Li Hongzhi: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Li (李).
Li Hongzhi
Chinese: 李洪志
Born 13 May 1951 (1951-05-13) (age 58)
Gongzhuling, Jilin, China
Residence United States
Known for Founding of Falun Gong

Li Hongzhi (Chinese: 李洪志pinyin: Lǐ Hóngzhì; born 13 May 1951 in Gongzhuling, Jilin) is the founder of Falun Gong (or Falun Dafa), a "system of mind-body cultivation" in the qigong tradition. Li Hongzhi introduced Falun Gong on 13 May 1992 in Changchun, and subsequently gave lectures and taught Falun Gong exercises across China. The movement gained significantly popularity in the 1990s, but was suppressed by the Chinese Communist Party in 1999.

Accounts of Li's early life differ between detractors and supporters. Official Chinese sources say that Li was an ordinary army grain clerk and trumpet player, while the Falun Gong text Zhuan Falun says that Li was trained by Buddhist and Taoist masters from childhood and was found to possess extraordinary powers. Li holds definitional power in the Falun Gong belief system. He moved to the United States in 1996 and continues to teach the practice.

Contents

Early life

Li Hongzhi (right) being interviewed in 1993

There are competing accounts of Li's life that surfaced before and after Falun Gong was banned in July 1999. David Ownby believes that both accounts should be treated with a healthy dose of skepticism. [1] In Falun Gong and the future of China, Ownby said that Li Hongzhi was born Li Lai, on 27 July 1952, and that his parents divorced whilst he was a toddler.[1] The biography in China Falun Gong (1992) states that Li was "completely poverty-stricken" with his mother "relying on a wage of some 30 yuan to bring up the whole family"[2] The 1994 edition of Zhuan Falun states that Li was born into a "white-collar", "ordinary intellectual" family.[1]

Chinese authorities say that Li studied at primary and junior high middle schools in Changchun between 1960 and 1969.[3] Growing up during the Cultural revolution, Li's formal education was adversely affected. According to the Chinese government biography, Li held "a series of unremarkable jobs":[1] between 1970 and 1972, Li worked at an army stud farm; from 1972 to 1978, was a trumpet player in a forest police unit in Jilin Province,[1] and then served as an attendant at a hotel attached to the same unit. From 1982 to 1991 he worked at the security department of the Changchun Cereals Company.[3]

Li says that he was born on 13 May 1951[4] in Gongzhuling, Jilin province.[2]. In 1999, the Chinese government claimed that he modified his birth date in order to coincide with the birthday of Sakyamuni, citing a Changchun Public Security Bureau document dated 24 September 1994, whereby Li formally altered his birthday.[5][3] Li rejected the accusation as a "smear", and asserted that his recorded birth date of 7 July 1952 was just one of the pervasive bureaucratic errors during the Cultural Revolution. He denied that he saw any particular significance to it, saying "Many criminals were also born on that date. I have never said that I am Sakyamuni. I am just a very ordinary man."[6]

Spiritual biography

Li says that his human life is of no particular importance to his teachings, and the biography that appeared as an appendix to the Falun Dafa text Zhuan Falun focuses only on spiritual aspects, displaying similarities to biographies of other qigong masters and men who claimed to be holy in Chinese history.[1] According to the Zhuan Falun biography, Li Hongzhi had been taught ways of "cultivation practice" (xiulian) by several Masters of the Dao and the Buddhist disciplines of thought from a very young age. At four, he was trained by Quan Jue, the Tenth Heir to the Great Law of the Buddha School.[7] By age eight, he had acquired "the superb great law with supernatural powers",[2] which was supposed to include invisibility, levitation, etc.[2] Li also became compassionate and developed an altruistic moral code. Master Quan left him at age twelve, to be replaced by Taoist Master Baji Zhenren.

