ...
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

Trotsky was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for his actions in Petrograd.

1920

.With the defeat of Denikin and Yudenich in late 1919, the Soviet government's emphasis shifted to economic work and Trotsky spent the winter of 1919–1920 in the Urals region trying to re-start its economy.^ Thus, even as Trotsky offered a farsighted evaluation of the contradictions of the Soviet economy and concrete proposals for their amelioration, he stressed that both the formulation and implementation of a correct economic policy depended upon a democratic party regime.

^ What we are trying to do here is to make an historical evaluation of Trotsky and his work.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After its thoroughgoing defeat in the late 1920s, and particularly after his expulsion from the Soviet Union, Trotsky sought to build up a principled revolutionary current in the world Communist movement (the parties associated with the Communist International, or Third International).
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Based on his experiences there, he proposed abandoning the policies of War Communism,[20] which included confiscating grain from peasants, and partially restoring the grain market.^ In that period of transition from civil war to reconstruction, and from military communism to the New Economic Policy, the party was torn by the criticism of various dissenting groups.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Comintern and its Parties were so Stalinised that there was no debate, no self-criticism—only a reiteration of the same discredited policies.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.But Lenin was still committed to War Communism and the proposal was rejected.^ Simultaneously, however, the conciliationist line brought me into still sharper conflict with Bolshevism, since Lenin, in contrast to the Mensheviks, relentlessly rejected conciliationism, and could not but do this.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, Trotsky was put in charge of the country's railroads (while retaining overall control of the Red Army), which he tried to militarize in the spirit of War Communism.^ Special squads of whistlers and noise-makers were organized and put in action whenever a speaker of the Opposition tried to present his point of view -- at least so the Opposition charged.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky had taken up the cause with his usual enthusiasm, single-mindedness and the emotional drive which had swept everything before it in 1905, 1917 and in the formation of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Trotsky gave up his post of Commissar for Eoreign Affairs and was entrusted with the organization of the Red Army.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.It wasn't until early 1921 that economic collapse and uprisings would force Lenin and the rest of the Bolshevik leadership to abandon War Communism in favor of the New Economic Policy.^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Without Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks would undoubtedly have corrected their mistakes.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This had been a perspective shared by Lenin and the early Bolsheviks – but the new bureaucratic power elite crystallizing around Stalin, denying any break with Lenin’s thought, embraced the notion that it was possible to achieve “socialism in one country.” .
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meanwhile, in early 1920 Soviet-Polish tensions eventually led to the Polish-Soviet War. .In the run-up and during the war, Trotsky argued[17] that the Red Army was exhausted and the Soviet government should sign a peace treaty with Poland as soon as possible.^ Trotsky had taken up the cause with his usual enthusiasm, single-mindedness and the emotional drive which had swept everything before it in 1905, 1917 and in the formation of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Trotsky gave up his post of Commissar for Eoreign Affairs and was entrusted with the organization of the Red Army.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When, prior to the First World War, Trotsky defended the idea of the possibility of a proletarian revolution in Russia before the revolution in Western Europe, nobody took him seriously.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.He also did not believe that the Red Army would find much support in Poland proper.^ As the son of a prosperous Jewish farmer, the future organizer of the Red Army did not have to taste the misery of the Jewish lower-middle classes, from which so many revolutionary intellectuals were recruited.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adolf Hitler believed that he was doing the right thing just as much as Trotsky did.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders thought that the Red Army's successes in the Russian Civil War and against the Poles meant that, as Lenin said later:[21]
.The defensive period of the war with worldwide imperialism was over, and we could, and had the obligation to, exploit the military situation to launch an offensive war.^ What Service inexplicably fails to mention is that the German military, losing patience, launched a massive and successful offensive which demonstrated the hollowness of the “revolutionary war” notion and the inadequacy of Trotsky’s compromise position.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that period of transition from civil war to reconstruction, and from military communism to the New Economic Policy, the party was torn by the criticism of various dissenting groups.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same could by and large be said of the Civil War, although in its first period, especially at the time of the fall of Simbirsk and Kazan, Lenin wavered and was beset by doubts.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.But the Red Army offensive was turned back during the Battle of Warsaw in August 1920, in part because of Stalin's failure to obey Trotsky's orders in the run-up to the decisive engagements.^ Stalin, aware of the state of his regime and in what a tottering world he lived, did not count Trotsky’s meagre following and then sit back in comfort.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky had taken up the cause with his usual enthusiasm, single-mindedness and the emotional drive which had swept everything before it in 1905, 1917 and in the formation of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, Trotsky gave up his post of Commissar for Eoreign Affairs and was entrusted with the organization of the Red Army.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Back in Moscow, Trotsky again argued for a peace treaty and this time prevailed.

Trade union debate (1920–1921)

Serrati and Trotsky.
.In late 1920, after the Bolsheviks won the Civil War and before the Eighth and Ninth Congress of Soviets, the Communist Party had a heated and increasingly acrimonious debate over the role of trade unions in the Soviet state.^ It is not his intention, so he avers, to create a new Communist International and new communist parties in competition with the official bodies, as it is not his intention to overthrow the existing Soviet regime by force.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1920 during the dispute on the Trade Union question, oblivious to the reality, he let his imagination run away with him again.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He pointed to the indisputable fact that practically all the Marxian veteran leaders had turned either pink or yellow during the War, and even before it -- and concluded that a similar danger was threatening the "Old Guard" of the party in the Soviet Union.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The discussion split the party into many "platforms" (factions), including Lenin's, Trotsky's and Bukharin's; Bukharin eventually merged his with Trotsky's.^ In the party discussions Trotsky and his followers now kept insisting upon "democracy in the party."
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A little later, after the party headquarters had been transferred to Switzerland, Trotsky came into closer contact with Plekhanov and Axelrod.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sharpness of Lenin’s language in these polemics was dictated by the fact that, under the guise of “Trotskyism”, he was really attacking conciliationist tendencies in the leadership of his own faction.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Smaller, more radical factions like the Workers' Opposition (headed by Alexander Shlyapnikov) and the Group of Democratic Centralism were particularly active.^ At one time there were more government officials in Moscow than there were industrial workers, though Moscow was an industrial city and not merely a bureaucratic capital, like Washington.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequently, they raised the slogan for China of the democratic dictatorship of the workers and peasants in opposition to the slogan of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bolshevik party had treated even workers and peasants savagely whenever they engaged in active opposition,” Service writes.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trotsky's position formed while he led a special commission on the Soviet transportation system, Tsektran.^ Trotsky had the same position as the Bolsheviks, which led him to break with the Mensheviks.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death in 1924, Trotsky led the struggle against the bureaucratic degeneration of the Soviet State—a fight that Lenin had already begun from his death-bed.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1918, when the Soviet power, in Trotsky’s words, had reached its lowest point, the government passed a special decree declaring tat the socialist fatherland was in danger.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

He was appointed there to rebuild the rail system ruined by the Civil War. .Being the Commissar of War and a revolutionary military leader, he saw a need to create a militarized "production atmosphere" by incorporating trade unions directly into the State apparatus.^ Abstract: Papers of Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky including correspondence from his years in the Soviet Union and writings.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the basic reasons for the crisis in bourgeois society is the fact that the productive forces created by it can no longer be reconciled with the framework of the national state.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The 'pacifist' effects of the proletarian class struggle, like its reformist effects, are only by-products of the revolutionary struggle for power; they have only a relative strength and can easily turn into their opposite, that is, they can drive the bourgeoisie to take the road to war.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.His unyielding stance was that in a worker's state the workers should have nothing to fear from the state, and the State should fully control the unions.^ Workers should control the factories.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His basic argument was that Russia was a workers’ state and therefore the trade unions, as the workers’ organizations, could administer the state.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was the "Workers' Opposition," which was very close to the conception of French syndicalism, and demanded that the management of the industries should be transferred to the trade unions.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Ninth Party Congress he argued for "such a regime under which each worker feels himself to be a soldier of labor who cannot freely dispose of himself; if he is ordered transferred, he must execute that order; if he does not do so, he will be a deserter who should be punished.^ According to Lenin's instructions, "After the expiration of the seven-day deadline for deserters to turn themselves in, punishment must be increased for these incorrigible traitors to the cause of the people.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only a man with Trotsky’s capacity for work, only a man so unsparing of himself as Trotsky, only a man who knew how to speak to the soldiers as Trotsky did – only such a man could have become the standard bearer of the armed toilers.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though shunned by the two large socialist parties, the Bolsheviks had the support of the war-weary workers and soldiers.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Who will execute this? The trade union. .It will create a new regime.^ It is not his intention, so he avers, to create a new Communist International and new communist parties in competition with the official bodies, as it is not his intention to overthrow the existing Soviet regime by force.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

That is the militarization of the working class."[citation needed]
.Lenin sharply criticised Trotsky and accused him of "bureaucratically nagging the trade unions" and of staging "factional attacks."^ Both Lenin and Trotsky were accused of being German agents, hired and paid by the Kaiser's general staff.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1920 during the dispute on the Trade Union question, oblivious to the reality, he let his imagination run away with him again.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sharpness of Lenin’s language in these polemics was dictated by the fact that, under the guise of “Trotskyism”, he was really attacking conciliationist tendencies in the leadership of his own faction.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.His view did not focus on State control as much as the concern that a new relationship was needed between the State and the rank-and-file workers.^ Lenin did not solve in advance the question of what the political relationships would be between the two participants in the assumed democratic dictatorship, that is, the proletariat and the peasantry.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But it nevertheless did develop along the line of the irreconcilable contradictions between the workers' state and the bourgeois world.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalinism is a variety of the same system, but upon the basis of a workers’ state torn by the antagonism between an organized and armed soviet aristocracy and the unarmed toiling masses.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.He said, "Introduction of genuine labor discipline is conceived only if the whole mass of participants in productions take a conscious part in the fulfillment of these tasks.^ This means that the 'democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and peasantry' is only conceivable as a dictatorship of the proletariat that leads the peasant masses behind it .
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Industrialization is the driving force of the whole of modern culture and by this token the only conceivable basis for socialism.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to countries with a belated bourgeois development, especially the colonial and semi-colonial countries, the theory of the permanent revolution signifies that the complete and genuine solution of their tasks of achieving democracy and national emancipation is conceivable only through the dictatorship of the proletariat as the leader of the subjugated nation, above all of its peasant masses.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

This cannot be achieved by bureaucratic methods and orders from above." .This was a debate that Lenin thought the party could not afford.^ What an abysmal decline of theoretical thought was required for such shoddy scholasticism to be expounded with a learned air in the pages of the central organ of Lenin's party!
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the debate on the attitude to the bourgeois parties, Lenin commented: .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.His frustration with Trotsky was used by Stalin and Zinoviev with their support for Lenin's position, to improve their standing within the Bolshevik leadership at Trotsky's expense.^ Inhumanly ruthless in his dealings with non-Bolsheviks and inept with Stalin, Leon Trotsky was too vain and self-deceiving to merit the status of tragic hero...
  • Arts & Letters Daily - ideas, criticism, debate 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC aldaily.com [Source type: General]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Without Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks would undoubtedly have corrected their mistakes.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Disagreements threatened to get out of hand and many Bolsheviks, including Lenin, feared that the party would splinter.^ Without Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks would undoubtedly have corrected their mistakes.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I consulted Lenin about whether it would be good that I enter the Bolshevik Party immediately, or whether it would be better that I enter with this good workers’ organisation which had three or four thousand revolutionary members.” ( The Case of Leon Trotsky , p.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of Lenin's opponents, indeed, went so far as to call his postulates Bonapartist, because, if carried out, his scheme would have concentrated all the power in his own hands.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Central Committee was split almost evenly between Lenin's and Trotsky's supporters, with all three Secretaries of the Central Committee (Krestinky, Yevgeny Preobrazhensky and Leonid Serebryakov) supporting Trotsky.^ The clearest expression of the new situation were the notorious “Moscow Trials”, which Trotsky described as “a unilateral civil war against the Bolshevik Party.” Between 1936 and 1938, all the members of the Central Committee from the time of Lenin, who were alive in the USSR, were assassinated.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin supported Lenin and Trotsky, but he was at that time still quite inconspicuous and unknown to the public at large.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.At a meeting of his faction at the Tenth Party Congress in March 1921, Lenin's faction won a decisive victory and a number of Trotsky's supporters (including all three secretaries of the Central Committee) lost their leadership positions.^ The following was said by Lenin at the party congress in March 1919 : .
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ His Letter to the Congress, in which he describes Trotsky as the most able member of the Central Committee and demands the removal of Stalin as Party General Secretary, was suppressed by the leading clique and remained unpublished for decades.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Krestinsky was replaced as a member of the Politburo by Zinoviev, who had supported Lenin.^ Later he was joined by Zinoviev, who had arrived with Lenin.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Plekhanov, who at the Congress had supported Lenin, proved incapable of standing up to the pressures of his old comrades and friends.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Krestinsky's place in the secretariat was taken by Vyacheslav Molotov. .The congress also adopted a secret resolution on "Party unity", which banned factions within the Party except during pre-Congress discussions.^ What this really means is that there is no reason to pay any attention whatsoever to the political struggles that raged within the Bolshevik Party during the 1920s.

^ By this proposal Lenin hoped to avoid the creation of factions and the repetition of futile discussions at the party conventions.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The resolution was later published and used by Stalin against Trotsky and other opponents.^ For Trotsky's Stalin , published in English translation by Harper & Brothers, see MS Russ 13.3.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is essential to consider, in other words, not only "what happened" under Stalin; but also "what well might have happened" had Trotsky prevailed.

^ It is therefore not surprising that his lecture makes absolutely no reference to the struggle of Trotsky and the Left Opposition against Stalinism.

.At the end of the Tenth Congress, after peace negotiations had failed, Trotsky gave the order for the suppression of the Kronstadt Rebellion, the last major revolt against Bolshevik rule.^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The revolt of Kronstadt, though suppressed, was victorious to a certain extent.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the end, in early 1904, Lenin found that he had to organise “majority Committees” (Bolsheviks) to salvage something from the wreckage of the Congress.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Years later, Anarchist Emma Goldman and others criticized Trotsky's actions as Commissar for War for his role in the suppression of the rebellion, and argued that he ordered unjustified incarcerations and executions of political opponents such as anarchists, although Trotsky did not participate in the actual suppression.^ Trotsky’s estimate of his work as War Commissar.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin did not solve in advance the question of what the political relationships would be between the two participants in the assumed democratic dictatorship, that is, the proletariat and the peasantry.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One might actually believe that my opponents, insofar as they thought politically at all in 1905, were of the opinion then that Russia was ripe for an independent socialist revolution.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

[23][24] .Some Trotskyists, most notably Abbie Bakan have argued that the claim that the Kronstadt rebels were "counterrevolutionary" has been supported by evidence of White army and French government support for the Kronstadt sailors' March rebellion.^ I didn't claim that all or even most mainstream leftists are Trotsky apologists, merely that there are some Trotsky apologists who are not on the far left.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MCM ( mail ): I didn't claim that all or even most mainstream leftists are Trotsky apologists, merely that there are some Trotsky apologists who are not on the far left.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of this stand of theirs, Trotsky broke with some of his most faithful supporters abroad.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[25]. .Other historians, most notably Paul Avrich, claimed the evidence did not point towards this conclusion, and that the Kronstadt Rebellion was spontaneous.^ ArthurKirkland: "The overriding point is that conservatives have little to gain by claiming superiority in this area, particularly as revelations of the most recent right-wing immorality continue to emerge."
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The overriding point is that conservatives have little to gain by claiming superiority in this area, particularly as revelations of the most recent right-wing immorality continue to emerge.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You're doing exactly what you did in the other thread: cite a questionable source and then make a claim that's not even supported by your questionable source.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[26]

Lenin's illness (1922–1923)

.In late 1921 Lenin's health deteriorated, he was absent from Moscow for even longer periods, and eventually had three strokes between 26 May 1922 and 10 March 1923, which caused paralysis, loss of speech and finally death on 21 January 1924. With Lenin increasingly sidelined throughout 1922, Stalin (elevated to the newly created position of the Central Committee General Secretary[27] earlier in the year), Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev[28] formed a troika (triumvirate) to ensure that Trotsky, publicly the number two man in the country and Lenin's heir presumptive, would not succeed Lenin.^ Folder 26-27 May 25 .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Folder 26 January 10 .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Folder 34 Kamenev, Lev, 1919 May 26 .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

The rest of the recently expanded Politburo (Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky, Bukharin) was at first uncommitted, but eventually joined the troika. .Stalin's power of patronage[29] in his capacity as General Secretary clearly played a role, but Trotsky and his supporters later concluded that a more fundamental reason was the process of slow bureaucratization of the Soviet regime once the extreme conditions of the Civil War were over: much of the Bolshevik elite wanted 'normalcy' while Trotsky was personally and politically personified as representing a turbulent revolutionary period that they would much rather leave behind.^ One by one Trotsky’s supporters in the Soviet Union were silenced by Stalin’s executioners.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Bolsheviks went further and wanted to create a socialist Utopia through revolution and subsequently via Stalinism.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dzerzhinsky once publicly stated that "We represent in ourselves organized terror -- this must be said very clearly and the terrorization, arrests and extermination of enemies of the revolution on the basis of their class affiliation or of their pre-revolutionary roles.” Yevgraf Zhivago 's words correspond to the power that Cheka members had.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the exact sequence of events is unclear, evidence suggests that at first the troika nominated Trotsky to head second rate government departments (e.g., Gokhran, the State Depository for Valuables[30]) and then, when Trotsky predictably refused, tried using it as an excuse to oust him.^ Trotsky predicted that a new trial would be held, and that somebody would testify that he visited him in Norway.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When, prior to the First World War, Trotsky defended the idea of the possibility of a proletarian revolution in Russia before the revolution in Western Europe, nobody took him seriously.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky had irritated Lenin by his refusal to join the Bolshevik tendency, although there were no real political differences separating them.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

When, in mid-July 1922, Kamenev wrote a letter to the recovering Lenin to the effect that "(the Central Committee) is throwing or is ready to throw a good cannon overboard", Lenin was shocked and responded:[31]
.Throwing Trotsky overboard - surely you are hinting at that, it is impossible to interpret it otherwise - is the height of stupidity.^ The supporters of a coalition endeavoured even there&emdash;very timidly, to be sure&emdash;to hint at 'Trotskyism'.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.If you do not consider me already hopelessly foolish, how can you think of that????^ We have already seen how Hobsbawm considers Lenins faith in the prospects for a German Revolution a fatal lapse in his political judgment.

