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Republic of Liberia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"The love of liberty brought us here"
AnthemAll Hail, Liberia, Hail!
Capital
(and largest city)
Monrovia
6°19′N 10°48′W / 6.317°N 10.8°W / 6.317; -10.8
Official language(s) English
Demonym Liberian
Government Presidential republic
 -  President of Liberia Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
 -  Vice-President of Liberia Joseph Boakai
 -  Chief Justice Johnnie Lewis
Formation by African-Americans 
 -  ACS colonies    consolidation 1821-1842 
 -  Independence (from the United States) 26 July 1847 
Area
 -  Total 111,369 km2 (103rd)
43,000 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 13.514
Population
 -  2009 estimate 3,955,000[1] 
 -  2008 census 3,476,608 (130th)
 -  Density 35.5/km2 (180th)
92.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.471 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $373[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $850 million[2] 
 -  Per capita $215[2] 
HDI (2007) 0.442 (low) (169th)
Currency Liberian dollar1 (LRD)
Time zone GMT
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .lr
Calling code 231
1 United States dollar also in common usage.
Liberia en-us-Liberia.ogg /laɪˈbɪəriə/ , officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, and the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2008 Census, the nation is home to 3,476,608 people and covers 111,369 square kilometres (43,000 sq mi).[3]
Liberia's capital is Monrovia. Liberia has a hot equatorial climate with most rainfall arriving in summer with harsh harmattan winds in the dry season. Liberia's populated Pepper Coast is composed of mostly mangrove forests while the sparsely populated inland is forested, later opening to a plateau of drier grasslands.
The history of Liberia is unique among African nations because of its relationship with the United States. It is one of the few countries in Africa, and the only country in West Africa, without roots in the European Scramble for Africa. It was founded and colonized by freed American slaves with the help of a private organization called the American Colonization Society in 1821-22, on the premise American slaves would have greater freedom and equality there.[4]
Slaves freed from slave ships also were sent there instead of being repatriated to their countries of origin.[5] These colonists formed an elite group in Liberian society, and, in 1847, they founded the Republic of Liberia, establishing a government modeled on that of the United States, naming Monrovia, their capital city, after James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States and a prominent supporter of the colonization.
A military-led coup in 1980 overthrew then-president William R. Tolbert, which marked the beginning of a period of instability that eventually led to a civil war that left hundreds of thousands of people dead and devastated the country's economy. Today, Liberia is recovering from the lingering effects of the civil war and related economic dislocation.
The name Liberia denotes "liberty". The newly arrived settlers formed a new ethnic group called the Americo-Liberians.[6] However, this introduction of a new ethnic mix resulted in ethnic tensions with the sixteen other main ethnicities already residing in Liberia.[7] From the 1500s until 1822, European explorers and traders had multiple names for Liberia, varying by language.
During the spice trade, in non-English speaking Europe, Liberia was called the Malaguetta Coast or Pepper Coast in English. It earned its name from the melegueta pepper found in rural Liberia that was dubbed the "Grains of paradise" since it was a rare spice in high demand throughout continental Europe. In late 18th century English explorers referred to the country as the Windward Coast because of notoriously unnavigable, choppy waters off the coast of Cape Palmas at the tip of Southern Liberia that were difficult for European ships to sail through.[8]

Contents

History

Indigenous peoples of West Africa

Anthropological research shows the region of Liberia was inhabited at least as far back as the 12th century, perhaps earlier. Mende-speaking people expanded westward, forcing many smaller ethnic groups southward towards the Atlantic ocean. The Days, Bassa, Kru, Gola and Kissi were some of the earliest recorded arrivals.[9] This influx was compounded during the ancient decline of the Western Sudanic Mali Empire in 1375 and later in 1591 with the Songhai Empire. Additionally, inland regions underwent desertification, and inhabitants were pressured to move to the wetter Pepper Coast. These new inhabitants brought skills such as cotton spinning, cloth weaving, iron smelting, rice and sorghum cultivation, and social and political institutions from the Mali and Songhai Empires.[10]
Shortly after the Manes conquered the region, there was a migration of the Vai people into the region of Grand Cape Mount. The Vai were part of the Mali Empire who were forced to migrate when the empire collapsed in the 14th century. The Vai chose to migrate to the coastal region. The ethnic Kru opposed the influx of Vai. An alliance of the Manes and Kru was able to stop further influx of Vai, but the Vai remained in the Grand Cape Mount region (where the city of Robertsport is now located).
People of the Littoral coast built canoes and traded with other West Africans from Cap-Vert to the Gold Coast. Later European traders would barter various commodities and goods with local people, sometimes hoisting their canoes aboard. When the Kru began trading with Europeans, they initially traded in commodities, but later they actively participated in the African slave trade.
Kru laborers left their territory to work as paid laborers on plantations and in construction. Some even worked building the Suez and Panama Canals.
Another tribal group in the area was the Glebo. The Glebo were driven, as a result of the Manes invasion, to migrate to the coast of what later became Liberia.
Between 1461 and late 17th century, Portuguese, Dutch and British traders had contacts and trading posts in Liberia. The Portuguese had named the area Costa da Pimenta, later translated as Grain Coast, because of the abundance of grains of melegueta pepper.

Settlers from the United States

In 1822, the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) which was the primary vehicle for returning black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, established Liberia[11] as a place to send people who were formerly enslaved.[4][12] This movement of black people by the A.C.S. had broad support nationwide among white people in America, including prominent leaders such as Henry Clay and James Monroe, who saw this as preferable to emancipation in America, with Clay stating; "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off".[13] Clay argued that as blacks could never be fully integrated into U.S. society due to "unconquerable prejudice" by white Americans, it would be better for them to emigrate to Africa.[13] While the institution of slavery in America grew, reaching almost four million slaves by the mid 1800's,[14] free African-Americans (with legislated limits), a growing population in the U.S., due to abolition in the North and manumission, chose to emigrate to Liberia as well.[15] African-Americans gradually migrated to the colony and became known as Americo-Liberians, from whom many present day Liberians trace their ancestry. On July 26, 1847, Americo-Liberian settlers declared independence of the Republic of Liberia.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts, First President of Liberia.
The settlers regarded Africa as a "Promised Land," but they did not integrate into an African society. Once in Africa, they referred to themselves as Americans and were recognized as such by local Africans and by British colonial authorities in neighboring Sierra Leone. The symbols of their state — its flag, motto, and seal — and the form of government that they chose reflected their American background and diaspora experience. Ashmun Institute, founded in Pennsylvania in 1854 for the education of young Africans, played an important role in supplying Americo-Liberians leadership for the new nation. The first graduating class of Ashmun Institute (later renamed Lincoln University in honor of the slain President), James R. Amos, his brother Thomas H. Amos, and Armistead Miller, sailed for Liberia on the brig Mary C. Stevens in April 1859 after graduation.
The religious practices, social customs and cultural standards of the Americo-Liberians had their roots in the antebellum American South. These ideals strongly influenced the attitudes of the settlers toward the indigenous African people. The new nation, as they perceived it, was coextensive with the settler community and with those Africans who were assimilated into it. Mutual mistrust and hostility between the "Americans" along the coast and the "Natives" of the interior was a recurrent theme in the country's history, along with (usually successful) attempts by the Americo-Liberian minority to dominate what they identified as savage native peoples. They named the land "Liberia," which in the Romance languages, and in Latin in particular, means "Land of the Free," as an homage to their freedom from slavery.
Historically, Liberia has enjoyed the support and unofficial cooperation of the United States government.[16] Liberia’s government, modeled after that of the U.S., was democratic in structure, if not always in substance. In 1877, the True Whig Party monopolized political power in the country. Competition for office was usually contained within the party, whose nomination virtually ensured election. Two problems confronting successive administrations were pressure from neighboring colonial powers, Britain and France, and the threat of financial insolvency, both of which challenged the country’s sovereignty. Liberia retained its independence during the Scramble for Africa, but lost its claim to extensive territories that were annexed by Britain and France. Economic development was hindered by the decline of markets for Liberian goods in the late 19th century and by indebtedness on a series of loans, payments on which drained the economy.

Mid-20th century

Two events were particularly important in releasing Liberia from its self-imposed isolation. The first was the grant in 1926 of a large concession to the American-owned Firestone Plantation Company; that move became a first step in the (limited) modernization of the Liberian economy. The second occurred during World War II, when the United States began providing technical and economic assistance that enabled Liberia to make economic progress and introduce social change. Both the Freeport of Monrovia and Roberts International Airport were built by U.S. personnel during World War II.
On April 12, 1980, a successful military coup was staged by a group of noncommissioned army officers led by Master Sergeant Samuel Kanyon Doe. The soldiers were a mixture of the various ethnic groups that claimed marginalization at the hands of the minority Americo-Liberian settlers. In a late-night raid, they killed William R. Tolbert, Jr., who had been president for nine years, in his mansion. Constituting themselves the People’s Redemption Council, Doe and his associates seized control of the government and brought an end to Africa’s first republic. Significantly, Doe was the first Liberian head of state who was not a member of the Americo-Liberian elite.
Doe favored authoritarian policies, banning newspapers and outlawing various opposition parties. His tactic was to brand popular opposition parties as "socialist," and therefore illegal according to the Liberian constitution, while allowing less popular minor parties to remain as a token opposition. Unfortunately for Doe, popular support would then tend to realign behind one of these smaller parties, causing them in turn to be labeled "socialist."
Samuel Doe with Caspar Weinberger on a 1982 visit to the United States
In October 1985, Liberia held the first post-coup elections, ostensibly to legitimize Doe's regime. Virtually all international observers agreed that the Liberia Action Party (LAP) led by Jackson Doe (no relation) had won the election by a clear margin. After a week of counting the votes, however, Samuel Doe fired the count officials and replaced them with his own Special Election Committee (SECOM), which announced that Samuel Doe's ruling National Democratic Party of Liberia had won with 50.9% of the vote. In response, on November 12 a counter-coup was launched by Thomas Quiwonkpa, whose soldiers briefly occupied the Executive Mansion and the national radio station, with widespread support throughout the country. Three days later, Quiwonkpa's coup was overthrown. Government repression intensified, as Doe's troops killed more than 2,000 civilians and imprisoned more than 100 opposing politicians, including Jackson Doe and BBC journalist Isaac Bantu.

1989 and 1999 civil wars

In late 1989, the First Liberian Civil War began. The harsh dictatorial atmosphere that gripped the country was due largely to Samuel Doe's rule. Americo-Liberian Charles Taylor, with the backing of neighboring countries such as Burkina Faso and Cote d'Ivoire, entered Nimba County with around 100 men.[17] These fighters quickly gained control of much of the country, thanks to strong support from the local population who were disillusioned with their then government. By then, a new player also emerged: Yormie Prince Johnson (former ally of Taylor) had formed his own army and had gained tremendous support from the Gio and Mano ethnic groups.
In August 1990, the Economic Community Monitoring Group under the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) organized its own military task force to intervene in the crisis. The troops were largely from Nigeria, Guinea and Ghana. On his way out after a meeting, Doe, who was traveling only with his personal staff, was ambushed and captured by members of the Gio Tribe who were loyal to Prince Yormie Johnson. The soldiers took him to Johnson's headquarters in neighboring Caldwell, tortured and killed him.
By then, Taylor was a prominent warlord and leader of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia. After some prompting from Taylor that the anglophone Nigerians and Ghanaians were opposed to him, Senegalese troops were brought in with some financial support from the United States.[18] But their service was short-lived, after a major confrontation with Taylor forces in Vahun, Lofa County on 28 May 1992, when six were killed when a crowd of NPFL supporters surrounded their vehicle and demanded they surrender the vehicle and weapons.[19]
United States Marine Corps helicopters during Joint Task Force Liberia in 2003
By September 1990, Doe's forces controlled only a small area just outside the capital, Monrovia. After Doe's death, and as a condition for the end of the conflict, interim president Amos Sawyer resigned in 1994, handing power to the Council of State. Taylor was elected as President in 1997, after leading a bloody insurgency backed by Libyan President Muammar al-Gaddafi. Taylor's brutal regime targeted several leading opposition and political activists. In 1998, the government sought to assassinate child rights activist Kimmie Weeks for a report he had published on its involvement in the training of child soldiers, which forced him into exile. Taylor's autocratic and dysfunctional government led to the Second Liberian Civil War in 1999.
The conflict intensified in mid-2003, and the fighting moved into Monrovia. An elite rapid response unit of the US Marines known as 'FAST' deployed to the US Embassy to ensure the security and interests of the US. The Marines used US Air Force HH-60 Pave Hawk to airlift non-combatants and foreign nationals to Dakar, Senegal. A hastily assembled force of 1000 Nigerian troops, the ECOWAS Mission In Liberia (ECOMIL), was airlifted into Liberia on August 15, 2003 to prevent the rebels from overrunning the capital city and committing revenge-inspired war crimes. Meanwhile the US Joint Task Force Liberia commanded from USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7) was offshore, though only 100 of the 2,000 US Marines landed to meet with the ECOMIL force.
As the power of the government shrank, and with increasing international and US pressure for him to resign, President Taylor accepted an asylum offer from Nigeria, but vowed: "God willing, I will be back." Some of the ECOMIL troops were subsequently withdrawn and at least two battalions incorporated into the 15,000 strong United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) peacekeeping force. More than 200,000 people are estimated to have been killed in the civil wars.

