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Leonese language
Llengua Llionesa, llionés
Spoken in  Spain
 Portugal
Region provinces of León (north and west) and Zamora (north-west), in Spain, and the towns of Rionor and Guadramil in northeastern Portugal[1][2]
Total speakers 50,000[3][4]
Language family Indo-European
Official status
Official language in Special protection status in Castile and Leon, Spain
Regulated by None
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2 ast
ISO 639-3 ast

The Leonese language (llengua llionesa,[5] in Leonese; often called, for smaller areas, by traditional names corresponding to those areas, such as cabreirés,[6] senabrés,[7] paḷḷuezu, etc.) is the term used to refer to all vernacular Romance dialects of the Astur-Leonese linguistic group[8] in the Spanish provinces of León and Zamora[9]; Astur-Leonese also includes the dialects of Asturian in Asturias and the Mirandese language of Miranda do Douro in Portugal. Leonese has no written policy officially regulated. Some associations have proposed a standard, different from those existing in the rest of the linguistic domain (such as that applicable in Asturias, regulated by the Academy of the Asturian Language, or the Lhéngua Mirandesa Anstituto applicable to Miranda of Miranda do Douro). On the other hand, other Leonese writers and associations intend to follow the spelling rules of the Academy of the Asturian Language.[10]

The term Leonese has also been used historically by some authors to refer to the whole linguistic region, which extends from Cantabria to Extremadura and is known primarily as the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.[1] Some authors speak of a Leonese language or historical dialect from Latin, and of Asturian and Mirandese as co-dialects of Leonese [9][11][12].

The varieties of Spanish spoken in most of the old province of León (which includes the modern provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca) share some traits with Leonese.

Contents

History

Celtic Festival Poster in Leonese language

Leonese derives directly from Latin and took shape in the early Middle Ages. At that time, Leonese was the official language of the Leonese Kingdom and achieved a high codification grade [13]. Leonese developed a proper codification in the territories of the present-day provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca and in the Leonese territories in present-day Portugal, especially in the District of Braganza.[14] So, the local laws called "Fueros" are mainly written in Leonese, and the documentation from the monasteries in this land is also in Leonese.

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Middle Ages

The first written text in the Leonese language is the Nodicia de Kesos (959 or 974); other works in the language include Fueru de Llión, Fueru de Salamanca, Fueru Xulgu, Códice d'Alfonsu XI, ou Disputa d'Elena y María[15] or Llibru d'Alixandre[16].

Modern Era

The Modern Era signifies a new opportunity for writers like Torres Naharro, Juan del Encina, Lucas Fernández and Torres Villarroel who used Leonese in their works, which however came to the verge of disappearance during the 19th century.

19th and 20th centuries: International research

International philologists of the 19th century, such as Gessner, Hanssen, Staaff and Menéndez Pidal, in Europe and America, started to describe Leonese. Writers such as Caitano Bardón (Cuentos en Dialecto Leonés), Luis Maldonado or Aragón Escacena (Entre brumas) restarted Leonese literature in the early 20th century.

Contemporary Leonese

There is a new generation of writers in Leonese, especially in urban areas, that are developing new creations. One of the best examples is "Cuentos del Sil", a Leonese language book promoted by Leonese language associations El Fueyu and El Toralín who had the support of the Leonese Provincial Government. There are nine writers, from teenagers to old people, but most of them under their forties, that developed stories in Leonese. All the writers had a relationship with the lands where the Sil river runs.

The situation of Leonese as a minority language has driven Leonese to near extinction and it is considered a seriously endangered language by UNESCO.[17] There are some efforts to gain acceptance among the urban population, (the Leonese Council and other municipalities such as Zamora, Coyanza, Mansilla de las Mulas or La Bañeza made campaigns in and for teaching Leonese). Leonese language associations and some administrations are now promoting its knowledge and use, especially León City Council where it is widely used in their internet communications.

Internet presence

The internet is a new field for promoting and developing Leonese, where Leonese grammar is being fixed.[18] The main reason is that Leonese has seen more publications in the internet in the last year than books were edited. In this sense, Leonese has seen great progress in being permitted the creation of associations like puntuLLI, for requesting a Top Level Domain for the Leonese language and culture[19].