^ If you think that is but a minor achievement, consider a few health and pollution facts about life in that bustling land...
  • Arts & Letters Daily - ideas, criticism, debate 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC aldaily.com [Source type: General]

.From then until his final stroke, Lenin spent much of his time trying to devise a way to prevent a split within the Communist Party leadership, which was reflected in Lenin's Testament.^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In their bitterness against the official communist parties, many of the communist dissenters in Germany, France and other countries, went much further than their champion was ever prepared to go.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, the leaders of the Stalinised German Communist Party played a pernicious role in splitting the workers’ movement in the face of the Nazi menace.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.As part of this effort, on 11 September 1922 Lenin proposed that Trotsky become his deputy at the Sovnarkom.^ Prevailing official thought makes no effort to dwell on the contradictions in Lenin adduced above, which are in part external and apparent, in part real, but which always stem from the problem itself.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky immediately proposed to show the letter to Kamenev and would have done so but that Lenin stopped him, pointing out that Kamenev would show the letter to Stalin who would inevitably deceive them.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Plekhanov, guessing that Trotsky would support Lenin, placing him in a minority, angrily vetoed the proposal.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

The Politburo approved the proposal, but Trotsky "categorically refused".[32]
.In late 1922, Lenin's relationship with Stalin deteriorated over Stalin's heavy-handed and chauvinistic handling of the issue of merging Soviet republics into one federal state, the USSR.^ Where all the great European Marxists looked upon the coming Russian Revolution as one which would give Russia a bourgeois republic, Trotsky stated that this was impossible.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Beginning with Zinoviev and Kamenev, one former Oppositionist after another capitulated to Stalin, in the hope of being accepted back into the Party.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Of particular note in the collection is one of three existing sets of typed copies of correspondence between Trotsky and V. I. Lenin, prepared from Soviet archival sources at Trotsky's direction.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

.At that point, according to Trotsky's autobiography,[33] Lenin offered Trotsky an alliance against Soviet bureaucracy in general and Stalin in particular.^ Trotsky’s fight against Bureaucracy .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lunacharsky recalls that when someone told Lenin about Trotsky’s success in the Soviet, Lenin’s face darkened for a moment.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a word, it is a question of the same Open Letter , in which, invoking Lenin’s Testament , I recommended the removal of Stalin from his post as General Secretary.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

The alliance proved effective on the issue of foreign trade,[34] but it was complicated by Lenin's progressing illness. .In January 1923 the relationship between Lenin and Stalin completely broke down when Stalin rudely insulted Lenin's wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya.^ The romance between Yuri Zhivago and Larissa Antipova was a personnel issue and it had no place in the Bolshevik concepts although Lenin enjoyed his private married life with Krupskaya and Stalin with Nadia Alliluyeva.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My tactical conclusions coincided completely with the conclusions which Lenin drew at the same time in Geneva, and consequently were in the same irreconcilable contradiction to the conclusions of Kamenev, Stalin and the other epigones.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin did not solve in advance the question of what the political relationships would be between the two participants in the assumed democratic dictatorship, that is, the proletariat and the peasantry.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.At that point Lenin amended his Testament suggesting that Stalin should be replaced as the party's General Secretary, although the thrust of his argument was somewhat weakened by the fact that he also mildly criticized other Bolshevik leaders, including Trotsky.^ That was the aim of the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It created the post of General Secretary of the Party, and nominated Stalin to that post.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inhumanly ruthless in his dealings with non-Bolsheviks and inept with Stalin, Leon Trotsky was too vain and self-deceiving to merit the status of tragic hero...
  • Arts & Letters Daily - ideas, criticism, debate 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC aldaily.com [Source type: General]

.In March 1923, days before his third stroke, Lenin prepared a frontal assault on Stalin's "Great-Russian nationalistic campaign" against the Georgian Communist Party (the so-called Georgian Affair) and asked Trotsky to deliver the blow at the XIIth Party Congress.^ Lenin stopped work in March 1923.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following was said by Lenin at the party congress in March 1919 : .
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.With Lenin no longer active, Trotsky did not raise the issue at the Congress.^ No differences existed between the tactical line of Lenin and Trotsky.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky had irritated Lenin by his refusal to join the Bolshevik tendency, although there were no real political differences separating them.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At this meeting Trotsky declared that he no longer stood for the unity of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.At the XIIth Party Congress in April 1923, just after Lenin's final stroke, the key Central Committee reports on organizational and nationalities questions were delivered by Stalin and not by Trotsky, while Zinoviev delivered the political report of the Central Committee, traditionally Lenin's prerogative.^ When the Central Committee, backing Stalin, opposed the demand for Trotsky's expulsion, Zinoviev was indignant at the spirit of "semi-Trotskyism" prevailing in that body, and protested against too much intra-party democracy.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Undoubtedly owing to the political situation Trotsky, rightly or wrongly, submitted to the suppression of Lenin’s testament, and assisted Stalin to get out of the hole he was in on the National Question.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His Letter to the Congress, in which he describes Trotsky as the most able member of the Central Committee and demands the removal of Stalin as Party General Secretary, was suppressed by the leading clique and remained unpublished for decades.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Stalin's power of appointment had allowed him to gradually replace local party secretaries with loyal functionaries and thus control most regional delegations at the congress, which enabled him to pack the Central Committee with his supporters, mostly at the expense of Zinoviev and Kamenev's backers.^ The Central Committee elected by the Party Convention was thus sure to support the policy of the General Secretary.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His Letter to the Congress, in which he describes Trotsky as the most able member of the Central Committee and demands the removal of Stalin as Party General Secretary, was suppressed by the leading clique and remained unpublished for decades.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.At the congress, Trotsky made a speech about intra-party democracy, among other things, but avoided a direct confrontation with the troika.^ In the party discussions Trotsky and his followers now kept insisting upon "democracy in the party."
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A lot of nonsense has been written about the famous Second Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) without any of it explaining the reasons for the split.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (Speech at the Eleventh Party Congress, March 27, 1922).
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The delegates, most of whom were unaware of the divisions within the Politburo, gave Trotsky a standing ovation, which couldn't help but upset the troika.^ Trotsky found himself in uncomfortable association with Mensheviks, with whom he disagreed on most points, and a few disobedient Bolsheviks.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of this stand of theirs, Trotsky broke with some of his most faithful supporters abroad.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Correspondence of Leon Trotsky, divided into outgoing and incoming correspondence, and arranged within each division alphabetically by name of correspondent.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

.The troika was further infuriated by Karl Radek's article Leon Trotsky — Organizer of Victory[38] published in Pravda on 14 March 1923, which seemed to anoint Trotsky as Lenin's successor.^ Lenin stopped work in March 1923.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the very same Radek once knew how to write in a different vein, I have already mentioned his article, Leon Trotsky – Organizer of Victory ( Pravda , March 14th, 1923).
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only after the arrival of Lenin did the Bolshevik Party change its position, after an internal struggle around Lenin’s “April Theses” published in Pravda under his signature.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The resolutions adopted by the XIIth Congress called, in general terms, for greater democracy within the Party, but were vague and remained unimplemented.^ That triumvirate had on its side what is called the "apparatus," the party machine of which all members were directly or indirectly nominated by the General Secretary.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had placed all his hopes in the calling of a Party Congress, in which the working class rank and file would have put order “in their own house”.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His Letter to the Congress, in which he describes Trotsky as the most able member of the Central Committee and demands the removal of Stalin as Party General Secretary, was suppressed by the leading clique and remained unpublished for decades.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In an important test of strength in mid-1923, the troika was able to neutralize Trotsky's friend and supporter Christian Rakovsky by removing him from his post as head of the Ukrainian government (Sovnarkom) and sending him to London as Soviet ambassador.^ Christian Rakovsky, former Soviet Ambassador to France, and a few unbending men bound to Trotsky by ties of personal friendship or by romantic devotion, remained in exile.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the conclusion of the second lecture in Melbourne, I had a very interesting discussion with a great friend and supporter of the movement on the role of Leon Trotsky.

^ The Government paper, strangely enough, appointed “Trotskyite” liaison agents to posts as correspondents in the most important places.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When regional Party secretaries in Ukraine protested against Rakovsky's reassignment, they too were reassigned to various posts all over the Soviet Union.^ They proclaimed the possibility of the construction of an isolated and self-sufficient socialist society in the Soviet Union.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He pointed to the indisputable fact that practically all the Marxian veteran leaders had turned either pink or yellow during the War, and even before it -- and concluded that a similar danger was threatening the "Old Guard" of the party in the Soviet Union.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That triumvirate had on its side what is called the "apparatus," the party machine of which all members were directly or indirectly nominated by the General Secretary.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Left opposition (1923–1924)

Starting in mid-1923, the Soviet economy ran into significant difficulties, which led to numerous strikes countrywide. .Two secret groups within the Communist Party, Workers' Truth and Workers' Group, were uncovered and suppressed by the Soviet secret police.^ It is not his intention, so he avers, to create a new Communist International and new communist parties in competition with the official bodies, as it is not his intention to overthrow the existing Soviet regime by force.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the victory of Hitler in January 1933, the two mass workers parties in Germany the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist Party (KPD) commanded the political allegiance of 13 million voters.

^ In particular, the leaders of the Stalinised German Communist Party played a pernicious role in splitting the workers’ movement in the face of the Nazi menace.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.On 8 October 1923 Trotsky sent a letter to the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission, attributing these difficulties to lack of intra-Party democracy.^ Trotsky TO (Central Committee) (Central Control Commission) "Dva slova ob armii" np.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ TROTSKY: This letter is not written for the Commission.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Central Committee, backing Stalin, opposed the demand for Trotsky's expulsion, Zinoviev was indignant at the spirit of "semi-Trotskyism" prevailing in that body, and protested against too much intra-party democracy.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Trotsky wrote:
.In the fiercest moment of War Communism, the system of appointment within the party did not have one tenth of the extent that it has now.^ But I did not doubt for one moment that the conscience of the world cannot be bribed and that it will score.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ My inner-party stand was a conciliationist one, and when at certain moments I strove for the formation of groupings, then it was precisely on this basis.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Never for one moment did Trotsky falter on the supposed division between different sections of the bourgeoisie and the possibility of Bruening crushing Hitler or controlling him.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Appointment of the secretaries of provincial committees is now the rule. .That creates for the secretary a position essentially independent of the local organization.^ For half a century we had, as it were, a huge laboratory for the creation of an 'anti-capitalist' peasant party with an independent position toward the proletarian party.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

[...] .The bureaucratization of the party apparatus has developed to unheard-of proportions by means of the method of secretarial selection.^ That triumvirate had on its side what is called the "apparatus," the party machine of which all members were directly or indirectly nominated by the General Secretary.
  • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the Eleventh Congress, Lenin placed before the Party a searing indictment of bureaucratisation of the state apparatus: .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From this standpoint, of decisive significance is the general historical criterion in accordance with which the party and state leadership direct economic development by means of planning.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.There has been created a very broad stratum of party workers, entering into the apparatus of the government of the party, who completely renounce their own party opinion, at least the open expression of it, as though assuming that the secretarial hierarchy is the apparatus which creates party opinion and party decisions.^ Parvus was not of the opinion that a workers' Government in Russia could move in the direction of the socialist revolution, that is, that in the process of fulfilling the democratic tasks it could grow over into the socialist dictatorship.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the struggle against Trotskyism gradually became the expression of the theoretical and political reaction among broad non-proletarian and partly also among proletarian circles, and the reflection of this reaction inside the party.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalinism, this gross ideological vulgarity, the worthy daughter of the party reaction, has created a cult of its own of progress by stages, as a cover for its political tailism and haggling over rags.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Beneath this stratum, abstaining from their own opinions, there lays the broad mass of the party, before whom every decision stands in the form of a summons or a command.^ For the broad masses, the word "equality" meant far more than the abstract acknowledgment that all men had, in some technical sense, equal standing in a court of law.

Other senior communists who had similar concerns sent The Declaration of 46 to the Central Committee on 15 October in which they wrote:
[...] we observe an ever progressing, barely disguised division of the party into a secretarial hierarchy and into ."laymen", into professional party functionaries, chosen from above, and the other party masses, who take no part in social life.^ The Communist party must take them into account in its work.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This would make Hitler, bin Laden, and others more excusable than mass murderers who simply like killing people.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, material collected by the Socialist Workers Party and the Library of Social History.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

[...] free discussion within the party has virtually disappeared, party public opinion has been stifled. [...] it is the secretarial hierarchy, the party hierarchy which to an ever greater degree chooses the delegates to the conferences and congresses, which to an ever greater degree are becoming the executive conferences of this hierarchy.
.Although the text of these letters remained secret at the time, they had a significant effect on the Party leadership and prompted a partial retreat by the troika and its supporters on the issue of intra-Party democracy, notably in Zinoviev's Pravda article published on 7 November.^ Published in Pravda (1927 November 2).
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ They capitulated after Zinoviev, and in the time indicated in these depositions they were absolutely antagonistic to me.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only after the arrival of Lenin did the Bolshevik Party change its position, after an internal struggle around Lenin’s “April Theses” published in Pravda under his signature.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout November, the troika tried to come up with a compromise to placate, or at least temporarily neutralize, Trotsky and his supporters.^ Then suddenly, with Michelet and Macaulay the line comes to a dead stop and is taken up again only with Trotsky.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.(Their task was made easier by the fact that Trotsky was sick in November and December.^ TROTSKY: Only about three or four days ago we received a quotation from the Berliner Tageblatt which confirms the fact that Pyatakov in December 1935 visited Berlin.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

) .The first draft of the resolution was rejected by Trotsky, which led to the formation of a special group consisting of Stalin, Trotsky and Kamenev, which was charged with drafting a mutually acceptable compromise.^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Alarmed by this turn in events, Kamenev and Zinoviev broke with Stalin and formed an alliance with Trotsky, the United Left Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As long ago as the 1920s, Zinoviev and Kamenev had warned Trotsky: “You think Stalin will answer your ideas.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

On 5 December, the Politburo and the Central Control Commission unanimously adopted the group's final draft as its resolution.
On 8 December Trotsky published an open letter, in which he expounded on the recently adopted resolution's ideas. .The troika used his letter as an excuse to launch a campaign against Trotsky, accusing him of factionalism, setting "the youth against the fundamental generation of old revolutionary Bolsheviks"[39] and other sins.^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The campaign against 'the old Trotskyism' was in a reality a campaign against the October traditions, which had become more and more cramping and unbearable for the new bureaucracy.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In actual fact, Trotsky opposed and denounced the frenzied collectivization campaign launched by the Stalinists.