Post civil war

After the exile of Taylor, Gyude Bryant was appointed Chairman of the transitional government in late 2003. Because of failures of the Transitional Government in curbing corruption, Liberia signed onto GEMAP, a novel anti-corruption program. The primary task of the transitional government was to prepare for fair and peaceful democratic elections. With UNMIL troops safeguarding the peace, Liberia successfully conducted presidential elections on October 11, 2005. There were 23 candidates; an early favorite was George Weah, internationally famous footballer, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador and member of the Kru ethnic group expected to dominate the popular vote. No candidate took the required majority, prompting a run-off election between the top two candidates, Weah and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. The November 8, 2005 presidential runoff election was won decisively by Sirleaf, a Harvard-trained economist. Both the general election and runoff were marked by peace and order, as thousands of Liberians waited in the Liberian heat to cast their ballots.
Prior to her election as president, Sirleaf was jailed twice during the Doe administration before escaping and going into exile. Upon taking office she became the first elected female head of state in Africa. During her administration President Sirleaf established a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to address crimes committed during the later stages of Liberia's long civil war.[20] Elsewhere, the Special Court for Sierra Leone (a war crimes tribunal) charged former President Charles Taylor with crimes against humanity, violations of the Geneva Conventions and "other serious violations of international humanitarian law".[21] The indictment was issued on March 29, 2006, and he was later extradited from Nigeria to Sierra Leone, but the trial by the Special Court is being held in The Hague, for security reasons.

Politics and government

The Executive Mansion in Monrovia
Liberia has a dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the modern sector and customary unwritten law for the native sector for exclusively rural ethnic communities.[22][23] Liberia's modern sector has three equal branches of government in the constitution, though in practice the executive branch headed by the President of Liberia is the strongest of the three. The other two branches are the legislative and judicial.
Following the dissolution of the Republican Party in 1876, the True Whig Party dominated the Liberian government until the 1980 coup. Currently, no party has majority control of the legislature. The longest serving president in Liberian history was William Tubman, serving from 1944 until his death in 1971. The shortest term was held by James Skivring Smith, who controlled the government for two months. However, the political process from Liberia's founding in 1847, despite widespread corruption, was very stable until the end of the First Republic in 1980.
The Executive branch of the government is headed by the President.[23] Other parts of the branch are the Cabinet and the Vice President. Presidents are elected to six-year terms and can serve up to two terms in office.[23] The President is both the head of state and the head of the government, and resides at the Executive Mansion in Monrovia.[23]
The Legislature of Liberia is a bicameral body with an upper chamber Senate and the lower chamber House of Representatives. Each county sends two senators to the legislature for a total of 30 senators, while the 64 seats in the House are distributed among the 15 counties based on the number of registered voters, with a minimum of at least two from each county.[23] Senators serve nine-year terms (only six-year terms for junior senators elected in 2005) and members of the House six-year terms.[23] Leadership consists of a Speaker in the House and a President Pro Tempore in the Senate. Liberia's Vice President serves as the President of the Senate. The legislature meets in the capital city of Monrovia.
Liberia's highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice. The five justice court holds sessions at the Temple of Justice on Capitol Hill in Monrovia. Members are nominated to the court by the President and are confirmed by the Senate and have lifetime tenure. Under the supreme court are 15 circuit courts, one in each county.
Liberia's former minister of justice has been at the center of a legal scandal for what amounts to de facto withholding the Liberian law, preventing it from being reprinted and circulated.[24]

Human rights

Amnesty International summarizes in its Annual Report 2006:
"Sporadic outbreaks of violence continued to threaten prospects of peace. Former rebel fighters who should have been disarmed and demobilized protested violently when they did not receive benefits. Slow progress in reforming the police, judiciary and the criminal justice system resulted in systematic violations of due process and vigilante violence against criminal suspects. Laws establishing an Independent National Commission on Human Rights and a Truth and Reconciliation Commission were adopted. Over 200,000 internally displaced people and refugees returned to their homes, although disputes over land and property appropriated during the war raised ethnic tensions. UN sanctions on the trade in diamonds and timber were renewed. Those responsible for human rights abuses during the armed conflict continued to enjoy impunity. The UN Security Council gave peacekeeping forces in Liberia powers to arrest former President Taylor and transfer him to the Special Court for Sierra Leone if he should return from Nigeria, where he continued to receive asylum. Liberia made a commitment to abolish capital punishment. A new law on rape, which initially proposed imposition of the death penalty for gang rape, was amended to provide a maximum penalty of life imprisonment."[25]
Former 22nd president Charles Taylor was later captured trying to escape across the border of Cameroon and has been sent to the International Criminal Court in The Hague for trial.
In 2009, the country set up a new court to deal with rape crimes in and around Monrovia, called "Court E." The court operates in camera, shielding the victims who testify from exposure to the accused perpetrator and the rest of the courtroom. The prosecutor operates out of the Sexual and Gender Based Violence Crimes office, which offers victims' support services, but faces many financial, logistical and legal hurdles.

Geography

Map of Liberia
Liberia is situated in West Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean to the country's southwest. The landscape is characterized by mostly flat to rolling coastal plains that contain mangroves and swamps, which rise to a rolling plateau and low mountains in the northeast.[12] Tropical rainforests cover the hills, while elephant grass and semi-deciduous forests make up the dominant vegetation in the northern sections.[12] The equatorial climate is hot year-round with heavy rainfall from May to October with a short interlude in mid-July to August.[12] During the winter months of November to March dry dust-laden harmattan winds blow inland causing many problems for residents.[12]
Liberia's watershed tends to move in a southwestern pattern towards the sea as new rains move down the forested plateau off the inland mountain range of Guinée Forestière, in Guinea. Cape Mount near the border with Sierra Leone receives the most precipitation in the nation.[12] The country's main northwestern boundary is traversed by the Mano River while its southeast limits are bounded by the Cavalla River.[12] Liberia's three largest rivers are St. Paul exiting near Monrovia, the river St. John at Buchanan and the Cestos River, all of which flow into the Atlantic. The Cavalla is the longest river in the nation at 515 kilometres (320 mi).[12]
The highest point wholly within Liberia is Mount Wuteve at 1,440 metres (4,724 ft) above sea level in the northwestern Liberia range of the West Africa Mountains and the Guinea Highlands.[12] However, Mount Nimba near Yekepa, is higher at 1,752 metres (5,748 ft) above sea level but is not wholly within Liberia as Nimba shares a border with Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) and is their tallest mountain as well.[26]

Counties and districts

Map of Liberia with counties
View of a lake in Bomi County
Liberia is divided into 15 counties, which are subdivided into districts, and further subdivided into clans. The oldest counties are Grand Bassa and Montserrado, both founded in 1839 prior to Liberian independence. Gbarpolu is the newest county, created in 2001. Nimba is the largest of the counties in size at 11,551 square kilometres (4,460 sq mi), while Montserrado is the smallest at 1,909 square kilometres (737 sq mi).[27] Montserrado is also the most populous county with 1,144,806 residents as of the 2008 census.[27]
Complete list of the counties:
County Capital Population (2008)[27] Area[27] Created
Bomi Tubmanburg 82,036 1,942 square kilometres (750 sq mi) 1984
Bong Gbarnga 328,919 8,772 square kilometres (3,387 sq mi) 1964
Gbarpolu Bopulu 83,758 9,689 square kilometres (3,741 sq mi) 2001
Grand Bassa Buchanan 224,839 7,936 square kilometres (3,064 sq mi) 1839
Grand Cape Mount Robertsport 129,055 5,162 square kilometres (1,993 sq mi) 1844
Grand Gedeh Zwedru 126,146 10,484 square kilometres (4,048 sq mi) 1964
Grand Kru Barclayville 57,106 3,895 square kilometres (1,504 sq mi) 1984
Lofa Voinjama 270,114 9,982 square kilometres (3,854 sq mi) 1964
Margibi Kakata 199,689 2,616 square kilometres (1,010 sq mi) 1985
Maryland Harper 136,404 2,297 square kilometres (887 sq mi) 1857
Montserrado Bensonville 1,144,806 1,909 square kilometres (737 sq mi) 1839
Nimba Sanniquellie 468,088 11,551 square kilometres (4,460 sq mi) 1964
River Cess River Cess 65,862 5,594 square kilometres (2,160 sq mi) 1985
River Gee Fish Town 67,318 5,113 square kilometres (1,974 sq mi) 2000
Sinoe Greenville 104,932 10,137 square kilometres (3,914 sq mi) 1843

Economy

Historically, the Liberian economy depended heavily on iron ore and rubber exports, foreign direct investment, and exports of other natural resources, such as timber.[12] Agricultural products include livestock (goats, pigs, cattle) and rice, the staple food.[12] Fish are raised on inland farms and caught along the coast.[12] Other foods are imported to support the population.[12] Electricity is provided by dams and oil-fired plants.[12]
Boy grinding sugar cane.
Foreign trade was primarily conducted for the benefit of the Americo-Liberian elite. The 1864 Ports of Entry Act severely restricted trade between foreigners and indigenous Liberians throughout most of Liberia's history. Little foreign direct investment benefited the 95% majority population, who were often subjected to forced labor on foreign concessions. Liberian law often did not protect indigenous Liberians from the extraction of rents and arbitrary taxation, and the majority survived on subsistence farming and low wage work on foreign concessions.
While official export figures for commodities declined during the 1990s’ civil war as many investors fled, Liberia’s wartime economy featured the exploitation of the region’s diamond wealth.[citation needed] The country acted as a major trader in Liberian, Sierra Leonian and Angolan blood diamonds, exporting over $300 million in diamonds annually. This led to a United Nations ban on Liberian diamond exports, which was lifted on April 27, 2007.
Other commodity exports continued during the war, in part due to illicit agreements between Liberia’s warlords and foreign concessionaires. Looting and war profiteering destroyed nearly the entire infrastructure of the country, such that the Monrovian capital was without running water and electricity (except for fuel-powered generators) by the time the first elected post-war government began to institute development and reforms in 2006.
Once the hostilities ended, some official exporting and legitimate business activity resumed. For instance, Liberia signed a new deal with steel giant Mittal for the export of iron ore in summer 2005. But, as of mid-2006 Liberia was still dependent on foreign aid, and had a debt of $3.5 billion. As of 2003, Liberia had an estimated 85% unemployment rate, the second highest in the world behind only Nauru.[28]
Nineteenth-century Liberian two-dollar bill
The Liberia dollar currently trades against the US dollar at a ratio of 65:1. Liberia used the US dollar as its currency from 1943 until 1982. Its external debt ($3.5 billion) is huge compared to its GDP ($2.5 billion/year); it imports approximately $4.839 billion in goods per year, while it exports only about $910 million. Inflation is falling, but still significant (15% in 2003, 4.9% in the 3rd quarter of 2005); interest rates are high, with the average lending rate listed by the Central Bank of Liberia at 17.6% for 3rd quarter 2005 (although the average time deposit rate was only 0.4%, and CD rate only 4.4%, barely keeping pace with inflation).
Liberia is trying to revive its economy post civil war. Various sanctions imposed by UN on diamond and timber exports were removed by 2007. The country has second-largest maritime registry in the world, with some 3000 vessels registered under its flag.
It continues to suffer with poor economic performance due to a fragile security situation, the devastation wrought by its long war, its lack of infrastructure, and necessary human capital to help the country recover from the scourges of conflict and corruption.[citation needed] Liberia has one of the world's largest national registries of ships, due to its status as a "flag of convenience".

Transport

Demographics

Mosque in Voinjama
As of the 2008 national census, Liberia was home to 3,476,608 people.[3] Of those, 1,118,241 lived in Montserrado County, the most populous county in the country and home to the capitol of Monrovia, with the Greater Monrovia district home to 970,824 people.[3] Nimba County is the next most populous county with 462,026 residents.[3] Prior to the 2008 census, the last census had been held in 1984, and it listed the population as 2,101,628.[27] The population of Liberia was 1,016,443 in 1962 and increased to 1,503,368 in 1974.[27]
The population of over 3 million comprises 16 indigenous ethnic groups and various foreign minorities. Indigenous peoples comprise about 95% of the population, the largest of which are the Kpelle in central and western Liberia. Americo-Liberians, who are descendants of African-American settlers, make up 2.5%, and Congo people, descendants of repatriated Congo and Afro-Caribbean slaves who arrived in 1825, make up an estimated 2.5%.[23][29] There also is a sizable number of Lebanese, Indians, and other West African nationals who make up a significant part of Liberia's business community. A few whites (estimated at 18,000 in 1999; probably fewer now) reside in the country.[23]
As of 2006, Liberia has the highest population growth rate in the world (4.50% per annum). Similar to its neighbors, it has a large youth population, with half of the population under the age of 18.
Of the population, 40% hold indigenous beliefs, 40% are Christians, and 20% are Muslims.[23]

Health

Life expectancy at birth was at 44.7 in 2005.[30] The fertility rate was at 6.8 births per woman in the early 21st century.[30] Expenditure on health was 22 USD (PPP) in 2004.[30] The infant mortality rate was at 15.7% in 2005.[30] The HIV/AIDS prevalence was at 1.7 percent of the adult population as of January, 2009.[31]

Culture

Liberian ceremonial spoon
Liberia was traditionally noted for its hospitality, academic institutions, cultural skills, and arts/craft works. Liberia has a long, rich history in textile arts and quilting. The free and former US slaves who emigrated to Liberia brought with them their sewing and quilting skills. The census of 1843 indicated a variety of occupations, including hatter, milliner, seamstress and tailor.[32] Liberia hosted National Fairs in 1857 and 1858 in which prizes were awarded for various needle arts. One of the most well-known Liberian quilters was Martha Ann Ricks,[33] who presented a quilt featuring the famed Liberian coffee tree to Queen Victoria in 1892.
In modern times, Liberian presidents would present quilts as official government gifts. The John F. Kennedy Library and Museum collection includes a cotton quilt by Mrs. Jemima Parker which has portraits of both Liberian president William Tubman and JFK. Zariah Wright-Titus founded the Arthington (Liberia) Women's Self-Help Quilting Club (1987). In the early 1990s, Kathleen Bishop documented examples of appliquéd Liberian quilts. When current Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf moved into the Executive Mansion, she reportedly had a Liberian-made quilt installed in her presidential office.[34]
The tallest man-made structure of Africa, the mast of former Paynesville Omega transmitter, is situated in Liberia.
Liberia is one of only three nations to use primarily a non-metric system of units, the others being Burma and the United States.

