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Don
 Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris


In office
July 14, 1856 – October 12, 1856
Monarch Isabella II
Preceded by Baldomero Espartero
Succeeded by Ramón María Narváez y Campos
In office
June 30, 1858 – March 2, 1863
Monarch Isabella II
Preceded by Francisco Javier Istúriz
Succeeded by Manuel Pando Fernández de Pineda
In office
September 16, 1864 – July 10, 1866
Monarch Isabella II
Preceded by Ramón María Narváez y Campos
Succeeded by Ramón María Narváez y Campos


Minister for War 1854

Born January 12, 1809
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Died November 5, 1867
Biarritz, French Empire
Political party Unión Liberal
Spouse(s) Manuela Barges

Don Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris, 1st Duke of Tetuan, 1st Count of Lucena, 1st Viscount of Aliaga, (es: Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris, 1. Duque de Tetuán, 1. Conde de Lucena, 1. Vizconde de Aliaga) (January 12, 1809 – November 5, 1867), Spanish general and statesman. He was of Irish paternal descent, a descendant of Calvagh O'Donnell, chieftain of Tyrconnell.[1][2]

Contents

Early life

He was born at Santa Cruz de Tenerife a son of Carlos O'Donnell y Anethan (b. 1768) and wife Josefa Jorris y Casaviella, and paternal grandson of José O'Donnell y O'Donnell and wife Marie Anne d' Anethan. He had an uncle Francisco and an aunt Beatriz, married to Manuel Pombo y Ante (1769–1829), and had issue.[3]

Career

O'Donnell was a strong supporter of the Cristinos, and backed the regency of Maria Cristina in the 1830s. When General Baldomero Espartero seized power in 1840, O'Donnell went into exile with Maria Cristina, and was involved in an attempted coup against Espartero in 1841. O'Donnell was soon back in power and was sent to Cuba as Captain General in October 1843. He is credited with the massacre of 1844 known as the repression of La Escalera. Thousands of slaves and free-colored people in Cuba ended up in dark dungeons, were tortured and executed in what became known as the 'year of the lash'. In 1854, he made a pronunciamento against the government and was named Prime Minister for a time. He served as War Minister in the Espartero government.

O'Donnell's mausoleum (Madrid)

The Crimean War caused a sharp rise in grain prices due to the blockade of Russia, triggering a famine in Galicia in 1854. Riots over the power loom spread through Spain, and General O'Donnell intervened, marching on Madrid. Espartero resigned power in O'Donnell's favor on July 14–15, 1856, and Queen Isabella II asked him to form a government as the 44th Prime Minister of Spain. For his new administration, O'Donnell formed the Union Liberal Party, which was designed to cross the traditional Progressive, Moderate, and Carlist lines. O'Donnell attempted to find a "middle way" for Spain with this new party, advocating laissez-faire policies and confiscating church land. He was shortly dismissed after only a few months in power on October 12, and two years of reaction followed. His first government did lay the groundwork for future progress.

In future governments, he was more careful. O'Donnell's two later administrations worked laboriously to attract foreign investment to improve Spain's railroad infrastructure. He failed to achieve much economic growth, however, and spurred industry only in Navarre and Catalonia, both of which already had substantial industrial centers. He was a proponent of a new and aggressive imperial policy, aimed principally at expanding Spanish territory in Africa, particularly after French successes in Algeria. In the first administration he was twice at the same time the 136th Minister of Foreign Affairs and the 48th Prime Minister of Spain between June 30, 1858 and July 2, 1858, and again as the 138th Minister of Foreign Affairs between October 21, 1860 and January 18, 1863, remaining again solely as Prime Minister until February 26, 1863. His second term as the 53rd Prime Minister started on October 21, 1860.

He took a brief respite from his government in 1860 to command the Spanish army at the battle of Tetuan during its invasion of Morocco, overseeing the capture of Tétouan. He was rewarded for his abilities in the campaign with the title Duque de Tetuán. In 1866 he repressed a revolt led by General Juan Prim, and was subsequently dismissed by the Queen for the brutality of his regime on July 11, 1866.

He was the 103th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.

Family

He was succeeded in his titles by his nephew, son of his brother Carlos O' Donnell y Jorris and wife María del Mar Alvarez de Abreu y Rodríguez de Albuerne, Carlos O' Donnell y Alvarez de Abreu (Valencia, July 1, 1834 –  ?), 2nd Duke of Tetuán, 2nd Count of Lucena and also 9th Marquess of Altamira, married in Madrid on June 1, 1861 to María Josefa de Vargas y Díez de Bulnes (Madrid - ?).

See also

References

  1. ^ * John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees. Dublin. 5th edition, 1892. pp. 648-9
  2. ^ "The O'Donnells Of Mayo". North Mayo Historical Society Journal (1990) Vol. 11 No 4 p 67- 81. http://www.geocities.com/newporthistsoc/workhouse/nm1990.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-30.  
  3. ^ http://www.geneall.net/H/per_page.php?id=646635
Preceded by
Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana
Prime Minister of Spain
July 14, 1856 – October 12, 1856
Succeeded by
Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia
Preceded by
Francisco Javier Istúriz
Prime Minister of Spain
June 30, 1858 – March 2, 1863
Succeeded by
Manuel Pando Fernández de Pineda
Preceded by
Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia
Prime Minister of Spain
September 16, 1864 – July 10, 1866
Succeeded by
Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia
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