Liberation theology: Wikis

  
  
  

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.Liberation theology is a movement in Christian theology which understands the teachings of Jesus Christ in terms of a liberation from unjust political, economic, or social conditions.^ He specializes in teaching on black liberation theology.
  • The Real Story Behind Rev. Wright's Controversial Black Liberation Theology Doctrine - Hannity's America - FOXNews.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Secondly, black theology is Christian theology because it centers on Jesus Christ.
  • Whites = Anti-Christ – Obama Christianity? | Sweetness & Light 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC sweetness-light.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Black Liberation Theology has nothing to do with Jesus or Christianity.
  • Radical Islam and Black Liberation Theology « Heaven Awaits 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC heavenawaits.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

It has been described as "an interpretation of Christian faith through the poor's suffering, their struggle and hope, and a critique of society and the Catholic faith and Christianity through the eyes of the poor".[1]
.In the mass media, 'Liberation Theology' can sometimes be used loosely, to refer to a wide variety of activist Christian thought.^ Liberation Theology makes direct reference to the use of the land.
  • INTERVIEW/LEONARDO BOFF : "LIBERATION THEOLOGY IS INCREASINGLY TIMELY" 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.ipsterraviva.net [Source type: News]

^ Any theology that is indifferent to the theme of liberation is not Christian theology."  .

^ Element I: "Christian theology is a theology of liberation.
  • Content Matter of Black Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: Original source]

.In this article the term will be used in its technical theological sense.^ Z. It is a most enlightening article (and by using the term “light” in this context of gaining a deeper, better understanding I am doubtless showing my inherent racism.
  • What Does The Prayer Really Say?»Blog Archive » What is Black Liberation Theology? Some basics. 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC wdtprs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a big difference between the undifferentiated use of a single word to define something, and a term or phrase (containing that word) being used specifically about a theological standpoint.
  • Feral Scholar » Blog Archive » Intro to American liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.feralscholar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The black power movement is not "black nationalism" in the sense that the term is normally used.
  • Origin of Black Power and Black Theology of Liberation 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: Original source]

.The term was coined by the Peruvian priest Gustavo Gutiérrez, who wrote one of the movement's most famous books, A Theology of Liberation (1971).^ The use of violence has been one of the most controversial aspects of liberation theology.
  • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]
  • In Search of Lost Time: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it will not win any advocates for the liberation theology movement.
  • Amazon.com: Introducing Liberation Theology (9780883445501): Leonardo Boff, Clodovis Boff: Books 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Home Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology?
  • Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology? | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.Other noted exponents are Leonardo Boff of Brazil, Jon Sobrino of El Salvador, and Juan Luis Segundo of Uruguay.^ As Leonardo Boff, Brazil's most irreverent but influential exponent of the new thinking, pointed out: Jesus was a political prisoner, who died on the Cross, not an old man who died in bed.'

^ The works of other Jesuit advocates widely read in the United States include Juan Luis Segundos five-volume A Theology for Artisans of a New Humanity and Arthur F. McGoverns Marxism: an American Perspective .
  • Liberation Theology: a Cancer in our Clergy 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.knology.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to studying the works of Sobrino, we also read the Brazilian Leonardo Boff and the Columbian Gustavo Gutierrez.
  • THE NEED FOR LIBERATION THEOLOGY IS GREATER THAN EVER 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.home.roadrunner.com [Source type: Original source]

[2][3][4]
.Although liberation theology has grown into an international and inter-denominational movement, it began as a movement within the Roman Catholic church in Latin America in the 1950s - 1960s.^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Benedict then underscored the damage that liberation theology did to the Catholic Church.
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dallasblog.com, the Dallas, Texas news blog and Dallas, Texas information source for the DFW Metroplex. - DALLAS BLOG - Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.dallasblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Liberation theology was a radical movement that grew up in South America.
  • BBC - Religions - Christianity: Liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It arose principally as a moral reaction to the poverty caused by social injustice in that region.^ While he criticized liberation theology for using Marxism as a tool of analysis, he also praised liberation theologians for redirecting the churchs mission here to focus on issues of social injustice and poverty.
  • Liberation Theologists: As Pope Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.spiegel.de [Source type: News]
  • 215-liberationo-theology-brazil 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is hard to find a call for a collective engagement in a social and political struggle to overcome the oppressive structural causes of injustice.
  • Liberation Themes in Country Music 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.frontiernet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Social injustice began to surface as the fundamental cause of the general situation.
  • untitled 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www2.kenyon.edu [Source type: Original source]

It achieved prominence in the 1970s and 1980s.
.The influence of liberation theology diminished after liberation theologians using Marxist concepts were admonished by the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) in 1984 and 1986. The Vatican documents criticize certain strains of Liberation Theology for focusing on institutional dimensions of sin to the exclusion of the individual; and for undermining church authority by identifying the church hierarchy as members of the privileged class.^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instruction on certain aspects of the "theology of liberation" / Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

^ What is the authority in liberation theology?
  • Contemporary Issues | Bible.org; NET Bible, Bible Study 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC bible.org [Source type: Original source]

[5]

Contents

Theology

.Liberation theology proposes to fight poverty by addressing its source: sin.^ At CELAM the Latin American priests took this further and declared that salvation started on earth, that poverty was sinful, and that Jesus was a liberator of the poor.
  • tb » Why the Vatican Hates Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.timboucher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • tb » Why the Vatican Hates Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.timboucher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While he criticized liberation theology for using Marxism as a tool of analysis, he also praised liberation theologians for redirecting the churchs mission here to focus on issues of social injustice and poverty.
  • Liberation Theologists: As Pope Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.spiegel.de [Source type: News]
  • 215-liberationo-theology-brazil 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The very term "liberation theology" was proposed almost simultaneously by the Roman Catholic priest Gustavo Gutiérrez, from Peru, and the Presbyterian theologian Rubem Alves, from Brazil.
  • Liberation theology is still alive and well | Ekklesia 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.ekklesia.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • Liberation theology is alive and well 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.oikoumene.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In so doing, it explores the relationship between Christian theology — especially Roman Catholic theology — and political activism, especially about social justice, poverty, and human rights.^ In essence, liberation theology explores the relationship between Christian, specifically Roman Catholic, theology and political activism, particularly in areas of social justice, poverty and human rights.
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a close relationship between theology, economics and human rights.
  • Gerard Hall, sm: The Three Turns In Modern Theology: Transcendental, Political And Liberation Theologies 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC dlibrary.acu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Bible focus - poverty, social justice .
  • Brite Divinity to honor pastor who espouses 'liberation theology' (OneNewsNow.com) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.onenewsnow.com [Source type: News]

.The principal methodological innovation is seeing theology from the perspective of the poor and the oppressed (socially, politically, etc.^ It is theology from the perspective of an oppressed people.
  • Black Theology Revisited | Christianity Today | A Magazine of Evangelical Conviction 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.christianitytoday.com [Source type: General]

^ It was an understanding of Christianity from the perspective of the poor and oppressed.
  • Second Unitarian Church: Sermon Archive - March 9, 2003 - Who Binds You? Liberation Theology and the Liberal Faith 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.secondunitarianomaha.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The main methodological innovation of liberation theology is to approach theology from the viewpoint of the economically poor and oppressed.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

). .For example Jon Sobrino, S.J., argues that the poor are a privileged channel of God's grace.^ God) from the viewpoint of the economically poor and oppressed, because the poor are a privileged channel of God's grace.
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Jon Sobrino , S.J., the poor are a privileged channel of God’s grace.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Personally, I have no doubt that from the perspective of the poor you have a better view of reality and better understand the revelation of God," said Father Sobrino.
  • Fr. Sobrino: Vatican criticism tries to end liberation theology | The-Tidings.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.the-tidings.com [Source type: News]

