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.The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was the first overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back.^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • HowStuffWorks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Example of subject heading: Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) .

.The expedition team was headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and assisted by Sacajawea and Toussaint Charbonneau.^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Example of subject heading: Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) .

^ Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition | Definition of Lewis and Clark Expedition | HighBeam.com: Online Dictionary 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

.The expedition's goal was to gain an accurate sense of the resources being exchanged in the Louisiana Purchase.^ Louisiana Purchase and a western expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1804 President Jefferson sent an expedition (led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark) to map and explore the area that was added to the country through the Louisiana Purchase.

^ The Louisiana Purchase consists of three separate agreements between the United States and France: a treaty of cession and two agreements providing for the exchange of monies in the transaction.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC famousamericans.net [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition laid much of the groundwork for the westward expansion of the United States.^ The Lewis and Clark Expedition, headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark , was the first United States overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States citizens knew little about western North America when the Lewis and Clark Expedition set out in 1804.
  • LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their expedition was the first United States overland exploration of the American West and Pacific Northwest.
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition Project Pack 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.handsofachild.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Earlier exploration

.The Lewis and Clark expedition was only the third recorded transcontinental crossing of North America, having been preceded to the Pacific coast (on July 20, 1793) by a Canadian expedition led by explorer Sir Alexander Mackenzie.^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we do need Lewis and Clark to justify having done it.
  • Why Lewis and Clark don't matter—and never did. - By David Plotz - Slate Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mackenzie had previously crossed North America in 1789 as well, but had turned north at the Continental Divide of the Americas, also becoming the first European to reach the western Arctic Ocean.^ The expedition was not the first to cross North America, but was roughly a decade after the expedition of Alexander MacKenzie , the first European to cross to the Pacific Ocean , in 1793.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were some of the first white men to cross the Continental Divide.
  • Pittsburgh Rides: Trailing Lewis & Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.post-gazette.com [Source type: General]

^ Their expedition was the first to describe the grizzly bear ; they also sent a prairie dog back to President Jefferson (these animals were not previously known to Europeans).
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1536, Cabeza de Vaca and three others of the Narváez expedition reached the Pacific Ocean after crossing the continent through parts of what later became the United States.^ This was the first official expedition to cross the continent to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He became president of the United States in 1801.

^ Eighteen months later, the expedition would reach the goal: the Pacific Ocean.
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lewis & Clark BiCentennial SCOUTER Interactive - Your Guide to Scout Out the Net! SCOUTER Magazine and Network 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.scouter.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Louisiana Purchase and a western expedition

Front of the sculpture showing Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Sacajawea, and her baby Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau in Kansas City, Missouri.
Back of the sculpture commemorating Lewis and Clark's stop on the bluffs in Kansas City, showing York and the Newfoundland dog "Seaman."
.
The famous map of Lewis and Clark's expedition.
^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was the goal of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It changed mapping of northwest America by providing the first accurate depiction of the relationship of the sources of the Columbia and Missouri rivers, and the Rocky Mountains.
.The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 sparked interest in expansion to the west coast.^ The Louisiana Purchase , in 1803, sparked interest in expansion to the west coast.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1803 Jefferson bought the western part of the country from France which was called the Louisiana Purchase.

^ With the purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803 by President Thomas Jefferson, the progression west for the United States commenced.
  • State of Montana: Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.bozemannet.com [Source type: News]

.The United States did not know precisely what it was buying and France was unsure of how much land it was actually selling.^ How did they know.
  • Lewis and Clark Unit 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC happyhomeschool.familyclassroom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • EasyFunSchool - The Lewis and Clark Expedition - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Academic]

^ United States now claimed their land."
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How was it defined in the 1800s in the United States?
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

.A few weeks after the purchase, President Thomas Jefferson, an advocate of western expansion, had Congress appropriate $2,500 for an expedition.^ How was Thomas Jefferson involved in the western expedition?
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few weeks after the purchase, United States President Thomas Jefferson , an advocate of western expansion, had the U.S. Congress appropriate $2500, "to send intelligent officers with ten or twelve men, to explore even to the Western ocean".
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not surprisingly, the expedition had its critics, and Jefferson had to persuade Congress to appropriate $2,500 for the adventure.
  • Space exploration in 1803: The Lewis and Clark Expedition | Carnegie | Find Articles at BNET 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

In a message to Congress, Jefferson wrote:
.
"The river Missouri, and Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as rendered desirable by their connection with the Mississippi, and consequently with us....^ In a message to Congress Thomas Jefferson wrote The river Missouri, and Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as rendered desirable by their connection with the Mississippi, and consequently with us.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ January 18,1803 - President Jefferson sent a confidential message to Congress, stating in part, “The river Missouri and the Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as is rendered desirable by their connection with the Mississippi, and consequently with us.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson: Planning a Nation’s Destiny On January 18, 1803, President Jefferson sent a confidential message to Congress, stating in part, “The river Missouri and the Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as is rendered desirable by their connection with the Mississippi, and consequently with us.

.An intelligent officer, with ten or twelve chosen men ...^ Jefferson went on to propose that an “intelligent officer with ten or twelve chosen men .
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson went on to propose that an “intelligent officer with ten or twelve chosen men .

^ An intelligent officer, with ten or twelve chosen men ...
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

might explore the whole line, even to the Western Ocean..."[2]
.Thomas Jefferson had long thought about such an expedition, but was concerned about the danger.^ Sent by President Thomas Jefferson to find the fabled Northwest Passage, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the most courageous and important expedition in U.S. history.

^ Purpose Thomas Jefferson had long considered the project of a western expedition, having encouraged John Ledyard when he proposed such an expedition in the 1780s, and as president he contemplated the matter in earnest and discussed it with his private secretary, Capt.
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Lewis to head an expedition to explore the newly-bought Louisiana Territory in order to further commerce (trade).
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While in France from 1785–1789, he had heard of numerous plans to better explore the Pacific Northwest.^ And he was passionate about scientific discovery-so much so that he had tried several times in the previous 20 years to get scientists to explore the Pacific Northwest, but had always failed.
  • Space exploration in 1803: The Lewis and Clark Expedition | Carnegie | Find Articles at BNET 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ Their main purpose was to map and explore the western territory (known then as Louisiana, having recently been acquired from France) and to establish trade routes to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Sierra Club issues status report on wildlife of the Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.cyberwest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis & Clark performed numerous tasks that demonstrated the exercise of American sovereignty and empire in the Territory, and U.S. claims of Discovery to the Pacific Northwest.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1785, Jefferson learned that King Louis XVI of France planned to send a mission there, reportedly as a mere scientific expedition.^ Jefferson was most worried about Burr's expedition at the time that he learned that Lewis and Cark had returned to St. Louis, but he praised them for their service, and the public at large became very interested in the expedition.
  • Background and significance of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lib.niu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jeffersons personal objective for the Expedition was the Enlightenment Era goal of exploring the Louisiana Territory for the purpose of gaining scientific knowledge.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We'll dig into what the two groups learned from each other, and find out how the expedition's scientific achievements advanced America's intellectual movement.
  • WAMU 88.5 FM American University Radio - Unfinished Journey: The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC wamu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jefferson found that doubtful, and evidence provided by John Paul Jones confirmed these doubts. .In either event, the mission was destroyed by bad weather after leaving Botany Bay in 1788. In 1786 John Ledyard, who had sailed with Captain James Cook to the Pacific Northwest, told Jefferson that he planned to walk across Siberia, ride a Russian fur-trade vessel to cross the ocean, and then walk all the way to the American capital.^ From there they could sail the rest of the way to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franksrealm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next year Jefferson met John Ledyard who had sailed with Captain James Cook and therefore was the first American to see the Pacific Northwest.
  • Planning the Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.hsl.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Summer 1808 - Clark became a business partner in the newly-formed Missouri Fur Company, which planned to send militia units, hunters, and boatsmen up the Missouri to develop the American fur trading industry.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since Ledyard was an American, Jefferson hoped he would succeed.^ The next year Jefferson met John Ledyard who had sailed with Captain James Cook and therefore was the first American to see the Pacific Northwest.
  • Planning the Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.hsl.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This venture intimately involved Indians and tribes because Jefferson wanted to induce Indians to trade their furs at frontier posts the United States would establish and hoped that tribes would also allow American fur traders to operate in tribal territories.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfulfilled were Jefferson’s hopes of cultivating the American fur trade, winning over the Indians from Spanish and British influence, and laying the foundations for a carefully regulated trade and intercourse with the Indians.
  • MHC - Changed Lives: Lewis and Clark Meet the West 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mohumanities.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ledyard had made it as far as Siberia when Empress Catherine the Great had him arrested and deported back to Poland.^ Katherine the Great's Cossack Soldiers finally thwarted Ledyard's stroll, but not until he had made it across European Russia to Siberia.
  • NDSU Magazine - Fall 2007 - Vol 8 Issue 1: Thinking Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ndsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.The American expedition to the Pacific northwest was intended to study the Native American Indian tribes, botany, geology, Western terrain and wildlife in the region, as well as evaluate the potential interference of British and French Canadian hunters and trappers who were already well established in the area.^ PBS: The Native Americans deals with each tribe encountered on the expedition.
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC rosaweb.chclc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were to study the Indian tribes , botany , geology , Western terrain and wildlife in the region, as well as evaluate the potential interference of British and French-Canadian hunters and trappers who were already well established in the area.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Research the Native American tribe near your region.
  • Idaho Public Television NTTI Lesson Plan: Sacagawea and the Lemhi Shoshoni: Contribution To The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: General]