.Trotsky defended his position in a series of seven letters which were collected as The New Course in January 1924. The illusion of a "monolithic Bolshevik leadership" was thus shattered and a lively intra-Party discussion ensued, both in local Party organizations and in the pages of Pravda.^ Thus, even as Trotsky offered a farsighted evaluation of the contradictions of the Soviet economy and concrete proposals for their amelioration, he stressed that both the formulation and implementation of a correct economic policy depended upon a democratic party regime.

^ In general, Trotsky’s position was very close to that of the Bolsheviks, as Lenin himself was later to admit.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides the theory with which his name will always be associated, the outstanding example of Trotsky’s analytic and creative power was the New Course, the outgrowth and flowering of the single plan proposal.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.The discussion lasted most of December and January until the XIIIth Party Conference of 16-18 January 1924. Those who opposed the Central Committee's position in the debate were thereafter referred to as members of the Left Opposition.^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is therefore not surprising that his lecture makes absolutely no reference to the struggle of Trotsky and the Left Opposition against Stalinism.

^ Most of Lenin’s old followers—Kamenev, Zinoviev, Stalin—were either opposed to taking power or at least had a vacillating and ambiguous position.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since the troika controlled the Party apparatus through Stalin's Secretariat as well as Pravda through its editor Bukharin, it was able to direct the discussion and the process of delegate selection.^ These motifs run through not only the numberless writings and speeches of Zinoviev, Stalin, Bukharin and others, but they are also formulated in the most authoritative resolutions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist International.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus we have an election in which media coverage is confined to two parties; in which official discussion is confined to two highly controlled debates, each with one and the same moderator.

^ The whole party, as one man,” Zinoviev wrote in Pravda of May 8th, 1933, “will fight under the banner of Lenin and Stalin ...
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although Trotsky's position prevailed within the Red Army and Moscow universities and received about half the votes in the Moscow Party organization, it was defeated elsewhere, and the Conference was packed with pro-troika delegates.^ Trotsky had taken up the cause with his usual enthusiasm, single-mindedness and the emotional drive which had swept everything before it in 1905, 1917 and in the formation of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Trotsky formed the Red Army that fought with the White Guard in the Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TROTSKY: Putna is an officer of the General Staff, a military scholar and a good officer of the Red Army during the Civil War.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the end, only three delegates voted for Trotsky's position and the Conference denounced "Trotskyism"[40] as a "petty bourgeois deviation". After the Conference, a number of Trotsky's supporters, especially in the Red Army's Political Directorate, were removed from leading positions or reassigned.^ Trotsky had taken up the cause with his usual enthusiasm, single-mindedness and the emotional drive which had swept everything before it in 1905, 1917 and in the formation of the Red Army.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Marx at that time expected an independent stage of democratic revolution in Germany, that is, a temporary assumption of power by the urban petty-bourgeois radicals, supported by the peasantry.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The petty-bourgeois dictatorship proved to be only a masked dictatorship of capital.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Nonetheless, Trotsky kept all of his posts and the troika was careful to emphasize that the debate was limited to Trotsky's "mistakes" and that removing Trotsky from the leadership was out of the question.^ Nowadays bourgeois historians try to present the struggle between Stalin and Trotsky as a “debate” over theoretical questions, in which, for obscure reasons, Stalin won and Trotsky lost.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If you think we were mistaken in removing your post (or, in extreme cases, in removing you) -- or if you prefer a more free-for-all approach -- there are surely plenty of ways you can still get your views out.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On these fundamental questions, the position of Lenin and Trotsky was identical—as Lenin himself pointed out at the Fifth (London) Congress of the RSDLP (1907).
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In reality, Trotsky had already been cut off from the decision making process.^ By its very nature, as Trotsky explained on innumerable occasions, efficient economic planning requires the interested and democratic participation of the masses in the decision-making process.

^ Besides this quotation from Lenin which, as we have already seen, is refuted by the whole content of Lenin's article, Radek makes reference to Trotsky himself.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The decision to determine eligibility on the basis of a candidate's chances of winning makes a farce of the democratic pretensions of the electoral process.

Immediately after the Conference, Trotsky left for a Caucasian resort to recover from his prolonged illness. .On his way, he learned about Lenin's death on 21 January 1924. He was about to return when a follow up telegram from Stalin arrived, giving an incorrect date of the scheduled funeral, which would have made it impossible for Trotsky to return in time.^ Lunacharsky recalls that when someone told Lenin about Trotsky’s success in the Soviet, Lenin’s face darkened for a moment.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What Trotsky wrote about Stalinism, the criticisms he made of Soviet policy, the conflict between the long-term strategy he advanced and that of the Stalinist leadership is, as far as Hobsbawm is concerned, of very little importance.

^ One can therefore appreciate the motives of those who, using the name of Marx, complacently ask, “What difference would it have made to Russia if Trotsky had won in the struggle with Stalin?” We shall soon see what difference it would have made to the German proletariat.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many commentators speculated after the fact that Trotsky's absence from Moscow in the days following Lenin's death contributed to his eventual loss to Stalin, although Trotsky generally discounted the significance of his absence.^ As a matter of fact, even Stalin’s earlier appraisal does not do justice to the role played by Trotsky in the October Revolution.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The agents of Moscow have lately resorted to the following argument: “Since his arrival in Mexico, Trotsky has not presented any evidence.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In a word, it is a question of the same Open Letter , in which, invoking Lenin’s Testament , I recommended the removal of Stalin from his post as General Secretary.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

After Lenin's death (1924)

.There was little overt political disagreement within the Soviet leadership throughout most of 1924. On the surface, Trotsky remained the most prominent and popular Bolshevik leader, although his "mistakes" were often alluded to by troika partisans.^ What Trotsky wrote about Stalinism, the criticisms he made of Soviet policy, the conflict between the long-term strategy he advanced and that of the Stalinist leadership is, as far as Hobsbawm is concerned, of very little importance.

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Without Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks would undoubtedly have corrected their mistakes.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Behind the scenes, he was completely cut off from the decision making process.^ By its very nature, as Trotsky explained on innumerable occasions, efficient economic planning requires the interested and democratic participation of the masses in the decision-making process.

^ The decision to determine eligibility on the basis of a candidate's chances of winning makes a farce of the democratic pretensions of the electoral process.

.Politburo meetings were pure formalities since all key decisions were made ahead of time by the troika and its supporters.^ Having lived in Copenhagen without interruption since 1931, and having taken part in the Socialist movement all the time, I can attest: 1.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This organization has existed ever since, and I have been the chairman all the time, and I attest that all the time the organization has existed we have not held a single meeting or conference in the coffee-house Bristol .
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky's control over the military was undermined by reassigning his deputy, Ephraim Sklyansky, and appointing Mikhail Frunze, who was being groomed to take Trotsky's place.^ "It is in contradictions and differences of opinion that the working out of the partys public opinion inevitably takes place," Trotsky wrote in 1923.

^ Trotsky, his theoretical writings apart, belongs to that small company of human beings who have been instruments in assisting new worlds to be born.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky was asked to take control of military affairs at a time when the Revolution was in extreme danger.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

At the twenty third Party Congress in May, Trotsky delivered a conciliatory speech:[41]
.None of us desires or is able to dispute the will of the Party.^ The theoretical as well as the political dispute among us was not over the collaboration of the workers and peasants as such, but over the programme of this collaboration, its party forms and political methods.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

Clearly, the Party is always right.... .We can only be right with and by the Party, for history has provided no other way of being in the right.^ We could act in no other way.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is no revolutionary party, capable of giving a conscious leadership to the revolutionary energy of the class, this energy can be wasted, in the same way that steam is lost if there is no machine that can use its power.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Collectivism will become not only the inevitable way forward from the position in which the party in power will find itself, but will also be a means of preserving this position with the support of the proletariat.'
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The English have a saying, "My country, right or wrong", whether it is in the right or in the wrong, it is my country.^ Was it wrong for Coulter to say "we should invade their countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity?"
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1926, in the period of the bloc with Zinoviev, Radek warned me that Zinoviev needed my declaration that Lenin was right, as against me, in order to screen somewhat the fact that he, Zinoviev, was wrong as against me.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.We have much better historical justification in saying whether it is right or wrong in certain individual concrete cases, it is my party....^ I consulted Lenin about whether it would be good that I enter the Bolshevik Party immediately, or whether it would be better that I enter with this good workers’ organisation which had three or four thousand revolutionary members.” ( The Case of Leon Trotsky , p.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My inner-party stand was a conciliationist one, and when at certain moments I strove for the formation of groupings, then it was precisely on this basis.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1926, in the period of the bloc with Zinoviev, Radek warned me that Zinoviev needed my declaration that Lenin was right, as against me, in order to screen somewhat the fact that he, Zinoviev, was wrong as against me.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.And if the Party adopts a decision which one or other of us thinks unjust, he will say, just or unjust, it is my party, and I shall support the consequences of the decision to the end.^ Let us adduce one quotation from my pamphlet against Struve (1906).
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ My inner-party stand was a conciliationist one, and when at certain moments I strove for the formation of groupings, then it was precisely on this basis.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Who could afford to consider the possible long-term consequences for the revolution of decisions which had to be taken now or else there would be an end to the revolution and no further consequences to consider?"

.The attempt at reconciliation, however, did not stop troika supporters from taking potshots at him.^ However, Plekhanov, guessing that Trotsky would support Lenin, placing him in a minority, angrily vetoed the proposal.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the meantime, the Left Opposition, which had coagulated somewhat unexpectedly in late 1923 and lacked a definite platform aside from general dissatisfaction with the intra-Party "regime", began to crystallize.^ "The importance of the left opposition is often underestimated in the literature [M]any authors doubt that the opposition had any substantial influence on the mass of party members and even less on broader sections of the population.

^ Indeed, the claim is often made that collectivization arose out of Stalins adoption, in the late 1920s, of the Left Oppositions program of rapid industrialization.

^ The struggle of the Communist Left Opposition for a correct policy and a healthy regime in the Communist lnternational is inseparably bound up with the struggle for the Marxist programme.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

It lost some less dedicated members to the harassment by the troika, but it also began formulating a program. .Economically, the Left Opposition and its theoretician Yevgeny Preobrazhensky came out against further development of capitalist elements in the Soviet economy and in favor of faster industrialization.^ It is therefore not surprising that his lecture makes absolutely no reference to the struggle of Trotsky and the Left Opposition against Stalinism.

^ The policies of Trotsky and the Left Opposition, on the other hand, articulated in a highly conscious form the interests of the industrial proletariat.

^ Marxism long ago predicted the inevitability of the Russian Revolution, which was bound to break out as a result of the conflict between capitalist development and the forces of ossified absolutism ...
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.That put them at odds with Bukharin and Rykov, the "Right" group within the Party, who supported troika at the time.^ Henceforth, the work of the CCP, under the leadership of Mao who, by the way, had stood on the right-wing of the shattered party was to be based upon the peasantry.

^ Daladier was at that time treated by the Comintern as a Radical-Fascist, Léon Blum, who supported Daladier, was branded as a Social-Fascist.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Davidovich [Trotsky] was not at that time formally a member of our party, but as a matter of fact he worked within it continually from the day of his arrival from America.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.On the question of world revolution, Trotsky and Karl Radek saw a period of stability in Europe while Stalin and Zinoviev confidently predicted an "acceleration" of revolution in Western Europe in 1924. On the theoretical plane, Trotsky remained committed to the Bolshevik idea that the Soviet Union could not create a true socialist society in the absence of the world revolution, while Stalin gradually came up with a policy of building 'Socialism in One Country'. These ideological divisions provided much of the intellectual basis for the political divide between Trotsky and the Left Opposition on the one hand and Stalin and his allies on the other.^ Trotsky and the Left Opposition insistently warned of the danger of such a policy.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, in 1924 the Soviet Union adopted the policy of "socialism in one country."

^ Soviet Union--Politics and government .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

.At the twenty third Congress Kamenev and Zinoviev helped Stalin defuse Lenin's Testament, which belatedly came to the surface.^ My tactical conclusions coincided completely with the conclusions which Lenin drew at the same time in Geneva, and consequently were in the same irreconcilable contradiction to the conclusions of Kamenev, Stalin and the other epigones.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But by 1921 the revolutionary wave had subsided and in 1921, at the Third Congress, came the theses on the united front.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

But just after the congress, the troika, always an alliance of convenience, showed signs of weakness. .Stalin began making poorly veiled accusations about Zinoviev and Kamenev.^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And you began your message as follows: For those who consider Iran to be a “victim of immoral U.S. conduct” And then you proceeded to make negative remarks about the mullahs.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beginning with Zinoviev and Kamenev, one former Oppositionist after another capitulated to Stalin, in the hope of being accepted back into the Party.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Yet in October 1924, Trotsky published The Lessons of October, an extensive summary of the events of the 1917 revolution.^ In 1917 the theory of the Permanent Revolution was proved to be correct by the events themselves.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fundamental conclusion which Lenin drew from the lessons of the February and the October Revolutions, and drew exhaustively and comprehensively, thoroughly rejects the idea of the 'democratic dictatorship'.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The October revolution was the most important event in human history.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In it, he described Zinoviev's and Kamenev's opposition to the Bolshevik seizure of power in 1917, something that the two would have preferred left unmentioned.^ But this claim is belied by the simple fact that without the reorientation of the Bolshevik Party in the spring of 1917 on the basis of Lenins April Theses that is, the adoption of the strategic line previously formulated by Leon Trotsky there would have been no seizure of power by the Bolsheviks.

^ Most of Lenin’s old followers—Kamenev, Zinoviev, Stalin—were either opposed to taking power or at least had a vacillating and ambiguous position.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After the two-hour interview I would give him something to eat and arrange a suitable lodging.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This started a new round of intra-party struggle, which became known as the Literary Discussion, with Zinoviev and Kamenev again allied with Stalin against Trotsky.^ Its agenda is: The struggle against world Trotskyism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The campaign against 'the old Trotskyism' was in a reality a campaign against the October traditions, which had become more and more cramping and unbearable for the new bureaucracy.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

Their criticism of Trotsky was concentrated in three areas:
  • Trotsky's disagreements and conflicts with Lenin and the Bolsheviks prior to 1917.
  • Trotsky's alleged distortion of the events of 1917 in order to emphasize his role and diminish the roles played by other Bolsheviks.
  • Trotsky's harsh treatment of his subordinates and other alleged mistakes during the Russian Civil War.
.Trotsky was again sick and unable to respond while his opponents mobilized all of their resources to denounce him.^ Yet it threw open its pages to him, for in the confusion all felt that only one man could help to elucidate the mystery and that man was Trotsky himself.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As he was unable to pursue the affair in person, he wrote to Trotsky requesting him to undertake the defence of the Georgians in the Central Committee.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.They succeeded in damaging his military reputation so much that he was forced to resign as People's Commissar of Army and Fleet Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council on 6 January 1925. Zinoviev demanded Trotsky's expulsion from the Communist Party, but Stalin refused to go along and skillfully played the role of a moderate.^ TROTSKY: They belonged to Zinoviev.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organised.” .
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lieutenant Razin could be Kliment Voroshilov who was the commissar of the 1st Cavalry Army and later became the People’s Commissioner for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. Voroshilov gave his full support to Joseph Stalin’s 1930 Great Purge, denouncing a large number of his colleagues who served in the Army.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trotsky kept his Politburo seat, but was effectively put on probation.

