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Liaoning Province
Chinese : 辽宁省
Liáoníng Shěng
Abbreviations:   (pinyin: Liáo)
Liaoning is highlighted on this map
Origin of name 辽 liáo - Liaoyang
宁 níng - Ningyuan (now Xingcheng)
Administration type Province
Capital
(and largest city)
Shenyang
CPC Ctte Secretary Zhang Wenyue
Governor Chen Zhenggao (陈政高), acting
Area 145,900 km2 (56,300 sq mi) (21st)
Population (2008)
 - Density
43,060,000 (14th)
289 /km2 (750 /sq mi) (15th)
GDP (2008)
 - per capita
CNY 1.35 trillion (8th)
CNY 31,259 (9th)
HDI (2006) 0.822 (high) (7th)
Ethnic composition Han - 84%
Manchu - 13%
Mongol - 2%
Hui - 0.6%
Korean - 0.6%
Xibe - 0.3%
Prefecture-level 14 divisions
County-level 100 divisions
Township-level* 1511 divisions
ISO 3166-2 CN-21
Official website
www.ln.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
*As at December 31, 2004
Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject China

About this sound Liaoning (simplified Chinese: 辽宁traditional Chinese: 遼寧pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. Its one-character abbreviation is Liao (辽 pinyin: liáo).

"Liáo" is an ancient name for this region, which was adopted by the Liao Dynasty (Khitan Empire) which ruled this area between 907 and 1125. "Níng" means "peacefulness". The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian province (奉天 pinyin: Fèngtiān; Postal map spelling: Fengtien) and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945.

Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. Liaoning often called "the Golden Triangle"[1] because of its superior geographical location, borders the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay) and the Bohai Sea in the south, North Korea in the southeast, Jilin Province to the northeast, Hebei Province to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest.

The Yalu River marks the border between North Korea and the Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning. It empties into the Korea Bay between Dandong (Liaoning) and Sinŭiju (North Korea).

Contents

Quick Facts

  • Between 2006 and 2010 the province expects to create 10 cities with a population of 200,000-500,000, and 10 with a population of 100,000-200,000, taking its urbanization rate to 63 percent in the upcoming years.[2]
  • Currently ranked eighth in China in terms of GDP. [3]
  • Major cities include Shenyang, the provincial capital and one of the largest cities in China, Anshan, the third largest city in the province, Benxi, Dalian, a flourishing port city once controlled by Japan and Russia, Dandong, border city with North Korea, Fushun, Jinzhou, Xingcheng and Yixian.[2]

History

Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. The Qin and Han dynasties were able to establish rule over much of what is Liaoning; later on governments headed by various people such as the Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon, Goguryeo, Balhae and the Nomadic peoples as Xianbei, Khitan and Jurchen ruled Liaoning.

The Ming Liaodong Wall (in purple)

The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of the province from a potential threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries). In 1467-68 the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.[4]

The late-Ming Liaodong separated by the wall from the "Kingdom of the Jurchen" (Reino di Niuche). The map was created during the early Qing, and mentions that "presently" the Jurchen (Tartari del Kin) have already conquered the rest of China

Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Ming Liaodong was conquered by the Manchus in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616-1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (near today's Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (新宾满族自治县), part of Fushun City).[5] It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning)[6][7], and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.

The Qing conquest of Liaodong resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.[8]

Liaodong (Leao-Tong) in the early Qing, surrounded by the Willow Palisade. This map, published in 1734, was based on data collected by Jesuits in the early 18th century. The capital is in Shenyang (Chinyang); most other cities mentioned in Governor Zhang's report are shown as well.

In the last half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653) the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning).[9] Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia), the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed (ca. 1638 - ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest.[10]

Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence - or, failing that, to legalize them. E.g. an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them to either properly register and to join a local defense group (保, bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next 10 years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants... [11] In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734. [11]

During the QIng Dynasty Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing, ruled much of modern Liaoning.

In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.

In the twentieth century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought.

During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang; in 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.

Dalian aquarium.

At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged together into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.

Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.

Politics

The politics of Liaoning is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (辽宁省省长) is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Liaoning Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (辽宁省委书记), colloquially termed the "Liaoning CPC Party Chief".

Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian, and was governed by a zongdu or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (xunfu).