.Jefferson selected U.S. Army Captain Meriwether Lewis, his aide and personal friend, to lead the expedition, afterwards known as the Corps of Discovery.^ To head the expedition, Jefferson chose his young secretary, captain Meriwether Lewis.
  • IdahoPTV NTTI Lesson Plan: The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jefferson called the group the Corps of Discovery.

^ Meriwether Lewis served as Thomas Jefferson’s personal aide prior to the expedition.
  • North Dakota Tourism : Lewis and Clark Trail : Corps of Discovery / Lewis & Clark Expedition's Notable Figures 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ndtourism.com [Source type: Original source]

In a letter dated June 20, 1803, Jefferson wrote to Lewis
.
The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river, and such principal stream of it as by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purposes of commerce.^ "The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river & such principal stream[s] of it, as, by it's course and communication with the waters of the Pacific ocean .
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a letter dated June 20 , 1803 Thomas Jefferson wrote to Meriwether Lewis The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river, and such principal stream of it as by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific ocean whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purposes of commerce.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1803 President Jefferson presented Captain Lewis with a list of written instructions, saying that, "The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri River, and such principal streams of it which may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across the continent for the purposes of commerce..."
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franklin.ma.us [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Lewis selected William Clark as his partner.^ From this training Lewis taught William Clark.
  • Lewis and Clark— expedition's scientific equipment 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mbmg.mtech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1804 President Jefferson sent an expedition (led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark) to map and explore the area that was added to the country through the Louisiana Purchase.

^ Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were to travel 8,000 miles over the next four years to explore the wilderness, land recently bought as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Historic Journey: The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.aarp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Because of bureaucratic delays in the U.S. Army, Clark officially only held the rank of Second Lieutenant at the time, but Lewis concealed this from the men and shared the leadership of the expedition, always referring to Clark as "Captain".[5]

Journey

Route of the expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark meeting at the falls of the Ohio River; statue at the Falls of the Ohio State Park in Clarksville, Indiana (across from Louisville)
"Left Pittsburgh this day at 11 o'clock with a party of 11 hands 7 of which are soldiers, a pilot and three young men on trial they having proposed to go with me throughout the voyage."[6] With those words, written on August 31, 1803, Meriwether Lewis began his first journal entry on the epic Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Ocean.
.Lewis declared the mouth of the river Dubois (on the east side of the Mississippi across from the mouth of the Missouri river) to be the expedition's official point of departure, but the two and one-half months spent descending the Ohio River can be considered its real beginning.^ Camped at the mouth of the Grand River on the south side across from Brunswick, Missouri.

^ Lewis recorded that the mouth of Wood River was "to be considered the point of departure" for the westward journey.
  • Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclark.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They boated down the Ohio and up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Missouri.

.Clark made most of the preparations, by way of letters to Jefferson.^ Sent by President Thomas Jefferson to find the fabled Northwest Passage, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the most courageous and important expedition in U.S. history.

^ Most importantly, however, Jefferson wanted Lewis & Clark to closely study the Indians and the tribes.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Jefferson made no effort to hide the Lewis and Clark expedition from Spanish, French, and British officials, he did try to shield it from his political enemies.
  • Lewis & Clark (Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America, Library of Congress) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.He bought two large buckets and five smaller buckets of salt, a ton of dried pork, and medicines.^ Shore on which two large Mat Lodges of Indians were drying Salmon.
  • Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.nwcouncil.org [Source type: Original source]

Reconstruction of Camp Dubois, Lewis and Clark State Historic Site, Illinois
.The party of 33 included 29 individuals who were active participants in the Corps' organizational development, recruitment and training at its 1803–1804 winter staging area at Camp Dubois, Illinois Territory.^ The party of 33 included 29 individuals who were active participants in the Corps’ organizational development, recruitment and training at its 1803-1804 winter staging area at Camp Dubois, Illinois Territory; its journey up the Missouri River; and its stay at Fort Mandan, the expedition’s 1804-1805 winter headquarters.

^ The Corps of Discovery left Camp Dubois, outside St. Louis, on May 14, 1804, but Sacagawea only became part of the picture in November, after the explorers made winter camp at Fort Mandan in present-day North Dakota.
  • Sacagawea: Assisted the Lewis and Clark Expedition » HistoryNet 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For his part, Clark recruited men in Kentucky, oversaw their training that winter at Camp River Dubois in Illinois, and served as the expedition’s principal waterman and cartographer.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They then departed from Camp Dubois, near present day Hartford, Illinois, and began their historic journey on May 14, 1804. They soon met up with Lewis in Saint Charles, Missouri, and the corps followed the Missouri River westward.^ The site they went to is near the present day town of Seaside.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franksrealm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 14, 1804, Clark and the other members of the expedition left Camp River Dubois, crossed the Mississippi River and headed up the Missouri.
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 14, 1804, forty-five men set out up the Missouri River.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franksrealm.com [Source type: Original source]

.Soon they passed La Charrette, the last caucasian settlement on the Missouri River.^ They began to ascend Missouri river in the spring of 1804, passed a second winter among the Mandans in latitude 47 21' N., and on 7 April, 1805, continued to ascend the Missouri until the middle of July, when they reached the great falls.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC famousamericans.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rezanov envisioned a Russian settlement at the mouth of the river, but it never came to pass.
  • Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.nwcouncil.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The group reached the Great Falls of the Missouri River and soon began an 18-mile (29-kilometer) overland trip around the waterfalls.
  • HowStuffWorks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition followed the Missouri through what is now Kansas City, Missouri, and Omaha, Nebraska.^ The explorers passed through what are now 11 states: Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark took the Missouri through Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, the Dakotas, and Montana before crossing the Rockies in Northern Idaho.
  • Why Lewis and Clark don't matter—and never did. - By David Plotz - Slate Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Dutton, 2002) Follow the route of the great expedition and see what the land looked like 200 years ago and what it looks like now.
  • Time Warp Trio: Books and Links: Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.timewarptrio.com [Source type: General]

.On August 20, 1804, the Corps of Discovery suffered its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd died, apparently from acute appendicitis.^ On August 20 , 1804, the Corps of Discovery suffered its first and only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd died, apparently from acute appendicitis .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Floyd as believed to have died from appendicitis.