A third Master arrived in 1972 from the Great Way School with the Taoist (alias of True Taoist, Zhendaozi), who had come from the Changbai Mountains near the North Korean border.[7] The True Taoist taught Li the way of inner cultivation through Qigong, stressing xinxing (i.e. "mind or heart nature, moral character"). Due to the Cultural Revolution, Li only practiced Qigong at night. A fourth Master - a woman from the Buddha School - trained Li after the True Taoist's departure in 1974. After training with these four Masters, Li's "energy potency had reached a very high level."[2] The biography goes on to state that he has received training from over twenty masters in his lifetime and that "Some of his supernatural powers are difficult for ordinary people to imagine or understand."[2]

In Zhuan Falun, Li further claims 'miracles' he performed that while practising with disciples in 1990. For example, he was able to push away stormy weather and hold off rain for the whole duration of the practice session, and "half an hour" afterwards. His personal development plateaued around this time, with the biography stating that Li was able "to see the truth of the universe, many more beautiful things which have existed there for a long time, as well as the origin, development and future of mankind."[2]

After Falun Gong's ban in mainland China in 1999, new editions of Falun Gong's books no longer contain biographies of Li. These changes seem to reflect a larger trend of Li retreating from the public eye. Since 2000 he has very rarely appeared in public, his presence almost entirely being electronic or re-routed through quotations on Falun Gong's websites. Li Hongzhi's biography were removed from Falun Gong websites some time after 2001.[2]

Falun Gong

According to Zhuan Falun, Falun Gong's system was developed between 1984 and 1989 after years of synthesis from general Qigong principles and advice from Masters of numerous religious and spiritual schools. It claims to have "assembled all the mystical powers, which are the essence of the whole cosmos."[8] Li says he tested the system extensively between 1989 and 1992, while Chinese authorities charged that Li created Falun Gong on the basis of two other Qigong systems developed earlier, namely, Chanmi Gong and Jiugong Bagua Gong, and that some of Falun Gong's exercises were copied from "movements from Thai dance that he picked up during a visit to relatives in Thailand."[2] Chinese authorities asserted that acquaintances Li Jingchao and Liu Yuqing helped to develop the system, and other earlier followers helped write texts and touch up photographs; it was not tested exhaustively beforehand, but was completed only one month before its official launch.[9]

Li Hongzhi introduced Falun Dafa, or the Great Law of the Wheel of Dharma, on 13 May 1992 at the fifth Middle School in Changchun, Jilin. From 1992 to 1994 he traveled throughout China, giving lectures and teaching Falun Gong exercises; His following grew rapidly. Li's success was largely linked to the huge popularity enjoyed by Qigong in the late 1980s and early 1990s under Deng Xiaoping's social liberalization. In differentiating Falun Gong, its "accessibility to the public" and moral content marked a shift away from esoteric notions often found in other Qigong systems.[2][8] Falun Gong also became a member of the Scientific Qigong Research Association (Chinese: 中国气功科学研究会), which sponsored and helped organize many of Li's lectures between 1992 and 1994.

Falun Gong's teachings are compiled from Li's lectures, and Li holds definitional power in Falun Gong belief system.[10] Li Hongzhi lectured that the "moral qualities cultivators are enjoined to practice in their own lives: truth, compassion and forbearance," - which evolved to become the three central pillars of Falun Gong. Li taught that the goal of cultivation is one of spiritual elevation, achieved by "eliminating karma—the built-up sins of past and present lives which often manifest themselves in individuals as illness—and accumulating virtue."[11] Through cultivation, Falun Gong promised "personal harmony with the very substance of the universe."[11] Because of Falun Gong's consistent allusions to Oriental traditions, Li criticized the self-imposed limits of modern science, and viewed traditional Chinese science as an entirely different, yet equally valid knowledge system. Li borrowed from modern scientific ideas to represent part of the Falun Gong doctrine - notably by making references to atomic theory and nuclear energy.[8] By introducing scientific elements to his teachings, Li hoped to avoid Falun Gong being characterized as a traditional, superstitious belief system, and to gain a wider following among the educated.[8][12]

Li was also critical of alternative systems within the Qigong movement, stating it was "rife with false teachings and greedy and fraudulent 'masters'" and set out to rectify it. Li said that Falun Gong was a part of a "centuries-old tradition of cultivation," and in his texts would often attack those who taught "incorrect, deviant, or heterodox ways."[11] Li differentiated Falun Gong from other movements in Qigong by emphasizing moral values aimed to "purify one's heart and attain spiritual salvation."[13] rather than what he saw as undue emphasis on physical health and the development of extraordinary powers.

Li Hongzhi Lectures on Falun Gong in Wuhan, China, in 1993.