Llionpedia

An Encyclopaedia in Leonese has existed since June 30, 2009. It's called Llionpedia, la Enciclupedia en Llingua Llïonesa and has more than 12,000 articles[20]. Llionpedia is the only Encyclopedia in the Leonese language and has more than 145,000 at this time. [21]

Education

At the end of the 1990s, several associations unofficially promoted Leonese language courses. In 2001, the Universidad de León (University of León) created a course for teachers of Leonese, and local and provincial governments developed Leonese language courses for adults. Nowadays, Leonese can be studied in the most important villages of León, Zamora and Salamanca provinces in El Fueyu Courses, after the signing of an agreement between the Leonese Provincial Government and this organization. The Leonese Language Teachers and Monitors Association (Asociación de Profesores y Monitores de Llingua Llïonesa) was created in 2008 for the promotion of Leonese language activities.

Schools

Leonese language lessons started in 2008 with two schools, and are currently taught in sixteen schools in León city in 2008-2009, promoted by the Leonese Local Government's Department for Education. This Leonese language course is for pupils in their 5th and 6th year of Primary School (children 11 and 12 years old), where Leonese is taught along with Leonese culture.

Adults

In the 2008-2009 course 107 persons are studying Leonese in the Municipality of León. There are five levels for adults in the official courses organized by the Department for Leonese Culture of the Leonese City Council [22].

Legal status

I Festival Internacional de Televisión y Cine Históricu Reinu de Llión, in Leonese language

Official status

Leonese had official status, along with English, in the XXIX World Armwrestling Championship that was celebrated in León in 2009.[23]

The "I Festival Internacional Reinu de Llión"[24] had its name in Leonese and together with Spanish and English, was one of the official languages of the event[2].

International

The Linguasphere code for Leonese language is 51-AAA-cc.

Autonomous community status

Leonese language was recognised as a seriously endangered language by UNESCO in 2006. The legal reference to this language is in the Autonomy Statute of Castile and León:[25]

"Leonese will be a subject of specific protection by the institutions, due to its particular value in the Community's linguistic patrimony. Its protection, use and promotion will be subject of regulamentation".

Provincial

The Province of León government supports the knowledge of this language through courses, by celebrating "Leonese Language Days" and by sponsoring literary efforts in Leonese, such as Cuentos del Sil.

Local

Official Press Conference for promoting "Jazz Feichu en Llión"

Leonese Local Government uses Leonese in its official web site. Leonese is also present in some of its bureaus, such as Education, Leonese Culture and New Technologies, and it organizes courses for adults. In 2007 they organized the Leonese Language Day where a wide variety of activities were officially advertised in Leonese.[26]

Phonology

Leonese language has a system with 5 vowels in a stressed position, represented a,e,i,o,u and three (two archiphonemes /I/, /U/ and one phoneme /a/) in non-stressed position, represented with e,u,a at the end of word[27]

Grammar

Leonese and Romance languages

Leonese language has evolved from Latin, keeping some linguistic structures different from other Romance languages. The majority of Leonese vocabulary comes from Latin. Other languages, like the Celtic languages and Germanic languages, have influenced Leonese as well.

Nouns

Leonese language has two genders (masculine and feminine) and two numbers (singular and plural)

The main desinences are "u" for masculine singular and "os" for masculine plural.
For the feminine, the desinences are "a" for the singular and "as" for the plural.

Adjectives

Leonese language has two genders (masculine and feminine) and two numbers (singular and plural) The main desinences are "u" for masculine singular and "os" for masculine plural.
For the feminine, the desinences are "a" for the singular and "as" for the plural. For both are "e" for singluar and "es" for the plural.

Adjectives have a concordance in gender and number with the name.

Verbs

Infinitives

There are three conjugations in Leonese language vebs, depending on the desinence of the infinitives:

  • Verbs whose infinitive finishes in -are
  • Verbs whose infinitive finishes in -ere
  • Verbs whose infinitive finishes in -ire

Gerunds

There are two divisions in Leonese language gerunds depending on the desinence:

  • Verbs whose infinitive finishes in -andu
  • Verbs whose infinitive finishes in -endu

Participles

There are three kinds of participles in Leonese language:

  • First conjugation: finishes in "-áu"
  • Second conjugation: finishes in "-iéu"
  • Third conjugation: finishes in "íu"
Possessives

Possessives in Leonese language, like in other Romance languages, must have the article before the possessive. These are:

  • One possessor
    • (el) mieu, tou, sou
    • (la) mia, tua, sua
    • (los)mieus, tous, sous
    • (las) mias, tuas, suas
  • More than one possessor
    • (el) nuesu, vuesu, sou
    • (la) nuesa, vuesa, sua
    • (los) nuesos, vuesos, sous
    • (las) nuesas, vuesas, suas
Cult groups
  • Leonese language kept the initial "f-" from Latin, like Portuguese, Catalan, French or Venetian.
  • Latin groups "pl-/cl-/fl-" evolved into Leonese "ch", like in Portuguese.
  • Latin groups "-li-" and "-cl-" gives "y" in Leonese.
  • Leonese language kept the final "e" of the Latin infinitives, like Italian.
  • Leonese language kept /-mb-/ Latin group.
  • Leonese language palatalize Latin /l-/ like Catalan.
  • Leonese language sometimes palatalize Latin /n-/.
  • Latin group -sc- makes in Leonese language "x".
Apostrophe

Leonese language uses apostrophe with some prepositions like "en", "de", or "pa" (n', d', p') when afeter comes a vowel (sometimes just an "a" like "pa").

Comparative tables

Evolution from Latin to Galician, Asturleonese and Castilian
LATIN GALICIAN ASTURLEONESE CASTILIAN
Diphthongization of 'o' and 'e'
Portam (Door) PORTA PUERTA PUERTA
Oculum (eye) OLLO GÜEYU/GÜECHU OJO
Tempum (time) TEMPO TIEMPU TIEMPO
Terram (land) TERRA TIERRA TIERRA
F- (initial position)
Facere (make) FACER FACERE HACER
Ferrum (iron) FERRO FIERRU HIERRO
L–(initial position)
Larem (fireplace) LAR LLAR/TSAR LAR
Lupum (wolf) LOBO LLOBU/TSOBU LOBO
N–(initial position)
Nativitatem (Christmas) NADAL ÑAVIDÁ NAVIDAD
pl-,cl-,fl- groups
Planum (flat) CHAN CHANU/LLANU LLANO
Clavem (key) CHAVE CHAVE/LLAVE LLAVE
Flamam (flame) CHAMA CHAMA/LLAMA LLAMA
Falling diphthongs
Causam (thing) COUSA COUSA/COSA COSA
Ferrarium (blacksmith) FERREIRU FERREIRU/-ERU HERRERO
–kt- and –lt- groups
Factum (made) FEITO FEITU/FECHU HECHO
Noctem (night) NOITE NUEITE/NUECHE NOCHE
Multum (much) MUITO MUEITU/MUCHU MUCHO
Auscultare (listen) ESCOITAR ESCUEITARE/-CHARE ESCUCHAR
m´n groups
Hominem (man) HOME HOME HOMBRE
Faminem (hunger, famine) FAME FAME HAMBRE
Luminem (fire) LUME LLUME/TSUME LUMBRE
intervocalic -l-
Gelu (ice) XEO XELU HIELO
Filictum (fern) FIEITO FELEITU/-EICHU HELECHO
-ll-
Castellum (castle) CASTELO CASTIELLU/-IETSU CASTILLO
intervocalic -n-
Ranam (frog) RA RANA RANA
–lj- group
Mulierem (woman) MULLER MUYER/MUCHER MUJER
c´l, t´l, g´l groups
Novaculam (razor) NAVALLA ÑAVAYA NAVAJA
Vetulum (old) VELLO VIEYU/VIECHU VIEJO
Tegulam (tile) TELLA TEYA TEJA

Activities for promoting Leonese language

Leonese Language Day

Leonese Language Day (Día de la Llingua Llïonesa, in Leonese), is a celebration for promoting the Leonese language and the advances in its field and was the result of a protocol signed between the Leonese Provincial Government and the Cultural Association for Leonese Language El Fueyu [28].

Leonese Language Day started on June 10, 2006 and was organised by the Asociación Cultural de la Llingua Llïonesa El Fueyu with the collaboration of other linguistic and cultural organizations and the support of the Provincial and Local governments of León with a recital where personalities from the cultural, university, associative and political world of León recited peoems and stories in Leonese.