Geography

Landsat 7 image of western Liaoning.

It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.

The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills.

The central part of Liaoning consists of the watersheds of rivers such as the Liao, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and at low altitudes.

The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.

Liaoning has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.

Major cities:

Central Liaoning city cluster

The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis centering at Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km radius, it has Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million).

Administrative divisions

Liaoning is composed of fourteen prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Type
Liaoning prfc map.png
1 Shenyang 沈阳市 Shěnyáng Shì Shenhe District Sub-provincial city
2 Dalian 大连市 Dàlián Shì Xigang District Sub-provincial city
3 Anshan 鞍山市 Ānshān Shì Tiedong District Prefecture-level city
4 Benxi 本溪市 Běnxī Shì Pingshan District Prefecture-level city
5 Chaoyang 朝阳市 Cháoyáng Shì Shuangta District Prefecture-level city
6 Dandong 丹东市 Dāndōng Shì Zhenxing District Prefecture-level city
7 Fushun 抚顺市 Fǔshùn Shì Shuncheng District Prefecture-level city
8 Fuxin 阜新市 Fùxīn Shì Haizhou District Prefecture-level city
9 Huludao 葫芦岛市 Húludǎo Shì Longgang District Prefecture-level city
10 Jinzhou 锦州市 Jǐnzhōu Shì Taihe District Prefecture-level city
11 Liaoyang 辽阳市 Liáoyáng Shì Baita District Prefecture-level city
12 Panjin 盘锦市 Pánjǐn Shì Xinglongtai District Prefecture-level city
13 Tieling 铁岭市 Tiělǐng Shì Yinzhou District Prefecture-level city
14 Yingkou 营口市 Yíngkǒu shì Zhanqian District Prefecture-level city


These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, eight autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Liaoning for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Economy

Liaoning has the largest economy of North Eastern China. Its nominal GDP for 2009 was 1.51 trillion yuan (ca. US$221 billion) making it the 7th largest in China. Its per capita GDP was 34,193 yuan (US$5,006). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP.[2]

Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance.[2]

Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.[2]

In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.[12]

Agriculture

Main agricultural products of Liaoning include maize, sorghum, and soybeans. The region around Dalian produces three-quarters of China's exported apples and peaches. Cotton is also produced.

Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.

Mining

Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.

Industry

Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.

The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.

Trade

The cities of Dalian and Yingkou have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Five Points, One Line

The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as the "rustbelt" of Chinese State Owned Enterprises.

The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.

The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres.

The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new motorway along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. The new coastal motorway will directly connect the entire rim of five zones around the Bohai sea, and will be completed by 2009.

Demographics

The population of Liaoning is mostly Han Chinese with minorities of Manchus, Mongols, Hui, Koreans and Xibe.

Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 35,105,991 83.94%
Manchu 5,385,287 12.88%
Mongol 669,972 1.60%
Hui 264,407 0.632%
Koreans 241,052 0.576%
Xibe 132,615 0.317%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)

Culture

Liaoning's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is quite homogeneous across all of the northeastern China. See Manchuria#Culture for a detailed description.

In paleontology, Liaoning is well known for its extraordinary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous period; e.g., the early 'placental' mammal known as Eomaia. The first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx prima, was discovered in Liaoning and unveiled at a scientific meeting in 1996. Other notable discoveries have been an intact embryo of a pterosaur, Repenomamus robustus—a cat-sized mammal who ate dinosaurs, and Sinornithosaurus millenii, nicknamed "Dave the Fuzzy Raptor".

Tourism

Chongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace.

The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as famous as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.

In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Wunu Mountain City, a Goguryeo site found in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, is part of a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site that also includes sites in Ji'an, Jilin.

Benxi offers a boat ride though a large stalactite filled cave and underground river.

Anshan hosts the Anshan Jade Buddha, the largest Buddha statue made of jade in the world.

Liaoyang, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty.

The port city of Dalian, located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.

Dandong, on the border with North Korea, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of Sinŭiju.

Bijia Mountain is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.

Education

Colleges and universities

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under various other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:

ity of Science and Technology]] (鞍山科技大学)

Paleontology

Liaoning contains one of the foremost paleontological sites in the world since the discovery of Sinosauropteryx, a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. Since the 1990s dozens of groundbreaking finds have been discovered there, including the earliest flower, placental mammal, and marsupial, as well as several birds and feathered dinosaurs, including one that was found in a sleeping position. These have added further evidence that birds and dinosaurs may be directly related.