A year in the wilderness (1925)

1925 was a difficult year for Trotsky. After the bruising Literary Discussion and losing his Red Army posts, he was effectively unemployed throughout the winter and spring. .In May 1925, he was given three posts: chairman of the Concessions Committee, head of the electro-technical board, and chairman of the scientific-technical board of industry.^ Within in a few years, Stalin occupied a number of organisational posts in the Party: head of RABKRIN, member of the Central Committee and Politburo, Orgburo and Secretariat.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky wrote in My Life[42] that he "was taking a rest from politics" and "naturally plunged into his new line of work up to my ears", but some contemporary accounts paint a picture of a remote and distracted man.^ The Communist party must take them into account in its work.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Vyshinsky was forced to take into account the unpleasant news from Oslo.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I tried to explain that the basis of my collaboration with Trotsky is my political solidarity with his conceptions, which are Marxist ones.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[43] .Later in the year, Trotsky resigned his two technical positions (claiming Stalin-instigated interference and sabotage) and concentrated on his work in the Concessions Committee.^ The split in Russia was only an anticipation of another bigger split which was to take place two years later on an international level.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, Trotsky’s position was very close to that of the Bolsheviks, as Lenin himself was later to admit.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky ["Stalin"] "Pervaia revoliutsiia" (Later version of T 4677) 42s 56p 1i A T and 1 USSR Internal (T 4679) 1940.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In one of the few political developments that affected Trotsky in 1925, the circumstances surrounding the controversy around Lenin's Testament were described by American Marxist Max Eastman in his book Since Lenin Died (1925).^ I tried to explain that the basis of my collaboration with Trotsky is my political solidarity with his conceptions, which are Marxist ones.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The political verification of all the nuances of opinion by Marxist analysis will always be one of the most efficacious preventive measures for our party.

^ The real difference between Lenin and Trotsky in this period was not over politics but over Trotsky’s “conciliationist” tendency.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet leadership denounced Eastman's account and used party discipline to force Trotsky to write an article denying Eastman's version of the events.^ Abstract: Papers of Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky including correspondence from his years in the Soviet Union and writings.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The present article does not pretend to be an exhaustive account of Trotsky’s life and work.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Letters, writings, memoranda, internal bulletins, clippings, printed articles, and serial issues, relating to Leon Trotsky and associated topics.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
In the meantime, the troika finally broke up. .Bukharin and Rykov sided with Stalin while Krupskaya and Soviet Commissar of Finance Grigory Sokolnikov aligned with Zinoviev and Kamenev.^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Beginning with Zinoviev and Kamenev, one former Oppositionist after another capitulated to Stalin, in the hope of being accepted back into the Party.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of Lenin’s old followers—Kamenev, Zinoviev, Stalin—were either opposed to taking power or at least had a vacillating and ambiguous position.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The struggle became open at the September 1925 meeting of the Central Committee and came to a head at the XIVth Party Congress in December 1925. With only the Leningrad Party organization behind them, Zinoviev and Kamenev, dubbed The New Opposition, were thoroughly defeated while Trotsky refused to get involved in the fight and didn't speak at the Congress.^ Speaking of the revolting persecution of the Opposition, Zinoviev wrote to the Central Committee on September 6th, 1927: “It is enough to point to the article of the not unknown N. Kuzmin in the Komsomolskaya Pravda in which this ‘teacher’ of our military youth ...
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

United opposition (1926–1927)

.During a lull in the intra-party fighting in the spring of 1926, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters in the New Opposition gravitated closer to Trotsky's supporters and the two groups soon formed an alliance, which also incorporated some smaller opposition groups within the Communist Party.^ Alarmed by this turn in events, Kamenev and Zinoviev broke with Stalin and formed an alliance with Trotsky, the United Left Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even before that, supporters of the Opposition were systematically persecuted, sacked from their jobs, ostracised and, in some cases, driven to suicide.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The alliance became known as the United Opposition.^ Alarmed by this turn in events, Kamenev and Zinoviev broke with Stalin and formed an alliance with Trotsky, the United Left Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The influence of the opposition in a number of large party units became quite substantial.

.The United Opposition was repeatedly threatened with sanctions by the Stalinist leadership of the Communist Party and Trotsky had to agree to tactical retreats, mostly to preserve his alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev.^ Alarmed by this turn in events, Kamenev and Zinoviev broke with Stalin and formed an alliance with Trotsky, the United Left Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.The opposition remained united against Stalin throughout 1926 and 1927, especially on the issue of the Chinese Revolution.^ First , with the "whole" of the peasantry against the monarchy, the landlords, the mediaeval regime (and to that extent, the revolution remains bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic).
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ First, the catastrophic defeat of the Chinese Revolution in 1927: The cause of this defeat was the subordination of the Chinese Communist Party to the bourgeois Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-shek.

^ 'Thus: although following in the wake of the Opposition, Radek nevertheless missed what was most important in the Chinese Revolution, for he defended the subordination of the Communist Party to the bourgeois Kuomintang.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

The methods used by the Stalinists against the Opposition became more and more extreme. .At the XVth Party Conference in October 1926 Trotsky could barely speak because of interruptions and catcalls, and at the end of the Conference he lost his Politburo seat.^ Stalin and the privileged caste he represented could never forgive Trotsky for exposing them as usurpers and the gravediggers of October.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1924 Stalin wrote that Trotsky could not have played any special rôle In the October Revolution.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Later the same Stalin could write: “Comrade Trotsky played no particular role either in the party or the October insurrection, and could not do so being a man comparatively new to our party in the October period.” ( Stalin’s Works , Moscow, 1953 edition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1927 Stalin started using the GPU (Soviet secret police) to infiltrate and discredit the opposition.^ The Czar's secret police, the Okhana, was widespread but small potatoes compared to the Soviet secret police operation known initially as the "Cheka."
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Writings of Trotsky from the Soviet period include manuscripts, typed excerpts and clippings, pronouncements, and unpublished statements, in addition to documents written during the Left Opposition's fight against Joseph Stalin from 1923 to 1927.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After the terrible defeat in China in 1927—the blame for which can be placed directly on the shoulders of Stalin and Bukharin—began the expulsion of the Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Rank and file oppositionists were increasingly harassed, sometimes expelled from the Party and even arrested.^ He had placed all his hopes in the calling of a Party Congress, in which the working class rank and file would have put order “in their own house”.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At one point he even threatened to resign and appeal to the Party rank and file over the heads of the Central Committee.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Defeat and exile (1927–1928)

.In October 1927, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Central Committee.^ Speaking of the revolting persecution of the Opposition, Zinoviev wrote to the Central Committee on September 6th, 1927: “It is enough to point to the article of the not unknown N. Kuzmin in the Komsomolskaya Pravda in which this ‘teacher’ of our military youth ...
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As he was unable to pursue the affair in person, he wrote to Trotsky requesting him to undertake the defence of the Georgians in the Central Committee.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1926 or 1927, he was connected for a time with Smilga, a member of the Central Committee.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When the United Opposition tried to organize independent demonstrations commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Bolshevik seizure of power in November 1927, the demonstrators were dispersed by force and Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party on 12 November.^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Alarmed by this turn in events, Kamenev and Zinoviev broke with Stalin and formed an alliance with Trotsky, the United Left Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of Zinoviev and Kamenev, their opposition to the October insurrection went so far as publishing the plans for the uprising in the non-Party press.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Their leading supporters, from Kamenev down, were expelled in December 1927 by the XVth Party Congress, which paved the way for mass expulsions of rank and file oppositionists as well as internal exile of opposition leaders in early 1928.
.When the XVth Party Congress made Opposition views incompatible with membership in the Communist Party, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters capitulated and renounced their alliance with the Left Opposition.^ In 1933, the German Communist Party had about six million supporters, while the Social Democrats numbered about eight million.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From all that I have said, it is clear that you cannot logically exclude me from the warrant of arrest which you have made out for Lenin, Kamenev, and Zinoviev.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky hoped that a defeat on this scale would serve to shake the Communist International to its roots and open up a debate in the ranks of the Communist Parties which would regenerate them and exonerate the Opposition.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky and most of his followers, on the other hand, refused to surrender and stayed the course.^ The most painful blow came with the arrest of Trotsky’s younger son Sergei, who had stayed behind in Russia, believing that, as he was not politically active, he would be safe.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From this follows on the one hand, imperialist wars, on the other, the utopia of a bourgeois United States of Europe.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But in 1905 Trotsky, then 26 years old, in an essay of a few thousand words, unfolded the course which history was to follow.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Trotsky's house on the island of Büyükada, Istanbul, Turkey, as it appears today.
.Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata (now in Kazakhstan) on 31 January 1928. He was expelled from the Soviet Union to Turkey in February 1929, accompanied by his wife Natalia Sedova and his son Lev Sedov.^ Alma-Ata, October 1928 .
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1927, Trotsky was exiled to Turkey.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ GOLDMAN: Then Pyatakov goes on to say what Mr. Trotsky told him with reference to killing all the leaders of the Soviet Union, and destroying factories, and reintroducing capitalism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After Trotsky's expulsion from the country, exiled Trotskyists began to waver and, between 1929 and 1934, most of the leading members of the Opposition surrendered to Stalin, "admitted their mistakes" and were reinstated in the Communist Party.^ 'Thus: although following in the wake of the Opposition, Radek nevertheless missed what was most important in the Chinese Revolution, for he defended the subordination of the Communist Party to the bourgeois Kuomintang.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Folder 3 Socialist Appeal offprint, "An Open Letter to the Members of the Communist Party" (1938 March 19) .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ The line of the German Communist Party (and therefore of Stalin, the Great Leader and teacher) was solemnly ratified as the only correct one.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Christian Rakovsky, who served as an inspiration for Trotsky between 1929 and 1934 while he was in Siberian exile, was the last prominent Trotskyist to capitulate.^ T USSR Internal (T 3239*) [25 Sep 1929] (Trotsky TO Trotskyists in USSR ) "Otkrytoe pismo bolshevikam-lenintsam/ oppozitsioneram/ podpisavshim zaiavlenie v TsK i TsKK tov.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The whole point of the elided phrase is to draw some distinction between the evil Trotsky (who had people killed) and the "good" Trotsky of his later years.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Trotskyist organization in Denmark came up in the autumn of 1934, as a Social-Democratic opposition group passed over to Trotskyism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Almost all of them perished in the Great Purges just a few years later.^ Almost all of them were murdered by Stalin in the Purge of 1937.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Too bad one has never emerged, even all these years later, and even though he said 25 people were discussing "the logistics for the elimination of 25 million people."
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But all of them represented some powerful progressive idea, and the great classics first, and these and their satellites after, dominated the thought of the bourgeoisie for over four hundred years.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Exile (1929–1940)

Trotsky reading The Militant.
.Trotsky was deported from the Soviet Union in February 1929. His first station in exile was at Büyükada off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey where he stayed for the next four years.^ Abstract: Papers of Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky including correspondence from his years in the Soviet Union and writings.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ GOLDMAN: Then Pyatakov goes on to say what Mr. Trotsky told him with reference to killing all the leaders of the Soviet Union, and destroying factories, and reintroducing capitalism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet Union correspondence, 1917-1929, consists of original letters and some copies and transcripts written by Trotsky and other Soviet officials, with copies of telegrams exchanged between Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin from 1917 to 1921.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There were many former White Army officers in Istanbul, which put Trotsky's life in danger, but a number of Trotsky's European supporters volunteered to serve as bodyguards and assured his safety.^ GOLDMAN: We have not numbered these exhibits because of the fact that there are so many documents in them.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But his most remarkable achievement was to obtain the collaboration of a large number of officers from the old tsarist army.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Trotsky formed the Red Army that fought with the White Guard in the Civil War.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1933 Trotsky was offered asylum in France by Daladier.^ GOLDMAN: At the time Mr. Trotsky arrived in France, in July 1933 the Communist press wrote many articles about him.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

He stayed first at Royan, then at Barbizon. He was not allowed to visit Paris. In 1935 he was given to understand he was no longer welcome in France. After weighing alternatives, he moved to Norway. .Having gotten permission from then-Justice Minister Trygve Lie to enter the country, Trotsky became a guest of Konrad Knudsen near Oslo.^ TROTSKY: A rich farmer, but it was occupied by Konrad Knudsen.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the question of Pyatakov’s flight to Oslo, on January 29, 1937, a few days after the trial commenced, Konrad Knudsen sent a telegram to Vyshinsky.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They are the following documents: The affidavit by Konrad Knudsen, who housed Mr. Trotsky, Hilda Knudsen and Hjordis Knudsen, his daughter, who testified to these facts: .
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After two years – allegedly under influence from the Soviet Union – he was put under house arrest.^ Abstract: Papers of Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky including correspondence from his years in the Soviet Union and writings.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lev Davidovich was arrested for the first time when he was only 19 years old and spent two and a half years in prison, after which he was exiled to Siberia.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

His transfer to Mexico on a freighter was arranged after consultations with Norwegian officials. .Mexican President Lázaro Cárdenas welcomed him warmly, even arranging for a special train to bring him to Mexico City from the port of Tampico.^ 'Special Interview for the 'Jewish Daily Forward' of New York' np/ Mexico City.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Trotsky lived in the Coyoacán area of Mexico City at the home (The Blue House) of the painter Diego Rivera and Rivera's wife & fellow painter, Frida Kahlo (with whom he had an affair).^ Notes of telephone conversations transmitting news of assassination to New York; notes on arrangements to be made following assassination; and press releases in New York and Mexico City following assassination and death of Trotsky.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ TROTSKY: We were my wife and myself, and during a sojourn, Jan Frankel, who lived also in the house of Knudsen.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We have other documents here, a document by J. Laste to the same general effect – as to his presence with Mr. Trotsky in Royan, that Mr. Trotsky was ill and did not leave the house where he lived at St. Palais.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[44][45] His final move was a few blocks away to a residence on Avenida Viena in May 1939, following a break with Rivera.[46]
.He remained a prolific writer in exile, penning several key works, including his History of the Russian Revolution (1930) and The Revolution Betrayed (1936), a critique of the Soviet Union under Stalinism.^ In the first Russian Revolution of 1905, he was the chairman of the Petersburg Soviet.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This prospect must remain in force for the whole preparatory period, that is, until the victorious revolution in the advanced countries liberates the Soviet Union from its present isolated position.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mensheviks argued that the Russian revolution would be of a bourgeois-democratic nature and thus the working class could not aspire to taking power, but would have to support the liberal bourgeoisie.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Trotsky argued that the Soviet state had become a degenerated workers' state controlled by an undemocratic bureaucracy, which would eventually either be overthrown via a political revolution establishing workers' democracy, or degenerate into a capitalist class.^ We are left weighing a multiple ­tragedy, of a man so loyal to an ideology he died for it; of an ideology that in one form or another killed ­millions; and of a 20th century in which political ­radicals world-wide called themselves Trotskyists and believed that Lenin was good and Stalin bad, that even if the Soviet Union was a degenerate workers' state, the real thing could be established elsewhere.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whereas in the early years, the bureaucracy had not yet consolidated itself as a ruling caste, now it had become clear that it was no longer an historic aberration that could be corrected through criticism and discussion, but it represented a triumphant counter-revolution that had destroyed all the elements of workers’ democracy that had been established by the October Revolution.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As early as 1936, Trotsky warned that the ruling Stalinist Bureaucracy represented a mortal threat to the survival of the USSR. He predicted, with uncanny accuracy, that, unless the Bureaucracy was removed by the working class, it would inevitably end up in a capitalist counterrevolution.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Trotsky with American comrades, including Harry DeBoer (left) in Mexico, shortly before his assassination, 1940.
.While in Mexico, Trotsky also worked closely with James P. Cannon, Joseph Hansen, and Farrell Dobbs of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, and other supporters.^ A S T Fourth International/ United States (T 3211) [Jul 1929] [Trotsky].
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Socialist Workers Party TO (Locals and Branches) (New York).
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Letters, telegrams, and typed copies of letters and telegrams, of condolence, sent to Nataliia Sedova Trotskaia or to Socialist Workers Party .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