.Liberation theologians base their social action upon the Bible scriptures describing the mission of Jesus Christ, as bringing a sword (social unrest), e.g.^ In the Bible, Christ is presented as the one who brings us liberation.
  • Contemporary Issues | Bible.org; NET Bible, Bible Study 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ Liberator , pp.
  • 255e: Toward a Liberation Theology of Religions (Paul F. KNITTER) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC servicioskoinonia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emphasis is placed on those parts of the Bible where Jesus’ mission is described not in terms of bringing peace ( social order ) but bringing a sword ( social unrest ), e.g.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.Isaiah 61:1, Matthew 10:34, Luke 22:35-38 Matthew 26:51-52 — and not as bringing peace (social order).^ Matthew 10:34, Luke 22:35-38 and Matthew 26:51-52.
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matthew 10:34 , Luke 22:35-38 and Matthew 26:51-52 .
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Emphasis is placed on those parts of the Bible where Jesus’ mission is described not in terms of bringing peace ( social order ) but bringing a sword ( social unrest ), e.g.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.This Biblical interpretation is a call to action against poverty, and the sin engendering it, and as a call to arms, to effect Jesus Christ's mission of justice in this world.^ Christ came to liberate the world from sin.
  • The insanity of "black liberation theology" - Crunchy Con 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ We focus on Jesus Christ as the criterion of interpretation of the Biblical message.
  • Frequently Asked Questions | Friends of Sabeel -- North America 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.fosna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In it, he said, the "struggle for political, social, and economic justice is consistent with the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • Black liberation theology appeals to the oppressed » Kuwait Times Website 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.kuwaittimes.net [Source type: News]

.In practice, the theology includes the Marxist concept of class struggle, thus emphasizing the person's individual self-actualization as part of God's divine purpose for mankind.^ Liberation theology also emphasizes what proponents describe as individual self-actualization as part of God’s divine purpose for humankind.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Liberation theology also emphasizes what proponents describe as individual self-actualization as part of God's divine purpose for humankind.
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marxist concepts such as the doctrine of perpetual class struggle are also significant.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gustavo Gutierrez gave the movement its paradigmatic expression with his book A Theology of Liberation (1972).^ It was followed in 1971 by his book, "A Theology of Liberation".
  • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The political philosophy of Gustavo Gutierrez (Peru, liberation theology).
  • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If you’re really interested, start with Gustavo Gutierrez’s book A Theology of Liberation.
  • dotCommonweal » Blog Archive » NY Times on Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.commonwealmagazine.org [Source type: General]

.In this book, Gutierrez combined Marxist ideas with the social teachings of the Catholic church.^ Catholic Social Teaching (175) .
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There, liberation theology became associated with Marxist revolution and the Sandinistas, and split the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Obama's church pushes controversial doctrines | McClatchy 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.mcclatchydc.com [Source type: News]
  • Obama's church pushes controversial doctrines | McClatchy 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.mcclatchydc.com [Source type: News]

^ Father Gutierrez's 1971 book, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, Salvation , presented his concept of the connection between social and political liberation and liberation from sin.
  • Liberation theology�s father receives ashes from pope - Catholic Online 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: General]

.He was influenced by an existing socialist current in the Church which included organizations such as the Catholic Worker Movement and the French Christian youth worker organization, "Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne." He was also influenced by Paul Gauthier's "The Poor, Jesus and the Church" (1965).^ Catholic Worker Movement (17) .
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They fear that Jesus is interpreted in predetermined categories and made to fit into them, and also that much liberation theology is indifferent to established critical scholarship.But the influence of liberation theology (and movements such as feminist theology which are akin to it) is enormous.
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He is an open proponent of "liberation theology", a movement that has often been condemned by the Catholic Church for endorsing socialistic ideologies incompatible with the Catholic faith.
  • Renegade Catholic Bishop and Proponent of "Liberation Theology" Favorite to Win Presidency in Paraguay 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.lifesitenews.com [Source type: News]

.Gutierrez's book is based on an understanding of history in which the human being is seen as assuming conscious responsibility for human destiny, and yet Christ the Saviour liberates the human race from sin, which is the root of all disruption of friendship and of all injustice and oppression.^ All white men are responsible for white oppression.
  • The insanity of "black liberation theology" - Crunchy Con 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]
  • The Insanity of Black Liberation Theology « BoldColorConservative 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC boldcolorconservative.com [Source type: General]
  • Black liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC bitsblog.florack.us [Source type: General]
  • The Obamas’ Religion: Radical Black Liberation Theology « AmeriCAN-DO Attitude 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC michaelinmi.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » Obama’s Church and Black Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: General]
  • The Christian Century 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.christiancentury.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christ came to liberate the world from sin.
  • The insanity of "black liberation theology" - Crunchy Con 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Sin, the root of human alienation .
  • Pope Benedict Warns Against Marxist Liberation Theology « The American Catholic 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC the-american-catholic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.Gutierrez also popularized the phrase "preferential option for the poor," which became a slogan of liberation theology and eventually an official doctrine of the Catholic church.^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Benedict then underscored the damage that liberation theology did to the Catholic Church.
  • liberation theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Not So Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: General]
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dallasblog.com, the Dallas, Texas news blog and Dallas, Texas information source for the DFW Metroplex. - DALLAS BLOG - Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.dallasblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Which church gatherings postulated liberation theology?
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gutierrez emphasized practice (or, more technically, "praxis") over doctrine.^ (PUBOrbis) A Theology of Liberation first explored God's attention to the poor and practicing theology from the "bottom up," emphasizing the importance of social analysis and praxis over theory.
  • Liberation Theology - Christianbook.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.christianbook.com [Source type: General]

."Praxis" is a term borrowed from Marxist theory, particularly the work of Antonio Gramsci.^ At this place theologians could act like "organic intellectuals" , a term which the liberation theologians lent from Antonio Gramsci.
  • Thomas Schmidt - Liberation Theology and Working in an Enterprise 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.con-spiration.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberation theology, by contrast, was about “praxis”the Marxist term for the revolutionary project of removing the oppression of the poor.
  • Liberation Theology�What's Left | First Things 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.firstthings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their aim is to be 'organic intellectuals' (Antonio Gramsci) - that is, intellectuals whose work is directly connected with popular struggle."
  • Liberation theology and the great revolutionary fantasy 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC oldweb.uwp.edu [Source type: Original source]

According to Gutierrez, praxis is as important as belief, if not more so. Hence liberation theology has been criticized for emphasizing "orthopraxis" over "orthodoxy."[7] Richard McBrien summarizes this concept as follows:
.God is disclosed in the historical ‘’praxis’’ of liberation.^ Jesus in Global Contexts by Priscilla Pope-Levison Discusses: historical praxis locus theologicus liberation from sin .
  • Amazon.com: A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation (15th Anniversary Edition with New Introduction by Author) (9780883445426): Gustavo Gutierrez: Books 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The Christian’s duty is to locate the liberative work of God in history and actively engage in this and reflect from within the context of this historical praxis.
  • Richard Gillingham : Praxis and the Content of Theology in Gustavo Gutiérrez’s Theological Methodology: A Comparative Critique - Quodlibet Journal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.quodlibet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (PUBOrbis) A Theology of Liberation first explored God's attention to the poor and practicing theology from the "bottom up," emphasizing the importance of social analysis and praxis over theory.
  • Liberation Theology - Christianbook.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.christianbook.com [Source type: General]

.It is the situation, and our passionate and reflective involvement in it, which mediates the Word of God.^ Gods summons to us, Gods word today, grows from the collective process of historical awareness, analysis, and involvement, that is, from praxis.
  • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.thecra.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the words of the Westminster Confession of Faith, God is “without body, parts, or passions, immutable.” The doctrine of Jul 17, 2009 .
  • Local Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC localtheology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The meaning of this message for our contemporary situation is clear: the God of the oppressed takes sides with the black community.
  • Whites = Anti-Christ – Obama Christianity? | Sweetness & Light 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC sweetness-light.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today that Word is mediated through the cries of the poor and the oppressed.^ Christianity teaches that we are to care for the poor and oppressed, but the central message of the Gospel is salvation from sin through Jesus Christ.
  • Obama's Preacher Pals - News Bloggers 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC news.aol.com [Source type: General]

^ They espoused a theology that actively defended the rights of the oppressed by taking 'an option for the poor', in the words of liberation theology's Peruvian originator Gustavo Gutierrez.

^ It was through salvation that the poor and oppressed were to be raised up.
  • BBC - Religions - Christianity: Liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Another important hallmark for Gutierrez's brand of liberation theology is an interpretation of revelation as “history”.^ Theology of liberation: history, politics, and salvation.