^ Charles Floyd, the only casualty of the expedition.

.He was buried at Floyd's Bluff, in what is now Sioux City, Iowa.^ The original expedition lost three members: Sergeant Charles Floyd died (near Sioux City, Iowa); Moses Reed deserted; John Newman was insubordinate to Lewis.
  • Historical Facts Lewis and Clark Westward Expansion Native American Indians 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Westward Expansion Lewis and Clark Historical Facts Pictures Indian Tribes 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mountainsofstone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD (1782 - 1804) Buried in Sioux City, Iowa.
  • Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclarktrail.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Captains name hilltops where he is buried Floyd's Bluff and a nearby stream, Floyd's River.

.During the final week of August, Lewis and Clark had reached the edge of the Great Plains, a place abounding with elk, deer, bison, and beavers.^ Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific!
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark reach St. Louis.

^ During the final week of August, Lewis and Clark had reached the edge of the Great Plains, a place abounding with elk, deer, buffalo, and beavers.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were also entering Sioux territory.^ They were also entering Sioux territory.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first tribe of Sioux they met, the Yankton Sioux, were more peaceful than their neighbors farther west along the Missouri River, the Teton Sioux, also known as the Lakota.^ Their first encounter with the famed Sioux would be with the Yankton tribe.
  • Lewis and Clark: Wooing the Sioux - For Dummies 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first tribe of Sioux they met, the Yankton Sioux, were more peaceful than their neighbors further along the Missouri River, the Teton Sioux, also known as the Lakota .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It changed mapping of northwest America by providing the first accurate depiction of the relationship of the sources of the Columbia and Missouri rivers, and the Rocky Mountains.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Yankton Sioux were disappointed by the gifts they received from Lewis and Clark—five medals—and gave the explorers a warning about the upriver Teton Sioux.^ The Teton Sioux received their gifts with ill-disguised hostility.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clark was concerned about Lewis' wounds.

^ More about Lewis and Clark .
  • Philadelphia Chapter: Lewis and Clark: Philadelphia Connection Frank Muhly 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclarkphila.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Teton Sioux received their gifts with ill-disguised hostility.^ The Teton Sioux received their gifts with ill-disguised hostility.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yankton Sioux were disappointed by the gifts they received from Lewis and Clarkand gave the explorers a warning about the upriver Teton Sioux.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.One chief demanded a boat from Lewis and Clark as the price to be paid for passage through their territory.^ Lewis and Clark through Idaho.

^ Lewis and Clark smoked with the chiefs.
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During my progress across what was once Louisiana Territory, I will be stopping to partake in numerous Lewis and Clark Bicentennial celebrations.

.As the Sioux became more dangerous, Lewis and Clark prepared to fight back.^ More about Lewis and Clark .
  • Philadelphia Chapter: Lewis and Clark: Philadelphia Connection Frank Muhly 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclarkphila.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Indians became more dangerous, Lewis and Clark prepared to fight back.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark put ashore and met two more boys — one of the three was Omaha, and the other two were Yankton Sioux.
  • Lewis and Clark: Wooing the Sioux - For Dummies 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the last moment before fighting began, the two sides fell back.^ The above image from side 2 of the map shows the USA a bit later, in 1800.  Click to enlarge.  This is the last map on the sheet made before the Lewis and Clark expedition.
  • Teaching about Lewis and Clark: USGS Emerging Nation Map 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC rockyweb.cr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Americans quickly continued westward (upriver) until winter stopped them at the Mandan tribe's territory.^ The Americans quickly headed upriver until winter stopped them at the Mandan tribe's territory.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They began to ascend Missouri river in the spring of 1804, passed a second winter among the Mandans in latitude 47 21' N., and on 7 April, 1805, continued to ascend the Missouri until the middle of July, when they reached the great falls.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC famousamericans.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There they built Fort Mandan and spent a productive winter gathering information about the Indian Tribes and the lands to the west.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

Reconstruction of Fort Mandan, Lewis & Clark Memorial Park, North Dakota
.In the winter of 1804–05, the party built Fort Mandan, near present-day Washburn, North Dakota.^ In the winter of 1804–1805, the party wintered at Fort Mandan , near present-day Washburn, North Dakota .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why is the winter camp, located in Washburn, named Fort Mandan?
  • North Dakota Tourism : Lewis and Clark Trail : FAQ and Fun Facts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ndtourism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Work on Fort Mandan was completed on Christmas Day, 1804.
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Over the course of the winter the expedition enjoyed generally good relations with the Mandan tribe who lived alongside the Fort.^ Had the Mandan not been there, or had they had no corn to spare, or had they been hostile, the expedition would not have survived the winter.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 24, 1804 - Fort Mandan completed, expedition moves in for the winter.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There they built Fort Mandan and spent a productive winter gathering information about the Indian Tribes and the lands to the west.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It was at Fort Mandan that Lewis and Clark came to employ a French-Canadian fur trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau, whose young Shoshone wife, Sacajawea, translated for the expedition among the Shoshone and Nez Perce.^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had a wife, and possibly a family, before the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
  • North Dakota Tourism : Lewis and Clark Trail : Corps of Discovery / Lewis & Clark Expedition's Notable Figures 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ndtourism.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sacajawea would also serve sometimes as a guide for the expedition.^ The story of the Lewis and Clark expedition to open the American Northwest is told through the alternating narratives of Sacajawea, a Shoshoni interpreter, peacemaker, and guide, and expedition captain William Clark.
  • SOS, Missouri - Wolfner Library ( The Lewis and Clark Expedition ) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.sos.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sacajawea is portrayed as the guide and interpreter for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
  • Historical Facts Lewis and Clark Westward Expansion Native American Indians 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Westward Expansion Lewis and Clark Historical Facts Pictures Indian Tribes 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mountainsofstone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Springfield, NJ : Enslow, Profiles the life of the young Shoshoni woman Sacagawea, who served as an interpreter and guide for the Lewis and Clark expedition.
  • Lewis and Clark Pathfinder 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC nb.wsd.wednet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In April 1805, some members of the expedition were sent back home from Mandan in the 'return party'. Along with them went a report about what Lewis and Clark had discovered, 108 botanical and zoological specimens (including some living animals), 68 mineral specimens, and Clark's map of the United States.^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other specimens were sent back to Jefferson periodically, including a prairie dog which Jefferson received alive in a box.^ Their expedition was the first to describe the grizzly bear ; they also sent a prairie dog back to President Jefferson (these animals were not previously known to Europeans).
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about half of the men went on the entire trip to the Pacific Ocean and back; the other half of the men turned back during the trip west, bringing maps and scientific specimens back to President Jefferson.
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indian artifacts and other scientific specimens for Jefferson.