Religion

It is estimated that as much as 40 percent of the population of Liberia practices either Christianity or Christianity combined with elements of traditional indigenous religious beliefs. Approximately 40 percent exclusively practices traditional indigenous religious beliefs. An estimated 20 percent of the population practices Islam. A small percentage is Bahá'í, Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, or atheist.

Education

Students studying by candlelight in Bong County, Liberia
The University of Liberia is the country's largest college and is located in Monrovia. Opened in 1862, it is one of Africa's oldest institutes of higher learning organized upon the western model. Civil war severely damaged the university in the 1990s, but the university has begun to rebuild following the restoration of peace. The school includes six colleges, including a medical school and the nation's only law school, Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law.[35]
Cuttington University was established by the Episcopal Church of the USA (ECUSA) in 1889; its campus is currently located in Suakoko, Bong County (120 miles north of Monrovia). The private school, the oldest private college in Liberia, also holds graduate courses in Monrovia.
According to statistics published by UNESCO for 2004 65% of primary-school age and 24% of secondary-school age children were enrolled in school.[36] This is a significant increase on previous years; the statistics also show substantial numbers of older children going back to earlier school years. On average, children attain 10 years of education, 11 for boys and 8 for girls.[23] Children ages five to eleven are required by law to attend school, though enforcement is lax.[37] A 1912 law required children ages 6 to 16 to attend school.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Liberia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=668&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=41&pr.y=9. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ a b c d Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services (May 2009). "2008 National Population and Housing Census Final Results: Population by County". 2008 Population and Housing Census. Republic of Liberia. http://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/Population_by_County.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  4. ^ a b "Background on conflict in Liberia Paul Cuffee, advocated settling freed slaves in Africa. He gained support from free black leaders in the U.S., and members of Congress for an early emigration plan. From 1815-1816, he financed and captained a successful voyage to British-ruled Sierra Leone where he helped a small group of African-American immigrants establish themselves. Cuffee believed that African Americans could more easily "rise to be a people" in Africa than in the U.S. where slavery and legislated limits on black freedom were still in place. Although Cuffee died in 1817, his early efforts to help repatriate African Americans encouraged the American Colonization Society (ACS) to lead further settlements. The ACS was made up mostly of Quakers and slaveholders, who disagreed on the issue of slavery but found common ground in support of repatriation. Friends opposed slavery but believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the U.S. The slaveholders opposed freedom for blacks, but saw repatriation as a way of avoiding rebellions". http://www.fcnl.org/issues/item.php?item_id=731&issue_id=75. 
  5. ^ Global Security.org History of Liberia
  6. ^ Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, Liberia in Perspective: An Orientation Guide (2006) , page 1
  7. ^ Financial Times World Desk Reference (2004) Dorling Kindersley Publishing. p 368
  8. ^ Europeans in west africa 1450-1560 (1943) Hesperides Press p 175
  9. ^ Runn-Marcos, K. T. Kolleholon, B. Ngovo, p. 5
  10. ^ Runn-Marcos, K. T. Kolleholon, B. Ngovo, p. 6
  11. ^ "Maps of Liberia 1830-1870" (Oct. 19, 1998). Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division. Retrieved Sept. 1, 2009.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Bateman, Graham; Victoria Egan, Fiona Gold, and Philip Gardner (2000). Encyclopedia of World Geography. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. p. 161. ISBN 1566192919. 
  13. ^ a b Maggie Montesinos Sale (1997). The slumbering volcano: American slave ship revolts and the production of rebellious masculinity. p.264. Duke University Press, 1997. ISBN 0822319926
  14. ^ Introduction - Social Aspects of the Civil War
  15. ^ Merriam Webster, p.684
  16. ^ Flint, John E. The Cambridge history of Africa: from c.1790 to c.1870 Cambridge University Press (1976) pg 184-199
  17. ^ The Mask of Anarchy, by Stephen Ellis, 2001, p.75 (There is also an NYU Press Updated Edition 2006, ISBN 0814722385)
  18. ^ Adekeye Adebajo, 'Liberia's Civil War: Nigeria, ECOMOG, and Regional Security in West Africa,' Lynne Rienner/International Peace Academy, 2002, p.107
  19. ^ Adekeye Adebajo, 'Liberia's Civil War: Nigeria, ECOMOG, and Regional Security in West Africa,' Lynne Rienner/International Peace Academy, 2002, p.108
  20. ^ "LIBERIA: War-battered nation launches truth commission". IRIN Africa. http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=58220. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  21. ^ Special Court for Sierra Leone, http://www.sc-sl.org/Documents/SCSL-03-01-PT-263.pdf
  22. ^ Liberia in Perspective: An Orientation Guide (2006) Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, page 2
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Liberia". CIA - The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. April 2, 2009. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/li.html. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  24. ^ [1] Foreign Policy
  25. ^ Amnesty International, ^ Report 2006
  26. ^ Financial Time's World Desk Reference (2004) Dorling Kindersley Publishing. p 368
  27. ^ a b c d e f "2008 National Population and Housing Census: Preliminary Results". Government of the Republic of Liberia. 2008. http://www.emansion.gov.lr/doc/census_2008provisionalresults.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  28. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2129rank.html
  29. ^ "Liberia's Ugly Past: Re-writing Liberian History". Theperspective.org. http://www.theperspective.org/rewriting_history.html. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  30. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2009 - Liberia". Hdrstats.undp.org. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_LBR.html. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  31. ^ "HIV/AIDS Rate der Erwachsenen - Landkarte - Welt". Indexmundi.com. http://www.indexmundi.com/map/?v=32&r=xx&l=en. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  32. ^ Shick, Tom W.. "Roll of Emigrants to Liberia, 1820-1843 and Liberian Census Data, 1843". University of Wisconsin–Madison. http://www.disc.wisc.edu/Liberia/. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  33. ^ "Martha Ricks". National Portrait Gallery. http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?LinkID=mp63618&rNo=0&role=sit. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  34. ^ "Liberia: It's the Little Things - A Reflection on Ellen Johnson Sirleaf's Journey to the Presidency". allAfrica.com. http://allafrica.com/stories/200603240593.html?page=2. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  35. ^ Jallah, David A. B. “Notes, Presented by Professor and Dean of the Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law, University of Liberia, David A. B. Jallah to the International Association of Law Schools Conference Learning From Each Other: Enriching the Law School Curriculum in an Interrelated World Held at Soochow University Kenneth Wang School of Law, Suzhou, China, October 17-19, 2007.” International Association of Law Schools. Retrieved on September 1, 2008.
  36. ^ UNESCO Schooling data
  37. ^ "LIBERIA: Go to school or go to jail". IRN. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 21 September 2007. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=74422. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  38. ^ "Profile - Liberia". Institute for African Development. http://www.inadev.org/profile_-_liberia.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Journey Without Maps by Graham Greene. An account of a four-week walk through the interior of Liberia in 1935. Reprinted in 2006 by Vintage ISBN 978-0099282235
  • Too Late to Turn Back by Barbara Greene. Account by a cousin of Graham Greene of the above-mentioned 1935 journey, on which she was also a participant.
  • Great Tales of Liberia by Wilton Sankawulo. Dr. Sankawulo is the compiler of these tales from Liberia and about Liberian culture. Published by Editura Universitatii "Lucian Blaga";; din Sibiu, Romania, 2004. - ISBN 973-651-838-8
  • Sundown at Dawn: A Liberian Odyssey by Wilton Sankawulo. Recommended by the Cultural Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics for its content concerning Liberian culture. ISBN 0-9763565-0-3
  • [2]
  • [3]
  • Mississippi in Africa: The Saga of the Slaves of Prospect Hill Plantation and Their Legacy in Liberia Today, by Alan Huffman (Gotham Books, 2004)
  • To Liberia: Destiny's Timing, by Victoria Lang (Publish America, Baltimore, 2004, ISBN 1-4137-1829-9). A fast-paced gripping novel of the journey of a young Black couple fleeing America to settle in the African motherland of Liberia.
  • Liberia: The Heart of Darkness by Gabriel I. H. Williams, Publisher: Trafford Publishing (July 6, 2006) ISBN 1553692942
  • Liberia: Portrait of a Failed State by John-Peter Pham, ISBN 1594290121
  • Godfrey Mwakikagile, Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties, Chapter Eight: Liberia: 'The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here,' pp. 85 – 110, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York, 2001; Godfrey Mwakikagile, The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter One: The Collapse of A Modern African State: Death and Rebirth of Liberia, pp. 1 – 18, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2001.
  • Redemption Road: The Quest for Peace and Justice in Liberia (A Novel) by Elma Shaw, with a Foreword by President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. (Cotton Tree Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9800774-0-7)
  • House at Sugar Beach: In Search of a Lost African Childhood by Helene Cooper (Simon & Schuster, 2008, ISBN 0743266242)

External links

Government
General information
News media
Travel
Other

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : West Africa : Liberia
For other places with the same name, see Liberia (disambiguation).
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:li-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Monrovia
Government Republic
Currency Liberian dollar (LRD)
Area 111,370 km2
Population 3,042,004 (July 2006 est.)
Language English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages, of which a few can be written and are used in correspondence
Religion indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%
Electricity 120V/60Hz (USA & European plugs. NOTE: there is no unified electrical system so bring adaptors for both)
Calling Code +231
Internet TLD .lr
Time Zone UTC
Travel Warning
WARNING: Liberia should not be considered a tourist destination. .As of June 2009, basic services such as electricity and running water are all but non-existent, and the tenuous national peace enforced by UNMIL presence will not protect individual travelers.^ Would Liberia face a chance at establishing long-lasting peace without such a strong UN presence?

.Liberia is in West Africa.^ Our initial country of service is Liberia, West Africa.

^ The bookmarks say: An orphan living near Monrovia, Liberia in West Africa decorated this bookmark.

^ World News   Africa   West Africa   Liberia (234) .
  • Liberia Timeline, 21st Century 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.mapreport.com [Source type: News]

.It is bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Côte d'Ivoire.^ The stark contrast of a Saturday road trip to the Sierra Leone/Liberia border with the Sunday reception with the President penetrated my reflections.

^ Molly and I, always ready to inspire a laugh, are imitating a photo taken of Madam President Sirleaf canoing across the river into Guinea with the Presidents of Guinea and Sierra Leone.

Map of Liberia
.Map of Liberia
  • Monrovia - the capital and with a population of around one million people is Liberia's largest city.
  • Greenville
  • Harper - Located at the southeast of the country, Harper is the former capital of Maryland.^ Electricity is a luxury good in Liberia and only recently has the country been able to begin re-electrifying the capital to move beyond its reliance on generators.

    ^ You guessed it, one of those countries is Liberia.

    ^ In two years, between 2005 and 2007, Liberia climbed an astonishing 72 places in country rakings of corruption -- the largest rise of any country in the world.

    It is known for its beautiful beaches and beach houses. Now these houses are dilapidated but its still possible to get sense of the glory of the past.
  • Paynesville - interesting for BASE-Jumpers
  • 'Blo Degbo' Human face rock in Paynesville, near Monrovia (Note: this is not a developed tourist destination, so make sure it is a safe place to visit)

Understand

.Liberia is a country with historical ties to the United States.^ Now, imagine that these 100 women live, not in the United States, but in Liberia.

^ Doe came from Liberia's indigenous population: a population that, despite comprising 99% of the country's populace, had historically been denied political voice and economic power.

^ Independence Day to Liberia is somewhat like the 4th of July, Thanksgiving and Christmas are to the United States.

.It was founded by freed black slaves during the pre-Civil War antebellum era of the nineteenth century.^ Damning still, Kapuściński wrote on, "as early as the middle of the nineteenth century, long before apartheid was instituted in southern Africa by the Afrikaners, it had been invented and made flesh by rulers of Liberia -- descendents of black slaves."

^ Nearly all children had witnessed atrocities during the 14‑year civil war, and some children had committed atrocities.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During the years of our civil war, they bore the brunt of inhumanity and terror.

The capital, Monrovia, was named after James Monroe. .Liberia's flag closely resembles the American flag, reflecting the historical ties between the two countries.^ In two years, between 2005 and 2007, Liberia climbed an astonishing 72 places in country rakings of corruption -- the largest rise of any country in the world.