Sports

Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Liaoning Travel Guide: Map, History, Sightseeing, Ethnic Minority, Climate". http://www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/liaoning/. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Dezan Shira & Associates". Dezan Shira & Associates. 2009. http://www.dezshira.com. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  3. ^ "China Expat city Guide". China Expat. 2008. http://www.chinaexpat.com/north-east-network-based-shenyang-covers-liaoning. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  4. ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 38–40. ISBN 0-89065-118-3. 
  5. ^ Xingjing
  6. ^ Dongjing
  7. ^ Edmonds (1985), p. 113
  8. ^ Edmonds (1985), p. 74
  9. ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 74-75
  10. ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 58-61
  11. ^ a b Edmonds (1985), p. 76
  12. ^ "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. http://shopping.china-briefing.com/index_eproduct_view.php?products_id=21. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 

External links

Coordinates: 41°18′N 122°36′E / 41.3°N 122.6°E / 41.3; 122.6


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : East Asia : China : North East : Liaoning

Liaoning (辽宁; Liáoníng) is a province in the North East of China. To the west lies Hebei Province and Beijing, to the north is Inner Mongolia, in the north east the province borders with Jilin and the south east, along the Yalu River, is the border with North Korea. The South of the Province forms a peninsula jutting out into the Bohai Sea.

  • Shenyang (沈阳; Shěnyáng) - sub-province-level city, the provincial capital and Liaoning's largest city.
  • Anshan (鞍山; Ānshān) - third largest city in the province. A heavy industry area but contains Qianshan National Park and other major tourist sites.
  • Benxi (本溪; Běnxī) - once a heavily polluted industrial town but now cleaned up. Contains Benxi Water Caves National Park.
  • Chaoyang (朝阳; Cháoyáng)
  • Dalian (大连; Dàlián) - sub-province-level port city, and popular holiday destination. Formerly Japan and Russia at different times.
  • Dandong (丹东; Dāndōng) - border city with North Korea
  • Fushun (抚顺; Fǔshùn) - several famous Chinese people have come from here including Lei Feng, making this a site of national pilgrimage.
  • Fuxin (阜新; Fùxīn)
  • Huludao (葫芦岛; Húludǎo)
  • Jinzhou (锦州; Jǐnzhōu) - gateway to the West Liaoning Corridor
  • Liaoyang (辽阳; Liáoyáng) - has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty.
  • Panjin (盘锦; Pánjǐn)
  • Tieling (铁岭; Tiělǐng)
  • Yingkou (营口; Yíngkǒu)

Understand

Liaoning consists of wooded mountains in the north east and west, the vast Liaoning Plain at its heart, and the West Liaoning Corridor - narrow strip of land along the Bohai Sea. The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills. The West Liaoning Corridor follows the coast between the Nulu'erhu Mountains and the Bohai Sea. The Liaoning Plain consists of the watersheds of rivers such as the Liao, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and at low altitudes. The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qian Shan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region. Liaoning has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.

Liaoning has an ancient history. The area was the centre of the Liao Dynasty kingdom (辽朝 Liáo Cháo) or otherwise known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國) from 907-1125 AD. The Liao dynasty was taken over by the Jurchen people to form the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) which covered all of northern china before it's self being overrun by the Mongol empire of the Yuan Dynasty.

During the Ming Dynasty, the Jurchen people became divided into clans or tribes. Liaoning came under the Ming Chinese sphere of control. One of the tribal leaders, Nurhaci (1559-1626), broke form the Ming Empire and, uniting the dispirit Jurchen tribes, founded the Manchu ethnic group and the Later Jin Dynasty that would be known as Manchuria. Liaoning was the cradle form which the Manchu went on to conquer first the Mongols and the Ming China itself to start the Qing Dynasty. The three capitals of the Later Jin, , Liaoyang and Shenyang are within Liaoning. Shenyang maintained special status throughout the Qing Dynasty as a secondary capital complete with it's own Forbidden City.