.The expedition continued to follow the Missouri to its headwaters and over the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass via horses.^ The expedition continued to follow the Missouri to its headwaters and the Continental Divide .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At what pass did the Lewis and Clark expedition cross the Continental Divide?
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The expedition crossed the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass, but the route from there became impassable; so Lewis and Clark turned north and followed the Bitterroot River until they came to an Indian trail along ridgelines in the Bitterroot Mountains at elevations as high as 7,000 feet.
  • Lewis and Clark and Us - 98.03 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

.In canoes, they descended the mountains by the Clearwater River, the Snake River, and the Columbia River, past Celilo Falls and past what is now Portland, Oregon.^ In canoes, they descended the mountains by the Clearwater River , the Snake River , and the Columbia River , past Celilo Falls and past what is now Portland, Oregon .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the explorers reached the Columbia River, they traveled to the Pacific in canoes.
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franklin.ma.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Descending the Clearwater, Snake, and Columbia rivers, they came to the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805.
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this point, Lewis spotted Mount Hood, a mountain known to be very close to the ocean.^ Hood , a mountain known to be very close to the ocean.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, Lewis spotted Mt.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September 9, 1805 - The expedition camps at present day Missoula, Montana, a spot Lewis and Clark called Travelers Rest to prepare for the mountain crossing.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

On a big pine, Clark carved
"William Clark December 3rd 1805. By land from the U.States in 1804 & 1805"[7]
Lewis and Clark on the Lower Columbia by C.M. Russell
.Clark had written in his journal, "Ocean in view!^ Clark to write in his journal, "Ocean in view!
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clark had written in his journal, "Ocian [sic] in view!
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ November 7, 1805 - Clark, who believes he can see the ocean writes his most famous journal entry: "Ocian in view!
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

.O! The Joy!". One journal entry is captioned "Cape Disappointment at the Entrance of the Columbia River into the Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean".[7] By that time the expedition faced its second bitter winter during the trip, so the group decided to vote on whether to camp on the north or south side of the Columbia River.^ She traveled with the expedition westward to the Pacific Ocean and back to North Dakota.
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They decided to set up a permanent winter camp on the other side of the Columbia.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franksrealm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One journal entry is captioned " Cape Disappointment at the Enterance of the Columbia River into the Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean".
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The party agreed to camp on the south side of the river (modern Astoria, Oregon), building Fort Clatsop as their winter quarters.^ The expedition began to build Fort Clatsop in present-day Oregon for its winter quarters.
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The party agreed to camp on the south side of the river (modern Astoria, Oregon ), building Fort Clatsop as their winter quarters.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The explorers set up their winter encampment, Fort Clatsop, south of the Columbia River.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.monticello.org [Source type: Original source]

.While wintering at the fort, the men prepared for the trip home by boiling salt from the ocean, hunting elk and other wildlife, and interacting with the native tribes.^ While wintering at the fort, the men prepared for the trip home by boiling salt from the ocean, hunting elk and other wildlife.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Five men were sent to the ocean to boil seawater to extract salt.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franksrealm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only about half of the men went on the entire trip to the Pacific Ocean and back; the other half of the men turned back during the trip west, bringing maps and scientific specimens back to President Jefferson.
  • Lewis and Clark: American Explorers - EnchantedLearning.com 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 1805–06 winter was very rainy, and the men had a hard time finding suitable meat.^ Fort Clatsop National Memorial offers a variety of resources for teachers to use in the classroom which take students back in time to discover what life was like for the Lewis and Clark Expedition during its 1805-06 winter stay at Fort Clatsop.
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franklin.ma.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort Clatsop, the 1805-06 winter camp of Lewis and Clark was located on the left bank of the Lewis and Clark River.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark - December 1-6, 1805 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The majority of the party under Captain Clark remained here until December 7, 1805, while Captain Lewis and five men scouted for a suitable winter camp.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark - December 1-6, 1805 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Original source]

Summer-spawning salmon was not available.
.The explorers began their journey home on March 23, 1806. On the way home, Lewis and Clark used four dugout canoes[8] they bought from the Native Americans, plus one that they stole in "retaliation" for a previous theft.^ The Lewis and Clark Expedition is one of the great sagas of American history.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Heading Home March 1806 .
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On the way home, Lewis and Clark used four dugout canoes they bought from the Native Americans, plus one that they stole [ 2 ].
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Less than a month after leaving Fort Clatsop, they abandoned their canoes because portaging around all the falls proved terribly difficult.^ Less than a month after leaving Fort Clatsop, they abandoned their canoes because crossing across all the falls proved too much a challenge.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The portage around the Great Falls taking as it did a month, then coming as they did August 12th, 1805, to the head of the Jefferson River, then over the Bitter Root Range to Clearwater branch of the Columbia and then on to the Pacific two months later.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.glnd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In canoes, they descended the mountains by the Clearwater River , the Snake River , and the Columbia River , past Celilo Falls and past what is now Portland, Oregon .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

A reenactor describes the bicentennial commemoration of the expedition.
.On July 3, after crossing the Continental Divide, the Corps split into two teams so Lewis could explore the Marias River.^ On July 3, Lewis and Clark split into two teams so Lewis could explore the Marias River .
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At what pass did the Lewis and Clark expedition cross the Continental Divide?
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crossing the Rockies again, it was decided to divide into two parties.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.glnd.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lewis' group of four met some indigenous Blackfeet.^ Lewis' group of four met the Blackfeet Indians.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis’s group killed two Blackfeet Indians who tried to steal guns and horses in what was the only bloodshed on the entire trip.
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and his companions camped overnight with some Blackfeet Indians, who at daylight attempted to steal the explorers' guns and to drive off their horses.
  • Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclark.org [Source type: Original source]

.Their meeting was cordial, but during the night, the Blackfeet tried to steal their weapons.^ Their interview was cordial, but during the night, the Blackfeet tried to steal their weapons.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis’s group killed two Blackfeet Indians who tried to steal guns and horses in what was the only bloodshed on the entire trip.
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the struggle, two of the Blackfeet were killed, the only native deaths attributable to the expedition.^ During a fight two of the Blackfeet were killed.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Indians were killed in a brief struggle.
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the struggle, two Indians were killed.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The group of four: Lewis, Drouillard, and the Field brothers, fled over 100 miles (160 km) in a day before they camped again.^ On this day they traveled twelve miles.
  • Lewis and Clark : Mapping on the Trail 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.edgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group of four--Lewis, Drouillard, and the Field brothers fled over 100 miles in a day before they camped again.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark Campsites - Show Me the Evidence Presenter: Ken Karsmizki There is a false sense of security that historians know where Lewis and Clark camped--exactly where they camped.
  • MHC - Changed Lives: Lewis and Clark Meet the West 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mohumanities.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clark, meanwhile, had entered Crow territory.^ Clark, meanwhile, had entered Crow territory.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Crow tribe were known as horse thieves.^ The Crow tribe were known as horse thieves.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.At night, half of Clark's horses were gone, but not a single Crow was seen.^ At night, half of Clark's horses were gone, but not a single Crow was seen.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Clark and his party explored the Yellowstone, a Crow raiding party stole the horses belonging to a detail led by Sgt.
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lewis and Clark stayed separated until they reached the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers on August 11. Clark's team had floated down the rivers in bull boats.^ They made bullboats and floated down the river.

