Liancourt Rocks: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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Liancourt Rocks
Disputed islands
Other names: Dokdo, Takeshima
Location-of-Liancourt-rocks-en.png
Location of the Liancourt Rocks in the Sea of Japan (East Sea) between South Korea and Japan
Geography
Liancourt Rocks Map.svg
Location Sea of Japan (East Sea)
Coordinates 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ30โ€ณN 131ยฐ52โ€ฒ0โ€ณE๏ปฟ / ๏ปฟ37.24167ยฐN 131.866667ยฐE๏ปฟ / 37.24167; 131.866667
Total islands 90 (37 permanent land)
Major islands East Islet, West Islet
Area 0.18745 square kilometres (46.32 acres)
East Islet: 0.0733 square kilometres (18.1 acres)
West Islet: 0.08864 square kilometres (21.90 acres)
Highest point unnamed location on West Islet
169 metres (554 ft)
Administered by
 South Korea
County Ulleung County
Claimed by
 Japan
Town Okinoshima
 South Korea
County Ulleung County
Demographics
Population 2 + 43 support personnel (in rotation)
Ethnic groups Korean

The Liancourt Rocks, also known as Dokdo or Tokto (๋…๋„/็จๅณถ, literally "solitary island") in Korean or Takeshima (ใŸใ‘ใ—ใพ/็ซนๅณถ?, literally "bamboo island") in Japanese,[1] are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Sovereignty over the islets is disputed between Japan and South Korea.[2] The islets are currently administered by South Korea, which has its Coast Guard stationed there.[3]

The Franco-English name of the islets derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship which came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849.[4] Both the Korean[3] and Japanese[5] names have changed over time, a testament to the historical confusion over the subject which led to today's heated dispute.

The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and 35 smaller rocks. The total surface area of the islets is 0.18745 square kilometres (46.32 acres), with the highest elevation of 169 metres (554 ft) found at an unnamed location on the west islet.[6] Two Korean citizensโ€”an octopus fisherman and his wifeโ€”are permanent residents on the islets. A small Korean police detachment, administrative personnel, and lighthouse staff are stationed in non-permanent supporting positions on the islets.[7]

South Korea administers the islets as Dokdo-ri,[8] Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province. Japan classifies them as part of Okinoshima, Oki District, Shimane Prefecture.

The islets lie in rich fishing grounds which could also contain large gas deposits.[9]

Contents

Geography

A panorama image of the Liancourt Rocks,
Left side: East Islet (lighthouse located here);
Right side: West Islet.

The Liancourt Rocks consist mainly of two islets, West Islet (Korean: ์„œ๋„/่ฅฟๅณถ Seodo, Japanese: ็”ทๅณถ Otokojima or "male island") and East Islet (Korean: ๋™๋„/ๆฑๅณถ Dongdo, Japanese: ๅฅณๅณถ Onnajima or "female island"), 151 metres apart.[6] Of the two islets, the West Islet is the bigger, with a wider base and higher peak, while the East Islet offers more usable surface area.

Altogether, there are about 90 islets and reefs,[10] volcanic rocks formed in the Cenozoic era, more specifically 4.6 to 2.0 million years ago. A total of 37 of these islets are recognized as permanent land.[10]

The total area of the islets is about 187,450 square metres (46 acres), with their highest point at 169 metres on the West Islet (554 ft).[6] The West Islet is about 88,640 square metres in area (22 acres); the East Islet is about 73,300 square metres (18 acres).[10]

The West Islet consists of a single peak and features many caves along the coastline. The cliffs of the East Islet are about 10 to 20 metres high. There are two large caves giving access to the sea, as well as a crater.

In 2006, a geologist reported that the islets formed 4.5 million years ago and are quickly eroding.[11]

Distance, elevation, and visibility

Liancourt Rocks are located at about 131ยฐ52ยด East longitude and about 37ยฐ14ยด North latitude.[10] The West Islet is located at 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ31โ€ณN 131ยฐ51โ€ฒ55โ€ณE๏ปฟ / ๏ปฟ37.24194ยฐN 131.86528ยฐE๏ปฟ / 37.24194; 131.86528๏ปฟ (West Islet) and the East Islet is located at 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ27โ€ณN 131ยฐ52โ€ฒ10โ€ณE๏ปฟ / ๏ปฟ37.24083ยฐN 131.86944ยฐE๏ปฟ / 37.24083; 131.86944๏ปฟ (East Islet).

Liancourt Rocks are 217 km (135 mi; 117 nm) from mainland Korea and 250 km (150 mi; 135 nm) from Japan proper.[6] Distance, elevations, and weather conditions all affect visibility of the islets.

