Levon Ter-Petrossian: Wikis

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Levon Ter-Petrossian
Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյան


In office
October 16, 1991 – February 3, 1998
Succeeded by Robert Kocharyan

Born January 9, 1945 (1945-01-09) (age 65)
Aleppo, Syria
Nationality Armenian
Political party ANM (Armenian: ՀՀՇ or "HHSh")

Levon Ter-Petrossian (Armenian: Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյան; Russian: Левон Тер-Петросян) (born January 9, 1945), sometimes transliterated Levon Ter-Petrosyan or Ter-Petrosian (with or without the hyphen), was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. Due to some economic and political problems, he resigned on February 3, 1998 and was succeeded by Robert Kocharyan.

Contents

Early life and career

Ter-Petrossian was born in Aleppo, Syria to an Armenian-Syrian family of genocide survivors. They emigrated to Armenia in 1946.

In 1968, Ter-Petrossian graduated from the Oriental Studies Department of the Yerevan State University. In 1972, he completed his postgraduate studies at the Leningrad State University. In 1987, he received his doctoral degree from the same university. In 1972-1978, Ter-Petrossian worked as junior researcher at the Literature Institute of Armenia named after Manouk Abeghian. In 1978-1985, he held the post of science secretary at Matenadaran named after Saint Mesrob Mashdots. Since 1985, Ter-Petrossian has been working at Matenadaran as a senior researcher.

He is married to Lyudmila Ter-Petrossian. They have one son, David Ter-Petrossian, and three grandchildren.

Ter-Petrossian is fluent in Armenian, Assyrian[1], Russian, French, English, German, Arabic and some "dead" languages. He is the author of more than 70 scholarly publications in Armenian, Russian and French. He is also a member of the Writers Union of Armenia, the French Asian Society, the Venice Mkhitarian Academy and a recipient of honorary doctorates from the University of La Verne, University of Sofia, Sorbonne University and University of Strasbourg.

Ter-Petrossian's political career started in the 1960s. In 1966 he was arrested for his active participation in an April 24 demonstration. In February 1988, he led Matenadaran's Karabakh committee. In May of the same year, he became involved with the Armenian Committee of the Karabakh movement. From December 10, 1988, to May 31, 1989, he was under arrest in Matrosskaya Tishina together with other members of the Karabakh Committee.

In 1989, Ter-Petrossian was elected Member of the Board of the Pan-Armenian National Movement. Later on, he became the Chairman of the Board.

On August 27, 1989, he was elected as deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR. He was re-elected as deputy on May 20, 1990. On August 4 of the same year, he became Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Armenia.[2]

Term as President

Ter-Petrossian was popularly elected the first President of the newly-independent Republic of Armenia on October 16, 1991 and re-elected on September 22, 1996. His re-election was marred by allegations of electoral fraud reported by the opposition and supported by many international observers. His popularity waned further as the opposition started blaming him for the economic quagmire that Armenia's post-Soviet economy was in. He was also unpopular with one party in particular, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, which he banned and jailed its leadership, on the grounds that the party had a foreign-based leadership--something which was forbidden according to the Armenian Constitution.

Resignation

He was forced to step down in February 1998 after advocating compromised settlement of the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh which many Armenians regarded as undermining their security. Ter-Petrossian's key ministers, led by then-Prime Minister Robert Kocharyan, refused to accept a peace plan for Karabakh put forward by international mediators in September 1997. The plan, accepted by Ter-Petrossian and Azerbaijan, called for a "phased" settlement of the conflict which would postpone an agreement on Karabakh's status, the main stumbling block. That agreement was to accompany the return of most Armenian-controlled Azerbaijani territories around Karabakh and the lifting of the Azerbaijani and Turkish blockades of Armenia.

Comeback

Since his resignation, Ter-Petrossian rarely appeared in public and avoided contact with the media, although there were speculations that he would run for the office of president of Armenia in the general election in February 2003. He instead devoted his time to scientific research. In 2005-2007 Ter-Petrossian published two volumes of his "The Crusaders and Armenians" historio-political research.