^ The Lewis and Clark River is depicted but not named.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark - December 1-6, 1805 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Clark led a detachment that explored the Yellowstone River from near its source to its confluence with the Missouri.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

.While reuniting, one of Clark's hunters, Pierre Cruzatte, blind in one eye and nearsighted in the other, mistook Lewis for an elk and fired, injuring Lewis in the thigh.^ Other tribes also helped Lewis & Clark.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis and Clark stayed separated until they reached the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers on August 11, when one of Clark's hunters, Pierre Cruzatte, blind in one eye and nearsighted in the other, mistook Lewis for an elk and fired, injuring Lewis in the thigh.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his buckskin clothing, Lewis captain was mistaken for an elk by Pierre Cruzatte.
  • Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclark.org [Source type: Original source]

.Once reunited, the Corps was able to return home quickly via the Missouri River.^ From there, the groups were reunited and able to quickly return home by the Missouri River.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lewis went with a group down the Marias River, while Clark and most of the men descended the Yellowstone River; they were reunited on the Missouri at the mouth of the Yellowstone on Aug.
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once this was completed, Ordway would sail down the Missouri River to link up with Lewis and Gass at the mouth of the Marias River.
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

They reached St. Louis on September 23, 1806.
The first written account of the expedition was published by Patrick Gass in 1807.[9] Lewis and Clark's much more extensive official report of the expedition wasn't released until 1814.[10]
.The Corps of Discovery returned with important information about the new United States territory and the people who lived in it, as well as its rivers and mountains, plants and animals.^ The Corps of Discovery returned with important information about the new United States territory and the people who lived in it, as well as its rivers and mountains, plants and animals.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He learned about plants and animals.
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Timeline of the Lewis and Clark Expedition * History of the United States * USS Lewis and Clark and USNS Lewis and Clark *A contemporary explorer was Zebulon Pike (as in Pikes Peak ) who in 1805-1807 traveled from the upper Mississippi River down to the Spanish territories near the Rocky Mountains.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition made a major contribution to mapping the North American continent.^ Discuss the contributions that she has made so far to the expedition.
  • Idaho Public Television NTTI Lesson Plan: Sacagawea and the Lemhi Shoshoni: Contribution To The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: General]

^ As the landmark cartographic contribution of the expedition, this "track map" held on to old illusions while proclaiming new geographic discoveries.
  • Lewis & Clark (Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America, Library of Congress) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Davis - F592.7 .R66 1984 Ronda's contribution is critical in that it sheds light on the many facets of the relations between the Native Americans and the expedition.
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition: A Pathfinder 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC ils.unc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Achievements

Camp Dubois in Illinois opposite the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers
.In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery as a scientific expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase.^ Jefferson called the group the Corps of Discovery.

^ The expedition was called the Corps of Discovery.
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1804, the group is commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson to find a water route leading to the Pacific Ocean through the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase.
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) - Page 2 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition's goal as stated by President Jefferson was "to explore the Missouri River and such principal stream of it as by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean, whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river that may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purpose of commerce".[11] In addition, the expedition was to learn more about the Northwest's natural resources, inhabitants, and possibilities for settlement.^ Learn more about what it takes to be a Giant » .
  • Lewis And Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Thomas Jefferson wanted to explore the area west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
  • IdahoPTV NTTI Lesson Plan: The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river & such principal stream[s] of it, as, by it's course and communication with the waters of the Pacific ocean .
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Although Lewis and Clark were not the first explorers to travel west and they did not achieve their primary objective of finding a waterway across North America, the significance of the expedition can be measured in other ways.^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other tribes also helped Lewis & Clark.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]

Geography and mapping

.One of the most significant contributions of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was a better perception of the geography of the Northwest and the production of the first accurate maps of the area.^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was the goal of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
  • Lewis and Clark expedition Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lewis and Clark expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the journey, Lewis and Clark prepared approximately 140 maps.^ Lewis and Clark great journey west .
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition. By Meriwether Lewis, editor: Archibald Hanna, Lewis and Clark - song, music - Copyright Info 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lewis and Clark, the American journey .
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition. By Meriwether Lewis, editor: Archibald Hanna, Lewis and Clark - song, music - Copyright Info 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The famous map of Lewis and Clark's expedition.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Author Stephen Ambrose states that the expedition "filled in the main outlines of the previously blank map of the northwestern United States".[15] Before the expedition, most Americans were not aware of the size and extent of the Rocky Mountains.^ It changed mapping of northwest America by providing the first accurate depiction of the relationship of the sources of the Columbia and Missouri rivers, and the Rocky Mountains.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Timeline of the Lewis and Clark Expedition * History of the United States * USS Lewis and Clark and USNS Lewis and Clark *A contemporary explorer was Zebulon Pike (as in Pikes Peak ) who in 1805-1807 traveled from the upper Mississippi River down to the Spanish territories near the Rocky Mountains.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with them went a report about what Lewis and Clark had discovered, 108 botanical specimens, 68 mineral specimens, and Clark's map of the United States.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.They believed that the Rocky Mountains could be crossed in a single day and that the Rockies separated the source of the Missouri River from a great "River of the West" that would empty into the Pacific Ocean.^ Both rivers flowed from the Rocky Mountains, he knew; the Missouri flows east from the Rockies and the Columbia flows west to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclark.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They all were able to continue their expedition westward, cross the Rocky Mountains, and reach the Pacific Ocean.
  • Idaho Public Television NTTI Lesson Plan: Sacagawea and the Lemhi Shoshoni: Contribution To The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: General]

^ Scene 7: The exploring party followed the Missouri River to its source in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains.
  • Idaho Public Television NTTI Lesson Plan: Sacagawea and the Lemhi Shoshoni: Contribution To The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: General]

[12] .However, the expedition found that the supposed single day of traveling was instead an 11 day ordeal that nearly cost them their lives and that an easy water route across the continent did not exist.^ Is there a water route across the continent?
  • Lewis & Clark for the 21st Century: Back to School with Lewis & Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC edbrenegar.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis and Clark Expedition: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary , Preparing for the Journey, Found online 11/24/03, http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/lewisandclark/preparing.htm .
  • Barns Research � Bibliography Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.shawneecc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While Jefferson stated publicly that the Lewis and Clark Expedition was organized for "scientific purposes," and while the openly avowed objective of the Expedition was to locate a water route across the continent of North America for the purposes of commerce, more than anything else the objective of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was to claim territory and map it.
  • Charting Terrae Incognitae: Lewis and Clark and Mapping of the West 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lib.niu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Natural resources

.A second achievement of the expedition was a better understanding of the Northwest's natural resources.^ Lewis and Clark Expedition (May 14, 1804-September 23, 1806), an expedition sent by President Thomas Jefferson to examine the resources of the far Northwest.
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the journey, the expedition documented over 100 species of animals and approximately 176 plants.^ Retraces the journey of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806, comparing their observations of previously unknown animals with modern information on the same creatures.
  • SOS, Missouri - Wolfner Library ( The Lewis and Clark Expedition ) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.sos.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This dichotomy was on display during the event’s bicentennial, commemorated by two years of special events across the expedition route.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visit the Fermilab Flora and Fauna exhibit of plants and animals Lewis & Clark encountered on their journey.
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.franklin.ma.us [Source type: Original source]

[16] .The expedition even sent a caged prairie dog, which had never been seen before in the East, to President Jefferson as a gift.^ These letters were then sent on to President Jefferson.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To that end, Lewis and Clark excelled bringing back with them samples of items never before seen in the eastern United States: "nineteen plants , a prairie dog , mule deer , antelope, jack rabbit , elk, bighorn sheep, badger, coyote, and sharp tail grouse .
  • Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC lib.fit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ August 12, 1805 - The shipment sent from Fort Mandan arrives in the East and is delivered to Jefferson.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Over the two year journey, the expedition had made more discoveries of landscapes, rivers, native cultures, zoology, and botany of North America than any scientific expedition.^ On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark - December 1-6, 1805 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Late in October of that year the expedition reached a point on the Missouri River near here and a camp was established.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.glnd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1812, two engravings were added by Matthew Carey of Philadelphia to the 1812 publication of the journal of Sergeant Patrick Gass, the first eyewitness accounts of the expedition to be made public.
  • CVO Menu - The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Native American relations

.Another achievement of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was that it established friendly relations with some of the indigenous Native American Indians.^ The Lewis and Clark Expedition is one of the great sagas of American history.
  • Lewis and Clark, �Discovery,� and the Indian Tribes - Articles and Creative Writings from Native Educators 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.gatheringofnations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The triumphant return of the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey Ends | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important dates in the Lewis and Clark expedition .
  • Howstuffworks "Lewis and Clark Expedition" 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Without the help of the Native Americans, the expedition would have starved to death or become hopelessly lost in the Rocky Mountains.^ They had to get out of the mountains or they would freeze and starve to death.
  • Idaho Public Television NTTI Lesson Plan: Sacagawea and the Lemhi Shoshoni: Contribution To The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: General]