The early twentieth century saw the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China. Liaoning became the centre piece in a struggle between China, Russia and Japan. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning. The 9-18 incident that started the first Sino-Japanese war occurred in 1932 in Shenyang. Liaoning quickly fell into Japanese hands along with much of north east China. The Japanese founded the puppet state of Manchuko which included Liaoning. It was during the Russian and Japanese occupations that the area was first developed for modern industry.

With the founding of the People's Republic of China, Liaoning became a centre of heavy industrial development. Coal, iron, oil and steel are produced here in large quantities. Many cities in the area developed a reputation dirt and pollution. A reputation they are now trying to shake off.

Liaoning is also famed for its food. Liao Cuisine is one of the eight famous cuisines of China. This cooking style is typically strong in flavour and heavily spiced but not hot. Chinese dumplings and noodles form the staple foods of the area (rice traditionally being a southern Chinese staple) though modern cultivation makes this area suitable for modern rice production. Central Liaoning's wide flat plains made it well suited to modern farming methods so Liaoning was one of the few areas of China where collectivisation works and the province was often cited as an example for the rest of the country to follow. The communist national hero, Lei Feng, hailed from Fushun city in Liaoning.

Get in

There are four public airports in Liaoning: Shenyang Taoxian International Airport (沈阳桃仙国际机场, airport code SHE); and Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport (大连周水子国际机场); Jinzhou Airport and Dandong Airport. Jinzhou and Dondong only connect with Beijing and Shanghai-Pudong. Shenyang and Dalian are larger international airports. They have flights to and form many other Chinese cities as well as international routes to North and South Korea, Japan, and even some American and European connections.

Eight railways connected Liaoning's Shenyang with Beijing, Dalian, Changchun, Harbin and Fushun. New high speed bullet trains now run from Shenyang to Beijing cutting the journey time down to four and half hours. Shenyang is connected via the transmongolian railway to Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia and on to Russian Siberia.

The six lane Jingshen Expressway runs the 658 kilometres from Beijing to Shenyang. The Shensi Expressway connects Shenyang to Changchun.

Coaches connect Shenyang, Dalian, Anshan and Dandong to Beijing and other cities throughout the north east of China. A coach form Beijing to Shenyang will take around 7 to 8 hours.

Ferrys from Incheon (South Korea), Shanghai, Weihai, Yantai and Tianjin connect to Dalian in the south of Liaoning.

It is possible to cross the border at Dandong between North Korea and China under certain circumstances.

Get around

Long distance travel travel within Liaoning is either by car, coach or train. The Shenda Expressway runs between Shenyang and Dalian. The Shedan Express way connects Shenayang, via Benxi, to Dandong. Frequent coaches run between most cities in Liaoning. The rail network forms a eight legged spider across the province with Shenyang at its centre. The trains are significantly faster and cheaper than coaches.

  • Religious structures — famous in the province include Fengguo Temple in Yixian, which possesses the largest single-floor wooden hall in China, Guangji Temple in Jinzhou and Yongfeng Pagoda in Dalian.
  • Ancient cities — remains in the province include Tayingzi Ancient City in Fuxin or Shenyang and Ruins of Gaoli City in Yingkou.
  • Mountains — there are a number worth a visit in the province, including Bijias Mountain in Jinzhou, Yiwulu Mountain in Fuxin, Longshou Mountain in Tieling, Tiesha Mountain in Benxi and Dagu Mountain in Dalian.
  • Other parks and landscapes — include Wanfutang Grottoes in Fuxin or Jinzhou, Yalujiang (which is the boundary between China and North Korea and can be viewed form Dandong or further upstream where the river becomes narrower), Ice Valley in Dalian and Fairy Cave in Dalian.
  • Imperial Palace or Forbidden city in Shenyang — a UNESCO world heritage site along with its bigger cousin in Beijing. The Shenyang palace rivals that of Beijing in its beauty and distinctive Manchurian architectural styles.
  • Tombs — Beiling is the North Tomb and Dongling is the East Tomb both in Shenyang, two of the three tombs north of the Great Wall and UNESCO world heritage sites.
  • Benxi Water Cave — cruise through the cave in Benxi Shuidong National Park near Benxi city. This is the largest water filled cavern in Asia. You can also raft down the nearby river.
  • River Rafting — if you are into this kind of thrilling sports, go to Fushun for Honghu Red River Canyon Rafting or Su River Rafting.
  • Beaches — the province does have some good ones including Xingcheng Beach in Huludao, Jinshi Beach in Dalian, Dalian Beach in Dalian and Dalian Beach-Lushunkou in Dalian.
  • Shenyang Ice and Snow Festival — not as famous as the festivals in Harbin but still worth a visit.
  • Skiing — the province has a number of good ski resorts, some of the best are found around Shenyang including Northeast Asia Ski Resort, Baiqingzhai Ski Field and Qipanshan Ice and Snow World. You could also try Gongchangling Skiing Field near Liaoyang.
  • Hot springs — are found around the province, eg in Anshan.