During Falun Gong's initial success with the Chinese public, its financial motives have been questioned, most prominently by Tianjin physicist He Zuoxiu. Falun Gong claims that in its history, its lectures had always been "run by volunteers and free of charge".[14] At the time, many Chinese Qigong schools would charge adherents for expensive lecture and book fees. Li Hongzhi asserted that Falun Gong was different, and made efforts to make lectures as affordable as possible to the public. Li claimed that expenses should not "become a burden" for the general public and were only charged on the basis of covering costs. In reference to Falun Gong's financial situation, Li remarked "Since we offer salvation to all sentient beings, we should not add to the burden of the learners."[15]

Li's success also had a large part to do with people seeking effective alternative medicine treatments at a time when China's health care system was struggling desperately to meet demand.[8] As the Master of the Falun Gong cultivation system, Li claimed to "purify the students' bodies" and "unblock their main and collateral channels" and in doing so "remove the root of their disease," if they were ill. He also reputedly planted a Falun or "law wheel" in the abdomen of each student, and other "energy mechanisms" in other parts of their bodies. Li also described how his "Law bodies" will protect each practitioner and how he "clear[s] up the students' house and places of practice and then put[s]'a covering of safety'".[2] According to Falun Gong groups, Li's success was recognized at the 1992 and 1993 Beijing Oriental Health Expo, where he gave three lectures instead of one due to popular demand, and received numerous "special awards".[16]

In March 1995, Li Hongzhi arrived in France at the invitation of China's ambassador there, beginning seven days of lectures in Paris. This was followed in May by a lecture series in Sweden.[17][18] Li has lived in the United States since 1998.

Li Hongzhi lectures on Falun Dafa at the UN General Assembly Hall, Geneva, 1998

Life abroad

On 10 May 1999, Li gave an interview with Time, during which he stated that "human moral values are no longer good" and reiterated Falun Gong's differentiation from other Qigong groups. He also expounded on the "Dharma-ending period" and claimed the existence of aliens were corrupting human beings. He avoided questions about his personal background, stating, "I don't wish to talk about myself at a higher level. People wouldn't understand it."[19]

On 29 July 1999, after Falun Gong was banned, the Chinese government levelled a series of charges against Li, including the charge of "disturbing public order."[20] At that time, Li Hongzhi was living in the United States. The Chinese government's request to Interpol for his arrest was rejected on the grounds that the request was a matter "of a political or religious character" and lacked information on any "ordinary law crime he would have committed"[20] The Chinese government also revoked his passport, preventing him from traveling internationally.[20]

Li Hongzhi has received awards and proclamations in a number of countries.[21][22] These include certificates of recognition from several governmental bodies in the United States - including Honorary Citizenship awarded by The State of Georgia and city of Atlanta. A number of cities in North America have proclaimed "Master Li Hongzhi Days".[23] In 14 March 2001, The Freedom House honored Li Hongzhi and Falun Gong with an International Religious Freedom Award for the advancement of religious and spiritual freedom at a ceremony in the United States Senate.[24] In the same year, Li was ranked the most powerful communicator in Asia by Asiaweek magazine "for his power to inspire, to mobilize people and to spook Beijing."[25]

An attempt to nominate Li Hongzhi for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001 by Bay Area legislators was withdrawn after they were notified of Falun Gong's views on homosexuality.[26] In 2006, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a 9-2 resolution calling for China to end its suppression of Falun Gong, despite criticism by the LGBT community.[27]