^ At its inception, Liberation Theology combined the most important and emotion-packed elements of Latin American culture, nationalism, opposition to the United States, and revolution.
  • A Christian Understanding Of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC icgarea4.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Phillip Berryman, liberation theology is "an interpretation of Christian faith through the poor's suffering, their struggle and hope, and a critique of society and the Catholic faith and Christianity through the eyes of the poor."
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example Gutierrez wrote:
.History is the scene of the revelation God makes of the mystery of his person.^ It will be affirmed that God Himself makes history.
  • CATHOLIC LIBRARY: Instruction on "Theology of Liberation" (1984) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "God has a dream", and has proposed a utopia to human beings, making this their task in history.
  • José María Vigil - Is there a Change of Paradigm in Liberation Theology? 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.sedos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This revelation from "outside" is replaced by the revelation of God found in the matrix of human interaction with history.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txn/liberati.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.His word reaches us in the measure of our involvement in the evolution of history.^ Gods summons to us, Gods word today, grows from the collective process of historical awareness, analysis, and involvement, that is, from praxis.
  • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.thecra.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But we need to remember that it is only our past history which can tell us about our past identity.
  • ctc0104j 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cca.org.hk [Source type: Original source]

^ It would seem that BXVI is really trying to do the opposite of this—to raise our vision to things that are higher and remind of us of the history and practice and meaning of the Church, which is universal.
  • What Does The Prayer Really Say?»Blog Archive » What is Black Liberation Theology? Some basics. 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC wdtprs.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

Criticism

.Some aspects of Liberation Theology were the subject of two critical “Instructions” from the Vatican’s office for doctrinal orthodoxy, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF).^ The Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith - the Vatican's watchdog for doctrinal orthodoxy - issued two important statements on liberation theology.
  • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]
  • In Search of Lost Time: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sobrino: Vatican criticism tries to end liberation theology .
  • Fr. Sobrino: Vatican criticism tries to end liberation theology | The-Tidings.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.the-tidings.com [Source type: News]

^ Instruction on certain aspects of the "theology of liberation" / Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

[10][11] .The instructions rejected the idea that a class struggle is fundamental to history, and rejected the interpretation of religious phenomena such as the Exodus and the Eucharist in exclusively political terns.^ His death is given an "exclusively political interpretation .
  • The Betrayal of the Church - Chapter Six 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cmpage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everything is to be interpreted in terms of the class struggle.
  • Fallacies of Liberation Theology | Brethren Revival Fellowship 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.brfwitness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They emphasized oppression of the poor and encouraged political activism to abolish perpetual class struggle.
  • FrontPage Magazine - Palestinian Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC 97.74.65.51 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."The mistake here is not in bringing attention to a political dimension of the readings of Scripture, but in making of this one dimension the principal or exclusive component."^ The mistake here is not in bringing attention to a political dimension of the readings of Scripture, but in making of this one dimension the principal or exclusive component.
  • CATHOLIC LIBRARY: Instruction on "Theology of Liberation" (1984) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • dotCommonweal » Blog Archive » NY Times on Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.commonwealmagazine.org [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps that brings it back to Gutierrez' discussion of the three levels (or dimensions) of liberation - meeting basic needs is one dimension, opposing structural dimension is another.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not making this up: one of the main arguments used in support of amillennialism by that very link is that the millennium is mentioned nowhere else in scripture!
  • liberation theology « Jesus Christ Is Lord 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC healtheland.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.[10] However, the movement in general was not condemned: the Instructions explicitly endorsed a "preferential option for the poor", stated that no one could be neutral in the face of injustice, and referred to the "crimes" of colonialism and the "scandal" of the arms race.^ This option excludes no one.
  • Pope Benedict Warns Against Marxist Liberation Theology « The American Catholic 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC the-american-catholic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ This option excludes no one."
  • Catholic Culture : Library : The Retreat of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.catholicculture.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mainly because when I do attend mass I hear a good deal about the evils of gay adoption or about why I should no longer support Amnesty International but rarely do I hear any talk about the need for "preferential option for the poor."
  • Mike Ion: Time for a new liberation theology | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Nonetheless, media reports tended to assume that the condemnation of "liberation theology" meant a rejection of such attitudes and an endorsement of conservative politics.^ As such, liberation theology has been, and is, extremely dangerous.
  • The Betrayal of the Church - Chapter Six 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cmpage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once again, this is not a condemnation of liberation theology.
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When liberation theology condemns consumerism, good.
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI), who was prefect of the CDF at the time when the Instructions were issued, published his own personal criticism of the movement in 1985.[7] In this document Ratzinger claims that in certain forms of Liberation Theology, the meaning of basic theological terms is changed - e.g.^ Liberation theology, then and now .
  • Liberation theology, then and now | For The Love - al.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.al.com [Source type: General]

^ This echoes one critique of liberation theology made by Joseph Ratzinger - now Benedict XVI—in the early 1980s.
  • Liberation Theology’s Civil War 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC canadafreepress.com [Source type: News]

^ A decade later, Pope John Paul II and his doctrinal advisor Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) issued an ‘Instruction’ severely critical of ‘certain aspects’ of liberation theology.
  • The Jubilee Centre - 'To Release the Oppressed': Reclaiming a biblical theology of liberation 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.jubilee-centre.org [Source type: Original source]

terms such as "hope", "love", and "salvation" are assigned a Marxist interpretation in terms of "class struggle".
.Ratzinger also argued that Liberation Theology is not originally a "grass-roots" movement among the poor, but rather, a creation of Western intellectuals: "an attempt to test, in a concrete scenario, ideologies that have been invented in the laboratory by European theologians" and in a certain sense itself a form of "cultural imperialism". Ratzinger saw this as a reaction to the demise or near-demise of the "Marxist myth" in the West.^ It is as it were an attempt to test, in a concrete scenario, ideologies that have been invented in the laboratory by European theoreticians.
  • What Does The Prayer Really Say?»Blog Archive » Nooo… Liberation Theology isn’t “okay” now. 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC wdtprs.com [Source type: General]

^ Liberation Theology, as it is known, is an attempt to liberate the poor from injustice and oppression.
  • Second Unitarian Church: Sermon Archive - March 9, 2003 - Who Binds You? Liberation Theology and the Liberal Faith 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.secondunitarianomaha.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What were Ratzinger’s main objections to liberation theology?
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.In March 1983, Cardinal Ratzinger made ten observations of Gutiérrez's theology, accusing Gutiérrez of politically interpreting the Bible in supporting temporal messianism, and stating that the predominance of orthopraxis over orthodoxy in his thought proves a Marxist influence.^ What Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger thought of liberation theology in 1984.
  • The Belmont Club: Basra, liberation theology and Iraq 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC fallbackbelmont.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 1980s, the church hierarchy has criticized liberation theology and its advocates, accusing them of wrongly supporting violent revolution and Marxist class struggle.
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Liberation encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WORLDmag.com | Community | Blog Archive | White liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC online.worldmag.com [Source type: General]

^ The then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, today's Pope Benedict XVI, wrote a paper on liberation theology where he expressed concern that Marxist elements were getting mixed up with theology.
  • Religioscope: Venezuela: opting for the poor - liberation theology today 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC religion.info [Source type: Original source]

.Ratzinger also stated that Gutierrez's conceptions necessarily uphold class conflict in the Roman Catholic Church, which, logically, leads to rejecting hierarchy.^ There, liberation theology became associated with Marxist revolution and the Sandinistas, and split the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Obama's church pushes controversial doctrines | McClatchy 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.mcclatchydc.com [Source type: News]