Eat

Liao Cuisine form Liaoning is one of the eight famous cuisines of China. This cooking style is typically strong in flavour and heavily spiced but not hot. Chinese dumplings (Jiaozi) and noodles form the staple foods of the area. Laioning has a large and growing Korean population and so Korean style food is readily available. Korean BBQ restaurants provide an interesting meal. Hot coals are placed in the centre of the table and diners grill their food, consisting mainly of meat, themselves.

The coastal areas of Liaoning are famous for their sea food. Hairy armed crabs area a local delicacy as are Sea Cucumbers. Fresh water fish also play a big role in local cuisine. The central area of Liaoning is a big fruit producer and the city of Anshan is famous for its Nangua Pears, much of which are exported to Korea.

Muslim restaurants serving food from Xinjiang Region of north west China may serve Halal food and many supermarkets have Halal sections or service counters. Vegetarian food is difficult to find. Although tofu (Dofu) is common dish in this area, it and other vegetable dishes are often cooked with meat fat or stock. As for sushir zhe when ordering vegetarian foods.

Drink

There are several beer (pijiu) producers in Liaoning with many cities having their own brands. The traditional spirit is Baijiu, a colourless drink that is generally 45% volume or above. Locals will often miss translate Baijiu as white wine or just simply wine. Care must be taken when offered wine to distinguish between Baijiu and grape wines (putao jiu).

Stay safe

Liaoning is generally a safe area with little trouble. At certain times of year the weather may give cause for concern. Winter temperatures can fall as low as -22 Celsius and heavy snows are common. Suitable clothing should be worn and it is possible for even large cities to be cut off from each other in blizzards. In contrasts, the summers are typically hot at about 32 Celsius. During the spring, dust storms may cause problems in some areas especially the north and west of Liaoning. The heavy industrial pollution of the past has been significantly cleaned up but not eliminated. The increase in car traffic has to some extent counter balanced other environmental improvements.

It is uncommon for people here to wear seat belts in cars. When travelling by taxi, the seat belt is frequently dirty and may mark your clothing. Some taxis' seat belts may be poorly maintained or broken.

Get out

Beijing is just four and a half hours away by train. Easy transport is also available to the other north eastern provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang as well as into Inner Mongolia. Ferries form Dlian connect to South Korea. It is also possible to journey by train into Siberia in Russia. With prior arrangement and at certain times of year, it is possible to cross the border at Liaoning's Dandong city to enter North Korea and travel on to Pyongyang.

This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Liaoning

Plural
-

Liaoning

  1. A province in China.
Translations

See also


Mandarin

simplified

辽宁

traditional

遼寧

Etymology

"Liáo" is an ancient name for this region, which was adopted by the Liao Dynasty (Khitan Empire) which ruled this area between 907 and 1125. "Níng" means "peacefulness."

Pronunciation

  •  audiohelp, file
  • IPA: [ liau˧˥niŋ˧˥ ]

Proper noun

Liaoning (Pinyin Liáoníng, traditional 遼寧, simplified 辽宁)

  1. Liaoning province.

References

  • Wikipedia-logo.png 辽宁 on the Mandarin Wikipedia.zh.Wikipedia:辽宁
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Liaoning on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Simple English

Liaoning is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. The capital city of Liaoning province is Shenyang.

Location

Liaoning province is the south of the 3 provinces which, together with the "Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region", form the entire northeastern part of China. It is bordered on the northeast by Jilin province, and has a coastline along the Yellow Sea to the southeast. Hebei province and Beijing within Hebei lie to the southwest.

Dalian is a major port city at the southern tip of a peninsula which juts about 100km south into the Yellow Sea.








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