The nearest Korean island, Ulleung-do, is 87 km away (54 mi; 47 nm), from which Liancourt Rocks are visible on a clear day in the absence of fog in the vicinity of Liancourt Rocks.[12] [13][14] The nearest Japanese island, Oki Islands, is 157 km away (98 mi; 85 nm), from which Liancourt Rocks are not visible on any day of the year regardless of weather conditions. [15][16][17]

Climate

Due to their location and extremely small size, the Liancourt Rocks sometimes have harsh weather. At times, ships are unable to dock because of strong northwestern winds in winter.[6] Overall, the climate is warm and humid, and heavily influenced by warm sea currents. Precipitation is high throughout the year (annual averageโ€”1324 mm), with occasional snowfall. Fog is also a common sight. In the summer, southerly winds dominate. The water around the islets is about 10 degrees Celsius in spring, when the water is coolest. It warms to about 25 degrees Celsius in August.

Ecology

A view from one of the rocks on a calm day.

The islets are volcanic rocks, with only a thin layer of soil and moss.[10] About 49 plant species, 107 bird species, and 93 insect species have been found to inhabit the islets, in addition to local marine life with 160 algal and 368 invertebrate species identified.[18] Although between 1,100 and 1,200 litres of fresh water flow daily, desalinization plants have been installed on the islets for human consumption because existing spring water suffers from guano contamination.[19] Since the early 1970s trees and some types of flowers were planted.[6] According to historical records, there used to be trees indigenous to Liancourt Rocks, which have supposedly been wiped out by overharvesting and fires caused by bombing drills over the islets.[20][21] A recent investigation, however, identified ten spindle trees aged 100-120 years. [22][23] The presence of trees is required under international law for the islets to be recognized as natural islands rather than reefs.[7]

Demographics and economy

There are two permanent Korean citizens, Kim Sung-do (๊น€์„ฑ๋„) and Kim Shin-yeol (๊น€์‹ ์—ด), living on the islets, who make a living from fishing. In addition to these residents, there are 37 South Korean police officers (๋…๋„๊ฒฝ๋น„๋Œ€/็จๅณถ่ญฆๅ‚™้šŠ) who take residence on guard duty. There are also three Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries personnel, and three lighthouse keepers living on the islets in rotation. In the past, several fishermen also lived on the islets temporarily. [24]

For many years, civilian travel was subject to Korean government approval because the islet group is designated as a nature reserve. Tourist boats carrying 1,597 visitors were allowed to land in 2004. Since mid-March 2005, more tourists have been allowed to land; up to 70 tourists are permitted at any one time. One ferry provides rides to the islets every day, and reportedly has a long waiting list.[25] Around 60% of visitors on the ferry are allowed to land in port on the East Islet while the rest are given a tour around the islets. En route to Liancourt Rocks, the ferry shows an animated film featuring a giant robot warding off Japanese invaders.[26] Tour companies charge around 350,000 Korean won per person (approx. 250 US dollars as of 2009).[7]

Construction

Under South Korean administration, the Liancourt Rocks have undergone heavy construction. Today, the islands house a lighthouse, a helicopter pad, a large South Korean flag visible from the air, a post box,[27] a staircase, and a police barracks.[26] In 2007, two desalinization plants were built capable of producing 28 tons of clean water every day.[19] Both of the major Korean telephone companies have installed cell phone towers on the islets.[28]

Pollution and environmental destruction

There is a serious concern for pollution in the seas surrounding Liancourt Rocks. The sewage water treatment system established on the islets has malfunctioned and sewage water produced by inhabitants of Liancourt Rocks such as South Korean Coast Guard and lighthouse staff is being dumped directly into the ocean. Significant water pollution has been observed; sea water has turned milky white, sea vegetations are progressively dying off, and calcification of coral reefs is spreading. The pollution is also causing loss of biodiversity in the surrounding seas. As of November 2004, 8 tons of malodorous sludge is dumped into the ocean every day. [29]

Role in Japanโ€“Korea relations

South Korea has issued stamps depicting the Liancourt Rocks since 1954.

The Liancourt Rocks are a point of heated contention, alongside other Japanโ€“Korea disputes. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs considers its position "inalterable".[30][31] When Japan's Shimane prefecture announced a "Takeshima Day" in 2005, Koreans reacted with demonstrations and protests throughout the country, extreme examples of which included a mother and son slicing off their own fingers, and a man who set himself on fire.[32] In 2006, five Korean "Dokdo Riders" embarked on a world tour to raise international awareness of the dispute.[32] Another notable protest featured South Koreans decapitating pheasants in front of the Japanese Embassy.[26]

Dispute

Although claimed by both Korea and Japan, Liancourt Rocks are currently administered by the Republic of Korea. Both nations' claims extend back at least several hundred years. Significant arguments supported by a variety of historical evidence have been presented by both parties, which have been challenged by counter-arguments with varying degrees of success. [33] North Korea supports South Korea's claim.[34]