^ Cry of the People: United States involvement in the rise of fascism, torture, murder and the persecution of the Catholic Church in Latin America.
  • Liberation Theology - Religion in Latin America - Yale University Library Subject Guides at Yale University Library 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC guides.library.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The period from 1830 to the present has been characterized by Church-state conflict.
  • The History of the Catholic Church in Latin America and Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC academic.sun.ac.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, Cardinal Ratzinger did praise liberation theology in some respects, including its ideal of justice, its rejection of violence, and its stress on "the responsibility which Christians necessarily bear for the poor and oppressed.”[citation needed]
.Roman Catholic priest and author Andrew Greeley criticized liberation theology in his 2009 fictional book Irish Tweed.^ Priests and praxis: Liberation theology and socioeconomic change in Ecuador (Catholic).
  • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was followed in 1971 by his book, "A Theology of Liberation".
  • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ We have noted that liberation theology is predominantly a Roman Catholic movement.
  • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]
  • In Search of Lost Time: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Greeley's book, a Chicago Catholic school is taken over by a principal and priest practicing liberation theology, and its ideas are applied in the school environment.^ Priests and praxis: Liberation theology and socioeconomic change in Ecuador (Catholic).
  • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ MLA Chicago APA " liberation theology ."
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was followed in 1971 by his book, "A Theology of Liberation".
  • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, basketball team members are chosen based on their family's economic status rather than on their ability.^ Focus on the social condition of all races that are failing to receive what they deserve based on their social-economic status.
  • The Truth About Trinity United Church of Christ: Black Liberation Theology - A Conversation with James Cone 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC truthabouttrinity.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather, he accentuated it every time he helped solidify among his followers the perception that history is ruled by natural social laws, or that in the last instance tensions and contradictions in the economic base of society determine humanitys development.
  • Revista Envío - Marxism, Post-Marxism, Liberation Theology (Part 1) Reflections for a Re-encounter 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.envio.org.ni [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Essentially, “from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs,” happening through the collective good will and values of the community rather than through an inhuman dictatorial state.
  • dotCommonweal » Blog Archive » NY Times on Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.commonwealmagazine.org [Source type: General]

[12]
.Such criticisms have provoked counter-criticisms that orthodox catholics are in effect casting the Catholic Church as a friend of authoritarian regimes; and that the Vatican is not so much trying to defend pure doctrine as to maintain an established ecclesiastical and political order.^ So much for the totalitarianism of the Catholic Church.
  • American Thinker: Obama, Black Liberation Theology, and Karl Marx 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Universal Seduction: Obama, Black Liberation Theology, and Karl Marx 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC theuniversalseduction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aims of the Church's doctrines and the consequences for Catholics.
  • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This edited volume offers both a careful assessment of the Church's effects on the social, cultural, and political landscape of Latin America, and an analysis of the factors contributing to the liberationist Church's recent marginalization--including the fragmentation of the Left, the fall of authoritarian regimes, and the rise of powerful competitors in the religious marketplace.
  • Liberation Theology - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This conflict could be compared to some aspects of the Protestant Reformation.^ They poke good-natured fun at some funny aspects of religion, churches, theology, right-wing Protestant religion, and the mixture of right-wing religion and politics.
  • Liberation Themes in Country Music 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.frontiernet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I am hoping some of you have compared and contrasted and might share your opinions, or could suggest reading material on the subject.
  • Liberation Theology - Catholic Answers Forums 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

.Outside Latin America, some of liberation theology's most ardent advocates are Protestant thinkers (e.g., Jurgen Moltmann and Frederick Herzog).^ Methodist and the most prominent Protestant advocate of liberation thought.

^ There were great hopes of liberation theology, in Latin America and elsewhere.
  • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, even some of liberation theology’s most outspoken advocates freely admit that it has collapsed, including in Latin America.
  • liberation theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Not So Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: General]
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

History

.A major player in the formation of Liberation Theology was CELAM, the Latin American Episcopal Conference.^ The Latin-American Episcopal Conferences have made it the immediate object of their reflections.
  • Pope Benedict Warns Against Marxist Liberation Theology « The American Catholic 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC the-american-catholic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the opponents of liberation theology claim that the Latin American theology of liberation is too Marxist .
  • Muslimedia.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC muslimedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Blosser is ever willing to seriously engage Latin American liberation theology, .
  • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), CELAM pushed the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) toward a more socially oriented stance.^ It is a meditation (from 1973) by a Latin American Roman Catholic theologian on how to understand the Gospel in the light of the Second Vatican Council and the experience of poverty and suffering in Latin America.
  • A Theology of Liberation (SCM Classics): Amazon.co.uk: Gustavo Gutierrez, Christopher Rowland: Books 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ GG: That current emerged in the mid-1960s, after the Second Vatican Council, and was taken up by (Latin American bishops conferences like the one in) Medelln (in 1968).
  • LATIN AMERICA: Archbishop Romero's Legacy Lives On, Says Liberation Theology - IPS ipsnews.net 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Dating to the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) and the Second Latin American Bishops Conference, held in Medellin, Colombia (1968), the movement brought poor people together in comunidades de base, or Christian-based communities, to study the Bible and to fight for social justice.
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Liberation encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WORLDmag.com | Community | Blog Archive | White liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC online.worldmag.com [Source type: General]

[13] .However, CELAM never supported liberation theology as such, since liberation theology was frowned upon by the Vatican, with Pope Paul VI trying to slow the movement after the Second Vatican Council.^ The Pope lists the drivers for Liberation Theology: 1.
  • What Does The Prayer Really Say?»Blog Archive » Nooo… Liberation Theology isn’t “okay” now. 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC wdtprs.com [Source type: General]

^ Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again.
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it will not win any advocates for the liberation theology movement.
  • Amazon.com: Introducing Liberation Theology (9780883445501): Leonardo Boff, Clodovis Boff: Books 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[14]
.After the Second Vatican Council, CELAM held two conferences which were important in determining the future of Liberation Theology: the first was held in Medellín, Colombia, in 1968, and the second in Puebla, Mexico, in January 1979.[13] The Medellín conference debated how to apply the teachings of Vatican II to Latin America, and its conclusions were strongly influenced by Liberation Theology.^ There were great hopes of liberation theology, in Latin America and elsewhere.
  • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ How has liberation theology changed mainstream theology?
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its purpose was to apply Vatican II to Latin America.
  • Theologies: Liberation vs Submission 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cyberie.qc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[5]
Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo was a central figure at the Medellín Conference, and was elected in 1972 as general secretary of CELAM. He represented a more orthodox-catholic form of Liberation Theology which became predominant in CELAM after the 1972 Sucre conference, and in the Roman Curia after the CELAM conference in Puebla, Mexico, in January 1979.
.Despite the orthodox bishops' predominance in CELAM, a more radical form of Liberation Theology remained much supported in South America.^ More on liberation theology and marxism.
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Black theology is a form of liberation theology.
  • wooQ: Black Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC wooq.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current bishops' conference of South America is still preaching genuine liberation theology.
  • Pope slams "deceitful" liberation theology - CathNews 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cathnews.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, the 1979 Puebla Conference was an opportunity for orthodox bishops to reassert control of the radical elements; but they failed.^ They somehow gained control and thus power over others.
  • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.solhaam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After his election to the Holy See, his first trip was to Puebla, Mexico, to address the first conference of Latin American bishops in almost 20 years.
  • Theologies: Liberation vs Submission 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cyberie.qc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ By 2020, Hispanics are expected to account for more than 50 percent of U.S. Catholics; they currently account for 39 percent, according to statistics posted by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the Puebla Conference, the orthodox reorientation was met by strong opposition from the liberal part of the clergy, which supported the concept of a "preferential option for the poor." This concept had been approved at the Medellin conference by Bishop Ricard Durand, president of the Commission about Poverty.
.Pope John Paul II gave the opening speech at the Puebla Conference.^ Pope John Paul II. 1991.
  • Liberation Theology and Economics 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.shc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Paul II (15) .
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II, 1988, pp.
  • ctc0104j 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cca.org.hk [Source type: Original source]

The general tone of his remarks was conciliatory. .He criticized radical liberation theology, saying, "this conception of Christ, as a political figure, a revolutionary, as the subversive of Nazareth, does not tally with the Church's catechisms"; however, he did speak of "the ever increasing wealth of the rich at the expense of the ever increasing poverty of the poor", and affirmed that the principle of private property "must lead to a more just and equitable distribution of goods .^ More on liberation theology and marxism.
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Benedict then underscored the damage that liberation theology did to the Catholic Church.
  • liberation theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Not So Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: General]
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dallasblog.com, the Dallas, Texas news blog and Dallas, Texas information source for the DFW Metroplex. - DALLAS BLOG - Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.dallasblog.com [Source type: General]

. . and, if the common good demands it, there is no need to hesitate at .expropriation, itself, done in the right way"; on balance, the Pope offered neither praise nor condemnation.^ The only way one would know this, though, is to know the history of the disputes and to know the Vatican’s two previous texts on liberation theology neither of which condemn liberation theology in toto.
  • Pope Benedict on liberation theology… again. « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Praise God for Pope Benedict XVI. He is right to help us see the lingering negative effects of the sin of Liberation Theology.
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some liberation theologians, however, including Gutierrez, had been barred from attending the conference.^ In addition to teaching at some Roman Catholic universities and seminaries, liberation theologians can often be found in Protestant-oriented schools.
  • Does Barack Obama’s religion matter? [Karl] 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She became involved in the fight for civil rights for black Americans, and identified with the liberation theology espoused by some Latin American theologians.
  • Theology Network - Theology of Everything - An overview of feminist theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.theologynetwork.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So if I were a real theologian, I would want to be included in the chorus of liberation theologians.
  • A White Supremacist Theology of Liberation » Young Anabaptist Radicals 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC young.anabaptistradicals.org [Source type: General]