On September 21, 2007, Ter-Petrossian gave his first public speech in nearly ten years at an event in Yerevan marking the 16th anniversary of Armenia's declaration of independence. In this speech he was strongly critical of Kocharyan. Subsequently, Ter-Petrossian officially announced his candidacy in the 2008 presidential election in a speech in Yerevan on 26 October 2007. He accused Kocharyan's government of massive corruption, involving the theft of "at least three to four billion dollars" over the previous five years. He was critical of the government's claims of strong economic growth and argued that Kocharyan and his Prime Minister, Serge Sargsyan, had come to accept a solution to the problem of Nagorno-Karabakh that was effectively the same solution that he had proposed ten years earlier. A number of opposition parties have rallied behind him since his return to the political arena, including the People's Party of Armenia led by Stepan Demirchian, Armenian Republic Party led by Aram Sargsyan,[3] Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, "Azadakrum" movement for Jirair Sefilian, "New Times" Party and the Heritage Party, led by Raffi Hovannisian.[4]

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Protests

Final results from the election, which was held on February 19, 2008, officially showed Ter-Petrossian in second place with 21.5% of the vote. Then he and his supporters accused the government of rigging the election and claimed victory;[5] beginning on February 20, he led continuous protests involving tens of thousands of his supporters in Yerevan.[6] On the early morning of March 1, reportedly acting on evidence of firearms in the camp, the authorities moved in to inspect the tents set up by demonstrators. Law enforcement agents then violently dispersed the hundreds of protestors camped in. Ter-Petrossian was placed under de facto house arrest, not being allowed to leave his home, though the authorities later denied the allegations.[7] A few hours later, tens of thousands of protestors or more gathered at Miyasnikyan Square to protest the government's act. Police, overwhelmed by the sheer size of the crowd, pulled out. A state of emergency was implemented by President Kocharyan at 5pm, allowing the army to be moved into the capital. At night, a few thousand protestors barricaded themselves using commandeered municipal buses. As a result of skirmishes with the police, ten people died.[8]

Filmography

The Manuscript of Independence
Above:Levon Ter-Petrossian

References

External links

Preceded by
Samson Tonotyan
Chairman of the Armenian SSR Supreme Soviet
1990-1991
Succeeded by
None
Preceded by
None
President of Armenia
1991–1998
Succeeded by
Robert Kocharyan

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Struggle...struggle...to the end!

Levon Ter-Petrossian (born January 9, 1945), sometimes transliterated Levon Ter-Petrosyan, was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. Because of many economic and political problems, he resigned on February 3, 1998 and was succeeded by Robert Kocharyan. Since his resignation, Ter-Petrossian rarely appeared in public and avoided contact with the media, although there were speculations that he would run for the office of president of Armenia in the general election in February 2003. He officially announced his candidacy in the 2008 presidential election in a speech in Yerevan on October 26 2007. He accused Kocharyan's government of massive corruption, Police began forcefully breaking up the protests on March 1, and Kocharyan declared a state of emergency. On the same day, Ter-Petrossian said that he was being held under house arrest.