References

  1. ^ Staff Seoul and Tokyo hold island talks BBC, 20 April 2006
  2. ^ Charles Scanlon "South Koreans vent fury at Japan" BBC Online, 18 March 2005
  3. ^ a b "Liancourt Rocks / Takeshima / Dokdo / Tokto", Globalsecurity
  4. ^ Kirk, Donald (2008-07-26). "Seoul has desert island dreams". Asia Times Online. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Japan/JG26Dh01.html. 
  5. ^ Shin, Yong-Ha. "Disputes over Ullungdo and Tokdo at the End of the 17th Century". http://www2.gol.com/users/hsmr/Content/East%20Asia/Korea/Dokto_Island/History/Shin_Yong-ha_3.html. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Introducing Dokdo Cyber Dokdo
  7. ^ a b c Life in DokdoCyber Dokdo
  8. ^ "Act 1395 amending Chapter 14-2, Ri-Administration under Ulleung County, Local Autonomy Law, Ulleung County (์šธ๋ฆ‰๊ตฐ๋ฆฌ์˜๋ช…์นญ๊ณผ๊ตฌ์—ญ์—๊ด€ํ•œ์กฐ๋ก€ [๊ฐœ์ • 2000. 4. 7 ์กฐ๋ก€ ์ œ1395ํ˜ธ)"]. http://www.elis.go.kr/newlaib/laibLaws/h1126/laws.jsp?regionId=47940.  "Pursuant to Act 1395 amending Chapter 14-2, Ri-Administration under Ulleung County, Local Autonomy Law, Ulleung County, passed March 20, 2000, enacted April 7, 2000, the administrative designation of Dokdo addresses as 42 to 76, Dodong-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyungsang Province, is changed to address 1 to 37, Dokdo-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyungsang Province." "2000๋…„ 4์›” 7์ผ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๊ตฐ์กฐ๋ก€ ์ œ1395ํ˜ธ๋กœ ๋…๋„๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์‹ ์„ค๋จ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๋…๋„์˜ ํ–‰์ •๊ตฌ์—ญ์ด ์ข…์ „์˜ ๊ฒฝ์ƒ๋ถ๋„ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๊ตฐ ์šธ๋ฆ‰์ ๋„๋™๋ฆฌ ์‚ฐ42๏ฝž76๋ฒˆ์ง€์—์„œ ๊ฒฝ์ƒ๋ถ๋„ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๊ตฐ ์šธ๋ฆ‰์ ๋…๋„๋ฆฌ ์‚ฐ1๏ฝž37๋ฒˆ์ง€๋กœ ๋ณ€๊ฒฝ ๋จ."[1]
  9. ^ "Island row hits Japanese condoms", BBC News, 2008-07-27, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7511065.stm 
  10. ^ a b c d e Gyongsangbuk-do (2001). Cyber Dokdo. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
  11. ^ "๋…๋„, ์ผ๋ณธ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋น ๋ฅธ ์†๋„๋กœ ์นจ๋ชฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค", The Korea Times, 2006/12/01. ์†์˜๊ด€๊ต์ˆ˜ `๋…๋„ใ†์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„ `์นจ๋ชฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค``, JoongAng Ilbo, 2006/12/01.
  12. ^ "์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„ ๋ฏผ๊ฐ€ ์ง€๋ถ•์œ„๋กœ โ€˜๋˜๋ ทํ•œ ๋…๋„โ€™, photo included" (in Korean). 2009-03-25. http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=103&oid=025&aid=0002002860. 
  13. ^ BAEK In-ki, SHIM Mun-bo, Korea Maritime Institute. "A study of Distance between Ulleungdo and Dokdo and Ocean Currents (์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์™€ ๋…๋„์˜ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ์™€ ํ•ด๋ฅ˜์— ๊ด€ํ•œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ) Dec 2006,". http://library.kmi.re.kr/w03_01e.asp?gs_DType=m&gs_DControlNo=52190.  