|Llengua Llionesa, llionés|
|Spoken in|| Spain
|Region||provinces of León (north and west) and Zamora (north-west), in Spain, and the towns of Rionor and Guadramil in northeastern Portugal|
|Official language in||Special protection status in Castile and Leon, Spain|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.|
The Leonese language (llengua llionesa, in Leonese; often called, for smaller areas, by traditional names corresponding to those areas, such as cabreirés, senabrés, paḷḷuezu, etc.) is the term used to refer to all vernacular Romance dialects of the Astur-Leonese linguistic group in the Spanish provinces of León and Zamora; Astur-Leonese also includes the dialects of Asturian in Asturias and the Mirandese language of Miranda do Douro in Portugal. Leonese has no written policy officially regulated. Some associations have proposed a standard, different from those existing in the rest of the linguistic domain (such as that applicable in Asturias, regulated by the Academy of the Asturian Language, or the Lhéngua Mirandesa Anstituto applicable to Miranda of Miranda do Douro). On the other hand, other Leonese writers and associations intend to follow the spelling rules of the Academy of the Asturian Language.
The term Leonese has also been used historically by some authors to refer to the whole linguistic region, which extends from Cantabria to Extremadura and is known primarily as the Astur-Leonese linguistic group. Some authors speak of a Leonese language or historical dialect from Latin, and of Asturian and Mirandese as co-dialects of Leonese .
Leonese derives directly from Latin and took shape in the early Middle Ages. At that time, Leonese was the official language of the Leonese Kingdom and achieved a high codification grade . Leonese developed a proper codification in the territories of the present-day provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca and in the Leonese territories in present-day Portugal, especially in the District of Braganza. So, the local laws called "Fueros" are mainly written in Leonese, and the documentation from the monasteries in this land is also in Leonese.
The first written text in the Leonese language is the Nodicia de Kesos (959 or 974); other works in the language include Fueru de Llión, Fueru de Salamanca, Fueru Xulgu, Códice d'Alfonsu XI, ou Disputa d'Elena y María or Llibru d'Alixandre.
The Modern Era signifies a new opportunity for writers like Torres Naharro, Juan del Encina, Lucas Fernández and Torres Villarroel who used Leonese in their works, which however came to the verge of disappearance during the 19th century.
International philologists of the 19th century, such as Gessner, Hanssen, Staaff and Menéndez Pidal, in Europe and America, started to describe Leonese. Writers such as Caitano Bardón (Cuentos en Dialecto Leonés), Luis Maldonado or Aragón Escacena (Entre brumas) restarted Leonese literature in the early 20th century.
There is a new generation of writers in Leonese, especially in urban areas, that are developing new creations. One of the best examples is "Cuentos del Sil", a Leonese language book promoted by Leonese language associations El Fueyu and El Toralín who had the support of the Leonese Provincial Government. There are nine writers, from teenagers to old people, but most of them under their forties, that developed stories in Leonese. All the writers had a relationship with the lands where the Sil river runs.
The situation of Leonese as a minority language has driven Leonese to near extinction and it is considered a seriously endangered language by UNESCO. There are some efforts to gain acceptance among the urban population, (the Leonese Council and other municipalities such as Zamora, Coyanza, Mansilla de las Mulas or La Bañeza made campaigns in and for teaching Leonese). Leonese language associations and some administrations are now promoting its knowledge and use, especially León City Council where it is widely used in their internet communications.
The internet is a new field for promoting and developing Leonese, where Leonese grammar is being fixed. The main reason is that Leonese has seen more publications in the internet in the last year than books were edited. In this sense, Leonese has seen great progress in being permitted the creation of associations like puntuLLI, for requesting a Top Level Domain for the Leonese language and culture.
An Encyclopaedia in Leonese has existed since June 30, 2009. It's called Llionpedia, la Enciclupedia en Llingua Llïonesa and has more than 12,000 articles. Llionpedia is the only Encyclopedia in the Leonese language and has more than 145,000 at this time. 
At the end of the 1990s, several associations unofficially promoted Leonese language courses. In 2001, the Universidad de León (University of León) created a course for teachers of Leonese, and local and provincial governments developed Leonese language courses for adults. Nowadays, Leonese can be studied in the most important villages of León, Zamora and Salamanca provinces in El Fueyu Courses, after the signing of an agreement between the Leonese Provincial Government and this organization. The Leonese Language Teachers and Monitors Association (Asociación de Profesores y Monitores de Llingua Llïonesa) was created in 2008 for the promotion of Leonese language activities.
Leonese language lessons started in 2008 with two schools, and are currently taught in sixteen schools in León city in 2008-2009, promoted by the Leonese Local Government's Department for Education. This Leonese language course is for pupils in their 5th and 6th year of Primary School (children 11 and 12 years old), where Leonese is taught along with Leonese culture.
In the 2008-2009 course 107 persons are studying Leonese in the Municipality of León. There are five levels for adults in the official courses organized by the Department for Leonese Culture of the Leonese City Council .
The Linguasphere code for Leonese language is 51-AAA-cc.
"Leonese will be a subject of specific protection by the institutions, due to its particular value in the Community's linguistic patrimony. Its protection, use and promotion will be subject of regulamentation".