Since 2007, it is officially organised by the León City Council with the collaboration of Leonese language associations. Activities developed on this day mix traditional Leonese music with the exhibition of new works about Leonese, mainly books and films, and representation of theater plays, poetry recitals and conferences. The 2008 event gave an important role to new technologies.

In the 2009 event the Government of León gave their official diplomas to the students of Leonese , the schools that taught Leonese and the adult people that attended the courses of "Llingua Llïonesa". 300 hundred people were awarded.[29]

International Mother Language Day

On February 21, International Mother Language Day, a common press communique was made by the most important Leonese language associations: Asociación puntuLLI, Asociación Cultural de la Llingua Llïonesa El Fueyu, Asociación Berciana en Defensa de la Llingua Llïonesa El Toralín, Asociación de la Llingua Llïonesa La Barda de Salamanca, Mesa Divulgativa Llïonesa de Salamanca y Asociación de Profesores y Monitores de Llingua Llïonesa, in which they supported the development of Leonese, particularly in public administration.[30]

Top-level domain for Leonese language

PuntuLLI Association develops the fight for reaching a top-level domain for the Leonese language and culture. There are more than 800 signers and 44 organisations collaborating with it. In addition to the Leon City Council, which uses Leonese in its web site, so other associations, organisations or enterprises use the language in their web sites too.

Leonese is present on the Internet in many on-line dictionaries, some of them, like Logos Dictionary can be consulted in hundreds of languages.

Sample text

1st Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood)
Dialect Location Linguistic variety Text
Carreño's dialect (asturian) Asturias Central asturleonese Tolos seres humanos nacen llibres y iguales en dignidá y drechos y, pola mor de la razón y la conciencia de so, han comportase fraternalmente los unos colos otros.
Somiedo's dialect (asturian) Asturias Occidental asturleonese Tódolos seres humanos nacen ḷḷibres ya iguales en dignidá ya dreitos ya, dotaos cumo tán de razón ya conciencia, han portase fraternalmente los unos conos outros.
Paḷḷuezu (Leonese) León Occidental asturleonese Tódolos seres humanos nacen ḷḷibres ya iguales en dignidá ya dreitos ya, dotaos cumo tán de razón ya conciencia, han portase fraternalmente los unos conos outros.
Cabreirés (Leonese) León Occidental asturleonese Tódolos seres humanos ñacen llibres y iguales en dignidá y dreitos y, dotaos cumo están de razón y concéncia, han portase fraternalmente los unos pa coños outros.
Mirandese Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) Occidental asturleonese Todos ls seres houmanos nácen lhibres i eiguales an denidade i an dreitos. Custuituídos de rezon i de cuncéncia, dében portar-se uns culs outros an sprito de armandade.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Menéndez Pidal, R. El Dialecto Leonés. Madrid. 1906
  2. ^ Cruz, Luísa Segura da, João SARAMAGO e Gabriela VITORINO: “Os dialectos leoneses em território português: coesão e diversidade”. En: “Variação Linguística no Espaço, no Tempo e na Sociedade”. Associação Portuguesa de Linguística. Edições Colibri, p. 281-293. Lisboa. 1994.
  3. ^ González Riaño, Xosé Antón; García Arias, Xosé Lluis. II Estudiu Sociollingüísticu De Lleón: Identidá, conciencia d'usu y actitúes llingüístiques de la población lleonesa. Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, 2008. ISBN 978-84-8168-448-3
  4. ^ Sánchez Prieto, R. (2008): "La elaboración y aceptación de una norma lingüística en comunidades dialectalmente divididas: el caso del leonés y del frisio del norte". In: Sánchez Prieto, R./ Veith, D./ Martínez Areta, M. (ed.): Mikroglottika Yearbook 2008. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
  5. ^ In other orthography, Llingua Llïonesa
  6. ^ "A woman talking in thecabreirés dialect". YouTube. 02010-02-09 February 9, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/user/Sanyallana#p/u/0/o6TvvpBzfQ0. Retrieved 02010-02-09 February 9, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Legend of Lake Sanabria in senabrés dialect". YouTube. 02010-02-09 February 9, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/user/FURMIENTU#p/a/u/1/B0rOW031Lug. Retrieved 02010-02-09 February 9, 2010. 
  8. ^ This linguistic domain includes Asturias, León, Zamora y Miranda do Douro. Nowadays there are also some language remnants of names and vocabulary in Cantabria, Salamanca province, Extremadura and even Huelva province.
  9. ^ a b Krüger, Fritz (2006): Estudio fonético-histórico de los dialectos españoles occidentales. Zamora: CSIC/Diputación de Zamora. Pag. 13
  10. ^ Morala Rodríguez, Jose Ramón. "El Leonés en el Siglo XXI (Un Romance Milenario ante el Reto de su Normalización)", Instituto De La Lengua Castellano Y Leones, 2009. ISBN 978-84-936383-8-2
  11. ^ Marcos, Ángel/Serra, Pedro (1999): Historia de la literatura portuguesa. Salamanca: Luso-Española. Pag. 9
  12. ^ Menéndez Pidal, Ramón (1906): El dialecto leonés
  13. ^ Morala, R. (2004): Norma y usos gráficos en la documentacion leonesa. In: Aemilianese I, S. 405-429.
  14. ^ Cruz, Luísa Segura da, João SARAMAGO e Gabriela VITORINO: “Os dialectos leoneses em território português: coesão e diversidade”. En: “Variação Linguística no Espaço, no Tempo e na Sociedade”. Associação Portuguesa de Linguística/Edições Colibri, p. 281-293. Lisboa. 1994.
  15. ^ Menéndez Pidal, R.: "Elena y María. (Disputa del Clérigo y el Caballero). Poesía leonesa inédita del siglo XIII". RFE 1, pp. 52-96. 1914
  16. ^ Menéndez Pidal, R. "El Dialecto Leonés". Madrid. 1906
  17. ^ UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe
  18. ^ Pardo, Abel. "El Llïonés y las TICs". Mikroglottika Yearbook 2008. Págs 109-122. Peter Lang. Frankfurt am Main. 2008
  19. ^ http://www.puntuLLI.org Top Level Domain for Leonese language
  20. ^ Retrived on September 6th, 2009
  21. ^ "Llionpedia, la Enciclupedia en Llingua Llïonesa.". Llionpedia. 8 September 2009. http://www.llionpedia.eu. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  22. ^ </ Leonese language courses from the Official Web Site of the Leon City Council
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ , supported by The Council of León, the Spanish Government, the Spanish Net of Paradores, the Spanish Academy of Television and so others.
  25. ^ New Autonomy Stature for Castilla an León, Art. 5/2.
  26. ^ Official page of the Ayuntamiento de León
  27. ^ Pardo, Abel: Linguistica contrastiva italiano-leonese. Mikroglottika.2008
  28. ^ Official new of the signement of the Protocol between the Leonese Provincial Government and Leonese Language Association for developing the Leonese Language Day
  29. ^ http://leonoticias.com/frontend/leonoticias/El-Dia-De-La-llingua-Ll%EFonesa-vn32242-vst216 IV Leonese Language Day new
  30. ^ International Mother Language Day Press Communicate