pp. 20-22: "Kawakami Kenzo presented a mathematical formula for calculating visible distance... with the highest elevation of Dokdo at 157 metres above sea level... supposing point of view at 4 metres above sea level (deck height on an common vessel being 2.5 metres and height of observer's eyes at 1.5 metres giving 4.0 metres), he obtained a visible distance of 30.305 nautical miles (56.124 km). Lee Han-key (1969), taking a more recent measurement of elevation of Dokdo ... at 174 metres above sea level, and elevation of Ulleung Is' Mt Seong'in at 985 metres above sea level, obtained a visible distance of 93.17 nautical miles (172.55 km)... demonstrated that any observer, facing Dokdo from Ulleung Is at an elevation greater than 120 metres, can sight Dokdo." (๊ฐ€์™€์นด๋ฏธ ๊ฒ์กฐ(ๅทไธŠๅฅไธ‰; 1966)๋Š” ์‹œ๋‹ฌ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ(่ฆ–้”่ท้›ข, visible distance) ๊ณต์‹์„ ์ œ์‹œํ•˜๊ณ ... ๋…๋„... 157m๋กœ ๋ณด๊ณ  ็œผ้ซ˜๋ฅผ 4m(๋†’์ด 2.5m์˜ ๊ฐ‘ํŒ ์ƒ์—์„œ 1.5m์˜ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด ์„  ๊ฒฝ์šฐ)๋กœ ๊ฐ€์ •ํ•˜์—ฌ, ๋…๋„๋ฅผ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฒ”์œ„๋ฅผ ์•ฝ 30.305ํ•ด๋ฆฌ (56.124km)๋กœ ๊ณ„์‚ฐํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๊ฐ€์™€์นด๋ฏธ๋Š” ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์™€ ๋…๋„๋Š” 50ํ•ด๋ฆฌ ๋–จ์–ด์ ธ ์žˆ์œผ๋ฏ€๋กœ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์—์„œ๋Š” ๋…๋„๋ฅผ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค๊ณ  ์ฃผ์žฅํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ์ดํ•œ๊ธฐ(1969)๋Š” ์„œ๋„... 174m๋กœ ํ•˜๊ณ , ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„... 985m๋ฅผ ์ ์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ 93.17ํ•ด๋ฆฌ๋ผ๋Š” ์‹œ๋‹ฌ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๊ณ„์‚ฐํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค... ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์—์„œ 120 m ๋งŒ ์˜ฌ๋ผ๊ฐ€๋ฉด ๋…๋„๋ฅผ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค.)
  14. ^ ibid. pp. 43-44: "It is not any clear day that Dokdo is visible from Ulleung Is; local weather around the Dokdo area must not be foggy... The minor islets in the immediate neighborhood of Ulleung proper are visible on any day of the year provided the fog is not overly dense to be impenetrable. Dokdo, in contrast, is just so far that it is only visible on 'a clear day, and when any fog is absent near Dokdo." (์˜ค๋Š˜๋‚  ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์—์„œ ๋…๋„๋ฅผ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋‚ ์€ ๊ทธ๋ƒฅ ๋ง‘์€ ๋‚ ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ '๋…๋„ ๋ถ€๊ทผ์— ํ•ด๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์—†๋Š” ๋ง‘์€ ๋‚ '์ด๋‹ค... ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„ ์ฃผ์œ„์˜ ์„ฌ๋“ค์€ ํ•ด๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์•„์ฃผ ์ง™๊ฒŒ ๋‚€ ๋‚ ์„ ์ œ์™ธํ•˜๊ณ  ์ผ๋…„ ์ค‘ ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๋…๋„๋Š” '๋…๋„ ์ฃผ๋ณ€์— ํ•ด๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์—†๋Š” ๋ง‘์€ ๋‚ '์—๋งŒ ๋ณด์ผ ๋งŒํผ ๋–จ์–ด์ ธ ์žˆ๋‹ค.)
  15. ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World, 7th edition. pp. 103-104. This map of Japan and Korea shows the highest point of all islands of the Oki Archipelago on Dogo (ๅณถๅพŒ) Island with peak at 608 metres above sea level.
  16. ^ At 377 meters lower than Ulleung Is' highest peak, the visible distance from the highest peak of Oki's Dogo Island towards an island of height 174 metres (Lee Han-key's figure for the West Islet of Liancourt Rocks) is considerably less than 93.17 nautical miles (172.55 km). The actual distance from Oki Iss to Liancourt Rocks is 85 nautical miles (157 km). Kawakami's visible distance formula requires minimum elevation of observer on top of Dogo Is at 755 metres; observer must be standing at 147 metres above the highest Dogo peak to make a sighting of Liancourt Rocks.