.Cannon, a long-time leading member of the American communist movement, had supported Trotsky in the struggle against Stalinism since he first read Trotsky's criticisms of the Soviet Union in 1928. Trotsky's critique of the Stalinist regime, though banned, was distributed to leaders of the Comintern.^ Its agenda is: The struggle against world Trotskyism.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One by one Trotsky’s supporters in the Soviet Union were silenced by Stalin’s executioners.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact he was pretty critical of the Soviet Union.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among his other supporters was Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist party.^ The liberal- opportunist and adventurist chapters delivered a blow to the Chinese Communist Party from which, even with a correct policy, it can only recover after a number of years.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Thus: although following in the wake of the Opposition, Radek nevertheless missed what was most important in the Chinese Revolution, for he defended the subordination of the Communist Party to the bourgeois Kuomintang.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He first began to grow indignant only in 1928, that is, only after he himself had begun to fight against the necessary 'rearming' of the Chinese Communist Party.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

Moscow show trials

.In August 1936, the first Moscow show trial of the so-called "Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Center" was staged in front of an international audience.^ Moscow Trials, Moscow, Russia, 1936-1937.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ 'Combatiente Rojo' 1 4 The front of Aragon 2i P periodicals Spanish Fourth International/Spain (T 5240) 1936.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first shocks of international dependence, unexpected by the national socialists, created an alarm, which in the next stage turned into panic.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.During the trial, Zinoviev, Kamenev and 14 other accused, most of them prominent Old Bolsheviks, confessed to having plotted with Trotsky to kill Stalin and other members of the Soviet leadership.^ But that has little value as a Marxist explanation of the vulgar democratic position of Kamenev, Zinoviev, Stalin, Molotov, Rykov, Kalinin, Nogin, Milyutin, Krestlusky, Frunze, Yaroslavsky, Ordjonikidze, Preobrazhensky, Smilga and a dozen other 'old Bolsheviks'.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Their recantation only paved the way for new demands and new capitulations, ending in the final humiliation of the Moscow Trials, where Kamenev, Zinoviev and other Old Bolsheviks pleaded guilty to the most monstrous crimes against the Revolution.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most superficial reading of Lenin’s correspondence with the Central Committee is sufficient to see what a struggle he had to overcome the resistance of the Bolshevik leadership.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

The court found everybody guilty and sentenced the defendants to death, Trotsky in absentia. .The second show trial of Karl Radek, Grigory Sokolnikov, Yuri Pyatakov and 14 others took place in January 1937, with even more alleged conspiracies and crimes linked to Trotsky.^ Folder 6 "Moscow Trials," 1937 January 5.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ The trip from Oslo to my village required at least two hours; the conversation, according to Pyatakov’s affirmations, took three hours; and the return trip required two more hours.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But, upon the insistence of the Prosecutor, Romm repeats and states more explicitly that the meeting took place “at the end of July.” Here Vyshinsky throws caution to the wind!
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In April 1937, an independent "Commission of Inquiry" into the charges made against Trotsky and others at the "Moscow Trials" was held in Coyoacán, with John Dewey as chairman.^ Folder 41 Closing statement, 13th (final) session, Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials hearings, Mexico City, 1937 April 17.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials, Abstract of the Final Report , 1937 (mimeograph and printed copies) .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Folder 23 Statement on Moscow Trial charges, 1937 January 23.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

[47] The findings were published in the book Not Guilty.[48]

Fourth International

James Cannon and Felix Morrow, with a bust of Trotsky.
.At first Trotsky was opposed to the idea of establishing parallel Communist Parties or a parallel international Communist organization that would compete with the Third International for fear of splitting the Communist movement.^ In particular, the leaders of the Stalinised German Communist Party played a pernicious role in splitting the workers’ movement in the face of the Nazi menace.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When, prior to the First World War, Trotsky defended the idea of the possibility of a proletarian revolution in Russia before the revolution in Western Europe, nobody took him seriously.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He first began to grow indignant only in 1928, that is, only after he himself had begun to fight against the necessary 'rearming' of the Chinese Communist Party.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

However, he changed his mind in mid-1933 after the Nazi takeover in Germany and the Comintern's response to it, when he proclaimed[49] that:
An organization which was not roused by the thunder of fascism and which submits docilely to such outrageous acts of the bureaucracy demonstrates thereby that it is dead and that nothing can ever revive it. ... .In all our subsequent work it is necessary to take as our point of departure the historical collapse of the official Communist International.^ The Communist party must take them into account in its work.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much that remains unsaid&emdash;in part, incidentally, because it is a sequel to other works, primarily the Criticism of the Draft Programme of the Communist International.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The present work does not examine this question from all these sides; it is not necessary to repeat what has been already said in other works.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

[50]
.In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International, which was intended to be a revolutionary and internationalist alternative to the Stalinist Comintern.^ TROTSKY: No, they adhered to the Fourth International at the end of 1934 and the beginning of 1935, during my sojourn in Barbizon.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is these and similar things that were in Trotsky’s mind when with his last words he said that he was confident of the victory of the Fourth International.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the very beginning Trotsky adopted a clear revolutionary position against the war, as expressed in his book The War and the International.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

Dies Committee

Towards the end of 1939 Trotsky agreed to go to the United States to appear as a witness before the Dies Committee of the House of Representatives, a forerunner of the House Un-American Activities Committee. Representative Martin Dies, chairman of the committee, demanded the suppression of the American Communist Party. .Trotsky intended to use the forum to expose the NKVD's activities against him and his followers.^ But if they were hazy as to the source of his ideas they had no illusions as to what use he intended to make of them and they carefully excluded him from their shores.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Statement by Leon Trotsky in reply to the charges made against him by the TASS Bureau' Kristiansand.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In connection with this there is one other subject which Radek misuses in an impermissible manner: Trotsky did acknowledge&emdash;he says&emdash;that Lenin was right against him.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He made it clear that he also intended to argue against the suppression of the American Communist Party, and to use the committee as a platform for a call to transform the world war into a world revolution.^ The Communist party must take them into account in its work.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Lenin, in his last word to the Russian Communist Party (the famous Suppressed Testament, which was hidden for decades by the Stalinists) warned that Trotsky’s non-Bolshevik past should not be held against him.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Thus: although following in the wake of the Opposition, Radek nevertheless missed what was most important in the Chinese Revolution, for he defended the subordination of the Communist Party to the bourgeois Kuomintang.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

Many of his supporters argued against his appearance. .When the committee learned the nature of the testimony Trotsky intended to present, it refused to hear him, and he was denied a visa to enter the United States.^ Trotsky followed this example, only whereas Lenin seemed by nature inclined to economic and statistical studies, Trotsky’s natural instincts as we have seen drove him to history and writing.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did this mean, as the Stalinists later claimed, that Trotsky denied the bourgeois nature of the revolution?
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Tomorrow we shall hear how the Trotskyites in the United States are preparing railroad wrecks and the obstruction of the Panama Canal, in the interests of Japan.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On hearing about it, the Stalinists immediately accused Trotsky of being in the pay of the oil magnates and the FBI.^ Again, Chamberlain said nothing about Trotsky being "personally engaging" (a morally neutral characterization).
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[51]

Final months

.After quarreling with Diego Rivera, Trotsky moved to his final residence on Avenida Viena.^ [Trotsky] TO 'United Press' VIA (Rivera) "Otvety Diego Rivera na voprosy...
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

[52] He was ill, suffering from high blood pressure, and feared that he would suffer a cerebral hemorrhage. .He even prepared himself for the possibility of ending his life through suicide.^ Only in recent years did it emerge that Trotsky even contemplated suicide, as a possible way of saving his son.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[53]
.On 27 February 1940, Trotsky wrote a document known as "Trotsky's Testament", in which he expressed his final thoughts and feelings for posterity.^ Folder 4 Testament, 1940 February 27.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ After various attempts, the GPU finally managed to put an end to Trotsky’s life on 20th August 1940.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky then wrote: “We must restore the tactics of Clemenceau, who, as is well known [!!
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

After forcefully denying Stalin's accusations that he had betrayed the working class, he thanked his friends, and above all his wife and dear companion, Natalia Sedova, for their loyal support:
In addition to the happiness of being a fighter for the cause of socialism, fate gave me the happiness of being her husband. .During the almost forty years of our life together she remained an inexhaustible source of love, magnanimity, and tenderness.^ During the last three to four years of intense party frictions, the life of very many committees has consisted of a series of coups d’tat in the spirit of our court revolutions of the eighteenth century.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

She underwent great sufferings, especially in the last period of our lives. But I find some comfort in the fact that she also knew days of happiness.
.For forty-three years of my conscious life I have remained a revolutionist; for forty-two of them I have fought under the banner of Marxism.^ The trip from Oslo to my village required at least two hours; the conversation, according to Pyatakov’s affirmations, took three hours; and the return trip required two more hours.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite his somewhat ingenuous explanation of Brest-Litovsk in My Life , the fact remains that he made a terrible error in 1918.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.If I had to begin all over again I would of course try to avoid this or that mistake, but the main course of my life would remain unchanged.^ Despite his somewhat ingenuous explanation of Brest-Litovsk in My Life , the fact remains that he made a terrible error in 1918.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

I shall die a proletarian revolutionist, a Marxist, a dialectical materialist, and, consequently, an irreconcilable atheist. .My faith in the communist future of mankind is not less ardent, indeed it is firmer today, than it was in the days of my youth.^ No later than January 28th – that is, the day when the Prosecutor delivered his summation – the court had my later questions.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The experience of my life, in which there has been no lack either of successes or of failures, has not only not destroyed my faith in the clear, bright future of mankind, but, on the contrary, has given it an indestructible temper.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]


.Natasha has just come up to the window from the courtyard and opened it wider so that the air may enter more freely into my room.^ That is just why it did not interest me to come forward in favour of my old historical prognosis, so long as it might appear that it was only a matter of historical reminiscences.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But exactly this opens up the prospect of a democratic revolution growing over into the socialist revolution.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be good if you could come up with the right answer all the time, and not just some of the time.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

I can see the bright green strip of grass beneath the wall, and the clear blue sky above the wall, and sunlight everywhere. Life is beautiful. Let the future generations cleanse it of all evil, oppression and violence, and enjoy it to the full.
.L. Trotsky
27 February 1940
Coiyoacan.
^ Folder 4 Testament, 1940 February 27.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

[53]
.On 24 May 1940, Trotsky survived a raid on his home by Stalinist assassins led by GPU agent Iosif Grigulevich, Mexican painter and Stalinist David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Vittorio Vidale.^ Trotsky TO Cardenas Spanish translation of T 4876.4 1s 1p 1i T Spanish (T 4876.6) 31 May 1940.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In May 1934 Kirov had not yet been assassinated by Nikolayev, with the closest participation of the GPU and its agent, the Latvian consul, Bisseneks.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ T and 1 Pronouncements (T 4845) [14 May 1940] Trotsky.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

[54] .In this attack a young assistant and bodyguard of Trotsky, Robert Sheldon Harte, was abducted and later murdered.^ Somin's whole point is that the old Trotsky was not 'good', even though his later years had a decreased murder rate.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Typescript of play by Robert Sheldon Harte, "Strike Scenes: Four Scenes of the Opentown Strike of '39," ca.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Trotsky TO (Young People's Socialist League) (Later version of T 4382) Coyoacan.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

Assassination

Study where the attack on Leon Trotsky took place.
.On 20 August 1940, Trotsky was attacked in his home in Mexico with an ice axe (not an ice pick as is often stated) by undercover NKVD agent Ramón Mercader.^ She said, "But the man whose feet Natalia hugged in a Mexico City hospital because his head had been smashed with an ice pick was not a bad man."
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Questions of Marxist Theory," 1940 August 20.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ SC Public Defender: A minor point.....I believe he was killed with an ice axe, not an ice pick.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[55]
The blow was poorly delivered and failed to kill Trotsky instantly, as Mercader had intended. .Witnesses stated that Trotsky spat on Mercader and began struggling fiercely with him.^ Max Eastman and also Souvarine, who, a fierce opponent of Trotsky’s politics, has said of him that there was nothing “mesquin” in his character, not a trace of rascality.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hearing the commotion, Trotsky's bodyguards burst into the room and nearly killed Mercader, but Trotsky stopped them, laboriously stating that the assassin should be made to answer questions.^ Folder 41 Closing statement, 13th (final) session, Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials hearings, Mexico City, 1937 April 17.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ But even to this first and, it would seem, not unimportant, question we hear a very suspicious answer: .
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Notes of telephone conversations transmitting news of assassination to New York; notes on arrangements to be made following assassination; and press releases in New York and Mexico City following assassination and death of Trotsky.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

[56] .Trotsky was taken to a hospital, operated on, and survived for more than a day, dying at the age of 60 on 21 August 1940 as a result of severe brain damage.^ TROTSKY: During more than a year.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ TROTSKY: It is more than one hour.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What relationships would develop in the early days between Hitler, Schleicher and the Center leaders, is more important for them than it is for the German people.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] Mercader later testified at his trial:
I laid my raincoat on the table in such a way as to be able to remove the ice axe which was in the pocket. I decided not to miss the wonderful opportunity that presented itself. .The moment Trotsky began reading the article, he gave me my chance; I took out the ice axe from the raincoat, gripped it in my hand and, with my eyes closed, dealt him a terrible blow on the head.^ Frankly, I did not trust my eyes when I read these lines.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Never for one moment did Trotsky falter on the supposed division between different sections of the bourgeoisie and the possibility of Bruening crushing Hitler or controlling him.
  • Trotsky’s Place In History by C.L.R James 1940 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC search.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TROTSKY: Excuse me, I must read four lines, the last lines of my thirteen questions: .
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[56] 
.According to James P. Cannon, the secretary of the Socialist Workers Party (USA), Trotsky's last words were "I will not survive this attack.^ Cadet Party writes: "As to the left groups in the narrower sense of the word, that is, the socialist and revolutionary groups, an agreement with them will be more difficult.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Letters, telegrams, and typed copies of letters and telegrams, of condolence, sent to Nataliia Sedova Trotskaia or to Socialist Workers Party .
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Folder 43 Discussion with Socialist Workers Party leaders on work in the Communist Party, Coyoacan, 1939 March 20.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

Stalin has finally accomplished the task he attempted unsuccessfully before."[58]
Leon Trotsky's grave in Coyoacán, where his ashes are buried.