Bibliography

  • Falun Gong. Considered an introductory exposition of the principles of Falun Gong and the traditional Chinese concept of cultivation practice, along with descriptions of the exercises of Falun Gong. First published in April, 1993.
  • Nine Day Lectures on Falun Dafa. From 1992 to 1994, Li Hongzhi presented his teachings across China, the contents of which were ultimately edited and compiled into the book Zhuan Falun. The teachings entailed a one to two hour lecture on each of 8 to 10 consecutive days. Exercise instruction was offered thereafter. The final of these lecture series, delivered in Guangzhou, China, in 1994, were recorded live and they form a central part of Falun Gong's teachings.
  • Zhuan Falun-Turning the Law Wheel. Considered the central and most comprehensive exposition of the teachings of Falun Gong. First published in January, 1995.
  • Hong Yin - Grand Verses. A collection of short poems written by Li, often touching upon issues pertinent to the traditional Chinese concept of cultivation practice.
  • Lectures and Writings. Transcripts of Lectures delivered by Li and articles periodically published by him also form a central part of Falun Gong's teachings.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f David Ownby, "The Life and Times of Li Hongzhi in China, 1952 - 1995". Falun Gong and the future of China. Oxford University Press US,. 2008. p. 80. http://books.google.com.hk/books?id=Bwqkwx4SWS0C&pg=PT94&lpg=PT94&dq=hongzhi+ownby&source=bl&ots=5naXCEKVB1&sig=R3YvxjrgU8nk2Ig-H96LF1VX4jI&hl=en&ei=6TnYSoGPF4zo6gOlrumYBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CBYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=hongzhi%20ownby&f=false. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Benjamin Penny: Life and Times of Li Hongzhi, CJO. The China Quarterly (2003), 175:643-661 Cambridge University Press; doi:10.1017/S0305741003000389
  3. ^ a b c Why Li Hongzhi changes his birthdate, People's Daily, 23 July 1999
  4. ^ This is the same birth date found in the 1997 biography of Li Hongzhi on Zhuan Falun, according to B. Penny
  5. ^ Li Hongzhi qiren qishi," p. 64.
  6. ^ "I am just a very ordinary man". Time Magazine. 2 August 1999. http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/99/0802/li1.html.  
  7. ^ a b Brief biography of Li Hongzhi: founder of Falun Gong and president of the Falun Gong Research Society, Chinese Law and Government v.32 #6 (Nov./Dec. 1999) p. 14-23 ISSN: 0009-4609
  8. ^ a b c d e David Ownby, "The Falun Gong in the New World," European Journal of East Asian Studies, Sep2003, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p 306
  9. ^ "Li Hongzhi qiren qishi," p. 64
  10. ^ Noah Porter (Masters thesis for the University of South Florida), Falun Gong in the United States: An Ethnographic Study, 2003, p 26
  11. ^ a b c Ownby, David, "A History for Falun Gong: Popular Religion and the Chinese State Since the Ming Dynasty", Nova Religio, Vol. ,pp. 223-243
  12. ^ Zhao, Yuezhi, "Falun Gong, Identity, and the Struggle over Meaning Inside and Outside China", pp209-223 in Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World, ed. Nick Couldry and James Curran, Rowman & Littlefield publishers, inc.: 2003.
  13. ^ David Palmer, Qigong Fever: Body, Science, and Utopia in China (2007), Columbia University Press
  14. ^ [1] Falundafa.org.
  15. ^ Zhuan Falun, 1994 Edition
  16. ^ Lu, Yuan. "Cleawisdom.net: Leaving Behind an Upright Legacy: A Practitioner's Recollections of the Early Years of Falun Dafa in China (Part 2)". Clearwisdom.net. http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2004/8/29/51850p.html. Retrieved 2010-01-05.  
  17. ^ "Falun Gong Timeline, Falun Dafa Information Center". Faluninfo.net. http://www.faluninfo.net/article/213/. Retrieved 2010-01-05.  
  18. ^ First Fa Teaching Given in the United States, Li Hongzhi, 5 October 1996.
  19. ^ "TIME Asia: Interview with Li Hongzhi". Time.com. 1999-05-10. http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990510/interview3.html. Retrieved 2010-01-05.  
  20. ^ a b c Interpol will not arrest sect leader, BBC News, 3 August 1999
  21. ^ " class="smarterwiki-linkify">http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/committees/afet/20011002/444750EN.pdf Report of Committee on Foreign Affairs, Human Rights, Common Security and Defence Policy, European Parliament
  22. ^ " class="smarterwiki-linkify">http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/special_column/recognition.html List of awards. Clearwisdom
  23. ^ " class="smarterwiki-linkify">http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/338603/Li-Hongzhi Li Hongzhi, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  24. ^ Danny Schechter, Falun Gong's Challenge to China: Spiritual Practice or Evil Cult?, Akashic books: New York, 2001
  25. ^ Asian Political News, " class="smarterwiki-linkify">http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2001_May_28/ai_75259079 Asiaweek names Falun Gong founder top communicator, 28 May 2001, accessed 22/5/08
  26. ^ Lubman, Sarah "A Chinese Battle on U.S. Soil" in San Jose Mercury News (December 23, 2001)retrieved June 14, 2006
  27. ^ Bajko, Matthew S.(February 2, 2006)"Supes support 'homophobic cult'" Bay Area Reporter, on-line versionretrieved June 14, 2006

External links

Li Hongzhi's teachings
Interviews

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Li Hongzhi (Chinese: 李洪志; pinyin: Lǐ Hóngzhì) (born 1951) is the founder of Falun Gong (or Falun Dafa), a system of "mind-body cultivation" related to the qigong tradition.