.Liberia is recovering from a devastating civil war that ended with a ceasefire in August 2003. While the country is on the mend, it has not yet redeveloped the necessary infrastructure to sustain a large increase in tourism, with little for the average visitor outside Monrovia.^ Differences stemming from the country's civil war legacy continued to contribute to social and political tensions among ethnic groups, especially among the Krahn, Mano, Gio, and Mandingo.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These little crosses are made out of bullet shells that were used during Liberia's 14 year civil war.

^ Since the 2003 signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended the 1999‑2003 civil war between the former government and the country's two rebel groups‑‑Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy and the Movement for Democracy in Liberia‑‑the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) peacekeepers and UN international police (UNPOL) had primary responsibility for maintaining security.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Towns like Buchanan, Ganta etc are little more than a collection of shanty houses with no decent hotels or food.^ I thought that the arrival would make things all the more real, but the elaborate welcome made it feel a little more like a dream.

.Monrovia in general is calmer than the more far-flung areas although the situation is improving with the presence of UN Peacekeepers.^ In addition, they will be personally installing 5 generators at various clinics, orphanages and schools in the greater Monrovia area.

^ More Than a Few Good Men KSG Delegation joins UN Drive Monrovia: the view from above Rape: "by far the most serious crime committed aga...

^ Even more congested than Monrovia’s main drag, UN Drive, are the “shared” taxis, which squash in as many people as possible (think of the ultimate Where’s Waldo challenge within the back of a yellow taxi).

Fear should not stop you enjoying your visit but act with caution. .Travel outside Monrovia is very difficult and not advisable on your own.^ As a result, there was very limited government functioning outside of Monrovia.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

People in Liberia use Imperal units!

Get in

Visa

.A letter of invitation, yellow fever vaccination certificate are necessary to apply for a Liberian visa.^ Apply for Liberian Visas Online.
  • Liberia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Liberian Visas Online. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copy of International Certificate of Vaccination for Yellow Fever.
  • Liberia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Liberian Visas Online. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Liberia Visa, Canada: Application for Liberian Visa for Canadians. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yellow Fever Vaccination.
  • Liberia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Liberian Visas Online. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Liberia Visa, Canada: Application for Liberian Visa for Canadians. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For US citizens, a 3-month visa costs US$131, for all others the fee is US$70. One, two, & three year multiple-entry visas are also available.^ Liberia business visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Liberia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Liberian Visas Online. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberia business visa fees for citizens of Canada .
  • Liberia Visa, Canada: Application for Liberian Visa for Canadians. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China visa Egypt visa India visa Brazil visa Australia visa View all View other countries .
  • Liberia Visa, Canada: Application for Liberian Visa for Canadians. 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC liberia.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

.Monrovia International Airport is located some 60 km's from the city center at Robertsfield.^ Located 1 hour from Liberia International airport.
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

^ Some human rights groups, including national and international organizations, made regular visits to detainees held in police headquarters and prisoners in Monrovia Central Prison.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

SN Brussels flies directly from Brussels but is expensive. Other alternatives include flying through Dakar or Accra. The trip from Monrovia International airport to the city was once infamous. Today, the situation has improved significantly with the restoration of peace and order. The road is now fully protected by UNMIL and safe.
.From the United States, Delta Air Lines had planned to begin flying to Monrovia via Sal, Cape Verde in June 2009. This flight leaves directly from Atlanta, but has been postponed due to airport security concerns.^ Close X Recent years have seen much urban development, and the new facilities of the Daniel Oduber Airport allow it to receive regular and charter flights from several cities in Canada and the United States.
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

^ We plan to construct this building by the end of 2008 or beginning of 2009.

^ Flights to United States .
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

Brussels Airlines has flights on Sunday, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. .You can check in the day of your flight, at their city center location.^ Select your flight city .
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

^ As a friendly reminder, make sure that you have packed your flight documents, medication, or any articles that you must have with you at all times in your carry-on luggage.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

^ Please check the Sunwing Vacations information boards or binders located in your hotel for a schedule of when your Sunwing destination representative is available.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

It is easier, and faster than checking in at the airport.

By helicopter

By far the best way to travel, but helicopter flights are restricted to UN personnel. Poor weather in the rainy season often forces helicopters to return especially from Voinjama.

By train

.There is no real train service.^ There is no profit to Service To Servants or anyone else involved.

^ We plan to have a full accounting service there which would also serve as a training ground for various Liberia ministries.

One track, which previously belonged to a mine, has been opened for tourists [1]. It travels to the Bong mines, a massive, defunct German run ore-mining and processing plant.
Traffic trouble on a muddy road
Traffic trouble on a muddy road
Road conditions are poor, so a 4x4 is necessary for travel. .During the rainy season travel times are increased dramatically.^ This will enable goods and people to be trans-ported to the outlying areas even during the rainy season.

In Monrovia things are not much better but nevertheless keep trodding on. Gas is sold in gallon, not in litre! Liberia use miles and MPH!

By bus

There are no buses for tourists. .The government just received a few busses for public travel but they are not usable for travel.^ The law provides for "no limitation on the public right to be informed about the government and its functionaries," but little government information was available, and there were few procedures for obtaining it.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

By taxi

The best way to get around Monrovia. Do not take a taxi off the street though as these are commonly unsafe and jam-packed.Getting robbed in a taxi is a common occurrance. Ask other foreigners if they know of a reliable taxi driver to contact. .If you are unable to find one, at least insist that you are the only customer in the taxi, and of course pay accordingly.^ So even though we have only sent one of the trucks to Liberia, they are still finding use while we wait for funding.

By Boat

Environment

Rainforest

Rain forests are usually found in remote areas, most are unique and have many attractive feautures,but on the other hand some are risky because of their wildlife.

Beaches

There are plenty of beaches around Monrovia. .Out towards the airport after ELWA junction is ELWA beach, set inside a compound there is a marked safe swimming area, clean beach and plenty of familes at the weekends.^ Since the Chapmans live on the beach at ELWA the team brought their bathing suits and went swimming as the sun was setting over the Atlantic.

^ Awarded a three stars Blue Flag for safe, clean beaches.
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

No facilites though. Further on is Thinkers (pronounced Tinkers) with a food and drinks service, though the waves are a bit rough here, and it is not safe to walk up or down the beach too far. CE CE beach out the other way, over the bridge out to Hotel Africa is very well set up with palm umbrellas, drinks service and a buffet, and a well protectd swimming area.
.For an interesting day trip, Robertsport offers a glimpse of Liberia's cultural history as well as clean, beautiful beaches.^ Work with Robert Cuppah and the Liberia Board of Directors to move more of the day to day control of the ministry, as well as the longer term planning and ownership to the board.

.A group of South Africans has set up a tent camp for those wishing to spend the night on the beach and the UN also offers accommodations on a first-come basis.^ The container is loaded on a first come first served basis.

Beware the strong tides.
The city of Buchanan, a several hour car ride from Monrovia, also offers sublime beaches and a selection of restaurants and guest houses.

Services

Money & Banking

.No bank transfers are possible to Liberia at this point, and there is no way to use credit cards.^ When we seal up this container and send it on its way, we know that the contents will soon be used to expand Gods Kingdom in Liberia.

Bring US dollars in cash with you (most transactions are done in USD) or transfer money through Moneygram or Western Union. Ecobank on Randall Street is used by many foreigners. You can cash travellers cheques, although you need proof of purchase-paper. .If someone gives you Liberian Dollars in change, accept it because it will be useful to have some on hand for very small purchases, but once you have a little, be sure to get dollars back (except when your change is less than a dollar, they use local currency in lieu of coins).^ So weve created a few word pictures for you to look at and give us your opinion.

^ Make sure you read all the instructions and use our shipping labels.

^ These businesses are started, workers are trained and they are eventually turned over to Liberian Christians with the profits used to support Gods work in Liberia.

There are a few ATM's being installed in the city, but they have restricted hours, only work for Liberian bank accounts (i.e. can't draw from your bank account back home if home is not Liberia) and often do not work. .As of May 2009, there is no way to access non-African bank accounts for the purpose of withdrawing cash.^ There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitored e‑mail or Internet chat rooms.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Please note that, unlike prior trips, there will be no updates from 7/30 8/4 due to being in an area with no cell or internet access.

.As of May, 2009, there is an Ecobank ATM inside the Cape Hotel in Mamba Point that accepts Visa ATM cards, so you can now withdraw money directly from your account in your home country.^ God is moving in many peoples hearts and a position on this list may be just what He has prepared you or your friends to do.

Postal Services

DHL operates in Liberia. Expedited Mail Service promises 5 day delivery to the US. EMS counter is at the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication on MacDonald Street.
The regular post office has just started to operate. The post office is at the very end of Randall Street by Waterside market. Post cards will cost 30 Liberian Dollars to send, and will probably arrive at their destination. Packages are packed on the premises.
To receive mail, you must get a locked box together with a P.O.Box number at the Randall Street post office. Do not send anything of value through the Liberian postal service. Numerous people have reported items being stolen while at the post office; in Liberia the postal system is new and very corrupt.

Talk

English is spoken by most Liberians but especially if you are travelling to more remote areas, a local guide will be useful.

Buy

Liberia is well-known for its beautiful masks. Masks are on sale around hotels and UN centres. After haggling, they will cost you about $25 (depending on the size etc.)
There is beautiful printed fabric in Liberia. It is sold in lapas (usually 3), a lapa is rougly equivalent to 2 yards. 3 lapas of the best quality, real wax, will cost about $15.

Costs

Liberia is a very expensive country for a tourist. There are no cheap and safe alternatives. Expect to pay what you would in NY or even more.

Eat

Eating Liberian food can be enjoyable and easy on the pocketbook. Liberian meals like palm butter, casava leaf, potato greens, chock rice, and jollof's rice will barely leave a dint in your budget (US$2-3 with a soda). Portions are usually enormous. Another popular local dish is fufu (fermented dough made from the casava plant) and soup (the most common are goat soup and pepper soup). Fried or roasted fish, especially snapper, can be delicious. .And for those who like to eat on the go, fruit and snacks can be bought from street vendors throughout Monrovia.^ Despite international and governmental attempts to reunite children separated from their families during the war, there were still many children who lived on the streets in Monrovia.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Peanuts, fried plantain chips, roasted ears of corn or plantains, bananas, mangos, and other fruits can be had for LD$5-20 (or US$0.10-0.30). Especially delicious are the various breads sold freshly baked in the morning. Some breads resemble banana bread, other breads are more like corn bread. All are delicious although somewhat oily.

Drink

Club beer is the staple drink, served everywhere. Local gin is also available.

Sleep

Usually hotels are considered quite safe as the owners will employ guards. .However, don't be complacent and make sure that you are aware of your security also in the hotels.^ Make sure to attend yours.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

^ As a friendly reminder, make sure that you have packed your flight documents, medication, or any articles that you must have with you at all times in your carry-on luggage.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

Learn

Liberia has just come from devastating war, so the learning curriculum is not the best at all. As a tourist personally, you can learn about many attractions in Monrovia. You can personally learn alot about Liberia's culture, art, design,etc. .It would be easy if you associated with trusted foreigners to give a personal tour and as a tourist, you can learn about this poor but interesting historical country.^ Please use the same personal safety precautions and common sense on your vacation that you would at home e.g.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

Work

Almost every international NGO operates in Liberia. It is very possible to find voluntary (unpaid) work here, if you are willing to stay for a bit. Paid work is almost exclusive through international organisations. Most of these organisations require foreign staff to be recruited abroad, so it is unlikely that you would be hired just because you managed to make it to Liberia.
Liberia has very high rates of unemployment. .If you are in the country for longer, try to encourage local production and employment by buying local goods and paying for services.^ If you receive good service, please express your gratitude and offer a tip.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

Stay safe

.Do not walk around at night, and make sure that your car doors are locked when you drive around.^ Make sure to attend yours.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

^ As a friendly reminder, make sure that you have packed your flight documents, medication, or any articles that you must have with you at all times in your carry-on luggage.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

Thieves will often reach into a car when stopped and grab whatever they can, so keep the glass up especially in busy areas of Monrovia (redlight). Rape and armed robbery are common and on the rise. Hotels etc have private guards and are rather safe.
.There are some gangs of former combattants, armed with machetes, who walk around poorer areas of Monrovia (Redlight).^ There were 15 independent radio stations that regularly broadcast in Monrovia, approximately 24 local stations in other areas, one UNMIL radio station, and one government‑operated station.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There are also former combatants in the Palm Grove Cemetery on Center Street.^ It was difficult to tell who were street children, former combatants, or IDPs.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Do not walk there alone at all.
The corner of Randall and Carey is also considered dangerous and supposedly a hang-out for drug dealers.
Avoid any desolate places, and stay in groups.
.Keep an eye on the locals, if they are carrying on as normal and you see plenty of women and children about, it is unlikely that there will be major sources of concern.^ There were also reports that children were forced to work in conditions that were likely to harm their health and safety, such as stone cutting or work that required carrying heavy loads.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

If, however, people have disappeared from a usually busy location, or you find yourself surrounded only by youths, you should try and make a hasty retreat.
UNMIL has calmed the country (in general) but it is already now anticipated that when UNMIL leaves the security situation will be worse.
It is advisable to inform your embassy that you are in the country in case of evacuation.
Furthermore, learn as much about the security situation as you can. Locals are a key source of information. Be careful, however, not to believe everything you hear. Rumours spread like wildfire in Monrovia as they are the main source of news. Details, however, are often inaccurate.
Local newspapers are interesting reads. Daily Observer has the largest circulation but there are also several others. You can buy them in the street.