Sources

  • Menéndez Pidal, R.: "El dialecto Leonés". Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas y Museos, 14. 1906.
  • Pardo, Abel. "El Llïonés y las TICs". Mikroglottika Yearbook 2008. Págs 109-122. Peter Lang. Frankfurt am Main. 2008.
  • Linguasphere Register. 1999/2000 Edition. pp. 392. 1999.
  • López-Morales, H.: “Elementos leoneses en la lengua del teatro pastoril de los siglos XV y XVI”. Actas del II Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas. Instituto Español de la Universidad de Nimega. Holanda. 1967.
  • González Riaño, Xosé Antón; García Arias, Xosé Lluis: "II Estudiu Sociollingüísticu De Lleón: Identidá, conciencia d'usu y actitúes llingüístiques de la población lleonesa". Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, 2008. ISBN 978-84-8168-448-3.
  • Staff, E. : "Étude sur l'ancien dialecte léonnais d'après les chartes du XIIIÈ siècle", Uppsala. 1907.

External links

Leonese language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Leonese article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Adjective

Leonese

  1. From, or pertaining to León (a city and a province in northwest Spain).
  2. From, ot pertaining to the Kingdom of León, a former independent kingdom in the nothwest of Iberia.

Proper noun

Singular
Leonese

Plural
-

Leonese

  1. (countable) Someone from León.
  2. (uncountable) A Romance language spoken in the northwest of Spain and northeast of Portugal.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Category:Leonese article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Books or Pages

The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total.

L

P


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