Epilogue

.Trotsky's house in Coyoacán was preserved in much the same condition as it was on the day of the assassination and is now a museum run by a board which includes his grandson Esteban Volkov.^ In this way mankind learned without much trouble that Radek wrote to Trotsky not about spectral analysis but about the self-same terrorist center.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ TROTSKY: The door leading into the house – during the day it was open.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We have other documents here, a document by J. Laste to the same general effect – as to his presence with Mr. Trotsky in Royan, that Mr. Trotsky was ill and did not leave the house where he lived at St. Palais.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

The current director of the museum is Dr. Carlos Ramirez Sandoval under whose supervision the museum has improved considerably after years of neglect. Trotsky's grave is located on its grounds.
.Trotsky was never formally rehabilitated by the Soviet government, despite the Glasnost-era rehabilitation of most other Old Bolsheviks killed during the Great Purges.^ TROTSKY: I never heard of it from the Norwegian Government.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under what conditions the participation of the proletariat in the revolutionary government is permissible is a separate question, and on this question, the Bolsheviks will most likely fail to see eye to eye not only with Trotsky but also with the Polish Social Democrats.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ If he came to Berlin openly, he must have left secretly; it is impossible to conceive of the Soviet Government sending Pyatakov to plot with Trotsky.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

In 1987, under President Gorbachev, Trotsky was referred to as "a hero and martyr." His son, Sergei Sedov, killed in 1937, was rehabilitated in 1988, as was Nikolai Bukharin. .Above all, beginning in 1989, Trotsky's books, forbidden until 1987, were finally published in the Soviet Union.^ This prospect must remain in force for the whole preparatory period, that is, until the victorious revolution in the advanced countries liberates the Soviet Union from its present isolated position.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ When "a serious historian who has written interesting books on Soviet repression," and who is publishing a review in The Wall Street Journal , fer Crissake, says (full quotes are helpful here), "Trotsky had people killed.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1987, the Union of Soviet Writers posthumously reinstated Pasternak.
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trotsky's grandson Vsievolod Platonovich "Esteban" Volkov (born 1926) is an active promoter of his grandfather and is close to the International Marxist Tendency founded by Ted Grant.
Trotsky's great-granddaughter, Nora Volkow (daughter of Esteban Volkov), is currently head of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Contributions to theory

Trotsky considered himself a "Bolshevik-Leninist", arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. He considered himself an advocate of orthodox Marxism. .His politics differed in many respects from those of Stalin or Mao, most importantly in his rejection of the theory of Socialism in One Country and his declaring the need for an international "permanent revolution". Numerous Fourth Internationalist groups around the world continue to describe themselves as Trotskyist and see themselves as standing in this tradition, although they have different interpretations of the conclusions to be drawn from this.^ It is on this difference in levels that the theory of socialism in one country is erected.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Randy - tell that to the Trotskyist political parties around the world.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TROTSKYIST. The term is most often applied to pro-Trotsky members of the CPSU and the Young Communist League (Komsomol) who came to designate themselves as "Bolsheviks-Leninists" and most of whom were in 1928 banished within the USSR. See also FOURTH INTERNATIONAL. VERSION. The term is applied to documents that seem to be related to other documents in a specific order of revision or development.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Supporters of the Fourth International echo Trotsky's opposition to Stalinist totalitarianism, advocating political revolution, arguing that socialism cannot sustain itself without democracy.^ FOURTH INTERNATIONAL. The term is applied to Trotsky's political activities and also to two kinds of political organizations: those affiliated with Trotsky, and others close to him during the entire exile period.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The social revolution is to achieve the emancipation of man through liberty, but if we have no faith in the latter, revolution becomes a denial and betrayal of itself."
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Trotsky) TO Fourth International sections ('Der Internationale antifaschistische Kongress') np.
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

Permanent Revolution

.Permanent Revolution is the theory that the bourgeois democratic tasks in countries with delayed bourgeois democratic development can only be accomplished through the establishment of a workers' state, and that the creation of a workers' state would inevitably involve inroads against capitalist property.^ What charges have been brought against the theory of the permanent revolution by the epigones?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The bourgeois-democratic revolution was realized as a coalition of the workers and peasants.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a revolution which is to be accomplished by bourgeois democracy.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, the accomplishment of bourgeois democratic tasks passes over into proletarian tasks.^ Parvus was not of the opinion that a workers' Government in Russia could move in the direction of the socialist revolution, that is, that in the process of fulfilling the democratic tasks it could grow over into the socialist dictatorship.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ 'For this reason there can be no talk of any sort of special form of proletarian dictatorship in the bourgeois revolution, of democratic proletarian dictatorship (or dictatorship of proletariat and peasantry).
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ 'The bourgeois revolution will pass directly over into a socialist revolution'&emdash;but this is precisely the theory of growing into and not of skipping over ; from this flows a realistic, and not an adventuristic tactic.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

Although most closely associated with Leon Trotsky, the call for Permanent Revolution is first found in the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in March 1850, in the aftermath of the 1848 Revolution, in their Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League:
.It is our interest and our task to make the revolution permanent until all the more or less propertied classes have been driven from their ruling positions, until the proletariat has conquered state power and until the association of the proletarians has progressed sufficiently far - not only in one country but in all the leading countries of the world - that competition between the proletarians of these countries ceases and at least the decisive forces of production are concentrated in the hands of the workers.^ They can be compelled to hand over power to the proletarian vanguard only by force.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquest of power by the proletariat does not complete the revolution, but only opens it.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One idiocy more or less.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

... Their battle-cry must be: "The Permanent Revolution".
.Trotsky's conception of Permanent Revolution is based on his understanding, drawing on the work of the founder of Russian Marxism Georgy Plekhanov, that in 'backward' countries the tasks of the Bourgeois Democratic Revolution could not be achieved by the bourgeoisie itself.^ Did the Russian bourgeoisie 'liquidate' the problems of the democratic revolution after the February Revolution?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian revolution could not terminate with a bourgeois-democratic regime.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The social revolution is to achieve the emancipation of man through liberty, but if we have no faith in the latter, revolution becomes a denial and betrayal of itself."
  • Sri Lanka Guardian: Boris Pasternak -the Man who saw the other side of the Bolshevik Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.srilankaguardian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This conception was first developed by Trotsky in collaboration with Alexander Parvus in late 1904–1905. The relevant articles were later collected in Trotsky's books 1905 and in Permanent Revolution, which also contains his essay "Results and Prospects".
.According to Trotskyists, the October Revolution (which Trotsky directed) was the first example of a successful Permanent Revolution.^ The question of the permanent revolution was once again raised in 1924 after a long interval and, at first sight, quite unexpectedly.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But how does Yakovlev, in this case, reconcile his appraisal of the driving forces of the October Revolution with the struggle against 'Trotskyism'?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The annotation to the complete edition of Lenin's works, to the effect that the theory of the permanent revolution is especially noteworthy 'now', after the October Revolution, dates back to approximately the same time.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The proletarian, socialist October Revolution took place precisely because the bourgeoisie, which took power in February, had not been able to solve any of the tasks of the bourgeois-democratic revolution.^ The revolution would not be able to solve its immediate bourgeois tasks except by putting the proletariat in power ...
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Did the Russian bourgeoisie 'liquidate' the problems of the democratic revolution after the February Revolution?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ If this came earlier here than in the West, then it was precisely and only because history combined the main content of the bourgeois revolution with the first stage of the proletarian revolution&emdash;did not mix them up but combined them organically.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.It had not given the land to the peasants (which the Bolsheviks did on 25 October), nor given freedom to the oppressed minority nations, nor emancipated Russia from foreign domination by ending the war which, at that point, was fought mainly to please the English and French creditors.^ The question is much more concrete: Did a foreign plane land in Oslo during the month of December 1935, or not?
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Imperialist war, working class, oppressed nations!'
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ And after December 1935 when did the first foreign plane land at Kjeller?” .
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Trotskyists today argue that the state of the Third World shows that capitalism offers no way forward for underdeveloped countries, thus again proving the central tenet of the theory.^ In this way the United States Government received immediate warning that in Washington itself a “Trotskyist’ agent had been operating – Romm by name, who had “agreed” to send me information.
  • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This controversial opinion and diplomatic position is in no way equivalent to the mass murder of thousands, and the repression of an entire country.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.In contrast, Stalinist policy in the former colonial countries has been characterized by the so-called Two-Stage Theory, which argues that the working class must fight for "progressive capitalism" along with the "progressive national bourgeoisie" before any attempts at socialism can be made.^ Only upon the basis of such a national programme can a Communist party develop its real and successful struggle for the majority of the working class and the toilers in general against the bourgeoisie and its democratic agents.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ What, when the proletariat, together with the peasantry, directs its fight against one class, the bourgeoisie -- not against the remnants of feudalism, but against the bourgeoisie&emdash;what, if you please, is such a revolution called ?
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It is precisely here that we come up against the two mutually exclusive standpoints: the international revolutionary theory of the permanent revolution and the national-reformist theory of socialism in one country.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

The United Front

.Trotsky was a central figure in the Comintern during its first four congresses.^ P T incl clipping USSR Internal/ CPSU USSR Foreign/ Comintern (T 3120*) [12 Jul 1928] (Trotsky) TO [VI Congress of Comintern] "Chto zhe dalshe?"
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ SEE T 3123 (T 3118*) [11 Jul 1928] Trotsky TO (VI Congress of Comintern) ("Chto zhe dalshe?"
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A S T USSR Internal/ CPSU USSR Foreign/ Comintern (T 3119*) [12 Jul 1928] (Trotsky) TO [VI Congress of Comintern] ["Chto zhe dalshe?"
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During this time he helped to generalise the strategy and tactics of the Bolsheviks to newly formed Communist parties across Europe and further afield.^ Originating as the Communist League of America in 1928, the Socialist Workers Party adopted its present name and form of existence in 1938.
  • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ It is self-evident that if Lenin had lived in Russia and had observed the development of the party, day by day, especially during the war, he would have given the necessary correctives and clarifications in time.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.From 1921 onwards the united front, a method of uniting revolutionaries and reformists in common struggle while winning some of the workers to revolution, was the central strategy put forward by the Comintern.^ But while the question of the revolutionary dictatorship of the workers and peasants is not reducible to the question of this or that majority in the government, nevertheless, upon the victory of the revolution, this question inescapably arises as the decisive one.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In reality, however, it proved to be a bourgeois government, exploiting the revolutionary struggle of the workers and peasants and then drowning them in blood.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, we saw accomplished a finished experiment of Stalinist strategy, which proceeded from beginning to end under the flag of a struggle against the permanent revolution.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.After he was exiled and politically marginalised by Stalinism, Trotsky continued to argue for a united front against fascism in Germany and Spain.^ Thus the struggle against Trotskyism gradually became the expression of the theoretical and political reaction among broad non-proletarian and partly also among proletarian circles, and the reflection of this reaction inside the party.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ (Here I am, not just defending Trotsky, but arguing that Stalin probably didn't kill his own wife.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kenny Powers: In the interest of intellectual honesty, let's not forget Trotsky had and continues to have a significant effect on neoconservative thought and political strategy.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

His articles on the united front represent an important part of his political legacy.[59]

Trotsky in art

.
  • Trotsky was admired by Mexican muralist Diego Rivera, husband of Frida Kahlo.^ [Trotsky] TO 'United Press' VIA (Rivera) "Otvety Diego Rivera na voprosy...
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Rivera twice painted Trotsky's face as part of a montage of Communist figures, in Communist Unity Panel (1933)[60] and again in Man at the Crossroads (1933). After the destruction of the latter, it was re-created as Man, Controller of the Universe (1934).[61][62]
  • .
  • Trotsky's death was dramatized in the 1972 film The Assassination of Trotsky, directed by Joseph Losey and starring Richard Burton as Trotsky.^ Notes of telephone conversations transmitting news of assassination to New York; notes on arrangements to be made following assassination; and press releases in New York and Mexico City following assassination and death of Trotsky.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Folder 18 The Assassination of Leon Trotsky (Motion picture film : 1972).
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    It was also the subject of a 1993 short play, Variations on the Death of Trotsky, written by David Ives. In the 2002 film Frida, Trotsky was portrayed by Geoffrey Rush.
  • Trotsky is mentioned briefly in the 1977 song "No More Heroes" by English punk band The Stranglers. .His assassination is described as getting "an ice-pick that made his ears burn"
  • The character Snowball in George Orwell's novella, Animal Farm, is based on Trotsky,[63] as is Emmanuel Goldstein in Nineteen Eighty-Four.
  • Trotsky is a well regarded political figure within Bolano's The Savage Detectives.
  • Trotsky is a major character in Robert Bolt's play State of Revolution, which deals with the Russian Revolution and its aftermath.
  • A Spanish language documentary, El Asesinato de Trotsky (The Murder of Trotsky) was co-produced in 2006 by The History Channel and Anima Films, and directed by Argentinian director Matías Gueilburt.^ Russian); and Fernandez, Octavio, "Como se obtuvo el derecho de asilo para Leon Trotsky en Mexico," 1945 (in Spanish) .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ At the end, when you read about a man with his grieving family, brutally murdered with an ice pick, it can be easy to concentrate on that, forget the past, and think "this was not a bad man."
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They all regarded the course toward a socialist revolution as absurd or&emdash;still worse&emdash;as 'Trotskyism'.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    [64]
  • .
  • Third-wave ska band Catch-22 released a concept album in 2006 centered around the life of Trotsky, entitled Permanent Revolution.^ The problem of the permanent revolution has long ago outgrown the episodic differences of opinion between Lenin and Trotsky, which were completely exhausted by history.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The conception of 'growing over' was counterposed by Stalin, after the event (in 1924), to the permanent revolution, which he presented as a direct leap from the realm of autocracy into the realm of socialism.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To dispel the chaos that has been created around the theory of the permanent revolution, it is necessary to distinguish three lines of thought that are united in this theory.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    [65]
  • In the 2009 novel The Lacuna by Barbara Kingsolver, the protagonist, Harrison William Shepherd, works as a secretary to the exiled Leon Trotsky in Mexico.

Selected works

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See, for example, the letter published in the Internal Bulletin of the Communist League of America, no.11, 31 March 1933 "Leon Trotsky: Germany and the USSR (1933)". Trotsky Internet Archive. http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/germany/1933/330317.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  2. ^ The murder weapon was a hidden cut-down ice axe, not an ice pick. Many history and reference books have confused the two. See Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-507132-8, p.418 for a detailed account
  3. ^ On Meeting with Trotsky
  4. ^ See chapter III of his autobiography, My Life
  5. ^ cf, for instance, The Columbia Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Quoted in chapter XII of 'My Life'
  7. ^ See Trotsky's 'Thermidor and anti-Semitism' (1937)
  8. ^ Quoted in Chapter XIV of My Life
  9. ^ See Chapter XXIII of 1905
  10. ^ See Chapter XVII of My Life
  11. ^ See Chapter XVI of My Life
  12. ^ See Christian Rakovsky's biography by Gus Fagan for details
  13. ^ See the "Brest-Litovsk" chapter in Trotsky's 1925 book Lenin
  14. ^ See Lenin
  15. ^ See Chapter XXXIV of My Life
  16. ^ See Chapter XXXVI of My Life
  17. ^ a b See Chapter XXXVII of My Life
  18. ^ See Isai Abramovich's memoirs re: the Smilga episode. Abramovich (1900–1985), a friend of Smilga's, was one of the few Trotskyists who survived the Great Purges and returned from Stalin's camps in the late 1950s.
  19. ^ See Chapter XXXV of My Life
  20. ^ See Chapter XXXVIII of My Life
  21. ^ See Political Report of the Central Committee of the RKP(b) to the Ninth All-Russian Conference of the Communist Party delivered by Lenin on 20 September 1920, Document 59 in The Unknown Lenin, ed. Richard Pipes, Yale University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-300-06919-7
  22. ^ "More on the Suppression of Kronstadt" by Leon Trotsky
  23. ^ "Hue and Cry Over Kronstadt" by Leon Trotsky
  24. ^ "Trotsky Protests too Much" by Emma Goldman
  25. ^ "Kronstadt - A Tragic Necessity" - by Abbie Bakan
  26. ^ Infoshop.org
  27. ^ Yakov Sverdlov was the Central Committee's senior secretary responsible for personnel affairs from 1917 and until his death in March 1919. He was replaced by Elena Stasova, and in November 1919 by Nikolai Krestinsky. After Krestinsky's ouster in March 1921, Vyacheslav Molotov became the senior secretary, but he lacked Krestinsky's authority since he was not a full Politburo member. The position was taken over by Stalin and formalized at the XIth Party Congress in April 1922, with Molotov becoming second secretary.
  28. ^ It is not clear why Kamenev, a mild mannered man with few leadership ambitions as well as Trotsky's brother-in-law, sided with Zinoviev and Stalin against Trotsky in 1922. Trotsky later speculated that it may have been due to Kamenev's love of comfort, which Trotsky found "repell[ing]" and let Kamenev know in late 1920 or early 1921:
    Our relations with Kamenev, which were very good in the first period after the insurrection, began to become more distant from that day.
  29. ^ The Central Committee's Secretariat became increasingly important during the Civil War and especially in its aftermath as the Party switched from elected officials to appointed ones. The change was prompted by the need to allocate manpower quickly during the Civil War as well as by the transformation of the party from a small group of revolutionaries into the country's ruling party with a corresponding increase in membership. New members included career seekers and former members of banned socialist parties who were viewed with apprehension by Old Bolsheviks. To prevent a possible degeneration of the party, various membership requirements were instituted for party officials and the ultimate power of appointment of local officials was reserved for the Secretariat of the Central Committee. This put enormous power in the General Secretary's hands.
  30. ^ See Document 103 (22 May 1922) in The Unknown Lenin
  31. ^ See Document 106 in The Unknown Lenin
  32. ^ See Document 109 in The Unknown Lenin
  33. ^ See Chapter XXXIX of My Life
  34. ^ See Lenin's letter to Stalin dictated on 15 December 1922:
    I am sure Trotsky will uphold my views as well as I.
    Faced with a united opposition by Lenin and Trotsky, the Central Committee reversed its previous decision and adopted the Lenin-Trotsky proposal.
  35. ^ See Chapter 11 of Trotsky's unfinished book Stalin
  36. ^ Trotsky explained in Chapter 12 of his unfinished book Stalin that he refused to deliver the report because "it seemed to me equivalent to announcing my candidacy for the role of Lenin's successor at a time when Lenin was fighting a grave illness".
  37. ^ See Chapter 12 of Trotsky's Stalin
  38. ^ Radek wrote:
    The need of the hour was for a man who would incarnate the call to struggle, a man who, subordinating himself completely to the requirements of the struggle, would become the ringing summons to arms, the will which exacts from all unconditional submission to a great, sacrificial necessity. Only a man with Trotsky's capacity for work, only a man so unsparing of himself as Trotsky, only a man who knew how to speak to the soldiers as Trotsky did—only such a man could have become the standard bearer of the armed toilers. He was all things rolled into one.
  39. ^ Quoted in Max Shachtman. The Struggle for the New Course, New York, New International Publishing Co., 1943. See chapter The Campaign Against “Trotskyism”
  40. ^ The term "Trotskyism" was first coined by the Russian liberal politician Pavel Milyukov, the first foreign minister in the Provisional Government who, in April 1917, was forced to demand that the British government release Trotsky -- see above.
  41. ^ See Chapter VIII of Boris Souvarine's Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism
  42. ^ See Chapter 42 of My Life
  43. ^ See Nikolai Valentinov-Volsky's account of his work with Trotsky in 1925 in Novaia Ekonomicheskaia Politika i Krizis Partii Posle Smerti Lenina: Gody Raboty v VSNKh vo Vremia NEP, Moscow, Sovremennik, 1991. No English translation currently available.
  44. ^ Herrera, Hayden (1983). A Biography of Frida Kahlo. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060085896.
  45. ^ Patenaude, Bertrand M. (2009) Trotsky: Downfall of a Revolutionary New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-082068-8
  46. ^ Ibid. p173
  47. ^ Marxists.org
  48. ^ See Not guilty; report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made Against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials, John Dewey, chairman, New York, London, Harper & brothers, 1938, xv, 422 pp. 2nd edition New York, Monad Press, distributed by Pathfinder Press 1973, c1972 xxiii, 422 pp.
  49. ^ Marxists.org
  50. ^ Leon Trotsky. To Build Communist Parties and an International Anew, 15 July 1933.
  51. ^ See Isaac Deutscher. The Prophet Outcast: Trotsky, 1929-1940, London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1963, p.482.
  52. ^ Patenaude op. cit p171-3
  53. ^ a b "Trotsky's Testament" (27 February 1940) Retrieved 27 August 2007
  54. ^ New York Times
  55. ^ University of San Diego - Historical Monograph #4: The KGB in San Francisco and Mexico City and the GRU in New York and Washington accessed 2007-07-29
  56. ^ a b Volkogonov, Dmitri (1996). Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary. Free Press. ISBN 0684822938. Page 466.
  57. ^ Walsh, Lynn, The Assassination of Trotsky, Militant International Review, Summer 1980, retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  58. ^ Australian Associated Press, Death of Leon Trotsky, The Age 150th Anniversary edition reprint, 1940-08-23, Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  59. ^ Joseph Choonara, "The United Front" in International Socialism 117
  60. ^ Fbuch.com
  61. ^ Fbuch.com
  62. ^ Marxists.org
  63. ^ Bott, George (1968) [1958]. Selected Writings. London, Melbourne, Toronto, Singapore, Johannesburg, Hong Kong, Nairobi, Auckland, Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books. p. 14. ISBN 0-4351-3675-5. 
  64. ^ Documental retrata el último año de vida de Trotsky en México, http://www.tercera.cl/contenido/29_38940_9.shtml Documental argentino revive a León Trotsky, http://diario.elmercurio.cl/detalle/index.asp?id={4a56ff74-3ab5-4369-8ee3-597706d01d04} "El asesinato de Trotsky", un episodio novelesco reconstruido por The History Channel, http://www.clarin.com/diario/2007/08/21/um/m-01482546.htm
  65. ^ "Interview with Ryan Eldred of Catch22". Socialist Appeal. http://www.socialistappeal.org/content/view/241/49/. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 

