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Leopold IV Frederick, Duke of Anhalt.

Leopold IV Frederick, Duke of Anhalt (b. Dessau, 1 October 1794 - d. Dessau, 22 May 1871) was a German prince of the House of Ascania, ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Dessau, and from 1863 the first ruler of the united duchy of Anhalt.

He was the eldest son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, by his wife Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Homburg, daughter of Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.


With the death of his father in 1814 he became heir to the duchy of Anhalt-Dessau and succeeded as duke on 9 August 1817 following the death of his grandfather Leopold III.[1]

During the revolutions of 1848 he was forced to grant a constitution to Dessau on 29 October 1848. It was revoked, however, on 4 November 1849, then replaced with a new version in October 1859.[2]

On 27 November 1847 he inherited the Duchy of Anhalt-K├Âthen from his distant cousin Duke Henry. As a result of a treaty concluded with Anhalt-Bernburg in May 1853 his duchies were joined together and named Anhalt-Dessau-K├Âthen, because the eventual inheritance of Leopold over all the Anhalt duchies seemed inevitable.[1] The death of another distant cousin, Duke Alexander Karl, on 19 August 1863 resulted in the ruling line of the duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg becoming extinct, thus Leopold inherited that duchy as well.[1] On 30 August he assumed the title "duke of Anhalt."[1]

Leopold was succeeded by his son Frederick following his death.[3]

Marriage and Issue

In Berlin on 18 April 1818 Leopold married Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia (b. Berlin, 30 September 1796 - d. Dessau, 1 January 1850), daughter of Prince Frederick Louis Charles of Prussia (brother of King Frederick William III of Prussia) by his wife Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; through her mother's last marriage, she was a half-sister of King George V of Hanover.[1] They had six children: [4][5]

  1. Fredericka Amalie Auguste (b. Dessau, 28 November 1819 - d. Dessau, 11 December 1822).
  2. Fredericka Amalie Agnes (b. Dessau, 24 June 1824 - d. Hummelshain, 23 October 1897), married on 28 April 1853 to Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
  3. A son (b. and d. Dessau, 3 August 1825); he was either stillborn or died shortly after the birth.
  4. A son (b. and d. Dessau, 3 November 1827); he was either stillborn or died shortly after the birth.
  5. Leopold Frederick I Franz Nikolaus, Duke of Anhalt (b. Dessau, 29 April 1831 - d. Ballenstedt, 24 January 1904).
  6. Maria Anna (b. Dessau, 14 September 1837 - d. Friedrichroda, 12 May 1906), married on 29 November 1854 to Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia.


  1. ^ a b c d e Almanach de Gotha. 1867. pp. 3.  
  2. ^
    This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.
  3. ^ "Duke of Anhalt is dead". New York Times. 1904-01-25. pp. 7.  
  4. ^ Chronological dates of rulers of Anhalt
  5. ^ Complete Genealogy of the House of Ascania
Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt
Born: 1 October 1794 Died: 22 May 1871
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leopold III
Duke of Anhalt-Dessau
Duchies united
Preceded by
Duke of Anhalt-K├Âthen
New title Duke of Anhalt-Dessau-K├Âthen
Unification of all
Anhalt Duchies
Preceded by
Alexander Karl
Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
New title Duke of Anhalt
Succeeded by
Frederick I


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