^ What would you do when you encountered Native Americans?
  • Lewis and Clark Thematic Lessons 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.princetonol.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He traces the expedition's route, but continues to depict older views of the Rocky Mountains and western rivers.
  • Lewis & Clark (Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America, Library of Congress) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[13] .The expedition was especially indebted to a Shoshone woman named Sacagawea, who served as a guide and interpreter.^ "Lewis and Clark" is careful to note the praiseworthy contributions of Sacagawea, the Shoshone Indian who served as a guide for much of the journey, as well as those of Clark's slave, York.
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had performed remarkable services as interpreter and guide and in dealing with the Shoshone Indians, and Sakakawea is revered as one of the greatest Indian women of her time.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.glnd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sacagawea, the Shoshone wife of the Corps' hired interpreter Toussaint Charbonneau, is given ample credit for guiding the men.
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

.The sight of a woman and her infant son would have been a reassuring sight to Native Americans who might have mistaken the armed explorers as a group on a warlike mission.^ Scene 8: A group of Shoshoni Native Americans visited the explorers camp.
  • Idaho Public Television NTTI Lesson Plan: Sacagawea and the Lemhi Shoshoni: Contribution To The Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.idahoptv.org [Source type: General]

^ Departing up the river with Sacagawea, he left his son Jean Baptiste (Pomp) in the care of Clark, who would see to the boys education.
  • Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.lewisandclarktrail.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In contrast, special attention is paid to an Indian woman and her infant child who joined the men for a substantial portion of the trip, contributing greatly to the mission as did other Indian tribes.
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .For the most part, encounters between the expedition and the three dozen tribes they encountered were successful.^ In early 1806, as the expedition was beginning the return journey, Seaman was stolen by Indians and Lewis threatened to send three armed men to kill the Indian tribe.
  • North Dakota Tourism : Lewis and Clark Trail : Corps of Discovery / Lewis & Clark Expedition's Notable Figures 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ndtourism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The expedition reaches the Three Forks of the Missouri and heads southwest, up a stream they name the Jefferson River.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.monticello.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only white men they had met were traders and trappers, so Lewis and Clark encountered this same misunderstanding with all the Missouri tribes.
  • Lewis and Clark: Wooing the Sioux - For Dummies 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] Author James Ronda states "Lewis and Clark matter today because they act as a benchmark by which we can measure change and continuity in everything from the environment to relations between peoples".[19]
.Lewis and Clark may not have found the elusive Northwest Passage and were not the first to explore the west, but as Robert Archibald states, "they were the first United States citizens to have described the place officially".[20] The fact that they were a scientific expedition was extremely important, especially during the Age of Enlightenment.^ This pipe may have been given to Lewis and Clark.
  • Lewis & Clark (Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America, Library of Congress) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Herbarium of the Lewis & Clark expedition.
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition: A Pathfinder 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC ils.unc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lewis and Clark great journey west .
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition. By Meriwether Lewis, editor: Archibald Hanna, Lewis and Clark - song, music - Copyright Info 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The new knowledge they obtained about the Northwest's geography, natural resources, and native inhabitants sparked American interest in the west, and strengthened the nation's claim to the area.^ The expedition not only answered questions about vast uncharted areas of North America (everything between the Missouri River in North Dakota to Mount Hood in western Oregon) but also gave Americans an electrifying sense of the vastness of their new country after the Louisiana Purchase and America's almost limitless natural resources and potential as an emergent nation.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Means said Indians have 40 percent of the nation’s natural resources on their lands, yet they are kept in concentration camps called reservations and not allowed to participate.
  • CENSORED NEWS: Quotes of the Decade: Lewis and Clark and Genocide 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC bsnorrell.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Although they did not discover an uninterrupted water route to the Pacific, the expedition strengthened our nation’s later claims to Northwest Territories while paving the way for future exploration by the Army.
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ella Elizabeth Clark has written, "It was the Missouri River, not the young Indian mother, that served as the Expedition's "principal guide."^ Captain Clark served as the expedition's engineer.
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a message to Congress Thomas Jefferson wrote The river Missouri, and Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as rendered desirable by their connection with the Mississippi, and consequently with us.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition at AllExperts 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river & such principal stream[s] of it, as, by it's course and communication with the waters of the Pacific ocean .
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sacagawea had seen only a small part of the area explored and not since her childhood....Though she was not the guide for the Expedition, she was important to them as an interpreter and in other ways.^ Sacagawea, the Shoshone wife of the Corps' hired interpreter Toussaint Charbonneau, is given ample credit for guiding the men.
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The story of the Lewis and Clark expedition to open the American Northwest is told through the alternating narratives of Sacajawea, a Shoshoni interpreter, peacemaker, and guide, and expedition captain William Clark.
  • SOS, Missouri - Wolfner Library ( The Lewis and Clark Expedition ) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.sos.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sacajawea is portrayed as the guide and interpreter for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
  • Historical Facts Lewis and Clark Westward Expansion Native American Indians 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Westward Expansion Lewis and Clark Historical Facts Pictures Indian Tribes 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.mountainsofstone.com [Source type: Original source]

.Two days into the journey, Sacagawea collected edible roots hidden by small animals in piles of driftwood.^ His death August 20 was the only fatality among expedition members during the two years, four months and nine days journey.
  • Lewis & Clark Timeline 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

.The roots were a welcome addition to meat....Captain Lewis ended his report of the mishap with praise of Sacagawea: 'the Indian woman, to whom I ascribe equal fortitude and resolution with any person on board at the time of the accident, caught, and preserved most of the light articles [that] were washed overboard.'"^ Because Lewis wished to make it clear that Clark was to be accorded equal status as co-commander, however, he always referred to Clark as "captain."
  • Association of the United States Army: Lewis and Clark's Expedition to the Pacific Northwest 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www3.ausa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Lewis and Clark" is careful to note the praiseworthy contributions of Sacagawea, the Shoshone Indian who served as a guide for much of the journey, as well as those of Clark's slave, York.
  • Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West (2002) 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC www.ldsfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only the arrival of Sacagawea, Clark wrote, "confirmed those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a war party of Indians in this quarter."
  • Lewis and Clark | Perry Bear's Fun Page 9 January 2010 13:39 UTC perrybear.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ DeVoto, Bernard (1953). The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. xxix. ISBN 0-395-08380-X. 
  2. ^ "Jefferson's Secret Message to Congress". http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/lewisandclark/lewis-landc.html#56. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  3. ^ Ambrose, Stephen. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the opening of the American west. (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996). p. 69.
  4. ^ "Jefferson's Instructions for Meriwether Lewis". http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/lewisandclark/lewis-landc.html#57. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  5. ^ "Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080212143917/http://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/v02.appendix.a.html. 
  6. ^ Lewis' first journal entry Retrieved on March 24, 2007
  7. ^ a b Bernard deVoto (1962), The Course of Empire (Boston:Houghton Mifflin); p. 552
  8. ^ Dugout Canoe description Retrieved on March 24, 2007
  9. ^ MacGregor, Carol Lynn (1997). The Journals of Patrick Gass. Mountain Press Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-87842-350-8. , originally published in 1807
  10. ^ Even then, all of the report wasn't completely made public until recently: Lewis and Clark Journals
  11. ^ "The Lewis & Clark Expedition: A Western Adventure – A National Epic". 1998. http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=3018. Retrieved Sept 24 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c "The Mapping of the West". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/mapping_of_the_west.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  13. ^ a b c Fritz, Harry W. (2004). The Lewis and Clark Expedition. Greenwood Press. 
  14. ^ "Mapping the Trail". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/mapping_on_trail.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  15. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage. Simon & Schuster. 
  16. ^ a b Johnsgard, Paul A. (2003). Lewis and Clark on the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. 
  17. ^ "The Expedition of the Corps of Discovery". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/expedition.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  18. ^ "Indian Country". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/indian_country.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  19. ^ Ronda, James P. (2003). "Why Lewis and Clark Matter". Smithsonian 34: 98–101. 
  20. ^ Archibald, Robert R. (2003). "The Significance of the National Lewis and Clark Commemoration". Indiana Magazine of History 99: 254–262. 
  21. ^ Clark, Ella Elizabeth. Sacagawea of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Berkeley, Calif: University of California P, 1979.