References

.
  • Blackledge, Paul (2006) Leon Trotsky’s Contribution to the Marxist Theory of History in Studies in East European Thought Vol.^ The Trotsky Collection of material by and about the Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) was assembled by the Socialist Workers Party and its affiliate, the Library of Social History.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ 'The anti-Marxist theory of Stalin and Radek means for China, India and all the countries of the East, an altered but not improved repetition of the Kuomintang experiment.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    58, No. 1: 1-31.
  • Cliff, Tony (1989-93) Trotsky (4 Vols.) .London: Bookmarks
  • Crazy for You references the facial hair of Trotsky.
  • Isaac Deutscher wrote the classic—and largely sympathetic—biography in three volumes:
    • (1954) Trotsky: The Prophet Armed
    • (1959) Trotsky: The Prophet Unarmed
    • (1963) Trotsky: The Prophet Outcast
  • Isaac Deutscher (1966) Ironies of History.
  • Daniels, Robert V (1991) Trotsky, Stalin & Socialism.^ But tell me then -- why are your posts so often peppered with references to Russian Jewish life and history if you or your immediate family did not live there?
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1924 Stalin wrote that Trotsky could not have played any special rôle In the October Revolution.
    • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Trotsky Collection of material by and about the Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) was assembled by the Socialist Workers Party and its affiliate, the Library of Social History.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1223-X
  • Dunn, Bill & Radice, Hugo eds. .Permanent Revolution – Results and Prospects 100 Years On London: Pluto Press
  • Dimitri Volkogonov (1996) Trotsky, the Eternal Revolutionary.^ Abstract: Papers of Russian revolutionary and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky including correspondence from his years in the Soviet Union and writings.
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus there is established between the democratic revolution and the socialist reconstruction of society a permanent state of revolutionary development.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I had all the more reason to suspect this since Radek, years before, had planned to write a pamphlet in defence of the permanent revolution.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .Free Press.
  • Gilbert, Helen (2003) Leon Trotsky: His Life and Ideas.^ Committee on Un-American Activities report, American Aspects of Assassination of Leon Trotsky , 1951; press release, 1959; and notes .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Correspondence of editors of Pathfinder Press with former associates of Leon Trotsky and veterans of the early Trotskyist movement, in connection with preparation of the Pathfinder Press editions of the collected works of Trotsky .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Letters, telegrams, press releases, and announcements, relating to memorial meetings for Leon Trotsky.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    .Red Letter Press [1] ISBN 0-932323-17-0
  • Hallas, Duncan (1979) Trotsky's Marxism London: Pluto Press
  • Hansen, Joseph, ed.^ Folder 17 Hansen, Joseph, 1941 .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Also includes related letters by Joseph Hansen .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Also includes related letter by Joseph Hansen .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    .(1969) Leon Trotsky: the Man and His Work.^ Correspondence of editors of Pathfinder Press with former associates of Leon Trotsky and veterans of the early Trotskyist movement, in connection with preparation of the Pathfinder Press editions of the collected works of Trotsky .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: .
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Published in Leon Trotsky: The Man and His Work (New York, 1969).
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    Reminiscences and Appraisals
    . .New York: Merit Publishers.
  • Levine, Isaac Don (1960) The Mind of an Assassin.^ Published in The Challenge of the Left Opposition, 1928-29 (New York, 1981).
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Notes of telephone conversations transmitting news of assassination to New York; notes on arrangements to be made following assassination; and press releases in New York and Mexico City following assassination and death of Trotsky.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Published in New York, 1918.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    .New York: New American Library/Signet Book.
  • Molyneux, John (1981) Leon Trotsky's Theory of Revolution, Brighton: Harvester Press
  • Richard Pipes, ed.^ Trotsky TO ('New York Times') (Fourth (?
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Trotsky TO 'New York Times' COPY TO ('Dies Committee' of U. S. Congress) Coyoacan.
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The ship that brought Mr. Trotsky from Turkey to Marseilles in 1933 docked after he had slipped secretly ashore, according to a Marseilles dispatch to the New York Times of July 25th, 1933.
    • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    (1996) The Unknown Lenin. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06919-7
  • Renton, David (2004) Trotsky.
  • Thatcher, Ian D. (2003) Trotsky. .ISBN 0-415-23251-1
  • Jean van Heijenoort (1978) With Trotsky in Exile: From Prinkipo to Coyoacán.^ For Trotsky's papers collected by his secretary John Van Heijenoort, see MS Russ 13.2.
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ [Trotsky] TO Van (Heijenoort).
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Trotsky TO Van (Heijenoort).
    • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940. Soviet papers: Guide. 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC oasis.lib.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Harvard University Press.
  • The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, Volume 39, Academic International Press
  • Trotsky speaks about the Moscow Trials
  • Service, Robert.^ Special issue of International Press Correspondence on trial of the "Industrial Party," 1930.
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials, Abstract of the Final Report , 1937 (mimeograph and printed copies) .
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Published in Truth about the Moscow Trials (1937 April).
    • Register of the Trotsky collection, 1917-1980 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    (2009) Trotsky: A Biography. Macmillan. [2]

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Mikhail Tereshchenko
(Minister of Foreign Affairs)
People's Comissar for Foreign Affairs
1917–1918
Succeeded by
Georgy Chicherin
Preceded by
Nikolai Podvoisky
People's Commissar for Army and Navy Affairs
1918–1925
Succeeded by
Mikhail Frunze
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Winston Churchill
Cover of Time Magazine
18 May 1925
Succeeded by
Thomas A. Edison

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Life is beautiful. Let the future generations cleanse it of all evil, oppression, and violence, and enjoy it to the full.
.Leon Trotsky [Лев Давидович Троцкий; born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; Лев Давидович Бронштейн] (26 October O.S., 7 November) 1879 - 21 August 1940) Russian Marxist, intellectual, and revolutionary.^ Bibliography Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940.

^ Leon Trotsky - revolutionary martyr .
  • Leon Trotsky - revolutionary martyr 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leon Davidovich Trotsky ( Russian : Лев Давидович Троцкий) ( Latinized: Lev Davidovič Tro ʦ kij ; also transliterated Leo , Lev , Trotskii , Trotski , Trotskij , Trockij and Trotzky ) ( November 7, 1879 [ O.S. October 26] – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist.

.In the early Soviet Union, he founded the Politburo, served as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, and created and led the Red Army.^ As Commissar of War, he constructed the Red Army and led it to victory in the civil war.
  • Leon Trotsky and the annihilation of classical Marxism | Workers' Liberty 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.workersliberty.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When did Leon Trotsky become people commissar for foreign affairs?
  • Leon Trotsky Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was an influential politician in the early days of the Soviet Union , first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War.

.After Lenin's death, Trotsky was exiled for his opposition to Josef Stalin's policies.^ But Stalin’s policy was only a caricature of the Opposition’s policies.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trotsky was an amazing figure: brilliant and fiery, an impassioned rhetorician and propagandist, who fought fiercely with Lenin on ideological grounds -- but eventually reconciled -- and was purged (and then assassinated) by Stalin after Lenin's death.
  • Trotsky: the graphic biography Boing Boing 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ruling stratum of the bureaucracy "was rapidly discovering that Stalin was flesh of its flesh," and reflecting the interests of the bureaucracy, Stalin began a struggle against "Trotskyism"-an ideological bogey which he invented to distort and stigmatise the genuine ideas of Marxism, and of Lenin, upheld by Trotsky and the Left Opposition.

.His 1940 assassination in Mexico was carried out by a Soviet agent at Stalin's behest.^ Fleeing from country to country, Trotsky ended up in Mexico, where he was murdered by an ice-pick-wielding Stalinist assassin in 1940.
  • The Long Strange Posthumous Life of Leon Trotsky at slackbastard 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC slackbastard.anarchobase.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After having been forced to leave the Soviet Union 1929 Trotsky has ended up in Mexico 1940.
  • The Assassination of Trotsky (1972) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1940, he was martyred at the tip of an ice pick wielded by a Soviet agent posing as an acolyte.
  • The Trotsky Legend Debunked - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]
  • The Trotsky Legend Debunked - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Sourced

As long as I breathe I hope. As long as I breathe I shall fight for the future...
.
In our eyes, individual terror is inadmissible precisely because it belittles the role of the masses in their own consciousness...
^ It may be interesting to examine these three men, not as individuals, but as standpoints, because in the eyes of many people who try to understand something in our time, they represent three different situations and analyses.
  • Notes on Trotsky, Pannekoek, Bordiga - Gilles Dauvé | libcom.org 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lenin’s death, the ruling clique: Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev began a systematic campaign of falsification, designed to belittle Trotsky’s role in the revolution and to boost their own.
  • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We love our language and our country, and we are doing our very utmost to raise her toiling masses (i.e., nine-tenths of her population) to the level of a democratic and socialist consciousness.
  • Leon Trotsky - a knol by Richard Tyler 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

and turns their eyes and hopes toward a great avenger and liberator who someday will come and accomplish his mission.
.
A means can be justified only by its end.
^ Reply Report #11 - You sure used a lot of words to say "the ends justifies the means".
  • Trotsky: the graphic biography Boing Boing 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't think the ends justify the means, particularly in Russia's case, where the means were so appalling, and the ends so mediocre.
  • Trotsky: the graphic biography Boing Boing 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the end in its turn needs to be justified.
  • As long as I breathe I hope. .As long as I breathe I shall fight for the future, that radiant future, in which man, strong and beautiful, will become master of the drifting stream of his history and will direct it towards the boundless horizons of beauty, joy and happiness!
    • "On Optimism and Pessimism, on the Twentieth Century, and on Many Other Things" (1901), as quoted in The Prophet Armed : Trotsky, 1879-1921 (2003) by Isaac Deutscher , p.^ The Prophet Unarmed: Trotsky 1921-1929 .
      • The Old Man - The Atlantic(July/August 2004) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Isaac Deutscher, The Prophet Armed, Trotsky: 1879-1921 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1954), 381-386.
      • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Deutscher, Prophet Armed , 282.
      • Chronicle of a Russian Revolutionary: Leon Trotsky and the Bolshevik Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .45
  • In our eyes, individual terror is inadmissible precisely because it belittles the role of the masses in their own consciousness, reconciles them to their own powerlessness, and turns their eyes and hopes toward a great avenger and liberator who someday will come and accomplish his mission.
  • Learning carries within itself certain dangers because out of necessity one has to learn from one's enemies.^ The radicalization of the masses will affect the social democrats.
    • What is Fascism? - What It Is and How To Fight It - Leon Trotsky - FULL TEXT - Part One - Athenaeum Library of Philosophy 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC evans-experientialism.freewebspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And if a proper union did not happen immediately, and was not able to happen during the first upsurge of the revolution, this was because the masses do not learn from a book, and the revolution is not accomplished according to a plan.
    • Socialism Today - Twenty years after 1905 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.socialismtoday.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For all we have come to know...at the sport was none other than Leon Trotsky , who first starred on his school...soul had better learn lapta."
    • Leon Trotsky Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Literature and Revolution (1924)
  • The struggle against war, properly understood and executed, presupposes the uncompromising hostility of the proletariat and its organizations, always and everywhere, toward its own and every other imperialist bourgeoisie...^ The proletariat alone in 1905 understood properly what revolution means, what the struggle for power means.
    • Socialism Today - Twenty years after 1905 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.socialismtoday.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Political freedom was to be achieved by the proletariat in alliance with the liberal bourgeoisie; after many decades and on a higher level of capitalist development, the proletariat would then carry out the socialist revolution in direct struggle against the bourgeoisie.
    • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.marxsite.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As for the third accusation, it was dictated by the short-lived faith of the epigones in the possibility of neutralizing the imperialist bourgeoisie for an unlimited time with the aid of the 'shrewdly' organized pressure of the proletariat.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • "Resolution on the Antiwar Congress of the London Bureau" (July 1936)
  • The struggle against war and its social source, capitalism, presupposes direct, active, unequivocal support to the oppressed colonial peoples in their struggles and wars against imperialism.^ At the 5th congress of the Party (London, May 1907), Trotsky voted with Rosa Luxemburg and Lenin in favour of the resolution which included "the dictatorship of the proletariat supported by the peasantry", against the whole of the Menshevik delegation.
    • Trotsky Dossier - The question of the party: Trotsky’s weak point 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.internationalviewpoint.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is quite true that Trotskyism failed to understand the war or the post-war world; this is why it betrayed the working class and proletarian internationalism by supporting one imperialist camp against another during World War II, and why ever since it has constantly supported little imperialisms against bigger ones in the all too frequent so-called “national liberation” struggles, or the struggles of “oppressed peoples”.
    • 1940: Assassination of Trotsky | International Communist Current 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC en.internationalism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But at the beginning of 1917 Lenin was compelled, in a direct struggle against the oldest cadres of the party, to change the perspective.
    • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.marxsite.com [Source type: Original source]

    A 'neutral' position is tantamount to support of imperialism. .
    • "Resolution on the Antiwar Congress of the London Bureau" (July 1936)
  • A means can be justified only by its end.^ Reply Report #11 - You sure used a lot of words to say "the ends justifies the means".
    • Trotsky: the graphic biography Boing Boing 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I don't think the ends justify the means, particularly in Russia's case, where the means were so appalling, and the ends so mediocre.
    • Trotsky: the graphic biography Boing Boing 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This applies even to a larger measure to the “London Bureau of Revolutionary Socialist Unity”, which is being torn asunder by irreconcilable contradictions; its “tomorrow” will consist not of “unity” but only of splits.