Unsourced

  • Struggle...struggle...to the end!
  • People were sleeping quietly. [Security forces] came in large numbers with truncheons and started beating. At that time I was near the microphone and I called on people to stay calm. Security forces didn't start the beating immediately. First they stood in front of people and I urged people not to get in contact with them and to stay quiet to see what they want. But nobody told us anything, nothing was negotiated. And they suddenly attacked people with truncheons and electric stun guns.
    • [March 2, 2008]
  • We protected Artsakh. This problem...at this moment...is solved...better conditions, better protection, have never existed in Artsakh before. We have also stabilized Armenia's security. Our government's most important factor. Keeping in mind that aggressive part of the world where Armenia is located. We solved the issue of security by following it. Armenia was the first government which decided to deal with others willingly. When Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Ukraine were hurrying to team with Russian forces, they were blaming us, criticizing, and cursing...that we weren't doing the same. That we were not creating an Armenian military. Slowly, events led to this day that Azerbaijan and Georgia don't have a military, but Armenia has a military of 60,000.
    • [1994]
  • I wouldn't fix one problem...I'd like to fix at least ten problems. For example, a better comprehension...when it comes to elections for heads of state. One. A more aggressive representation of not only myself but the entire government...positively influencing the economic situation. We have had, yes, mistakes...and careless maneuvers...you know, I won't point out one mistake, I'll mention ten.
    • [1997]
  • If the aim of the current Armenian authorities was to disgrace the country, then they can be congratulated, this was clearly achieved.
    • [January 28, 1999]
  • We are on the our way to a free market economy. Regardless of the mistakes and omissions, the government has managed to implement a firm and consistent economic policy. Regardless of how incomplete it still is, the transition to free market relations and democracy has become irreversible.
    • [May 21, 1997]
  • Armenia stands firm on gaining full political independence.
    • [October 17, 1991]
  • The government bodies known to you have presented me a resignation demand. Taking into account that the execution of the constitutional power of the president in the situation that has been created could pose serious danger to the stability of the country, I accept that demand and announce my resignation.
    • [forced resignation in February 1998]
  • After having wasted so many years, the current authorities of Armenia have quietly and secretly agreed to a plan that they had diligently presented as defeatist and treacherous in the past.
  • They [Kocharyan and Sargsyan] are happy with themselves. They got what they wanted.
    • [about Kocharyan's decision to declare a state of emergency and unleash the army on the protestors]
  • Because of these two persons [Kocharyan and Sargsyan], 15,000 people have moved from Karabakh to Armenia, mainly Yerevan, in the past 10 years. Each of them has been given a position. As if that wasn’t enough, now the business sphere is also being given to them.
  • More and more, I am becoming convinced that truly I have a created a problem and have made a mistake. Although very late, with all honesty...I am asking for forgiveness from all of you, it was my fault for bringing Robert Kocharyan and Serzh Sargsyan and allowing them to choke your necks. If this was my mistake, then I am truly sorry. Wait, this was more than a mistake. This was a tragedy that I brought into the lives of my people. So...so please allow me, allow me to help save you from that crisis.
    • [November 16, 2007]
  • 16 years...a very short and very long time, when it comes to Armenia's history.
    • [September 21, 2007]
  • I cannot go forward based on emotions. Until I know the results of my actions, I will not go a step forward.
    • [about running for president again]
  • The people who killed your sacred heads of state, the heads of Karen Demirchyan and Vazgen Sargsyan, want to maintain forever that foundation built on the spilling of blood.
    • [January 24, 2008]
  • Where are they taking us? Where is Serzh Sargsyan taking us? I know where. He's going to take you all, our people, our entire nation...to the Monte Carlo casino...and right there waste us all.
    • [about Serzh Sargsyan's expensive visits and heavy losses at casinos]
  • I have not come to beg for voices, that's Serzh's job...because in Armenia, he has no voice.
    • [January 21, 2008]
  • In these elections, you will also be able to lose the shame. In 1998, choosing Karen Demirchyan. In 2003, choosing Stepan Demirchyan. And consider this victory, a victory for all three of us in addition to a victory for Vazgen Sargsyan.
    • [2008]

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Levon Ter-Petrosyan (Armenian: Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյան; Russian: Левон Тер-Петросян) (born January 9, 1945), also Levon Ter-Petrosyan, was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. Because of many economic and political problems, he resigned on February 3, 1998. He was replaced by Robert Kocharyan. Levon Ter Petrosian, announced he will run again for office in the presidential election which will start next year. [1]Ter-Petrossian was born in Aleppo, Syria to an Armenian-Syrian family of genocide survivors. They emigrated to Armenia in 1946. In 1968, Ter-Petrossian graduated from the Oriental Studies Department of the Yerevan State University. In 1972, he completed his postgraduate studies at the Leningrad State University. In 1987, he received his doctoral degree from the same university. In 1972-1978, Ter-Petrossian worked as junior researcher at the Literature Institute of Armenia named after Manouk Abeghian. In 1978-1985, he held the post of science secretary at Matenadaran named after Saint Mesrop Mashtots. Since 1985, Ter-Petrossian has been working at Matenadaran as a senior researcher.

Filmographi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EERMf2jdMlc

References

Other websites


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