Women travellers

Rape is on the increase so be hesitant to walk by yourself in previously unknown or remote areas. Men on the whole will treat women with respect. They may tell you how beautiful you are, that they "love you" or ask you to marry them (more for the status rather than the money), but will not grab hold of you or be in any way improper.

Stay healthy

HIV, while still low, is on the increase. Prostitution is rampant. Typhoid, malaria, and worms are very common. In general Liberia is a hotbed for infectious diseases so disinfectants and gels are advisable (especially as handshakes are the norm). There are few doctors usable by international travellers so getting medical help may pose problems. There is apparently a Jordanian wing at the Kennedy hospital for private patients. MSF will also see a traveller, but only in dire cases.
Bagged water is sold on most street corners. While it is supposed to be filtered and safe, it is not guaranteed to be. Stick with bottled water to be sure. You can buy bottled water at any supermarket, restaurant, or at the Total gas stations.

Respect

Liberians are very friendly and sociable. However, they do not take kindly to being ignored and will call you "rude". Make sure that you greet as many people as possible and smile when you do so. Make friends with any guard, cleaner etc that you come across, introduce yourself and remember their names. Your security will also improve as the locals will warn you of security threats if they know you and know that they can talk to you.
Handshaking is the normality, usually followed by a finger snap. Shake hands with people you meet, even fruitsellers.
As Liberia is incredibly poor, you will inevitably be asked for money or help of some kind. Usually the most persistent beggars are former combatants. Giving money to the elderly or the physically disabled will not go amiss. However, with most children and others, it's best to spend a little time with them, play a game, take digital photos (loved here) and then possibly give something as a gift to your friends. Liberians are proud people and their desperate need is no reason to treat them as beggars.
School fees are expensive (up to a $100/year) so often foreigners are asked to pay for school, but this can also be used as a ploy.
Most people in Monrovia, with the exception of internally displaced people, are relatively well-off in Liberian terms. The worst conditions are in the countryside, where help is also most needed.
Rather than saying "no" to the requests, considered rude here, say "later" or "tomorrow" or "I will see what I can do". Do not ignore people.
It is advisable to bring some business cards. They are given out at every function.
The wars of the 1990's and 2000's is very fresh in MANY people's minds so it is advisable to stay away from talk of the wars.
The higher the social status of an individual, the more respect is due to them, even though that does not mean you don't give any respect to the extremely poor or bathe the wealthy with gifts of gratitude.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.LIBERIA, a negro republic in West Africa, extending along the coast of northern Guinea about 300 m., between the British colony of Sierra Leone on the N.W. and the French colony of the Ivory Coast on the S.E. The westernmost point of Liberia (at the mouth of the river Mano) lies in about 6° 55' N. and 11° 32' W. The southernmost point of Liberia, and at the same time almost its most eastern extension, is at the mouth of the Cavalla, beyond Cape Palmas, only 4° 22' N. of the equator, and in about 7° 33' W. The width of Liberia inland varies very considerably; it is greatest, about zoo m., from N.E. to S.W. The Liberia-Sierra Leone boundary was determined by a frontier commission in 1903. Commencing at the mouth of the river Mano, it follows the Mano up stream till that river cuts 10° 40' W. It then followed this line of longitude to its intersection with N. latitude 9° 6', but by the Franco-Liberian understanding of 1907 the frontier on this side was withdrawn to 8° 25' N., where the river Makona crosses 10° 40' W. The Liberian frontier with the adjacent French possessions was defined by the Franco-Liberian treaty of 1892, but as the definition therein given was found to be very difficult of reconciliation with geographical features (for in 1892 the whole of the Liberian interior was unmapped) further negotiations were set on foot.^ In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N. latitude was reached, thence following this 8th degree eastwards to where it cuts the head stream of the Cavalla river.

^ There are links with Guinea and Sierra Leone through the Mano River Union.
  • Liberia – Dictionary definition of Liberia | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Liberian coast has few lagoons compared with the adjoining littoral of Sierra Leone or that of the Ivory Coast.

.In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N. latitude was reached, thence following this 8th degree eastwards to where it cuts the head stream of the Cavalla river.^ There are three custom-houses, or ports of entry on the Sierra Leone land frontier between the Moa river on the north and the Mano on the south, and nine ports of entry along the coast.

^ In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N. latitude was reached, thence following this 8th degree eastwards to where it cuts the head stream of the Cavalla river.

^ We were headed north up the Pacific coast.
  • Liberia Hotels: Find Liberia Hotel Reviews and Rates - TravelPod 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.travelpod.com [Source type: General]

.From this point the boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla river from near its source to the sea.^ From this point the boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla river from near its source to the sea.

^ It extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers.

^ Liberia could not protect its claim to the Gallinas, a northern coastal area between the Mano and Sewa Rivers, from European colonial encroachment.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/libhtml/liberia.html 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the limits above described Liberia would possess a total area of about 43,000 to 45,000 sq.^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Liberia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total area (sq km) .
  • Liberia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the limits above described Liberia would possess a total area of about 43,000 to 45,000 sq.

m. .But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.^ But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter -proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.

^ After 1900, when the Liberians reneged on repayment of a loan from British bankers, the British took over Liberian customs and sent their Sierra Leone Frontier Force under British officers to the interior of Liberia to collect taxes.
  • The Atlantic | March 1973 | Liberia | Meisler 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this point the frontier shall leave the line of the Makona and be carried in a south-easterly direction to the source of the most north- westerly affluent of the Nuon river or Western Cavalla.

.From this point the frontier shall leave the line of the Makona and be carried in a south-easterly direction to the source of the most north-westerly affluent of the Nuon river or Western Cavalla.^ From this point the frontier shall leave the line of the Makona and be carried in a south-easterly direction to the source of the most north- westerly affluent of the Nuon river or Western Cavalla.

^ A line-up team of Humedica went to the South of the country in the areas of Maryland, Grand Kru and River Gee.
  • Women, Peace and Security News: Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.peacewomen.org [Source type: News]

^ This line shall be so drawn as to leave on the French side of the boundary the following towns: Kutumai, Kisi Kurumai, Sundibu, Zuapa, Nzibila, Koiama, Bangwedu and Lola.

.This line shall be so drawn as to leave on the French side of the boundary the following towns: Kutumai, Kisi Kurumai, Sundibu, Zuapa, Nzibila, Koiama, Bangwedu and Lola.^ This line shall be so drawn as to leave on the French side of the boundary the following towns: Kutumai, Kisi Kurumai, Sundibu, Zuapa, Nzibila, Koiama, Bangwedu and Lola.

^ If the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as far as the town of Tuleplan.

^ A line shall then be drawn from the southern outskirts of the town of Tuleplan due E. to the Cavalla river, and thence shall follow the right bank of the Cavalla river to the sea.

.From the north-westernmost source of the Nuon the boundary shall follow the right bank of the said Nuon river down stream to its presumed confluence with the Cavalla, and thenceforward the right bank of the river Cavalla down to the sea.^ If the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as far as the town of Tuleplan.

^ From the north-westernmost source of the Nuon the boundary shall follow the right bank of the said Nuon river down stream to its presumed confluence with the Cavalla, and thenceforward the right bank of the river Cavalla down to the sea.

^ A line shall then be drawn from the southern outskirts of the town of Tuleplan due E. to the Cavalla river, and thence shall follow the right bank of the Cavalla river to the sea.

.If the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as far as the town of Tuleplan.^ From the north-westernmost source of the Nuon the boundary shall follow the right bank of the said Nuon river down stream to its presumed confluence with the Cavalla, and thenceforward the right bank of the river Cavalla down to the sea.

^ If the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as far as the town of Tuleplan.

^ A line shall then be drawn from the southern outskirts of the town of Tuleplan due E. to the Cavalla river, and thence shall follow the right bank of the Cavalla river to the sea.

.A line shall then be drawn from the southern outskirts of the town of Tuleplan due E. to the Cavalla river, and thence shall follow the right bank of the Cavalla river to the sea.^ If the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as far as the town of Tuleplan.

^ A line shall then be drawn from the southern outskirts of the town of Tuleplan due E. to the Cavalla river, and thence shall follow the right bank of the Cavalla river to the sea.

^ This line shall be so drawn as to leave on the French side of the boundary the following towns: Kutumai, Kisi Kurumai, Sundibu, Zuapa, Nzibila, Koiama, Bangwedu and Lola.

.(The delimitation commission proved that the Nuon does not flow into the Cavalla, but about 6° 30' N. it flows very near the northwesternmost bend of that river.^ (The delimitation commission proved that the Nuon does not flow into the Cavalla, but about 6° 30' N. it flows very near the northwesternmost bend of that river.

^ At a bend in a tributary of the mighty Congo River, dirt-poor villagers feverishly pan for the shiny stones that have proved as elusive as they are rare -- diamonds.
  • Liberia: News & Videos about Liberia - CNN.com 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Unfortunately the Cavalla does not afford a means of easy penetration into the rich hinterland of Liberia on account of the bad bar at its mouth.

.Tuleplan is in about lat.^ Tuleplan is in about lat.

.6° 50' N. The river Makona takes a much more northerly course than had been estimated.^ China has invested so much in Africa in the past years that it can no longer avoid taking a more active diplomatic role, says Jalloh.

^ More than anything else I witnessed during my microfinance crash course, BRAC Uganda stood out as a star.

^ After all, they are much more familiar with the opportunities and needs in Liberia than those of us on the U.S. side.

.The river Nuon also is situated 20 or 30 m.^ The river Nuon also is situated 20 or 30 m.

^ It rises in about 7° 50' N. 8° 30' W. in the Nimba mountains, where also rise the Nuon, St John's and Dukwia rivers.

^ (The delimitation commission proved that the Nuon does not flow into the Cavalla, but about 6° 30' N. it flows very near the northwesternmost bend of that river.

farther to the east than had been supposed. .Consequently the territory of Liberia as thus demarcated is rather larger than it would appear on the uncorrected English maps of 1907 - about 41,000 sq.^ Consequently the territory of Liberia as thus demarcated is rather larger than it would appear on the uncorrected English maps of 1907 - about 41,000 sq.

^ Finally, by the English and French treaties of 1885 and 1892 Liberian territory on the coast was made continuous, but was limited to the strip of about 300 m.

^ The densest forest of all would seem to be that known as Gora, which is almost entirely uninhabited and occupies an area of about 6000 sq.

m.) .It is at the southern extremity of Liberia, Cape Palmas, that the West African coast from Morocco to the southernmost extremity of Guinea turns somewhat abruptly eastwards and northwards and faces the Gulf of Guinea.^ It is at the southern extremity of Liberia, Cape Palmas, that the West African coast from Morocco to the southernmost extremity of Guinea turns somewhat abruptly eastwards and northwards and faces the Gulf of Guinea.

^ Liberia is a country on the west coast of Africa.
  • About HRDAG - Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC hrdag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.As the whole coastline of Liberia thus fronts the sea route from Europe to South Africa it is always likely to possess a certain degree of strategical importance.^ As the whole coastline of Liberia thus fronts the sea route from Europe to South Africa it is always likely to possess a certain degree of strategical importance.

^ Protected by America, Liberia is and always has been a settler colony, much like those of southern Africa where white minorities rule masses of black Africans.
  • The Atlantic | March 1973 | Liberia | Meisler 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Africa) International Crisis Group - Liberia Reports, briefings, and analysis of violent conflicts and peace implementation in Liberia.

.The coast, however, is unprovided with a single good harbour.^ The coast, however, is unprovided with a single good harbour.

.The anchorage at Monrovia is safe, and with some expenditure of money a smooth harbour could be made in front of Grand Basa.^ The anchorage at Monrovia is safe, and with some expenditure of money a smooth harbour could be made in front of Grand Basa.

Table of contents

Coast Features

.The coast is a good deal indented, almost all the headlands projecting from north-east to south-west.^ The coast is a good deal indented, almost all the headlands projecting from north-east to south-west.

^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ General Information Liberia is located on the West coast of Africa and to the East of Sierra Leone, South of Guinea and West of the Ivory Coast, and is situated just north of the equator.
  • Liberia Offshore Company Information - OCRA Worldwide 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.ocra.com [Source type: News]

.A good deal of the seaboard is dangerous by reason of the sharp rocks which lie near the surface.^ A good deal of the seaboard is dangerous by reason of the sharp rocks which lie near the surface.

.As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a sunken land.^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Africa’s oldest republic, Liberia was established on land acquired for freed U.S. slaves by the American Colonization Society, which founded a colony at Cape Mesurado in 1821.
  • Liberia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the Americo-Liberians, as they called themselves, and these Congo people, are just an incident in the history of the peoples of this part of West Africa, I thought today, listening to Prof. Stephen Ellis lecture.

.In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.^ In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.

^ In the north-east, French explorers have computed the altitudes of some mountains at figures which would make them the highest land surfaces of the western projection of Africa - from 6000 to 9000 ft.

^ [Credits : Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.] European penetration into western Africa in the late 19th century.
  • Liberia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Liberian coast has few lagoons compared with the adjoining littoral of Sierra Leone or that of the Ivory Coast.^ The Liberian coast has few lagoons compared with the adjoining littoral of Sierra Leone or that of the Ivory Coast.