    .But the end in its turn needs to be justified.
    (Also quoted as "The end may justify the means as long as there is something that justifies the end."^ The latter means, among other things, accepting that what matters most to you may well be something that may never matter much to most people.

    ^ Who could afford to consider the possible long-term consequences for the revolution of decisions which had to be taken now or else there would be an end to the revolution and no further consequences to consider?"
    • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Reply Report #11 - You sure used a lot of words to say "the ends justifies the means".
    • Trotsky: the graphic biography Boing Boing 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • A sledgehammer breaks glass but forges steel.
    • "We do not change our course" (1938)
  • As for us, we were never concerned with the Kantian-priestly and vegetarian-Quaker prattle about the "sacredness of human life." .
    • As quoted in Terrorism and Communism : A Reply to Karl Kautsky (1975), p.^ Volkogonov quoted from Trotsky’s “Terrorism and Communism” and claimed, “In these utterances we find an unexpected resonance between the victim and the murderer.
      • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .82
  • The road to socialism lies through a period of the highest possible intensification of the principle of the state … Just as a lamp, before going out, shoots up in a brilliant flame, so the state, before disappearing, assumes the form of the dictatorship of the proletariat, i.e., the most ruthless form of state, which embraces the life of the citizens authoritatively in every direction...^ Adding immediately: "without the direct state support of the European proletariat, the working class in Russia could not remain in power and convert its temporary domination into a durable socialist dictatorship".
    • Trotsky Dossier - The question of the party: Trotsky’s weak point 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.internationalviewpoint.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Editorial in Izvestiia upon the organization of a Red army: "through war lies also the road to socialism" the book also mentions that Tristky did not want WW1 to end as it was helping him consolidate power.
    • Was Trotsky a Good Guy? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On 20 February 1940, Cannon wrote to Trotsky that the Minority were “enemies and traitors” who had to be “fought without mercy and without compromise on every front” and subject to “the most ruthless punishment in the form of a war of political extermination”.
    • Leon Trotsky and the annihilation of classical Marxism | Workers' Liberty 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.workersliberty.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • As quoted in Terrorism and Communism : A Reply to Karl Kautsky (1975), p.^ Volkogonov quoted from Trotsky’s “Terrorism and Communism” and claimed, “In these utterances we find an unexpected resonance between the victim and the murderer.
      • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .177
  • In inner-party politics, these methods lead, as we shall yet see, to this: the party organization substitutes itself for the party, the central committee substitutes itself for the organization, and, finally, a "dictator" substitutes himself for the central committee.
    • Quoted in Isaac Deutscher, The Prophet Armed (1963), ch.^ Deutscher, Prophet Armed , 282.
      • Chronicle of a Russian Revolutionary: Leon Trotsky and the Bolshevik Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Deutscher, Prophet Armed , 272-273.
      • Chronicle of a Russian Revolutionary: Leon Trotsky and the Bolshevik Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Deutscher Prophet Armed , 70-71.
      • Chronicle of a Russian Revolutionary: Leon Trotsky and the Bolshevik Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .3
  • Fascism is nothing but capitalist reaction; from the point of view of the proletariat the difference between the types of reaction is meaningless.^ This point of view has nothing in common with Marxism.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The leadership of the German Communist Party today reproduces almost literally the position from which the Italian Communists took their point of departure; fascism is nothing else but capitalist reaction; from the point of view of the proletariat, the difference between divers types of capitalist reaction are meaningless.
    • What is Fascism? - What It Is and How To Fight It - Leon Trotsky - FULL TEXT - Part One - Athenaeum Library of Philosophy 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC evans-experientialism.freewebspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The difference between the 'permanent' and the Leninist standpoints expressed itself politically in the counterposing of the slogan of the dictatorship of the proletariat relying on the peasantry to the slogan of the democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • What Next? (1932)
  • The German soldiers, that is, the workers and peasants, will in the majority of cases have far more sympathy for the vanquished peoples than for their own ruling caste.^ Having broken with the American Communist Party in 1932, my parents had been classified by the Daily Worker as Trotskyites', and they more or less accepted the description.

    ^ The great majority of the Petrograd workers and soldiers were with the Bolsheviks.
    • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This would make Hitler, bin Laden, and others more excusable than mass murderers who simply like killing people.
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The necessity to act at every step in the capacity of 'pacifiers' and oppressors will swiftly disintegrate the armies of occupation, infecting them with a revolutionary spirit.^ The organization of a Red Army had become an urgent necessity with counter-revolutionary armed forces threatening the young republic from all corners of its vast territory.
    • LEON TROTSKY 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Manuscript from 1940, quoted in Writings of Leon Trotsky‎ by George Breitman

The Russian Revolution (1930)

There is a limit to the application of democratic methods. .You can inquire of all the passengers as to what type of car they like to ride in, but it is impossible to question them as to whether to apply the brakes when the train is at full speed and accident threatens.
  • In a serious struggle there is no worse cruelty than to be magnanimous at an inopportune time.
  • There is a limit to the application of democratic methods.^ And, moreover, there was no time for it.
    • Leon Trotsky: The Stalin School of Falsification (Letter to the Bureau of Party History - 2) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There were no Mensheviks at all in Kronstadt.
    • Hue and Cry Over Kronstadt By Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no arrogance in this claim at all.
    • Forty years Since Leon Trotsky�s Assassination 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.marxist.net [Source type: Original source]
    • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Trotsky's Assassination 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.socialistalternative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .You can inquire of all the passengers as to what type of car they like to ride in, but it is impossible to question them as to whether to apply the brakes when the train is at full speed and accident threatens.
  • The historic ascent of humanity, taken as a whole, may be summarized as a succession of victories of consciousness over blind forces — in nature, in society, in man himself.
  • Let a man find himself, in distinction from others, on top of two wheels with a chain — at least in a poor country like Russia — and his vanity begins to swell out like his tires.^ They’re all the same, man.
    • America’s Dead Souls: 8 Reasons To Hate Our Billionaire Bolsheviks - By Mark Ames - The eXiled 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC exiledonline.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Historical society is the organization of the exploitation of man by man.
    • Leon Trotsky - Culture and Socialism - 1927 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the four years civil war in Russia the Anarchists almost to a man stood by the Bolsheviki, though they grew more daily conscious of the impending collapse of the Revolution.
    • Emma Goldman's Published Essays and Pamphlets: Trotsky Protests Too Much 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    In America it takes an automobile to produce this effect.

My Life (1930)

Full text online
I do not measure the historical process by the yardstick of one's personal fate.
.
I have more than once read musings in the newspapers on the subject of the "tragedy" that has befallen me.
^ This is more a subject of history than an editorial.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than once such sloppiness is exposed by Service himself.
  • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, Lenin said more than once that denial of the revolutionary role of the peasantry was characteristic of the Mensheviks.
  • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

.I know no personal tragedy.
  • The life of a revolutionary would be quite impossible without a certain amount of "fatalism."
  • In these pages, I continue the struggle to which my whole life is devoted.^ My conciliationism was derived from a certain Social Revolutionary fatalism.
    • Leon Trotsky: The Stalin School of Falsification (Letter to the Bureau of Party History - 2) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It would be an error not to broach specific problems for fear of failing to come to grips with the whole revolutionary epic, or its historian.
    • New Left Review - Nicolas Krasso: Trotsky's Marxism 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC newleftreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After a life of ardent militant activity, entirely devoted to the cause of the working class, Trotsky died as a revolutionary and a fighter.
    • 1940: Assassination of Trotsky | International Communist Current 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC en.internationalism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Describing, I also characterize and evaluate; narrating, I also defend myself, and more often attack. .It seems to me that this is the only method of making an autobiography objective in a higher sense, that is, of making it the most adequate expression of personality, conditions, and epoch.^ That's why it's so easy to confuse one with the other > Yeah, but Buchanan was educated by the Jesuits so he makes better sense even > when he is totally wrong, which is most of the time.
    • F**king idiot (Republican) Pat Robertson blames devestating Haiti earthquake on "pact with the Devil" - alt.gossip.celebrities | Google Groups 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even if we move forward several centuries, to the epoch of the French Revolution, historical personalities are still responding with only a limited consciousness of the weight of the objective historical forces bearing down on them.
    • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By 1793 the French Revolution confronted not only the resistance of the aristocracy and its allies within France, of which the Vendee uprising was the most extreme expression.


    .Objectivity is not the pretended indifference with which confirmed hypocrisy, in speaking of friends and enemies, suggests indirectly to the reader what it finds inconvenient to state directly.^ The art of the GPU will consist in finding new Olbergs, Berman-Yurins, etc., pretending to have received their instructions directly from Oslo.
    • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 6th Session) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is not an exaggeration to state that there is hardly a page in which an informed reader will not find passages that are objectionable from the standpoint of the basic standards of historical scholarship.
    • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Objectivity of this sort is nothing but a conventional trick. I do not need it. .Since I have submitted to the necessity of writing about myself — nobody has as yet succeeded in writing an autobiography without writing about himself — I can have no reason to hide my sympathies or antipathies, my loves or my hates.^ That, maybe, is how my friends and I saw him, we critical communists; we had much admiration for him, but no real love.

    ^ Without knowing anything about this, I also translated Kautsky's article in prison, provided it with a foreword and included it in my book In Defence of the Party .
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A lot of nonsense has been written about the famous Second Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) without any of it explaining the reasons for the split.
    • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Foreword
  • I know well enough, from my own experience, the historical ebb and flow.^ Without knowing anything about this, I also translated Kautsky's article in prison, provided it with a foreword and included it in my book In Defence of the Party .
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When Stalin's usual arguments look like this, we don't wonder about it, for we know well enough his 'level of development', in 1917 as well as in 1928.
    • Trotsky - Permanent Revolution 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.ucs.mun.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The sum and substance of Radek’s reply is: “If our testimony is false (both Radek and the Prosecutor know well enough that the testimony is false!
    • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    They are governed by their own laws. .Mere impatience will not expedite their change.
    I have grown accustomed to viewing the historical perspective not from the stand point of my personal fate.^ The pressure of world reaction has expressed itself perhaps most implacably in my personal fate and the fate of those close to me.
    • Historians in the Service of the “Big Lie”: An Examination of Professor Robert Service’s Biography of Trotsky 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Much easier to persuade person who has no distinct point of view than to fight with someone who has contradictory opinion.
    • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My problem is another one: I wish to describe the character of the Kronstadt uprising from a more general point of view.
    • Hue and Cry Over Kronstadt By Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: Original source]

    .To understand the causal sequence of events and to find somewhere in the sequence one's own place – that is the first duty of a revolutionary.^ Although the exact sequence of events is unclear, evidence suggests that at first the troika nominated Trotsky to head second rate government departments (e.g.

    ^ Thus, to claim that Trotskyist policies presented a real alternative to those adopted by Stalin is to indulge ones own revolutionary illusions.

    ^ Service never explains why the son of a prosperous if illiterate landowner became a revolutionary in the first place or retained that faith until his death.
    • The Trotsky Legend Debunked - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]

    .And at the same time, it is the greatest personal satisfaction possible for a man who does not limit his tasks to the present day.^ If the communists of the 20 th century had been demoralized by the defeat of the Paris Commune, none of the social victories from the October Revolution until the present day would have been possible.
    • Trotsky on the 90th Anniversary of the Communist Manifesto 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The dictatorship of the proletariat, which will inescapably place on the order of the day not only democratic but also socialist tasks, will at the same time provide a mighty impulse to the international socialist revolution.
    • Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.marxsite.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Development and Extension of Leon Trotsky's Theory of Permanent Revolution 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Suffice it to say that at the Seventh Congress of the party on March 8, 1918, Lenin, who was in general very restrained in personal comments, considered it possible to say: .
    • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Foreword
  • I do not measure the historical process by the yardstick of one's personal fate. On the contrary, I appraise my fate objectively and live it subjectively, only as it is inextricably bound up with the course of social development.^ Of course the primary difference between the Fascist regime of Nazi Germany and the Bolshevik one (as set up by Lenin, before Stalin altered it), is that the German regime answered only to the Fuhrer, whereas the Bolshevik regime answered to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Party; i.e.
    • The American Spectator : Blood Brother 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even if we move forward several centuries, to the epoch of the French Revolution, historical personalities are still responding with only a limited consciousness of the weight of the objective historical forces bearing down on them.
    • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In these moments the whole historical process depends on the activities of a small group of individuals and, even of one single person.
    • In Memory of Leon Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]


    .Since my exile, I have more than once read musings in the newspapers on the subject of the "tragedy" that has befallen me.^ This is more a subject of history than an editorial.
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Leon Trotsky Was a Really Bad Man: 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hardly more than 50 years had passed since Marx and Engels had written the Communist Manifesto.
    • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ More than once such sloppiness is exposed by Service himself.
    • `Second assassination' of Trotsky -- Paul Le Blanc reviews Robert Service’s biography of Trotsky | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC links.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I know no personal tragedy. .I know the change of two chapters of the revolution.^ But Trotsky could not claim that he had exhausted the subject in the two or three chapters that he devoted to it in The Revolution Betrayed and in My Life.
    • The Contradiction of Trotsky - Claude Lefort | libcom.org 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

    .One American paper which published an article of mine accompanied it with a profound note to the effect that in spite of the blows the author had suffered, he had, as evidenced by his article, preserved his clarity of reason.^ He himself was scornful of an American newspaper that accompanied an article of his after his expulsion from the Soviet Union with a prefatory editorial note to the effect that the blows its author had suffered had evidently not affected his clarity of thought, connecting, he said, "the power of reasoning and a government post."58 .
    • March 2001: The Last Years of Stalin and Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.socialistaction.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under the pen name Pero ("feather" or "pen" in Russian), Trotsky soon became one of the paper's leading authors.
    • MySpace - Leon Trotsky Bronstein Oct 26th 1879-Aug 21st 1940 - 100 - Male - Kherson - myspace.com/leontrotskyinternational1 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His articles, in spite of all the author’s caution, are loaded not only with theoretical blunders and naivetes, but also with crude sins against the Russian language.
    • Leon Trotsky: On Lenin's Testament (1932) 31 January 2010 14:17 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I can only express my astonishment at the philistine attempt to establish a connection between the power of reasoning and a government post, between mental balance and the present situation.^ Did he attempt, even then, to establish connections with me?
    • The Case of Leon Trotsky (Report of Dewey Commission - 13th Session - 3) 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC listserv.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He himself was scornful of an American newspaper that accompanied an article of his after his expulsion from the Soviet Union with a prefatory editorial note to the effect that the blows its author had suffered had evidently not affected his clarity of thought, connecting, he said, "the power of reasoning and a government post."58 .
    • March 2001: The Last Years of Stalin and Trotsky 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.socialistaction.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However unfashionable such "deterministic" conceptions may be at the present time, we believe that the most powerful tendencies of the law-governed development of man as a social being found a necessary, if only anticipatory, expression in the October Revolution.
    • Leon Trotsky Page 13 January 2010 20:53 UTC www.gnosticliberationfront.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Leon Trotsky and the Fate of Socialism in the 20th century</