Further reading

.

External links

.

and Missouri rivers, and the Rocky Mountains.]]

The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was the first overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back. The expedition team was headed by the United States Army soldiers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and assisted by George Drouillard spelled as George Drewyer who was half Shawnee and half French. The expedition's goal was to gain an accurate sense of the resources being exchanged in the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition laid much of the groundwork for the westward expansion of the United States.

Contents

Earlier Expeditions

The Lewis and Clark expedition with Sacagawea was only the third recorded transcontinental crossing of North America, having been preceded to the Pacific coast (on July 20, 1793) by a Canadian expedition led by explorer Sir Alexander Mackenzie. Mackenzie had previously crossed North America in 1789 as well, but had turned north at the Continental Divide of the Americas, also becoming the first European to reach the western Arctic Ocean. In 1536, Cabeza de Vaca and three others of the Narváez expedition reached the Pacific Ocean after crossing the continent through parts of what later became the United States.[1]

Louisiana Purchase and western expedition

, and her baby Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau in Kansas City, Missouri.]]

and the Newfoundland dog "Seaman".]]

The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 sparked interest in expansion to the West Coast of the American continent. The United States did not know precisely what it was buying and France was unsure of how much land it was selling. A few weeks after the purchase, President Thomas Jefferson, an advocate of western expansion, had Congress appropriate $2,500 for an expedition. In a message to Congress, Jefferson wrote:

"The river Missouri, and Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as rendered desirable by their connection with the Mississippi, and consequently with us.... An intelligent officer, with ten or twelve chosen men ... might explore the whole line, even to the Western Ocean..."[2]

Thomas Jefferson had long thought about such an expedition, but was concerned about the danger. While in France from 1785–1789, he had heard of numerous plans to better explore the Pacific Northwest. In 1785 Jefferson learned that King Louis XVI of France planned to send a mission there, reportedly as a mere scientific expedition. Jefferson found that doubtful, and evidence provided by John Paul Jones confirmed these doubts. In either event, the mission was destroyed by bad weather after leaving Botany Bay in 1788.

In 1786 John Ledyard, who had sailed with Captain James Cook to the Pacific Northwest, told Jefferson that he planned to walk across Siberia, ride a Russian fur-trade vessel to cross the ocean, and then walk all the way to the American capital. Since Ledyard was an American, Jefferson hoped he would succeed. Ledyard had made it as far as Siberia when Empress Catherine the Great of Russia had him arrested and deported back to Poland.[3]

File:Lewis and Clark 1954
Lewis and Clark Expedition
150th Anniversary Issue of 1954

In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery as a scientific and military expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. The expedition's goal was stated by Jefferson in a letter dated June 20, 1803, to Lewis: "to explore the Missouri River and such principal stream of it as by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean, whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river that may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purpose of commerce".[4] In addition, the expedition was to learn more about the Northwest's natural resources, inhabitants and possibilities for settlement;[5] as well as evaluating the potential interference of British and French Canadian hunters and trappers who were already well established in the area.

Jefferson selected U.S. Army Captain Meriwether Lewis–his aide and personal friend–to lead the Corps of Discovery. Lewis selected William Clark as his partner. Because of bureaucratic delays in the U.S. Army, Clark officially only held the rank of Second Lieutenant at the time, but Lewis concealed this from the men and shared the leadership of the expedition, always referring to Clark as "Captain".[6]

Journey

and William Clark meeting at the falls of the Ohio River; statue at the Falls of the Ohio State Park in Clarksville, Indiana (across from Louisville)]]

"Left Pittsburgh this day at 11 o'clock with a party of 11 hands 7 of which are soldiers, a pilot and three young men on trial they having proposed to go with me throughout the voyage."[7] With those words, written on August 31, 1803, Meriwether Lewis began his first journal entry on the epic Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Ocean.

Lewis declared the mouth of the river Dubois (on the east side of the Mississippi across from the mouth of the Missouri river) to be the expedition's official point of departure, but the two and one-half months spent descending the Ohio River can be considered its real beginning.

Clark made most of the preparations, by way of letters to Jefferson. He bought two large buckets and five smaller buckets of salt, a ton of dried pork, and medicines.

The party of 33 included 29 individuals who were active participants in the Corps' organizational development, recruitment and training at its 1803–1804 winter staging area at Camp Dubois, Illinois Territory. They then departed from Camp Dubois, near present day Hartford, Illinois, and began their historic journey on May 14, 1804. They soon met up with Lewis in Saint Charles, Missouri, and the corps followed the Missouri River westward. Soon they passed La Charrette, the last caucasian settlement on the Missouri River. The expedition followed the Missouri through what is now Kansas City, Missouri, and Omaha, Nebraska. On August 20, 1804, the Corps of Discovery suffered its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd died, apparently from acute appendicitis. He was buried at Floyd's Bluff, in what is now Sioux City, Iowa. During the final week of August, Lewis and Clark had reached the edge of the Great Plains, a place abounding with elk, deer, bison, and beavers. They were also entering Sioux territory.

The first tribe of Sioux they met, the Yankton Sioux, were more peaceful than their neighbors farther west along the Missouri River, the Teton Sioux, also known as the Lakota. The Yankton Sioux were disappointed by the gifts they received from Lewis and Clark—five medals—and gave the explorers a warning about the upriver Teton Sioux. The Teton Sioux received their gifts with ill-disguised hostility. One chief demanded a boat from Lewis and Clark as the price to be paid for passage through their territory. As the Sioux became more dangerous, Lewis and Clark prepared to fight back. At the last moment before fighting began, the two sides fell back. The Americans quickly continued westward (upriver) until winter stopped them at the Mandan tribe's territory.

In the winter of 1804–05, the party built Fort Mandan, near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. Over the course of the winter the expedition enjoyed generally good relations with the Mandan tribe who lived alongside the Fort. It was at Fort Mandan that Lewis and Clark came to employ a French-Canadian fur trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau, whose young Shoshone wife, Sacajawea, translated for the expedition among the Shoshone and Nez Perce. Sacajawea would also serve sometimes as a guide for the expedition.

]] In April 1805, some members of the expedition were sent back home from Mandan in the 'return party'. Along with them went a report about what Lewis and Clark had discovered, 108 botanical and zoological specimens (including some living animals), 68 mineral specimens, and Clark's map of the United States. Other specimens were sent back to Jefferson periodically, including a prairie dog which Jefferson received alive in a box.

The expedition continued to follow the Missouri to its headwaters and over the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass via horses. In canoes, they descended the mountains by the Clearwater River, the Snake River, and the Columbia River, past Celilo Falls and past what is now Portland, Oregon. At this point,[clarification needed] Lewis spotted Mount Hood, a mountain known to be very close to the ocean. On a big pine, Clark carved

"William Clark December 3rd 1805. By land from the U.States in 1804 & 1805"[8]


Clark had written in his journal, "Ocean in view! O! The Joy!". One journal entry is captioned "Cape Disappointment at the Entrance of the Columbia River into the Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean".[8] By that time the expedition faced its second bitter winter during the trip, so the group decided to vote on whether to camp on the north or south side of the Columbia River. The party agreed to camp on the south side of the river (modern Astoria, Oregon), building Fort Clatsop as their winter quarters. While wintering at the fort, the men prepared for the trip home by boiling salt from the ocean, hunting elk and other wildlife, and interacting with the native tribes. The 1805–06 winter was very rainy, and the men had a hard time finding suitable meat. Summer-spawning salmon was not available.