^ Sierra Leone, Guinea and the Ivory Coast, just north of the equator.
  • Liberian Corporations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.global-money.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The coast, in fact, rises in some places rather abruptly from the sea.^ The coast, in fact, rises in some places rather abruptly from the sea.

.Cape Mount (on the northern side of which is a large lagoon - Fisherman Lake) at its highest point is 1050 ft.^ Cape Mount (on the northern side of which is a large lagoon - Fisherman Lake) at its highest point is 1050 ft.

^ There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas river and the vicinity of the Cavalla.

^ Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Wuteve 1,380 m .
  • Flag Counter » Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above sea level. .Cape Mesurado is about 350 ft., Cape Palmas about 200 ft.^ Cape Mesurado is about 350 ft., Cape Palmas about 200 ft.

above the sea. .There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas river and the vicinity of the Cavalla.^ There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas river and the vicinity of the Cavalla.

^ It extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers.

^ In 1462 de Sintra returned with another Portuguese captain, Sueiro da Costa, and penetrated as far as Cape Palmas and the Cavalla river.

.Although very little of the coast belt is actually swampy, a kind of natural canalization connects many of the rivers at their mouths with each other, though some of these connecting creeks are as yet unmarked on maps.^ Although very little of the coast belt is actually swampy, a kind of natural canalization connects many of the rivers at their mouths with each other, though some of these connecting creeks are as yet unmarked on maps.

^ These American settlements were dotted at intervals along the coast from the mouth of the Sewa river on the west to the San Pedro river on the east (some 60 m.

^ And on the whole, we will do well to find the answers to these and other questions in Blyden’s warnings that “…Our progress will come by connection with the parent stock.

Mountains

.Although there are patches of marsh - generally the swampy bottoms of valleys - the whole surface of Liberia inclines to be hilly or even mountainous at a short distance inland from the coast.^ Although there are patches of marsh - generally the swampy bottoms of valleys - the whole surface of Liberia inclines to be hilly or even mountainous at a short distance inland from the coast.

^ Subsequently the Portuguese mapped the whole coast of Liberia, and nearly all the prominent features - capes, rivers, islets - off that coast still bear Portuguese names.

^ Liberia has coastal lowlands extending 350 mi (560 km) along the Atlantic; farther inland are hills and low mountains.
  • Liberia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the north-east, French explorers have computed the altitudes of some mountains at figures which would make them the highest land surfaces of the western projection of Africa - from 6000 to 9000 ft.^ In the north-east, French explorers have computed the altitudes of some mountains at figures which would make them the highest land surfaces of the western projection of Africa - from 6000 to 9000 ft.

^ In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.

^ A win would make Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf Africa's first-ever elected female leader if it is officially certified .
  • Liberia Timeline, 21st Century 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.mapreport.com [Source type: News]

.But these altitudes are largely matters of conjecture.^ But these altitudes are largely matters of conjecture.

.The same mountains have been sighted by English explorers coming up from the south and are pronounced to be "very high."^ The same mountains have been sighted by English explorers coming up from the south and are pronounced to be "very high."

^ As the origin of the Sierra Leonis and the Americo-Liberian settlers was very much the same, an increasing intimacy is growing up between the English-speaking populations of these adjoining countries.

.It is possible that they may reach to 6000 ft.^ It is possible that they may reach to 6000 ft.

^ The Pa range to the west of the St Paul's river may reach in places to 3000 ft.

in some places. .Between the western bend of the Cavalla river and the coast there is a somewhat broken mountain range with altitudes of from 2000 to 5000 ft.^ Between the western bend of the Cavalla river and the coast there is a somewhat broken mountain range with altitudes of from 2000 to 5000 ft.

^ It extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers.

^ There is another very dense forest stretching with little interruption from the eastern side of the St Paul's river nearly to the Cavalla.

(approximate). .The Pa range to the west of the St Paul's river may reach in places to 3000 ft.^ The Pa range to the west of the St Paul's river may reach in places to 3000 ft.

^ West, between Mano and St. Paul rivers.
  • Ethnologue report for Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.

Rivers

.The work of the Franco-Liberian delimitation commission in1908-1909cleared up many points connected with the hydrography of the country.^ The work of the Franco-Liberian delimitation commission in1908-1909cleared up many points connected with the hydrography of the country.

^ The Liberian TRC was more successful in encouraging women to submit statements than truth commissions in other countries where women are often not reflected in a proportional number.
  • About HRDAG - Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC hrdag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where the report lives up to its mission and mandate, the Liberian people have my steadfast commitment to work with all branches of government, the Independent Human Rights Commission, the religious community, civil society and the media to actualize its recommendations.

.Notably it traced the upper Cavalla, proving that that river was not connected either with the Nuon on the west or the Ko or Zo on the east.^ Notably it traced the upper Cavalla, proving that that river was not connected either with the Nuon on the west or the Ko or Zo on the east.

^ Mano river on the west and the Cavalla river on the east.

^ If the ultimate destination of the Nuon is not the Cavalla river, then the boundary shall follow the right bank of the Nuon down stream as far as the town of Tuleplan.

.The upper river and the left bank of the lower river of the Cavalla are in French territory.^ Dialects : Upper Gio, Lower Gio, River Cess Gio.
  • Ethnologue report for Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.It rises in about 7° 50' N. 8° 30' W. in the Nimba mountains, where also rise the Nuon, St John's and Dukwia rivers.^ It rises in the Nimba mountains some 10 m.

^ It rises in about 7° 50' N. 8° 30' W. in the Nimba mountains, where also rise the Nuon, St John's and Dukwia rivers.

^ The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.

.After flowing S.E. the Cavalla, between 7° and 6° N., under the name of Dugu, makes a very considerable elbow to the west, thereafter resuming its southeasterly course.^ After flowing S.E. the Cavalla, between 7° and 6° N., under the name of Dugu, makes a very considerable elbow to the west, thereafter resuming its southeasterly course.

^ From this point the boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla river from near its source to the sea.

^ (The delimitation commission proved that the Nuon does not flow into the Cavalla, but about 6° 30' N. it flows very near the northwesternmost bend of that river.

.It is navigable from the sea for some 80 m.^ It is navigable from the sea for some 80 m.

from its mouth and after a long series of rapids is again navigable. .Unfortunately the Cavalla does not afford a means of easy penetration into the rich hinterland of Liberia on account of the bad bar at its mouth.^ Unfortunately the Cavalla does not afford a means of easy penetration into the rich hinterland of Liberia on account of the bad bar at its mouth.

^ (The delimitation commission proved that the Nuon does not flow into the Cavalla, but about 6° 30' N. it flows very near the northwesternmost bend of that river.

^ Liberia elects Africa's first woman President - what does this mean for women?
  • Women, Peace and Security News: Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.peacewomen.org [Source type: News]

.The Nuon (or Nipwe), which up to 1908 was described sometimes as the western Cavalla and sometimes as the upper course of the St John's river, has been shown to be the upper course of the Cestos.^ The Nuon (or Nipwe), which up to 1908 was described sometimes as the western Cavalla and sometimes as the upper course of the St John's river, has been shown to be the upper course of the Cestos.

^ The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.

^ From this point the frontier shall leave the line of the Makona and be carried in a south-easterly direction to the source of the most north- westerly affluent of the Nuon river or Western Cavalla.

.About 6° 30' N. it approaches within 16 m.^ About 6° 30' N. it approaches within 16 m.

^ There were at least 50 people there with about 30 of them missionaries serving in some capacity within Liberia.

of the Cavalla. .It rises in the Nimba mountains some 10 m.^ It rises in the Nimba mountains some 10 m.

^ It rises in about 7° 50' N. 8° 30' W. in the Nimba mountains, where also rise the Nuon, St John's and Dukwia rivers.

.S. of the source of the Cavalla, and like all the Liberian rivers (except the Cavalla) it has a general S.W. flow.^ S. of the source of the Cavalla, and like all the Liberian rivers (except the Cavalla) it has a general S.W. flow.

^ From this point the boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla river from near its source to the sea.

^ From the north-westernmost source of the Nuon the boundary shall follow the right bank of the said Nuon river down stream to its presumed confluence with the Cavalla, and thenceforward the right bank of the river Cavalla down to the sea.

.The St Paul, though inferior to the Cavalla in length, is a large river with a considerable volume of water.^ The St Paul , though inferior to the Cavalla in length, is a large river with a considerable volume of water.

^ The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.

^ Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.

.The main branch rises in the Beila country nearly as far north as 9° N. under the name of Diani.^ The main branch rises in the Beila country nearly as far north as 9° N. under the name of Diani.

^ "The amount of debt was huge – nearly twice Liberia’s GDP, far more than the country could ever repay.

.Between 8° and 7° N. it is joined by the We from the west and the Wale from the east.^ Between 8° and 7° N. it is joined by the We from the west and the Wale from the east.

.The important river Lofa flows nearly parallel with the St Paul's river and enters the sea about 40 m.^ The important river Lofa flows nearly parallel with the St Paul's river and enters the sea about 40 m.

^ Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.

^ The region of dense forest, however, does not cover the whole of Liberia; the Makona river and the northern tributaries of the Lofa and St Paul's flow through a mountainous country covered with grass and thinly scattered trees, while the ravines and watercourses are still richly forested.

to the west, under the name of .Little Cape Mount river.^ Little Cape Mount river.

^ Sierra Leone in exchange for a strip south of the Mano River, which was annexed to Grand Cape Mount county.
  • Liberia Counties 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Mano or Bewa river rises in the dense Gora forest, but is of no great importance until it becomes the frontier between Liberia and Sierra Leone.^ The Mano or Bewa river rises in the dense Gora forest, but is of no great importance until it becomes the frontier between Liberia and Sierra Leone.

^ In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna .

^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Dukwia and Farmington are tortuous rivers entering the sea under the name of the river Junk (Portuguese, Junco). The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.^ The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.

^ The Dukwia and Farmington are tortuous rivers entering the sea under the name of the river Junk (Portuguese, Junco).

^ Subsequently the Portuguese mapped the whole coast of Liberia, and nearly all the prominent features - capes, rivers, islets - off that coast still bear Portuguese names.

.The Sino river rises in the Niete mountains and brings down a great volume of water to the sea, though it is not a river of considerable length.^ The St Paul , though inferior to the Cavalla in length, is a large river with a considerable volume of water.

^ The Sino river rises in the Niete mountains and brings down a great volume of water to the sea, though it is not a river of considerable length.

^ The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.

.The Duobe rises at the back of the Satro Mountains and flows nearly parallel with the Cavalla, which it joins.^ The Duobe rises at the back of the Satro Mountains and flows nearly parallel with the Cavalla, which it joins.

^ The important river Lofa flows nearly parallel with the St Paul's river and enters the sea about 40 m.

.The Moa or Makona river is a fine stream of considerable volume, but its course is perpetually interrupted by rocks and rapids.^ The Moa or Makona river is a fine stream of considerable volume, but its course is perpetually interrupted by rocks and rapids.

^ The Farmington is a short stream, but the Dukwia is believed to be the lower course of the Mani, which rises as the Tigney (Tige), north of the source of the Cavalla, just south of 8° N. The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.

^ The Sino river rises in the Niete mountains and brings down a great volume of water to the sea, though it is not a river of considerable length.

.Its lower course is through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the Sulima.^ Its lower course is through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the Sulima.

^ Liberia's prolonged crisis destabilized neighboring Sierra Leone, especially through the violent Liberia-backed Revolutionary United Front (RUF).

Climate and Rainfall

.Liberia is almost everywhere well watered.^ Liberia is almost everywhere well watered.

^ In the past 4 years Water of Life has installed or refurbished over 400 wells in Liberia improving the lives of over 300,000 people.

^ We will secure property near Monrovia, Liberia, oversee the foundation construction, and coordinate the drilling of the water well.

.The climate and rainfall over the whole of the coast region for about 120 m.^ The climate and rainfall over the whole of the coast region for about 120 m.

^ Coast Features 2 Mountains 3 Rivers 4 Climate and Rainfall 5 Forests 6 Fauna 7 lon 8 Flora 9 Minerals 10 History and Population .

inland are equatorial, the rainfall in the western half of the country being about 150 in. per annum and in the eastern half about 100 in. .North of a distance of about 120 m.^ North of a distance of about 120 m.

inland the climate is not quite so rainy, and the weather is much cooler during the dry season. .This region beyond the hundred-miles coast belt is far more agreeable and healthy to Europeans.^ This region beyond the hundred-miles coast belt is far more agreeable and healthy to Europeans.

Forests

.Outside a coast belt of about 20 m.^ Outside a coast belt of about 20 m.

and south of .8° N. the country is one vast forest, except where the natives have cleared the land for cultivation.^ N. the country is one vast forest, except where the natives have cleared the land for cultivation.

^ The American-owned Firestone plantation was the country's largest employer and held a concession on some one million acres (404,700 hectares) of land.
  • Liberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Liberia News - Breaking World Liberia News - The New York Times 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the regions bordering the coast also a good deal of the forest has disappeared, its place being taken (where the land is not actually cultivated) by very dense scrub.

.In many districts the land has been cleared and cultivated and then abandoned, and has relapsed into scrub and jungle which is gradually returning to the condition of forest.^ In many districts the land has been cleared and cultivated and then abandoned, and has relapsed into scrub and jungle which is gradually returning to the condition of forest.