The Province of León government supports the knowledge of this language through courses, by celebrating "Leonese Language Days" and by sponsoring literary efforts in Leonese, such as Cuentos del Sil.
Leonese Local Government uses Leonese in its official web site. Leonese is also present in some of its bureaus, such as Education, Leonese Culture and New Technologies, and it organizes courses for adults. In 2007 they organized the Leonese Language Day where a wide variety of activities were officially advertised in Leonese.
Leonese language has a system with 5 vowels in a stressed position, represented a,e,i,o,u and three (two archiphonemes /I/, /U/ and one phoneme /a/) in non-stressed position, represented with e,u,a at the end of word
Leonese language has evolved from Latin, keeping some linguistic structures different from other Romance languages. The majority of Leonese vocabulary comes from Latin. Other languages, like the Celtic languages and Germanic languages, have influenced Leonese as well.
The main desinences are "u" for masculine singular and "os" for masculine plural.
For the feminine, the desinences are "a" for the singular and "as" for the plural.
Leonese language has two genders (masculine and feminine) and two numbers (singular and plural) The main desinences are "u" for masculine singular and "os" for masculine plural.
For the feminine, the desinences are "a" for the singular and "as" for the plural. For both are "e" for singluar and "es" for the plural.
Adjectives have a concordance in gender and number with the name.
There are two divisions in Leonese language gerunds depending on the desinence:
There are three kinds of participles in Leonese language:
Possessives in Leonese language, like in other Romance languages, must have the article before the possessive. These are:
Leonese language uses apostrophe with some prepositions like "en", "de", or "pa" (n', d', p') when afeter comes a vowel (sometimes just an "a" like "pa").
|Diphthongization of 'o' and 'e'|
|F- (initial position)|
|–kt- and –lt- groups|
|Faminem (hunger, famine)||FAME||FAME||HAMBRE|
|c´l, t´l, g´l groups|
Leonese Language Day (Día de la Llingua Llïonesa, in Leonese), is a celebration for promoting the Leonese language and the advances in its field and was the result of a protocol signed between the Leonese Provincial Government and the Cultural Association for Leonese Language El Fueyu .
Leonese Language Day started on June 10, 2006 and was organised by the Asociación Cultural de la Llingua Llïonesa El Fueyu with the collaboration of other linguistic and cultural organizations and the support of the Provincial and Local governments of León with a recital where personalities from the cultural, university, associative and political world of León recited peoems and stories in Leonese.
Since 2007, it is officially organised by the León City Council with the collaboration of Leonese language associations. Activities developed on this day mix traditional Leonese music with the exhibition of new works about Leonese, mainly books and films, and representation of theater plays, poetry recitals and conferences. The 2008 event gave an important role to new technologies.
In the 2009 event the Government of León gave their official diplomas to the students of Leonese , the schools that taught Leonese and the adult people that attended the courses of "Llingua Llïonesa". 300 hundred people were awarded.
On February 21, International Mother Language Day, a common press communique was made by the most important Leonese language associations: Asociación puntuLLI, Asociación Cultural de la Llingua Llïonesa El Fueyu, Asociación Berciana en Defensa de la Llingua Llïonesa El Toralín, Asociación de la Llingua Llïonesa La Barda de Salamanca, Mesa Divulgativa Llïonesa de Salamanca y Asociación de Profesores y Monitores de Llingua Llïonesa, in which they supported the development of Leonese, particularly in public administration.
PuntuLLI Association develops the fight for reaching a top-level domain for the Leonese language and culture. There are more than 800 signers and 44 organisations collaborating with it. In addition to the Leon City Council, which uses Leonese in its web site, so other associations, organisations or enterprises use the language in their web sites too.
Leonese is present on the Internet in many on-line dictionaries, some of them, like Logos Dictionary can be consulted in hundreds of languages.
|Carreño's dialect (asturian)||Asturias||Central asturleonese||Tolos seres humanos nacen llibres y iguales en dignidá y drechos y, pola mor de la razón y la conciencia de so, han comportase fraternalmente los unos colos otros.|
|Somiedo's dialect (asturian)||Asturias||Occidental asturleonese||Tódolos seres humanos nacen ḷḷibres ya iguales en dignidá ya dreitos ya, dotaos cumo tán de razón ya conciencia, han portase fraternalmente los unos conos outros.|
|Paḷḷuezu (Leonese)||León||Occidental asturleonese||Tódolos seres humanos nacen ḷḷibres ya iguales en dignidá ya dreitos ya, dotaos cumo tán de razón ya conciencia, han portase fraternalmente los unos conos outros.|
|Cabreirés (Leonese)||León||Occidental asturleonese||Tódolos seres humanos ñacen llibres y iguales en dignidá y dreitos y, dotaos cumo están de razón y concéncia, han portase fraternalmente los unos pa coños outros.|
|Mirandese||Trás-os-Montes (Portugal)||Occidental asturleonese||Todos ls seres houmanos nácen lhibres i eiguales an denidade i an dreitos. Custuituídos de rezon i de cuncéncia, dében portar-se uns culs outros an sprito de armandade.|