.Working from a seminary and with aid from sympathetic, liberal bishops, they partially obstructed the orthodox clergy's efforts to ensure that the Puebla Conference documents satisfied conservative concerns.^ During the preparation for the CELAM conference in Puebla, the preparatory document was rejected by the conservative bishops.
  • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.socinian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paulo Friere's Pedagogy of the Oppressed ; South American Bishop's Conference at Medellin, Columbia, that stated "all liberation is an anticipation of the complete redemption brought by Christ".
  • Gerard Hall, sm: The Three Turns In Modern Theology: Transcendental, Political And Liberation Theologies 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC dlibrary.acu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But Boff is convinced an important, even revolutionary, corner has been turned within Latin America, especially within Liberation Theology and he points toward the documents of Puebla (1979) and the writings of South American bishops.
  • Leonardo Boff. SAINT FRANCIS: A MODEL FOR HUMAN LIBERATION -- Liberation Theology, St. Francis 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.websteruniv.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Within four hours of the Pope's speech, Gutiérrez and the other priests wrote a twenty-page refutation, which was circulated at the conference, and has been claimed to have influenced the final outcome of the conference.^ She claims to be morally neutral, yet her message is clearly intended to influence the thinking of others.
  • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC latter-rain.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catechists, or spiritual leaders, come from within the communities, not from the priests or other religious.
  • Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology? | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.According to a socio-political study of liberation theology in Latin America, twenty-five per cent of the final Puebla documents were written by theologians who were not invited to the conference.^ There were great hopes of liberation theology, in Latin America and elsewhere.
  • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Home Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology?
  • Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology? | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberation Theology is a theology of bloody political revolution.
  • Faultline USA: Obama’s Marxist Liberation Theology Church 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC faultlineusa.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Cardinal Trujillo said that this affirmation is "an incredible exaggeration" (Ben Zabel 2002:139), nevertheless, he conceded that there was strong pressure from a group of eighty Marxist liberation theologists external to the Bishop's Conference.^ Paulo Friere's Pedagogy of the Oppressed ; South American Bishop's Conference at Medellin, Columbia, that stated "all liberation is an anticipation of the complete redemption brought by Christ".
  • Gerard Hall, sm: The Three Turns In Modern Theology: Transcendental, Political And Liberation Theologies 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC dlibrary.acu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There, liberation theology became associated with Marxist revolution and the Sandinistas, and split the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Obama's church pushes controversial doctrines | McClatchy 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.mcclatchydc.com [Source type: News]

^ The then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, today's Pope Benedict XVI, wrote a paper on liberation theology where he expressed concern that Marxist elements were getting mixed up with theology.
  • Religioscope: Venezuela: opting for the poor - liberation theology today 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC religion.info [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Reaction within the Catholic Church

.As mentioned above, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, headed by Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), issued official condemnations of certain elements of Liberation Theology in 1984 and 1986. After this, Leonardo Boff was suspended and others were censored.^ What were Ratzinger’s main objections to liberation theology?
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardinal Ratzinger and the Congregation are not stupid.
  • notes on liberation theology (2) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.rustyparts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Related Tags: liberation theology , pope benedict xvi , roman catholic church .
  • liberation theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Not So Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: General]

.During the 1980s and the 1990s, as prefect of the CDF, Ratzinger continued to condemn these elements in Liberation Theology, and prohibited dissident priests from teaching such doctrines in the Catholic Church's name.^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Benedict then underscored the damage that liberation theology did to the Catholic Church.
  • liberation theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Not So Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: General]
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Priests and praxis: Liberation theology and socioeconomic change in Ecuador (Catholic).
  • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He excommunicated Tissa Balasuriya, in Sri Lanka, for so doing.^ What he tried to do was to harmonize the Catholic Church in the multi-religious Sri Lanka by, among other things, doing away with its superiority complex.
  • Sri Lanka’s Anglican Church adopts Liberation Theology, Bishop shows symbolic solidarity with Kilinocchi | Asian Tribune 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sebastian Kappen, an Indian theologian, was also censored for his book Jesus and Freedom.^ Several prominent theologians such as the late Fr George Soares in Pune, Samuel Ryan, and the late Sebastian Kappen supported the new thinking.
  • The Cross and the Communist - Sunday TOI - Home - The Times of India 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC timesofindia.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The greatest theologian the church ever had, Jesus of Nazareth, never published a book, and yet what a book he wrote in praxis!

[16] .Under Cardinal Ratzinger's influence, theological formation schools were forbidden from using the Catholic Church's organization and grounds to teach Liberation Theology (in the sense of theology using unacceptable Marxist ideas, not in the broader sense).^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Benedict then underscored the damage that liberation theology did to the Catholic Church.
  • liberation theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Not So Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology « Acton Institute PowerBlog 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: General]
  • Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology | Catholic Exchange 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC catholicexchange.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dallasblog.com, the Dallas, Texas news blog and Dallas, Texas information source for the DFW Metroplex. - DALLAS BLOG - Not so Liberating: The Twilight of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.dallasblog.com [Source type: General]

^ What were Ratzinger’s main objections to liberation theology?
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Managua, Nicaragua, Pope John Paul II criticized what he labelled the "popular Church" movement by means of "ecclesial base communities" (CEBs) in effecting class struggle, the replacement of the Catholic dominance hierarchy with a locally-selected system in the magisterium, and the Nicaraguan Catholic clergy's supporting the Sandinista National Liberation Front.^ Pope John Paul II. 1991.
  • Liberation Theology and Economics 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.shc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Paul II (15) .
  • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orthodox Catholics have also reclaimed the Christian Base communities (CEBs).
  • Catholic Culture : Library : The Retreat of Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.catholicculture.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pope re-stated and insisted upon his authority as Universal Pastor of the Roman Catholic Church in conformity with canon law and catechism.^ In the US , Roman Catholic bishops issued a pastoral letter on the economy, Economic Justice For All, which explicitly credited the Latin American church for contributing the preferential option for the poor to their thinking.
  • Muslimedia.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC muslimedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cry of the People: United States involvement in the rise of fascism, torture, murder and the persecution of the Catholic Church in Latin America.
  • Liberation Theology - Religion in Latin America - Yale University Library Subject Guides at Yale University Library 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC guides.library.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ General Information Roman Catholic Popes have consistently decried the injustices of the economic and social conditions created by modern industrial societies and proposed remedies for them.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txn/liberati.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Liberation theology in practice

.One of the most radical aspects of liberation theology was the social organization, or re-organization, of church practice through the model of Christian base communities (CEBs).^ Liberation Theology was one of the most damaging heresies that stroke the church in Latinamerica.
  • Liberation Theology - Catholic Answers Forums 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

^ The use of violence has been one of the most controversial aspects of liberation theology.
  • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]
  • In Search of Lost Time: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Liberation theology strove to be a bottom-up movement in practice, with Biblical interpretation and liturgical practice designed by lay practitioners themselves, rather than by the orthodox Church hierarchy.^ When did the church hierarchy begin to denounce liberation theology?
  • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Liberation theology: a challenge to the church .
  • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The church follows black liberation theology.
  • Faultline USA: Obama’s Marxist Liberation Theology Church 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC faultlineusa.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.This type of church community resembles the Independent type of Protestantism.^ Such “base communities” were the cause of alarm to the Vatican for they represented a model of “church from below” that operated independently of clerical oversight.