^ In the regions bordering the coast also a good deal of the forest has disappeared, its place being taken (where the land is not actually cultivated) by very dense scrub.

^ N. the country is one vast forest, except where the natives have cleared the land for cultivation.

.The densest forest of all would seem to be that known as Gora, which is almost entirely uninhabited and occupies an area of about 6000 sq.^ The densest forest of all would seem to be that known as Gora, which is almost entirely uninhabited and occupies an area of about 6000 sq.

^ Consequently the territory of Liberia as thus demarcated is rather larger than it would appear on the uncorrected English maps of 1907 - about 41,000 sq.

^ The fishing vulture ( Gypohierax ) is found in all the coast districts, but true vultures are almost entirely absent except from the north, where the small brown Percnopterus makes its appearance.

m. between the .Po hills and the British frontier.^ Po hills and the British frontier.

.There is another very dense forest stretching with little interruption from the eastern side of the St Paul's river nearly to the Cavalla.^ There is another very dense forest stretching with little interruption from the eastern side of the St Paul's river nearly to the Cavalla.

^ Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.

^ The region of dense forest, however, does not cover the whole of Liberia; the Makona river and the northern tributaries of the Lofa and St Paul's flow through a mountainous country covered with grass and thinly scattered trees, while the ravines and watercourses are still richly forested.

.The Nidi forest is noteworthy for its magnificent growth of Funtumia rubber trees.^ The Nidi forest is noteworthy for its magnificent growth of Funtumia rubber trees.

.It extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers.^ It extends between the Duobe and the Cavalla rivers.

^ From this point the boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla river from near its source to the sea.

^ There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas river and the vicinity of the Cavalla.

.The extreme north of Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country, covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up.^ Liberia is almost everywhere well watered.

^ The extreme north of Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country, covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up.

^ We will secure property near Monrovia, Liberia, oversee the foundation construction, and coordinate the drilling of the water well.

.In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna.^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna .

^ Our initial country of service is Liberia, West Africa.

Fauna

.The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northernmost portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast.^ MONROVIA, Liberia: The attempt to bring normalcy back to this war-recovering West African country was extended to girls' hairstyles Friday with a nationwide ban on weaves or hair extensions for students, education officials said.

^ Yet as prospectors have exhausted the diamond mines in neighboring Sierra Leone, Weasua, Liberia has become a hub for miners throughout the region.

^ General Information Liberia is located on the West coast of Africa and to the East of Sierra Leone, South of Guinea and West of the Ivory Coast, and is situated just north of the equator.
  • Liberia Offshore Company Information - OCRA Worldwide 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.ocra.com [Source type: News]

.It is probable that the Liberian chimpanzee may offer one or more distinct varieties; there is an interesting local development of the Diana monkey, sometimes called the bay-thighed monkey (Cercopithecus diana ignita) on account of its brilliant orange-red thighs.^ It is probable that the Liberian chimpanzee may offer one or more distinct varieties; there is an interesting local development of the Diana monkey , sometimes called the bay-thighed monkey ( Cercopithecus diana ignita ) on account of its brilliant orange-red thighs.

^ For if because one there is more, it's a claw position.

^ Liberian International Ship & Corporate Registry "Liberia also offers one of the most convenient, efficient, and tax effective offshore corporate registries in the world."
  • Liberia on the Internet 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One or more species of bats are peculiar to the country - Vespertilio stampflii, and perhaps Roussettus biittikoferi; two species of shrew (Crocidura), one dormouse (Graphiurus nagtglasii); the pygmy hippopotamus (H. liberiensis) - differing from the common hippopotamus by its much smaller size and by the reduction of the incisor teeth to a single pair in either jaw, or occasionally to the odd number of three; and two remarkable Cephalophus antelopes peculiar to this region so far as is known - these are the white-shouldered duiker, Cephalophus jentinki, and the zebra antelope, C. doriae, a creature the size of a small goat, of a bright bay brown, with broad black zebra-like stripes.^ The estimated number of people receiving ART at the end of 2007 is derived for low and middle-income countries using two processes: projections to the end of the year for countries that did not report data for December 2007 and analysis of the uncertainty related to these data.

^ If the number of shareholders is three or more, then the minimum number of directors is three.
  • Liberia Offshore Company Information - OCRA Worldwide 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.ocra.com [Source type: News]

^ After the meeting, we went to the home of one of the women to learn more about how she has put her small loan to use.

.Amongst other interesting mammals are four species of the long-haired Colobus monkeys (black, black and white, greenishgrey and reddish-brown); the Potto lemur, fruit bats of large size with monstrous heads (Hypsignathus monstrosus); the brushtailed African porcupine; several very brightly coloured squirrels; the scaly-tailed flying Anomalurus; the common porcupine; the leopard, serval, golden cat (Felix celidogaster) in two varieties, the copper-coloured and the grey, possibly the same animal at different ages; the striped and spotted hyenas (beyond the forest region); two large otters; the tree hyrax, elephant and manati; the red bush pig (Potamochoerus porcus); the West African chevrotain (Dorcatherium); the Senegalese buffalo; Bongo antelope (Boocercus); large yellow-backed duiker (Cephalophus sylvicultrix), black duiker, West African hartebeest (beyond the forest), pygmy antelope (Neotragus); and three species of Manis or pangolin (M. gigantea, M. longicaudata and M. tricuspis). The birds of Liberia are not quite so peculiar as the mammals.^ My answer: for the security of Liberia and the entire West African region.

^ MONROVIA, Liberia: The attempt to bring normalcy back to this war-recovering West African country was extended to girls' hairstyles Friday with a nationwide ban on weaves or hair extensions for students, education officials said.

^ Directly on the beach, the hotel is surrounded by large, native trees and lush, colorful gardens (a sanctuary of nature, bands of Howler Monkeys are frequent visitors and a variety of birds).
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

.There is the interesting white-necked guineafowl, Agelastes (which is found on the Gold Coast and elsewhere west of the lower Niger); there is one peculiar species of eagle owl (Bubo lettii) and a very handsome sparrow-hawk (Accipiter bitttikoferi); a few sun-birds, warblers and shrikes are peculiar to the region.^ There is the interesting white-necked guineafowl, Agelastes (which is found on the Gold Coast and elsewhere west of the lower Niger); there is one peculiar species of eagle owl ( Bubo lettii ) and a very handsome sparrow - hawk ( Accipiter bitttikoferi); a few sun-birds, warblers and shrikes are peculiar to the region.

^ There is one trogon - green and crimson , a brightly coloured ground thrush ( Pitta ), numerous woodpeckers and barbets; glossy starlings, the black and white African crow and a great variety of brilliantly coloured weaver birds, waxbills, shrikes and sun-birds.

^ The brilliantly coloured red and blue lizard ( Agama colonorum ) is found in the coast region of eastern Liberia.

.The other birds are mainly those of Senegambia and of the West African forest region generally.^ The other birds are mainly those of Senegambia and of the West African forest region generally.

^ There are other indications of bitumen, besides those mentioned, in the coast region of eastern Liberia.

^ According to Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates, 72 000 Liberian refugees still live in various countries in the West African sub-region and other countries.

.A common and handsome bird is the blue plantain-eater (Corythaeola). The fishing vulture (Gypohierax) is found in all the coast districts, but true vultures are almost entirely absent except from the north, where the small brown Percnopterus makes its appearance.^ A common and handsome bird is the blue plantain -eater ( Corythaeola).

^ The fishing vulture ( Gypohierax ) is found in all the coast districts, but true vultures are almost entirely absent except from the north, where the small brown Percnopterus makes its appearance.

^ The brilliantly coloured red and blue lizard ( Agama colonorum ) is found in the coast region of eastern Liberia.

.A flamingo (Phoeniconaias) visits Fisherman Lake, and there are a good many species of herons.^ A flamingo ( Phoeniconaias ) visits Fisherman Lake, and there are a good many species of herons.

.Cuckoos are abundant, some of them of lovely plumage, also rollers, kingfishers and hornbills.^ Cuckoos are abundant, some of them of lovely plumage, also rollers, kingfishers and hornbills.

.The last family is well represented, especially by the three forest forms - the elate hornbill and black hornbill (Ceratogymna), and the long-tailed, white-crested hornbill (Ortholophus leucolophus). There is one trogon - green and crimson, a brightly coloured ground thrush (Pitta), numerous woodpeckers and barbets; glossy starlings, the black and white African crow and a great variety of brilliantly coloured weaver birds, waxbills, shrikes and sun-birds.^ There is one trogon - green and crimson , a brightly coloured ground thrush ( Pitta ), numerous woodpeckers and barbets; glossy starlings, the black and white African crow and a great variety of brilliantly coloured weaver birds, waxbills, shrikes and sun-birds.

^ The last family is well represented, especially by the three forest forms - the elate hornbill and black hornbill ( Ceratogymna ), and the long-tailed, white-crested hornbill ( Ortholophus leucolophus).

^ There are three species of crocodile , at least two chameleons (probably more when the forest is further explored), the large West African python ( P. sebae ) and a rare Boine snake ( Calabaria).

As regards reptiles, there are at least seven poisonous snakes - two cobras, two puff-adders and three vipers. The brilliantly coloured red and blue lizard (Agama colonorum) is found in the coast region of eastern Liberia. .There are three species of crocodile, at least two chameleons (probably more when the forest is further explored), the large West African python (P. sebae) and a rare Boine snake (Calabaria). On the sea coast there is the leathery turtle (Dermochelis) and also the green turtle (Chelone). In the rivers and swamps there are soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx and Sternothaerus). The land tortoises chiefly belong to the genus Cynyxis. The fresh-water fish seem in their affinities to be nearly allied to those of the Niger and the Nile.^ Relax on the shore while you bask in the sun on a long stretch of warm, white sand or take a deep-sea-fishing excursion in the blue waters of the Pacific.
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

^ The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened to negotiate a peace settlement among the two rebel groups and the government.
  • Liberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A peace agreement was signed with the two rebel groups, and several thousand West African peacekeepers, supported temporarily by an offshore U.S. force, arrived.
  • Liberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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There is a species of Polypterus, and it is probable that the Protopterus or lung fish is also found there, though its existence has not as yet been established by a specimen. .As regards invertebrates, very few species or genera are peculiar to Liberia so far as is yet known, though there are probably one or two butterflies of local range.^ A very worrying situation, there is polarization in two sectors of the municipality that has not allowed the progress of projects.

^ In fact, there are just two small MFIs serving all of Liberia, with a tiny client base.

^ One World News Service is an international news service with a special page for Liberia.
  • Afrol Liberia Index Page: Links to Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.afrol.com [Source type: News]

The gigantic scorpions (Pandinus imperator) - more than 6 in.

lon

are a common feature in the forest. .One noteworthy feature in Liberia, however, is the relative absence of mosquitoes, and the white ants and some other insect pests are not so troublesome here as in other parts of West Africa.^ Liberia is situated on the West Coast of Africa and is bordered by the Ivory Coast to the northeast, Guinea to the north and Sierra Leone to the west.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Liberian Legal System and Legal Research 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Part of the proceeds will go to Malawi and the Africa Bags project and the other part will go to Liberia for the Orphanage Project.

^ FIND is one of only three organizations providing indigent representation in all of Liberia, the others being the Catholic Justice and Peace Commission (with one attorney) and the Association of Female Lawyers of Liberia (consisting of a small team of part-time attorneys).

The absence or extreme paucity of mosquitoes no doubt accounts for the infrequency of malarial fever in the interior.

Flora

.Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.^ With oil and gas reserves depleting in regions outside Africa, there is no lack of new energy projects being developed in the continent, such as the current interest in Jubileeand new discoveries off Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea-Conakry, Cote d'Ivoire and Sao Tome-Principe.

^ A connection to the submarine cable, South Atlantic 3/West Africa Submarine Cable (SAT3/WASC) that travels from Portugal and Spain to South Africa along the west coast of Africa, is essential for Liberia’s telecommunication development and the success of the economy.

^ COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Liberia is a country in West Africa that suffered from years of instability and conflict from 1990-2003, with attendant destruction of buildings, roads, infrastructure, and public institutions.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is partly due to the equatorial position and the heavy rainfall. .The region of dense forest, however, does not cover the whole of Liberia; the Makona river and the northern tributaries of the Lofa and St Paul's flow through a mountainous country covered with grass and thinly scattered trees, while the ravines and watercourses are still richly forested.^ Montserrado County near the coast; Monrovia, between Lofa and St. Paul rivers.
  • Ethnologue report for Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Doe came from Liberia's indigenous population: a population that, despite comprising 99% of the country's populace, had historically been denied political voice and economic power.

^ Liberia's six main rivers flow into the Atlantic.
  • Liberia News - Breaking World Liberia News - The New York Times 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A good deal of this absence of forest is directly due to the action of man. .Year by year the influence of the Mahommedan tribes on the north leads to the cutting down of the forest, the extension of both planting and pasture and the introduction of cattle and even horses.^ President has stepped down as demanded by the US and West African leaders -- 14 years after leading a rebellion .
  • Liberia Timeline, 21st Century 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.mapreport.com [Source type: News]

.In the regions bordering the coast also a good deal of the forest has disappeared, its place being taken (where the land is not actually cultivated) by very dense scrub.^ Mangrove swamps and lagoons line the coast, while inland, forests cover nearly 40% of the land.
  • Liberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A narrow coastal plain rises to a plateau region, with the highest land on the border with Guinea.
  • Liberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most striking trees in the forest region are, in the basin of the Cavalla, the giant Funtumia elastica, which grows to an altitude of 200 ft.; various kinds of Parinarium, Oldfieldia and Khaya; the bombax or cotton tree, giant dracaenas, many kinds of fig; Borassus palms, oil palms, the climbing Calamus palms, and on the coast the coconut. The most important palm of the country perhaps is the Raphia vinifera, which produces the piassava fibre of commerce. .There are about twenty-two different trees, shrubs and vines producing rubber of more or less good quality.^ Orlando de Leon, at the time told me I had more qualities as a marker and to date there game.