The explorers began their journey home on March 23, 1806. On the way home, Lewis and Clark used four dugout canoes[9] they bought from the Native Americans, plus one that they stole in "retaliation" for a previous theft. Less than a month after leaving Fort Clatsop, they abandoned their canoes because portaging around all the falls proved terribly difficult.


On July 3, after crossing the Continental Divide, the Corps split into two teams so Lewis could explore the Marias River. Lewis' group of four met some indigenous Blackfeet. Their meeting was cordial, but during the night, the Blackfeet tried to steal their weapons. In the struggle, two of the Blackfeet were killed, the only native deaths attributable to the expedition. The group of four: Lewis, Drouillard, and the Field brothers, fled over 100 miles (160 km) in a day before they camped again. Clark, meanwhile, had entered Crow territory. The Crow tribe were known as horse thieves. At night, half of Clark's horses were gone, but not a single Crow was seen. Lewis and Clark stayed separated until they reached the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers on August 11. Clark's team had floated down the rivers in bull boats. While reuniting, one of Clark's hunters, Pierre Cruzatte, blind in one eye and nearsighted in the other, mistook Lewis for an elk and fired, injuring Lewis in the thigh. Once reunited, the Corps was able to return home quickly via the Missouri River. They reached St. Louis on September 23, 1806.

Written accounts

The first written account of the expedition was published by Patrick Gass in 1807.[10] Paul Allen edited a two-volume history[11] of the Lewis and Clark expedition that was published in 1814, in Philadelphia, but without mention of the actual author, banker Nicholas Biddle.[12]

Even then, all of the report wasn't completely made public until more recently.[13]

The Corps of Discovery returned with important information about the new United States territory and the people who lived in it, as well as its rivers and mountains, plants and animals. The expedition made a major contribution to mapping the North American continent.

Achievements

Although Lewis and Clark were not the first explorers to travel west and they did not achieve their primary objective of finding a waterway across North America, the significance of the expedition can be measured in other ways.[14]

Geography and mapping

One of the most significant contributions of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was a better perception of the geography of the Northwest and the production of the first accurate maps of the area. During the journey, Lewis and Clark prepared approximately 140 maps.[15] Author Stephen Ambrose states that the expedition "filled in the main outlines of the previously blank map of the northwestern United States".[16] Before the expedition, most Americans were not aware of the size and extent of the Rocky Mountains. They believed that the Rocky Mountains could be crossed in a single day and that the Rockies separated the source of the Missouri River from a great "River of the West" that would empty into the Pacific Ocean.[5] However, the expedition found that the supposed single day of traveling was instead an 11 day ordeal that nearly cost them their lives and that an easy water route across the continent did not exist.[5]

Natural resources

A second achievement of the expedition was a better understanding of the Northwest's natural resources. During the journey, the expedition documented 122 species of animals and 178 plants.[17] The expedition even sent a caged prairie dog, which had never been seen before in the East, to President Jefferson as a gift.[18] Over the two year journey, the expedition had made more discoveries of landscapes, rivers, native cultures, zoology, and botany of North America than any scientific expedition.[17]

Native American relations

Another achievement of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was that it established friendly relations with some of the indigenous Native American Indians. Without the help of the Native Americans, the expedition would have starved to death or become hopelessly lost in the Rocky Mountains.[14] The expedition was especially indebted to a Shoshone woman named Sacagawea, who served as a guide and interpreter. The sight of a woman and her infant son would have been a reassuring sight to Native Americans who might have mistaken the armed explorers as a group on a warlike mission.[19] For the most part, encounters between the expedition and the three dozen tribes they encountered were successful.[14] Author James Ronda states "Lewis and Clark matter today because they act as a benchmark by which we can measure change and continuity in everything from the environment to relations between peoples".[20]

Lewis and Clark may not have found the elusive Northwest Passage and were not the first to explore the west, but as Robert Archibald states, "they were the first United States citizens to have described the place officially".[21] The fact that they were a scientific expedition was extremely important, especially during the Age of Enlightenment. The new knowledge they obtained about the Northwest's geography, natural resources, and native inhabitants sparked American interest in the west, and strengthened the nation's claim to the area.

Ella Elizabeth Clark has written, "It was the Missouri River, not the young Indian mother, that served as the Expedition's "principal guide." Sacagawea had seen only a small part of the area explored and not since her childhood....Though she was not the guide for the Expedition, she was important to them as an interpreter and in other ways. Two days into the journey, Sacagawea collected edible roots hidden by small animals in piles of driftwood. The roots were a welcome addition to meat....Captain Lewis ended his report of the mishap with praise of Sacagawea: 'the Indian woman, to whom I ascribe equal fortitude and resolution with any person on board at the time of the accident, caught, and preserved most of the light articles [that] were washed overboard.'" [22]

See also

North America portal

References

  1. ^ DeVoto, Bernard (1953). The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. xxix. ISBN 0-395-08380-X. 
  2. ^ "Jefferson's Secret Message to Congress". http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/lewisandclark/lewis-landc.html#56. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  3. ^ Ambrose, Stephen. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the opening of the American west. (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996). p. 69.
  4. ^ "The Lewis & Clark Expedition: A Western Adventure – A National Epic". 1998. http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=3018. Retrieved Sept 24 2008. 
  5. ^ a b c "The Mapping of the West". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/mapping_of_the_west.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  6. ^ "Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080212143917/http://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/v02.appendix.a.html. 
  7. ^ Lewis' first journal entry Retrieved on March 24, 2007
  8. ^ a b Bernard deVoto (1962), The Course of Empire (Boston:Houghton Mifflin); p. 552
  9. ^ Dugout Canoe description Retrieved on March 24, 2007
  10. ^ MacGregor, Carol Lynn (1997). The Journals of Patrick Gass. Mountain Press Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-87842-350-8. , originally published in 1807
  11. ^ History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark at Project Gutenberg
  12. ^ Cutright, Paul Russell (July 1982). Contributions of Philadelphia to Lewis and Clark History. Portland, Oregon: Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, Inc.. pp. 33–35. ISBN 0967888700. "An anomaly of some proportion is the fact that the 1814 account, now commonly referred to as the Biddle edition, carried no mention of Biddle anywhere. ... The only logical explanation of this incredible omission is that Biddle wanted it that way, insisted on complete anonymity." 
  13. ^ Lewis and Clark Journals
  14. ^ a b c Fritz, Harry W. (2004). The Lewis and Clark Expedition. Greenwood Press. 
  15. ^ "Mapping the Trail". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/mapping_on_trail.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  16. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage. Simon & Schuster. 
  17. ^ a b Johnsgard, Paul A. (2003). Lewis and Clark on the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. 
  18. ^ "The Expedition of the Corps of Discovery". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/expedition.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  19. ^ "Indian Country". 2000. http://www.edgate.com/lewisandclark/indian_country.html. Retrieved Sept 26 2008. 
  20. ^ Ronda, James P. (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Why Lewis and Clark Matter"]. Smithsonian 34: 98–101. 
  21. ^ Archibald, Robert R. (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Significance of the National Lewis and Clark Commemoration"]. Indiana Magazine of History 99: 254–262. 
  22. ^ Clark, Ella Elizabeth. Sacagawea of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Berkeley, Calif: University of California P, 1979.

Further reading

External links


Citable sentences

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