  17. ^ Joong'ang Daily. "A 1454 Dokdo Description Confirmed (์˜› ๋ฌธํ—Œ์— ๋‚˜์˜จ ๋…๋„๊ธฐ๋ก์€ ์‚ฌ์‹ค์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค)". http://article.joins.com/article/article.asp?Total_ID=3231930.  "Japanese [historical] records .... are devoid of any instance of sighting Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) with the eye [from a Japanese territory]." (์ผ๋ณธ ์ธก ๋ฌธํ—Œ์—๋Š” ... ๋…๋„๋ฅผ ๋ˆˆ์œผ๋กœ ํ™•์ธํ–ˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋ก์กฐ์ฐจ ์—†๋‹ค.)
  18. ^ "A comprehensive survey of the natural ecosystems of Liancourt Rocks (synopsys) ๋…๋„ ์ž์—ฐ์ƒํƒœ๊ณ„ ์ •๋ฐ€์กฐ์‚ฌ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ(์š”์•ฝ)". http://epic.kdi.re.kr/epic/epic_view.jsp?num=81035&menu=1. 
  19. ^ a b Korea.net. "Doosan pours big drink for Dokdo residents" June 12, 2007.
  20. ^ BAEK In-ki, SHIM Mun-bo, Korea Maritime Institute. "op. cit.". http://library.kmi.re.kr/w03_01e.asp?gs_DType=m&gs_DControlNo=52190.  p. 48: There are records attesting to the existence of trees [on Liancourt Rocks] in the past. (๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์—๋Š” ๋…๋„์—๋„ ์ˆ˜๋ชฉ์ด ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋ก์ด ์žˆ๊ธฐ๋Š” ํ•˜๋‹ค.)
  21. ^ LEE Kyu Tae, Chosun Daily (June 27, 2003). "(pseud.)The Trees of Liancourt Rocks". http://www.dokdomuseum.go.kr/board/gongi4/view.php?tbname=gongi4&number=1050&page=46&xxnum=685. ๋…๋„์˜ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋Š” ๋ณธ๋ž˜ ๋ฌด์‡ ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋‹จ๋‹จํ–ˆ๋˜ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์•Œ๋ ค์ง€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์˜ค๋žซ๋™์•ˆ ๋‚˜๋ฌด ํ•˜๋‚˜ ์ž๋ผ๊ธฐ ํž˜๋“  ๋Œ์„ฌ์œผ๋กœ ์•Œ๋ ค์ ธ ์žˆ์—ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ๋…๋„์—๋„ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์ž๋ผ๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ๋˜ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ใ€ˆ์กฐ์„ ์ผ๋ณดใ€‰ ์ด๊ทœํƒœ ์”จ์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅด๋ฉด ๋‚จํ•ด์˜ ๊ฑฐ๋ฌธ๋„์—๋Š” ๋…๋„์—์„œ ๊บพ์–ด์˜จ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ง€ ๋ฐฉ๋ง์ด๋ฉฐ ๊ฐ€์ง€ํ™๋‘๊นจ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ ๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค ๋•Œ ์ด ๋…๋„์—์„œ ๊บพ์–ด์˜จ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ชป์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ๋ฐ•์•˜๋‹ค ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด๊ทœํƒœ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ทธ์˜ ์นผ๋Ÿผ์—์„œ ๋‹ค์Œ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์ด ์ ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. '30์—ฌ ๋…„ ์ „ ๊ฑฐ๋ฌธ๋„์—์„œ 80๋Œ€์˜ ๋…ธ ์–ด๋ถ€ ๋ฐ•์šดํ•™ ์˜น์„ ๋งŒ๋‚œ ์ ์ด ์žˆ๋Š”๋ฐ, ๊ทธ์— ์˜ํ•˜๋ฉด ๊ตฌํ•œ๋ง ๋‹น์‹œ ๊ฑฐ๋ฌธ๋„ ์–ด๋ถ€๋“ค์€ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์— ๊ฐ€์„œ ์•„๋ฆ„๋“œ๋ฆฌ ๊ฑฐ๋ชฉ์„ ๋ฒ ์–ด ๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ณ , ๋˜ ๊ทธ ์žฌ๋ชฉ์„ ๋—๋ชฉ์œผ๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ๋Œ๊ณ  ์˜จ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ํ•ด๋ณ€์— ์›€๋ง‰์„ ์น˜๊ณ  ๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š”๋ฐ ์‡ ๋ชป์„ ๊ตฌํ•  ์ˆ˜๊ฐ€ ์—†์–ด ๋…๋„๊นŒ์ง€ ๊ฐ€์„œ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ฅผ ๋ฒ ์–ด์™€ ๊ทธ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ชป์œผ๋กœ ์กฐ๋ฆฝ์„ ํ–ˆ๋‹คํ•œ๋‹ค. ์™œ๋ƒํ•˜๋ฉด ์ด ๋ฐ”์œ„์„ฌ์—์„œ ์ž๋ž€ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋Š” ์™œ์†Œํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ช‡ ๋ฐฑ ๋…„ ๋ช‡ ์ฒœ ๋…„ ํ’์šด์— ์‹œ๋‹ฌ๋ ค ๋ชฉ์งˆ์ด ์‡ ๋งŒํผ ๋‹จ๋‹จํ•ด์ ธ ์žˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋ผ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๋…๋„๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ฅผ ๋ฒ ์–ด์˜ค๋ฉด์„œ ๋ฌผ๊ฐœ ํ•œ ๋งˆ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์žก์•„์™€ ๊ธฐ๋ฆ„์„ ์งœ๊ณ  ๊ทธ ๊ธฐ๋ฆ„์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐค์„ ๋ฐํ˜”๋‹ค.' ๊ทธ๋ ‡๋‹ค๋ฉด ๋…๋„์—์„œ ์ด ๋‚˜๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์—†์–ด์ง„ ์ด์œ ๋Š” ๋ฌด์—‡์ผ๊นŒ? ์ด๊ทœํƒœ ์”จ๋Š” '๋ฌธ๊ฒฝ์ƒˆ์žฌ ๋ฐ•๋‹ฌ๋‚˜๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ๋ฐฉ๋ง์ด ํ™๋‘๊นจ๋กœ ๋‹ค ๋‚˜๊ฐ”๋“ฏ์ด ๋…๋„ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋„ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ชป์ด๋‚˜ ๋ฐฉ๋ง์ด ํ™๋‘๊นจ๋กœ ๋ชจ์กฐ๋ฆฌ ๋ฒ ์–ด์ ธ ๋‚˜๊ฐ”์„ ๊ฒƒ'์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ์ถ”์ •ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ๋“ค์˜ ์ƒ๊ฐ์€ ์กฐ๊ธˆ ๋‹ค๋ฅด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ๋…๋„์˜ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์—†์–ด์ง„ ์ฃผ๋ฒ”์œผ๋กœ ๋ฏธ ๊ณต๊ตฐ์˜ ๋…๋„ํญ๊ฒฉ์„ ๋“ค๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. '์—„์ฒญ๋‚œ ํญํƒ„์„ ํผ๋ถ€์—ˆ๋Š”๋ฐ ๋…๋„์— ํ’€ ํ•œํฌ๊ธฐ ์‚ด์•„์žˆ๊ฒ ์–ด์š”? ํญ๊ฒฉ๋‹น์‹œ ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„์—์„œ๋„ ๋ณด์ผ ์ •๋„๋กœ ๋…๋„ ์ชฝ์—์„œ ๋ถˆ๊ฝƒ๊ณผ ์—ฐ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ํ”ผ์–ด์˜ฌ๋ž์œผ๋‹ˆ๊นŒ์š”. ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋Š” ๊ทธ ๋•Œ ๋ชจ์กฐ๋ฆฌ ํƒ€๋ฒ„๋ ธ์ฃ .
  22. ^ "Indigenous Spindle Tree Colony Found on Liancourt Rocks ๋…๋„ ์ž์ƒ ์‚ฌ์ฒ ๋‚˜๋ฌด ๊ตฐ๋ฝ ์ฒซ ๋ฐœ๊ฒฌ". http://www.korean.net/blog/main/index.jsp?blID=leehayo&ccID=260&SN=22. 
  23. ^ "Liancourt Rock Spindle Trees Over 100 Year Olds ๋…๋„ ์ž์ƒ ์‚ฌ์ฒ ๋‚˜๋ฌด 100๋…„ ์ด์ƒ ๋œ ์ž์ƒ์‹๋ฌผ". http://www.dokdocenter.org/dokdo_news/index.cgi?action=detail&number=7489&thread=19r02. 
  24. ^ Dokdo in History Dokdo Research Institute
  25. ^ Michael Ha. "A Unique Trip to Dokdo โ€” Islets in the News". The Korea Times. August 26, 2008.
  26. ^ a b c Choe Sang-Hun. " A fierce Korean pride in a lonely group of islets". International Herald Tribune. August 28, 2008
  27. ^ Vladivostok News report
  28. ^ Korea.net
  29. ^ "๋…๋„ ์˜ค์ˆ˜์ •ํ™”์‹œ์„ค์ด ๋™ํ•ด๋ฐ”๋‹ค ์˜ค์—ผ ์ฃผ๋ฒ”?". Imaeil. http://www.imaeil.com/sub_news/sub_news_view.php?news_id=42521&yy=2007. 
  30. ^ The Issue of Takeshima, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
  31. ^ The Truth Is... Dokdo is Korean Territory 2009-03-10, Dokdo Research Institute
  32. ^ a b Charles Burress. "'Dokdo Riders' on world tour for rocks". San Francisco Chronicle. April 1, 2006.
  33. ^ Fahim, Kareem (20 March 2009). "On Plastic Bags, an Old and Distant Dispute". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/21/nyregion/21islands.html?_r=1&hp. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  34. ^ http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/