^ It developed simultaneously, and quite independently, within the ‘base ecclesial communities’ of South America and the black churches in North America.
  • The Jubilee Centre - 'To Release the Oppressed': Reclaiming a biblical theology of liberation 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.jubilee-centre.org [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, liberation theologians often work in Protestant schools, often working directly with the poor.^ Nuns and priests all over world went out of their cloisters and into the real world to work directly with the poor.
  • Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology? | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later, after the bishops had put their stamp of approval on "progressive" thought, the first liberation theologians began to publish their work.
  • The Betrayal of the Church - Chapter Six 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cmpage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Protesters often insisted that they hated busing, not African-Americans — but as someone put it at the time, nobody went out to beat up a school bus.
  • The Belmont Club: Basra, liberation theology and Iraq 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC fallbackbelmont.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

In this context, sacred text interpretation is understood as "praxis".
.Journalist and writer Penny Lernoux described this aspect of liberation theology in her numerous and committed writings intended to explain the movement's ideas in North America.^ Ken, explain what Black Liberation Theology is.
  • Glenn Beck - Interviews - Glenn Beck: Black Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.glennbeck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He continues that this third aspect has always been present in the liberation theology movement.
  • Liberation Theology and Economics 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.shc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it will not win any advocates for the liberation theology movement.
  • Amazon.com: Introducing Liberation Theology (9780883445501): Leonardo Boff, Clodovis Boff: Books 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Base communities were small gatherings, usually outside of churches, in which the Bible could be discussed, and mass could be said.^ Liberation theologians cast their lot with the so-called “base communities” or small groups of poor people who gathered to study the Bible and dialogue on social issues outside the hierarchy of the institutional (Roman Catholic) church.

^ In a Q&A with Hana R. Alberts, Cone discusses why Wright said what he did, where Obama's emphasis on shared history comes from and the inevitability of anger in the black community.
  • Rev. Wright Reclaims The Spotlight - Forbes.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.forbes.com [Source type: Original source]
  • A Paradoxical Feeling - Forbes.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.forbes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The activists advocated a multiplicity of small communities of the faithful known as "Basic Church Communities" [ Comunidades Eclesiaia de Base (CEBs)].
  • LIBERATION THEOLOGY, THE VATICAN, AND THE CIA: GHOSTS AND PHANTOMS 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.antipasministries.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were especially active in rural parts of Latin America where parish priests were not always available, as they placed a high value on lay participation.^ With stunning precision and clarity, they describe the sources of this 'theology in movement', its main themes and challenges, its roots in Latin America, and its reverberations around the world.

^ They wanted to reconnect the actual foundation of the black church, which took place under slavery in America.
  • Black Liberation Theology and Rev. Jeremiah Wright 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC jmm.aaa.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ So, this theology’s status may have been solidified in the 1950s and 1960s, but its roots run deep, especially in Latin America and Europe.

.As of May 2007, it was estimated that 80,000 base communities were operating in Brazil alone.^ In Brazil, the world's most populous Roman Catholic nation, some 80,000 "base communities," as the grass-roots building blocks of liberation theology are called, are flourishing.
  • Pope Benedict's Holy War Against Liberation Theology in South America 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC upsidedownworld.org [Source type: News]

^ No mere feat if one considers there are only an estimated 80,000 practicing Catholics in Cuba.
  • Theologies: Liberation vs Submission 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cyberie.qc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Such “base communities” were the cause of alarm to the Vatican for they represented a model of “church from below” that operated independently of clerical oversight.

[17] .Contemporanously Fanmi Lavalas in Haiti, the Landless Workers’ Movement in Brazil, and Abahlali baseMjondolo in South Africa are three organizations that make use of liberation theology.^ The name of this incendiary movement was LIBERATION THEOLOGY .
  • LIBERATION THEOLOGY, THE VATICAN, AND THE CIA: GHOSTS AND PHANTOMS 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.antipasministries.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "theologies of liberation" make wide use of readings from the book of Exodus.
  • CATHOLIC LIBRARY: Instruction on "Theology of Liberation" (1984) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What do fans of liberation theology make of that?
  • dotCommonweal » Blog Archive » NY Times on Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.commonwealmagazine.org [Source type: General]

[18]

See also

People

Liberation theologians

.
  • Raymond Aguas, Ph.D., Philippines, Professor of Theology at the Ateneo de Manila University
  • Walter Altmann, Brazil
  • Marcella Althaus-Reid, Argentina - Scotland (1952–2009)
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Haiti (b.^ Wright is an advocate of Black Liberation Theology - a school of Black religious thought that sees the hand of God in the liberation of Black people from bondage.
    • Barack Obama, Reverend Wright and Black liberation theology | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ratzinger, actually cites no liberation theologians or texts as examples of such distortions, but only refers to “liberation theology” in the singular and in the abstract .
    • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It sees the church as a...John Paul strongly opposed liberation theology , but many Latin Americans...with a leading authority on liberation theology about how the Vatican's...
    • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .1953)
  • Paulo Evaristo Arns, Brazil (b.^ He curbed the influence of Sao Paulo Cardinal Paulo Evaristo Arns, a strong proponent of base communities, by carving up his archdiocese in 1989.
    • In Search of Lost Time: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1921)
  • Hugo Assmann, Brazil (1933–2008)
  • Naim Ateek, Palestine (b. 1937)
  • Tomás Balduíno, Brazil (b. .1923)
  • Jose Oscar Beozzo, Brazil
  • Alan Boesak, South Africa (b.^ Peru, Brazil, Central America, South Africa) the Bible has been used as the basis for, and justification of, political action on behalf of those discriminated against.
    • liberation theology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .1945)
  • Clodovis Boff, Brazil
  • Leonardo Boff, Brazil (b.^ Leonardo Boff & Clodovis Boff, Introducing Liberation Theology , trans.
    • 20th Century Theology: Gustavo Gutierrez & Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Leonardo and Clodovis Boff "Salvation and Liberation".
    • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.socinian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Leonardo and Clodovis Boff, Salvation and Liberation , p.
    • CHAPTER IX 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.crvp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .1938)
  • Robert McAfee Brown, U.S. (1920–2001)
  • Curt Cadorette, Peru, Professor of Religion at University of Rochester
  • Rafael Puente Calvo, Bolivia (b.^ Brown, Robert McAfee .
    • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC people.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lorine Getz is a scholar based in Hilton Head, S.C., and a retired professor of religion, culture, ethics and spirituality and the arts at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
    • Liberation theology: a challenge to the church | ReligionLink 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.religionlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gustavo Gutiérrez : an introduction to liberation theology / Robert McAfee Brown.

    .1940), ex-Prefect of Cochabamba under the President Evo Morales
  • Katie Geneva Cannon, U.S.
  • Pedro Casaldáliga, Spain - Brazil (b.^ Russell, Letty M., Katie Geneva Cannon, and Ada Maria Isasi -Diaz, eds.
    • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC people.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cannon, Katie Geneva .
    • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC people.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1928)
  • James Cone, U.S. (b. .1938)
  • Ernesto Cardenal, Nicaragua (b.^ It seems hard to believe that that will mean a 1980s like marriage of theology and anti-hierarchical sentiment, a la Ernesto Cardenal in the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
    • Liberation theology African style | National Catholic Reporter 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC ncronline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Dissidents such as Jesuit “Father” Ernesto Cardenal of Nicaragua who was involved with the Communist government then.
    • Pope Benedict Warns Against Marxist Liberation Theology « The American Catholic 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC the-american-catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I was rather interested in reports about the life of a Christian community in Solentiname in Nicaragua, which became known to us by Ernesto Cardenal's famous book.
    • Thomas Schmidt - Liberation Theology and Working in an Enterprise 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.con-spiration.de [Source type: Original source]