Sourced

“The Buddha Fa” is most profound; among all the theories in the world, it is the most intricate and extraordinary science. In order to explore this domain, humankind must fundamentally change its conventional thinking. Otherwise, the truth of the universe will forever remain a mystery to humankind, and everyday people will forever crawl within the boundary delimited by their own ignorance.-Zhuan Falun

"The Buddha Fa” is an insight into all mysteries. It encompasses everything and leaves out nothing—from particles and molecules to the universe, from the even smaller to the even greater. It is an exposition of the characteristic of the universe, “Zhen-Shan-Ren,” (Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance) expressed at different levels with different layers of meaning. It is also what the Tao School calls the “Tao,” or what the Buddha School calls the “Fa.” [1] -Zhuan Falun

What is a “heart of great forbearance?” As a practitioner, the first thing you should be able to do is to not fight back when you are beaten or sworn at—you must be tolerant. Otherwise, what kind of practitioner will you be? -Zhuan Falun

"If human beings are able to take a fresh look at themselves as well as the universe and change their rigid mentalities, humankind will make a leap forward."[1] -Zhuan Falun

"The cosmos is extremely complex... Earth is nothing but a speck of dust, and it is insignificant. Yet within this expanse there are innumerable and complex structures of dimensions. What are these structures of dimensions like? ... Which level of dimension does our humankind live in? We live in the surface matter comprised of the biggest layer of molecular particles; we live in between molecules and planets—a planet is also a particle, and within the vast cosmos, it, too, is a trivial speck of dust. The Milky Way Galaxy is also a trivial speck of dust. This universe—the small universe I just described—is also but a trivial speck of dust. The largest particles that our human eyes see are planets, and the smallest particles visible to humankind are molecules. We humans exist in between the particles of molecules and planets. Being in this dimension, you think it’s vast; from a different perspective, it’s actually extremely narrow and tiny." -Falun Buddha Fa Lectures in United States

If you can examine yourselves with every thing you come across, then I’d say you are really remarkable, and nothing can block you on your path to Consummation. Yet when we run into problems, we often look outwards—“Why are you treating me like that?”—and feel that we’ve been treated unfairly, instead of examining ourselves. That’s the greatest and most fatal obstacle for all living beings. In the past, some people said that it was impossible to succeed in cultivation. How could one succeed in cultivation? [They couldn’t succeed] because that was the biggest obstacle, and nobody was willing to find faults in himself amidst problems. When a person feels hurt, or when he encounters misfortune, it’s really difficult for him to still examine himself and see if he’s done something wrong. If a person can do that, then I’d say that on this path, on this path of cultivation, and for the eternity of his existence, nothing can stop him. -Teaching the Fa at the Conference in Singapore

Although Qigong has been spread for quite a long period of time, several decades already, no one knows its real implications. Therefore, I have written in the book, Zhuan Falun, everything about certain phenomena in the Qigong community, why Qigong is spread in ordinary human society, and what the ultimate goal of Qigong is. Therefore, this book is a systematic work that enables one to practice cultivation. Through reading it repeatedly, many people feel that there is something unique about the book: no matter how many times you have read this book, you always seem to feel a sense of freshness, and no matter how many times you have read it, you always attain a different understanding from the same sentence, and no matter how many times you have read it, you always feel that there is still a great deal of content in it that is yet to be found. Why is it this way, then? It is because that I have systematically compiled many things that are considered heavenly secrets within this book, such as that people are able to practice cultivation, how cultivation should be practiced, and the characteristics of this universe, etc. For a practitioner, it can enable him to complete his cultivation practice successfully. Because no one has ever done such a thing in the past, when reading this book, many people find that a lot of the contents are heavenly secrets. - Falun Buddha Fa Lecture in Sydney

"Many people aren’t able to completely understand what qigong is about. Since the time Dafa was made public, I have unveiled some inexplicable phenomena in qigong as well as things that hadn’t been explained in the qigong community. But this isn’t the reason why so many people are studying Dafa. It’s because our Fa can truly enable people to Consummate, truly save people, and allow you to truly ascend to high levels in the process of cultivation. Whether it’s your realm of mind or the physical quality of your body, the Fa truly enables you to reach the standards of different levels."-'Teaching The Fa at The Conference in Europe'

References

  1. a b Zhuan Falun, English Translation

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message