External links

Coordinates: 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ30โ€ณN 131ยฐ52โ€ฒ00โ€ณE๏ปฟ / ๏ปฟ37.24167ยฐN 131.8666667ยฐE๏ปฟ / 37.24167; 131.8666667


Simple English

Liancourt Rocks are a group of small islands in the Sea of Japan.[1][2] The islands are currently under the South Korean police who call them Dokdo. North Korea refers to them as Tok Islet in the English language, but in Korean both Korean states use the same term. Japan claimed the islands starting from 1950's[needs proof], which calls them Takeshima. The name Liancourt Rocks comes from the French whaling ship Liancourt. The people on the Liancourt made a map of the islands in 1849.

Contents

Geography

Liancourt Rocks
Disputed islands
Other names: Dokdo, Takeshima
Geography
Location East Sea (Sea of Japan)
Coordinates 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ30โ€ณN 131ยฐ52โ€ฒ0โ€ณE / 37.24167ยฐN 131.866667ยฐE / 37.24167; 131.866667
Total islands 90 (37 permanent land)
Major islands East Islet, West Islet
Area 0.18745km2
Administered by
 South Korea
County Ulleung County
Claimed by
 Japan
Town Okinoshima
 South Korea
County Ulleung County
Demographics
Population 2 + 43 support personnel
Ethnic groups Korean

Tok-To consists of two islets, that are 150 metres apart.[3] These small islands are called West Islet (Korean: ์„œ๋„/่ฅฟๅณถ Seodo, Japanese: ็”ทๅณถ Otokojima or "male island") and East Islet (Korean: ๋™๋„/ๆฑๅณถ Dongdo, Japanese: ๅฅณๅณถ Onnajima or "female island"). The western islet is the larger of the two islets. Altogether, there are about 90 islets and reefs[4]. The islands and rocks have a volcanic nature.[5] A total of 37 of these islets are recognized as permanent land.[4] The eastern islet formed 4.5 million years ago. Ulleungdo formed 2 million years later. Both are quickly eroding and weathering.[6]

The total area of the islets is about 187,450 square meters. Their highest point is 169 meters on the western islet. The western islet is about 88,640 square meters in area; the eastern islet about 73,300 square meters.[4] Liancourt Rocks is located at about 131ยฐ52โ€ฒ East longitude and about 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ North latitude.[4] The western islet is located at 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ31โ€ณN, 131ยฐ51โ€ฒ55โ€ณE and the eastern islet is located at 37ยฐ14โ€ฒ27โ€ณN, 131ยฐ52โ€ฒ10โ€ณE. The main islands coast lines are 217 km apart from mainland Korea and 212 km apart from main island Japan (Honshu)[7]. The nearest Korean territory (Ulleung-do) is 87 km away and can be visible on fair days;[3][8] the nearest Japanese territory (Oki Islands) is 157 km away.[4]

The western islet is made of a single peak. It has many caves along the coastline. The cliffs of the eastern islet are about 10 to 20 meters high. There are two caves giving access to the sea, as well as a crater.[5]

Economy

40 people are staying on the islands[needs proof], several Korean telecom service providers (namely SK Telecom, KT, and LG Telecom) have also installed stations on Liancourt Rocks to cover the islets in the South Korean wireless telephone network[needs proof]. There is also regular ferry service from Ulleung-do.[9]

Although the islets themselves are barely habitable, the Exclusive Economic Zone surrounding them has rich fishing grounds and possible reserves of natural gas.[10] As of 2006, the expected reserves have not been found.[4] A wide variety of fish as well as seaweed, kelp, sea slugs, and clams are located around the islets.[5] Major fishery catches in the area are squid, Alaskan pollock, codfish, and octopus.[4][5] There are 102 species of seaweed, although many of these have no economic value.[4]

This area used to be one of the largest breeding grounds of sea lions (Zalophus californianus japonicus) and a good spot for hunting them and also a spot for obtaining abalone at the end of the Meiji period (1868-1912).[11] Until the 1950s, sea lions were observed on the islets by the voluntary guards.[12]

There are approximately 37 South Korean police that guard the islets, also there are Ministry of Maritime Affairs & Fisheries personnel, a married Korean couple(The first residents:Jong-Dok Choi) (who are fishermen), and three lighthouse keepers living on the islets[needs proof]. In the past, several fishermen also lived there.[13]

Tourism

Because they are classified as a nature reserve, special permits are required for tourists to land on the islets rather than just circling them.[13] There were 1,507 and 1,597 recorded tourists in 2003 and 2004 respectively.[13] Visitors generally come by boat from Ulleung-do.[4][13]

In 2005, the first wedding ceremony was held on the islets. The South Korean couple chose the location to protest against Japanese territorial claims.[14]

Climate

Liancourt Rocks can have harsh weather conditions. This is because of its location, and small size. Sometimes, ships are unable to dock because of strong northwestern winds in winter.[3][5] The climate is warm and humid. It is heavily influenced by warm sea currents. There is a lot of rain throughout the year (annual average - 1324 mm), with occasional snowfall.[5] Fog is a common sight. In the summer, southerly winds dominate.[5] The water around the islets is about 10 degrees Celsius in spring, when the water is coolest. It warms to about 25 degrees Celsius in August.[5]

Ecology

Like Ulleung-do, the islets are volcanic rocks, with only a thin layer of soil and moss.[4] About 80 species of plants, over 22 species of birds, and 37 species of insects have been recorded on the islets, in addition to the local maritime life.[3]

Since the early 1970s, trees and some types of flowers were planted along with the indigenous flora and fauna.[3] (Trees are required under international law for the islets to be recognized as natural islands rather than reefs.[5][13])