    .1925)
  • Fernando Cardenal, Nicaragua
  • Miguel A. De La Torre, U.S. Cuban
  • Jean Marc Ela, Cameroon (b.^ It seems hard to believe that that will mean a 1980s like marriage of theology and anti-hierarchical sentiment, a la Ernesto Cardenal in the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
    • Liberation theology African style | National Catholic Reporter 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC ncronline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fernando Cardenal, Jesuit priest and former Minister of Education in Nicaragua, interviewed by Teofilo Cabrestrero in Ministers of God, Ministers of the People, Orbis Books, 1983.
    • A Dialogue on Nonviolent Resistance and Liberation Theology | Pace e Bene 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC paceebene.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Torre, Edicio de la.
    • Liberation Theologies | Bibliography | Asia 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.peacedocs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .1936)
  • Virgilio Elizondo, U.S.
  • Ignacio Ellacuría, S.J., Spain - El Salvador (1930–1989)
  • Marc H. Ellis, U.S. (b.^ Companions of Jesus: The Jesuit Martyrs of El Salvador (Sobrino, Jon and Ignacio Ellucuria) .
    • Jesuit Martyrs 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.spc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A comprehensive introduction to the thought and theology of Ignacio Ellacuria, slain Jesuit and president of the University of Central America in El Salvador.
    • Jesuit Martyrs 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.spc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1952)
  • Paul Gauthier, France (1914–2002)
  • Gustavo Gutiérrez, Peru (b. 1928)
  • François Houtart, Belgium (b. 1925)
  • Gérard Jean-Juste, Haiti (b. 1947)
  • Sebastian Kappen, India (1924–1993)
  • Elmar Klinger, Germany (b. 1938)
  • Erwin Kräutler, Austria - Brazil (b. 1939)
  • Hans Küng, Switzerland - Germany (b. .1928)
  • Aloìsio Leo Arlindo Lorscheider, Brazil (1924–2007)
  • Martin Maier, S.J. Germany
  • Ignacio Martín-Baró, S.J., Spain - El Salvador (1942–1989)
  • Herbert McCabe, O.P., UK (1926–2001)
  • Johann Baptist Metz, Germany (b.^ Johann Baptist Metz (6) .
    • Raising the specter of liberation theology « Vox Nova 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC vox-nova.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The journals are: Mensaje of Chile, Revista eclesiastica brasilena of Brazil, Paginas of Peru, SIC of Venezuela, ECA of El Salvador, Dialogo of Guatemala, and Christus of Mexico.

    ^ Passion for God : the mystical-political dimension of Christianity / Johann Baptist Metz ; edited and translated, with an introduction by J. Matthew Ashley.

    .1928)
  • José Míguez Bonino, Argentina
  • Jürgen Moltmann, Germany (b.^ Míguez Bonino, José.
    • Liberation Theologies | Bibliography | Asia 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.peacedocs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1926)
  • Segundo Montes, S.J., Spain - El Salvador (1933–1989)
  • Henri Nouwen, Netherlands (1932–1996)
  • Sr. .Peggy O'Neil, US - El Salvador
  • Camilo Torres, Colombia (1929–1966)
  • Samuel Ruiz, Mexico (b.^ The journals are: Mensaje of Chile, Revista eclesiastica brasilena of Brazil, Paginas of Peru, SIC of Venezuela, ECA of El Salvador, Dialogo of Guatemala, and Christus of Mexico.

    ^ A kairos which is telling us that resurrection and theology are community issues and women's issues among the poor but wise women of El Salvador.
    • EPICA: Ecumenical Program in Central America and the Caribbean 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.epica.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On April 2, two traditional enemies joined hands in Mexico City to condemn Romero’s murder and to show solidarity for the revolutionary movements in El Salvador and Guatemala.
    • Mixoac: Liberation Theology: Its Legacy in Mexico and Central America 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC mixoac.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1924)
  • Edward Schillebeeckx, Belgium - Netherlands (b. .1914- 2009)
  • Juan Luis Segundo, S.J., Uruguay (1925–1996)
  • William Sidhum, Egypt
  • Stefan Silber, Germany
  • Stephen Sizer, England (b.^ Juan Luis Segundo, "El cambio dentro de la teologia latinoamericana (dos estapas)," Cuardernos de Teologia, VI, No.
    • Theology Today - Vol 43, No.4 - January 1987 - ARTICLE - Debated Issues in Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC theologytoday.ptsem.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ G od's preferential option for the poor: A study in liberation theology and metaphysics (Juan Luis Segundo, Gustavo Gutierrez, Enrique Dussel).
    • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Juan Luis Segundo has recently pointed to this change of view as marking a " second stage" in Latin American liberation theology.
    • Theology Today - Vol 43, No.4 - January 1987 - ARTICLE - Debated Issues in Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC theologytoday.ptsem.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .1953)
  • Jon Sobrino, S.J., Spain - El Salvador (b.^ Sobrino Going through history at my age, living in El Salvador, then I must say that theology presupposes faith in God, whatever that is, faith.
    • Encounter - 18/07/99: Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jon Sobrino, Companions of Jesus: The Jesuit Martyrs of El Salvador (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1990) paperback.
    • 20th Century Theology: Gustavo Gutierrez & Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TR616 The Liberation Theology of Jon Sobrino Christine Smith Jesuit theologian Jon Sobrino has spent more than 50 years working in El Salvador.
    • United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.unitedseminary.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .1938)
  • Dorothee Sölle, Germany (1929–2003)
  • William Stringfellow, U.S. (1929–1985)
  • Jung Mo Sung, Brazil (b.^ Desire, market and religion / Jung Mo Sung.

    ^ Sung, Jung Mo, 1958- .

    .1957)
  • Luiz Carlos Susin, Brazil
  • Luis Zambrano Rojas, Puno, Peru
  • Jeremiah Wright, U.S. (b.^ Marcella Althaus-Reid , Ivan Petrella, Luiz Carlos Susin - Reclaiming Liberation Theology: Another Possible World .
    • Marcella Althaus-Reid , Ivan Petrella, Luiz Carlos Susin - Reclaiming Liberation Theology: Another Possible World 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.scm-canterburypress.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See more titles by Marcella Althaus-Reid (read about this author) See more titles by Ivan Petrella (read about this author) See more titles by Luiz Carlos Susin (read about this author) .
    • Marcella Althaus-Reid , Ivan Petrella, Luiz Carlos Susin - Reclaiming Liberation Theology: Another Possible World 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.scm-canterburypress.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Edited by: Marcella Althaus-Reid , Ivan Petrella, Luiz Carlos Susin .
    • Marcella Althaus-Reid , Ivan Petrella, Luiz Carlos Susin - Reclaiming Liberation Theology: Another Possible World 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.scm-canterburypress.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1941)
  • Dean Brackley, El Salvador
  • Father Ricardo Falla, Guatemala

Influence on others

Related movements

General

References

  1. ^ Berryman, Phillip, Liberation Theology: essential facts about the revolutionary movement in Latin America and beyond (1987)
  2. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Catholicism (Harper Collins, 1994), chapter IV.
  3. ^ Liberation Theology General Information, on Believe, an online religious information source
  4. ^ Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation, First (Spanish) edition published in Lima, Peru, 1971; first English edition published by Orbis Books (Maryknoll, NY), 1973.
  5. ^ a b Wojda, Paul J., "Liberation theology", in R.P. McBrien, ed., The Catholic Encyclopedia (Harper Collins, 1995).
  6. ^ Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation(London: SCM Press,1974) 36f
  7. ^ a b c d Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (pope Benedict XVI), "Liberation Theology: Preliminary Notes", in The Ratzinger Report, Ignatius Press, 1985; reprinted in: J.F. Thornton and S.B. Varenne, eds., The Essential Pope Benedict XVI, Harper Collins, 2007). [://www.christendom-awake.org/pages/ratzinger/liberationtheol.htm Online version]
  8. ^ McBrien, R.P. ‘’Catholicism’’ (Harper Collins, 1995), p. 249-250.
  9. ^ Gutierrez, G. “Faith as Freedom”, ‘’Horizons’’ 2/1, Spring 1975, p.32
  10. ^ a b Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, "Instruction on certain aspects of the 'Theology of Liberation'", Origins 14/13 (September 13, 1984). Online version.
  11. ^ Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, "Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation", Origins 15/44 (April 17, 1986).
  12. ^ Greeley, Andrew. Irish Tweed. Forge Books, 2009. ISBN 0765322234
  13. ^ a b Robert Pelton, "Latin America, Catholicism in" in R.P. McBrien, ed., The Harper Collins Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Harper Collins, 1995.
  14. ^ According to Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo, Liberation Theology was simultaneously created by the Reflection Task Force of CELAM, and by Rubem Alves's book, Towards a Theology of Liberation (1968). However, Cardinal Trujillo had himself been general secretary of CELAM, and president of CELAM's Reflection Task Force. Cardinal Samore, who as leader of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America was in charge of relations between the Roman Curia and CELAM, was ordered to put a stop to liberation theology, which was judged antithetical to the Catholic Church's global teachings.
  15. ^ Smith, Christian. The Emergence of Liberation Theology
  16. ^ Jesus and Freedom was published in 1977, with an introduction by the French activist François Houtart. In 1980, the CDF asked the General of the Society of Jesus (of which Kappen was a member) to disavow this book. Kappen responded with a pamphlet entitled "Censorship and the Future of Asian Theology". No further action was taken by the Vatican on this matter.
  17. ^ "As Pope Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists" The New York Times 2007-05-07.
  18. ^ Liberation Theology, Canada & the World, 10 February 2010
  19. ^ Interactivist Article on Liberation Theology
  20. ^ Filippo Mondini on the March on Nayager | Abahlali baseMjondolo
  21. ^ Abahlali basemjondolo Theology by Brother Filipo Mondini