Liancourt Rocks was declared "Natural Monument #336" by South Korea in the 1990s. Some birds actually live on the islands, but most are just using them as a stopover to fly elsewhere. The fork-tailed petrel, streaked shearwater, and black-tailed gulls live on the islands. The population of breeding birds counted on the rocks, however, has been declining in recent years.[5]

In 1999, the islets were designated a special environmental protected area by the South Korean government.[3] They are older than any other Korean volcanic islands, including Ulleung-do.[5]

It was announced in 2005 that three new genera and five new species of bacteria had been identified by ROK scientists in the waters off the islets. The genera are Dokdonella koreensis, Dokdonia donghaenensis, and Donghae dokdoensis. The newly identified species are Virgilbacillus dokdoensis, Maribacter dokdoensis, Marimonas dokdoensis, Polaribacter dokdoensis, and Porphyrobacter dokdoensis.

Strategic location

The islets are of importance not only for economic reasons[needs proof], but also for military ones[needs proof]. They have occasionally served as a military base, most notably during the Russo-Japanese War. The South Korean government has built a radar station and helicopter landing pad on the islets, enabling it to track foreign naval forces[needs proof]. The 37 police on the islets serve as armed guards.[4] The dispute between South Korea and Japan over the islands has gained heat in 2008 with new Japanese school books mentioning the islands, and a visit by the South Korean Prime Minister in July. Ten years ago, no people lived on the islands. But South Korea started to populate the island to make its claim stronger.

Notes

  1. โ†‘ "S Korea bid to solve sea dispute". BBC News. 2007-01-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6240051.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-17. "South Korea calls it the East Sea" 
  2. โ†‘ "Report on the Progress in Consultations on the Naming of the Sea Area between the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (South Korea). 2007-08-30. http://www.mofat.go.kr/press/hotissue/eastsea/res/EastSea1.doc. Retrieved 2008-02-17. "the sea area has been consistently called "East Sea" in Korea" 
  3. โ†‘ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Korea.net (1999โ€“2006). Dokdo: A Profile. Retrieved 9 January, 2006.
  4. โ†‘ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Gyongsangbuk-do (2001). Cyber Dokdo. Retrieved 9 January, 2006.
  5. โ†‘ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Truth of Dokdo. Story of Dokdo. Retrieved 9 January, 2006.
  6. โ†‘ "๋…๋„, ์ผ๋ณธ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋น ๋ฅธ ์†๋„๋กœ ์นจ๋ชฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค", The Korea Times, 2006/12/01. ์†์˜๊ด€๊ต์ˆ˜ `๋…๋„ใ†์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„ `์นจ๋ชฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค``, JoongAng Ilbo, 2006/12/01.
  7. โ†‘ http://www.freemaptools.com/measure-distance.htm
  8. โ†‘ DKB News. [1]. Retrieved 9 January, 2006.
  9. โ†‘ See Cyber Dokdo.
  10. โ†‘ Truth of Dokdo. Importance of Dokdo. Retrieved 9 January, 2006.
  11. โ†‘ Historically,Takeshima belongs to Japan, Shimane Prefectural Government, Japan
  12. โ†‘ (ko) "50๋…„๋Œ€ ๋…๋„์˜์šฉ์ˆ˜๋น„๋Œ€๊ฐ€ ํ™œ์•ฝํ•  ๋‹น์‹œ๋งŒ ํ•ด๋„ 20โˆผ30๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์”ฉ ๋–ผ๋ฅผ ์ง€์–ด ๋…๋„ ์—ฐ์•ˆ์—์„œ ์„œ์‹ํ•˜๋Š”์žฅ๋ฉด์ด ๋ชฉ๊ฒฉ๋๋‹ค. ๋…๋„์˜์šฉ์ˆ˜๋น„๋Œ€์›์ด๋˜ ์ด๊ทœํ˜„์”จ(82ยท์šธ๋ฆ‰๊ตฐ ์šธ๋ฆ‰์ ๋„๋™๋ฆฌ)๋Š” "๋‹น์‹œ ๋…๋„์—์„œ ๊ฐ•์น˜(๋ฐ”๋‹ค์‚ฌ์ž) ๋ฌด๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ„๊ฐ„์ด ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์—ˆ๊ณ , ์šธ๋ฆ‰๋„ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ๋“ค์€ ์ด๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์žฌ, ๊ฐ•์น˜๋กœ ๋ถ€๋ฅด๊ธฐ๋„ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค"๊ณ  ๋งํ–ˆ๋‹ค." ๋…๋„์— ๋ฐ”๋‹ค์‚ฌ์ž ๋ณต์›ํ•œ๋‹ค, The Kukmin Daily, 2006.02.02
  13. โ†‘ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Korea.net (1999โ€“2006). Dokdo: Inhabitants and Visitors. Retrieved 9 January, 2006.
  14. โ†‘ Tour 2 Korea Dokdo Tour. Retrieved 18 January, 2006.

References

Other websites

Official sites

Pro-Korea

Pro-Japan








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