Bibliography

Introductory works (all by Penny Lernoux)
  • Lernoux, Penny, Cry of the people: United States involvement in the rise of fascism, torture, and murder and the persecution of the Catholic Church in Latin America. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980.
  • Lernoux, Penny, In banks we trust. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984.
  • Lernoux, Penny, People of God : the struggle for world Catholicism. New York: Viking, 1989.
Principal texts
.The more orthodox-catholic tendency in Liberation Theology is exemplified by Rubem Alves, a Brazilian theologian working at Princeton, who wrote Towards a Theology of Liberation (1968).^ Home Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology?
  • Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology? | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology?
  • Who’s afraid of Liberation Theology? | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Technically, only Catholics can be Liberation Theologians.
  • Feral Scholar » Blog Archive » Intro to American liberation theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.feralscholar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The more radical tendency in Liberation Theology is exemplified by the Peruvian Catholic priest, Fr.^ Priests and praxis: Liberation theology and socioeconomic change in Ecuador (Catholic).
  • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Liberation theology began with the Catholic Church in Latin America and elsewhere, and was used by radical priests and nuns who supported Fidel, Che Guevara, the Shining Path terrorists in Peru and the Sandinistas in Nicaragua.
  • J O S H U A P U N D I T: Black Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC joshuapundit.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ All four of the priests who were given positions in the Sandinista government were advocates of liberation theology.
  • The Betrayal of the Church - Chapter Six 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cmpage.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gustavo Gutiérrez, O.P., who wrote A Theology of Liberation (1972).^ All four of the priests who were given positions in the Sandinista government were advocates of liberation theology.
  • The Betrayal of the Church - Chapter Six 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cmpage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberation theology begins with the premise that all theology is biased - that is, particular theologies reflect the economic and social classes of those who developed them.
  • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps most impressive to me, a reader who comes from outside of the Liberation tradition, is the section where the authors discuss the temptations, tendencies, and biases of Liberation Theology.
  • Amazon.com: Introducing Liberation Theology (9780883445501): Leonardo Boff, Clodovis Boff: Books 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Further readings:
.
  • De La Torre, Miguel A., Handbook on U.S. Theologies of Liberation (Chalice Press, 2004).
  • Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal, "Liberation Theology" (preliminary notes to 1984 Instruction)
  • Berryman, Phillip, Liberation Theology (1987).
  • Sigmund, P.E., Liberation Theology at the Crossroads (1990).
  • Hillar, Marian, "Liberation Theology: Religious Response to Social Problems.^ Leonardo Boff, Jesucristo y la liberacion del hombre, 292; cited by Emilio Nunez, Liberation Theology (Chicago: Moody Press, 1985), 232-33.
    • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Wright is an advocate of Black Liberation Theology - a school of Black religious thought that sees the hand of God in the liberation of Black people from bondage.
    • Barack Obama, Reverend Wright and Black liberation theology | Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC links.org.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Liberation theology begins with the premise that all theology is biased - that is, particular theologies reflect the economic and social classes of those who developed them.
    • Liberation Theology (by Ron Rhodes) 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

    .A Survey," published in Humanism and Social Issues.^ Published in Humanism and Social Issues.
    • Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.socinian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As a rule, critical social theorists do not focus only on the negative realities and consequences of oppression but often target issues and strategies of human liberation from that oppression.
    • NEWS-Liberation Sociology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC sociweb.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Anthology of Essays
    . .M. Hillar and H.R. Leuchtag, eds., American Humanist Association, Houston, 1993, pp. 35–52.
  • Gutiérrez, Gustavo, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics and Salvation, Orbis Books, 1988.
  • Gutiérrez, Gustavo.^ Liberation Theology: A Documentary History.
    • INTR 532 Bibliographies: Monographs and Compilations 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.wheaton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ July 4, 1989 Judaism and Liberation Theology: Political Perversion of an Ancient Creed by Feder, Don Heritage Lecture #200 .
    • Judaism and Liberation Theology: Political Perversion of an Ancient Creed 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ CFP: Continental Philosophy of Religion Book: A Political History of Early Christianity CFP: Political theology at AAR 2010 CFP: "Italian Critical Theory" and political theol...

    .We Drink from Our Own Wells: The Spiritual Journey of a People.^ Cory - Gutierrez’s work is seminal: “We Drink From Our Own Wells”, “A Theology of Liberation”, and “The Power of the Poor in History” are all very important.
    • Liberation Theology, Part One… | theRubicon 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC therubicon.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brothers, you are part of our own people.
    • A Dialogue on Nonviolent Resistance and Liberation Theology | Pace e Bene 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC paceebene.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are members of the people of God not because of our own righteousness but solely because of Christs death for us.

    .London: SCM Press, 1983.
  • Petrella, Ivan, The Future of Liberation Theology: An Argument and Manifesto Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
  • Piedra, Alberto M. "Some Observations on Liberation Theology."^ As, for example, the Vatican "Instruction Concerning Some Aspects of 'Liberation Theology.'
    • Theology Today - Vol 43, No.4 - January 1987 - ARTICLE - Debated Issues in Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC theologytoday.ptsem.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She became involved in the fight for civil rights for black Americans, and identified with the liberation theology espoused by some Latin American theologians.
    • Theology Network - Theology of Everything - An overview of feminist theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.theologynetwork.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although there are some precursors to liberation theology in Catholic thought and practice, the church has always affirmed the light of people to own property.
    • The Betrayal of the Church - Chapter Six 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.cmpage.org [Source type: Original source]

    .World Affairs Vol.^ Levine, D. H. (1990), How Not to Understand Liberation Theology , Nicaragua , or Both, in Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs , vol.
    • Muslimedia.com 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC muslimedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .148 no 3. (Winter 1985-86)pg 151-158
  • Smith, Christian, The Emergence of Liberation Theology: Radical Religion and the Social Movement Theory, University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  • Lucia Ceci, La teologia della liberazione in America Latina.^ Liberation theology is explicitly universal.
    • Contemporary Issues | Bible.org; NET Bible, Bible Study 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC bible.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
    • WOMANIST THEOLOGY 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.aril.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ T he curriculum implications of liberation theology as a theory for social change.
    • http://www.providence.edu/las/theology.htm 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.providence.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .L'opera di Gustavo Gutierrez
    , F. Angeli, Milano 1999.
  • Lucia Ceci, Chiesa e liberazione in America Latina (1968-1972), in L’America Latina fra Pio XII e Paolo VI. Il cardinale Casaroli e le politiche vaticane in una chiesa che cambia, a cura di A. Melloni e S. Scatena, Il Mulino, Bologna 2006;
  • Mahan, Brian and L. Dale Richesin, The Challenge of Liberation Theology: A First World Response, 1981, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY.
  • Mueller, Andreas, OFM, Arno Tausch and Paul Michael Zulehner (Eds.^ Maryknoll NY: Orbis Books, 1995.
    • Gerard Hall, sm: The Three Turns In Modern Theology: Transcendental, Political And Liberation Theologies 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC dlibrary.acu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Drury, Liberation of Theology (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1976), pp.
    • Theology Today - Vol 43, No.4 - January 1987 - ARTICLE - Debated Issues in Liberation Theology 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC theologytoday.ptsem.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1973.
    • INTR 532 Bibliographies: Monographs and Compilations 2 February 2010 15:20 UTC www.wheaton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ) Global capitalism, liberation theology, and the social sciences" Haupauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers

External links

General

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Liberation theology and social science

Vatican responses

Other


Simple English


Liberation theology is a movement within the theology of Christianity. It is particularly active in the Roman Catholic Church. The Jesuits are one of the orders who also follow it. There are many poor people in the world. Liberation theology wants to use Christianity to improve their situation. Often, its ideas are strongly coupled and influenced by those of Socialism and Marxism.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Liberation theology, which are similar to those in the above article.








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