^ About 70% of the population work in the agricultural sector, which produces rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava, palm oil, sugarcane, and bananas.
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These belong chiefly to the Apocynaceous order. .In this order is the genus Strophanthus,. which is represented in Liberia by several species, amongst others S. gratus. This Strophanthus is not remarkable for its rubber - which is mere bird lime - but for the powerful poison of its seeds, often used for poisoning arrows, but of late much in use as a drug for treating diseases of the heart.^ He denied that he ordered the NPFL and RUF rebels to subject civilians to sexual violence and forced labor, that he used child soldiers who were drugged.

^ For more Costa Rica Vacation options combining Liberia with other regions, explore packages from our specialized Costa Rica website.
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

^ Weve secured several military dump, tractor and 2.5 ton trucks for use in Liberia.

Coffee of several species is indigenous and grows wild. The best known is the celebrated Coffea liberica. The kola tree is also indigenous. Large edible nuts are derived from Coula edulis of the order Olacineae. .The country is exceedingly rich in Aroids, many of which are epiphytic, festooning the trunks of tall trees with a magnificent drapery of abundant foliage.^ It would be impossible to list all of the many natural riches that bless this country.
  • Liberia Costa Rica Luxury Hotel Travel Deals Honeymoon Vacation Packages and Weather 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.sunwing.ca [Source type: General]

^ Many Africans feel that China is a more honest partner than the rich countries, which they feel are simply meddlesome.

A genus much represented is Culcasia, and swampy localities are thickly set with the giant Cyrtosperma arum, with flower spathes that are blotched with deep purple. .Ground orchids and tree orchids are well represented; Polystachya liberica, an epiphytic orchid with sprays of exquisite small flowers of purple and gold, might well be introduced into horticulture for its beauty.^ Yet in both instances, instead of ground-breaking leadership translating into improved welfare for the constituency that might have been represented, precisely the opposite transpired.

The same might be said of the magnificent Lissochilus roseus, a terrestrial orchid, growing to 7 ft. in height, with rose-coloured flowers nearly i in. long; there are other orchids of fantastic design in their green and white flowers, some of which have spurs (r ectaries) nearly 7 in. long.
.Many trees offer magnificent displays of flowers at certain seasons of the year; perhaps the loveliest effect is derived from the bushes and trailing creepers of the Combretum genus, which, during the "winter" months from December to March, cover the scrub and the forest with mantles of rose colour.^ On December 7, former NTGL Chairman Charles Gyude Bryant was rearrested for embezzling approximately $1.4 million (84 million LD) during his two years in office.
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^ Four Professors were installed and presented during the launch of the Desmond Tutu Programme on December 4 last year, with Archbishop Desmond Tutu himself addressing the audience.

Smaethmannia trees are thickly set at this season with large blossoms of waxen white. Very beautiful also are the red velvet or white velvet sepals of the Mussaenda genus. Bamboos of the genus Oxytenanthera are indigenous. Tree ferns are found on the mountains above 4000 ft. The bracken grows in low sandy tracts near the coast. The country in general is a fern paradise, and the iridescent creeping Selaginella (akin to Lycopodium) festoons the undergrowth by the wayside. .The cultivated trees and plants of importance are, besides rubber, the manioc or cassada, the orange tree, lime, cacao, coffee, pineapple (which now runs wild over the whole of Liberia), sour sop, ginger, papaw, alligator apple, avocado pear, okro, cotton (Gossypium peruvianum - the kidney cotton), indigo, sweet potato, capsicum (chillie), bread-fruit, arrowroot (Maranta), banana, yam, "coco"-yam (Colocasia antiquorum, var.^ Liberian dinners: grilled fish prepared by Sonnie, usually served with rice and a fruit desert of bananas, fried plantains, gigantic avocados, or oranges Posted by Emily Stanger at 2:49 AM 0 comments .

^ Agriculture: Products --coffee, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, cassava, palm oil, bananas, plantains, citrus, pineapple, sweet potatoes, corn, and vegetables.
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^ The Kinder family at President Sirleaf's Kennedy School commencement address **************** **************** ***UPDATE: BRAC Liberia is now up and running.

.esculenta), maize, sorghum, sugar cane, rice and eleusine (Eleusine), besides gourds, pumpkins, cabbages and onions.^ Chief food crops include cassava, rice, and sugar cane.
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Minerals

The hinterland of Liberia has been but slightly explored for mineral wealth. .In a general way it is supposed that the lands lying between the lower St Paul's river and the Sierra Leone frontier are not much mineralized, except that in the vicinity of river mouths there are indications of bitumen.^ Molly and I, always ready to inspire a laugh, are imitating a photo taken of Madam President Sirleaf canoing across the river into Guinea with the Presidents of Guinea and Sierra Leone.

^ Special Court for Sierra Leone "an independent treaty based institution, established by an Agreement between the United Nations and Sierra Leone."
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^ The most important rivers are the Cavally, which forms the border with Ivory Coast, and the St Paul.
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The sand of nearly all the rivers contains a varying proportion of gold. Garnets and mica are everywhere found. .There have been repeated stories of diamonds obtained from the Finley Mountains (which are volcanic) in the central province, but all specimens sent home, except one, have hitherto proved to be quartz crystals.^ So they were a bit dejected after waiting at home all day only to have no one show up.
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There are indications of sapphires and other forms of corundum. Corundum indeed is abundantly met with in the eastern half of Liberia. The sand of the rivers contains monazite. Graphite has been discovered in the P.O. Hills. Lead has been reported from the Nidi or Niete Mountains. .Gold is present in some abundance in the river sand of central Liberia, and native reports speak of the far interior as being rich in gold.^ Speaking of ECOWAS, the Mano River Union Chair acknowledged the challenges in the sub-region, but expressed satisfaction that Liberia enjoys good relations with all countries.

Iron - haematite - is present almost everywhere. .There are other indications of bitumen, besides those mentioned, in the coast region of eastern Liberia.^ The Government of Liberia believes there may be sizable deposits of crude oil along its Atlantic Coast.
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^ There is increasing interest in the possibility of commercially exploitable offshore crude oil deposits along Liberia's Atlantic Coast.
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^ For more Costa Rica Vacation options combining Liberia with other regions, explore packages from our specialized Costa Rica website.
  • Liberia Beaches Vacations - Liberia Beaches Vacations Packages and All-inclusive Vacations 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

History and Population

Tradition asserts that the Liberian coast was first visited by Europeans when it was reached by the Dieppois merchant-adventurers in the 14th century. .The French in the 17th century claimed that but for the loss of the archives of Dieppe they would be able to prove that vessels from this Norman port had established settlements at Grand Basa, Cape Mount, and other points on the coast of Liberia.^ HISTORY Portuguese explorers established contacts with Liberia as early as 1461 and named the area Grain Coast because of the abundance of "grains of paradise" (Malegueta pepper seeds).
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^ Our goal is to share with any other individual or group that would like to ship goods to Liberia for Christian purposes.

^ USA, where they enjoy the rule of law and other basic human rights which in Liberia can easily be jeopardized - as recent history has shown.

No proof has yet been forthcoming, however, that the Portuguese were not the first white men to reach this coast. The first Portuguese pioneer was Pedro de Sintra, who discovered and noted in 1461 the remarkable promontory of Cape Mount, Cape Mesurado (where the capital, Monrovia, is now situated) and the mouth of the Junk river. In 1462 de Sintra returned with another Portuguese captain, Sueiro da Costa, and penetrated as far as Cape Palmas and the Cavalla river. .Subsequently the Portuguese mapped the whole coast of Liberia, and nearly all the prominent features - capes, rivers, islets - off that coast still bear Portuguese names.^ HISTORY Portuguese explorers established contacts with Liberia as early as 1461 and named the area Grain Coast because of the abundance of "grains of paradise" (Malegueta pepper seeds).
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^ Portuguese explorers established contacts with Liberia as early as 1461 and named the area Grain Coast because of the abundance of grains of Malegueta Pepper.

From the 16th century onwards, English, Dutch, German, French and other European traders contested the commerce of this coast with the Portuguese, and finally drove them away. In the 18th century France once or twice thought of establishing colonies here. .At the end of the 18th century, when the tide was rising in favour of the abolition of slavery and the repatriation of slaves, the Grain Coast [so called from the old trade in the "Grains of Paradise" or Amomum ] was suggested once or twice as a suitable home for repatriated negroes.^ HISTORY Portuguese explorers established contacts with Liberia as early as 1461 and named the area Grain Coast because of the abundance of "grains of paradise" (Malegueta pepper seeds).
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^ In 1663 the British installed trading posts on the Grain Coast, but the Dutch destroyed these posts a year later.
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^ There were no further reports of European settlements along the Grain Coast until the arrival of freed slaves in the early 1800s.
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.Sierra Leone, however, was chosen first on account of its possessing an admirable harbour.^ Charles Taylor's bank accounts, Liberian government mercenaries in Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone, Liberian logging industry, etc.
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^ American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States Four page account of efforts to establish a colony in Sierra Leone or Liberia for free African-Americans.
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.But in 1821 Cape Mesurado was selected by the American Colonization Society as an appropriate site for the first detachment of American freed negroes, whom difficulties in regard to extending the suffrage in the United States were driving away from a still slave-holding America.^ In 1817,a society of white American knows as the " American Colonization Society " purchased a stretch of land in present-day Liberia, with the intention of creating a new homeland for several thousand emancipated slaves from the United States.

^ U.S.-LIBERIA RELATIONS Congress appropriated $100,000 in 1819 for the establishment of Liberia (and resettlement of freemen and freed slaves from North America) by the American Colonization Society, led by prominent Americans such as Francis Scott Key, George Washington's nephew Bushrod, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Presidents Monroe, Adams, and Jackson.
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^ [KF] http://www.liberiatransparency.org/ Christine's Genealogy Website - Emigrants to Liberia Gathers in one place links to sites with primary documents on the first Liberian emigrants.Has a Roll of Emigrants that have been sent to the colony of Liberia, Western Africa, by the American Colonization Society and its auxiliaries, to September, 1843, &c.
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.From that date, 1821, onwards to the present day, negroes and mulattos - freed slaves or the descendants of such - have been crossing the Atlantic in small numbers to settle on the Liberian coast.^ There were no further reports of European settlements along the Grain Coast until the arrival of freed slaves in the early 1800s.
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^ Far less numerous, but of great political importance in the past, are the descendants of freed slaves who immigrated from the United States to Liberia in the 19th cent.
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^ Americo-Liberians who are descendants of freed slaves that arrived in Liberia after 1820 make up less than 5% of the population.
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.The great migrations took place during the first half of the 19th century.^ Who migrated to Liberia in the 19th century?
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Only two or three thousand American emigrants - at most - have come to Liberia since 1860.
The colony was really founded by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American, between 1822 and 1828. The name "Liberia" was invented by the Rev. R. R. Gurley in 1824. In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States. Until 1857 Liberia consisted of two republics - Liberia and Maryland. .These American settlements were dotted at intervals along the coast from the mouth of the Sewa river on the west to the San Pedro river on the east (some 60 m.^ There were no further reports of European settlements along the Grain Coast until the arrival of freed slaves in the early 1800s.
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^ These maps show early settlements in Liberia, indigenous political subdivisions, and some of the building lots that were assigned to settlers.
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beyond Cape Palmas). .Some tracts of territory, such as the greater part of the Kru coast, still, however, remain without foreign - Americansettlers, and in a state of quasi-independence.^ However, rivalries between the Europeans colonizing West Africa and the interest of the United States helped preserve Liberian independence during this period.
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^ However, some universities such as the University of Liberia and the Cuttington University College have VSATs through which e-education is promoted.

^ The independent media was active and expressed a wide variety of views without restriction; however, journalists commonly accepted payments to publish articles.
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The uncertainty of Liberian occupation led to frontier troubles with Great Britain and disputes with France. Finally, by the English and French treaties of 1885 and 1892 Liberian territory on the coast was made continuous, but was limited to the strip of about 300 m. between the Mano river on the west and the Cavalla river on the east. .The Sierra Leone-Liberia frontier was demarcated in 1903; then followed the negotiations with France for the exact delimitation of the Ivory Coast-Liberia frontier, with the result that Liberia lost part of the hinterland she had claimed.^ The claim is central to charges that Taylor supported and funded Sierra Leone rebels from his presidential mansion in the Liberian capital, Monrovia.

^ The stark contrast of a Saturday road trip to the Sierra Leone/Liberia border with the Sunday reception with the President penetrated my reflections.

^ Liberia signed a non-aggression pact with Sierra Leone when newly elected President Ernest Bai Koroma visited in September 2007.
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.Reports of territorial encroachments aroused much sympathy with Liberia in America and led in February 1909 to the appointment by President Roosevelt of a commission which visited Liberia in the summer of that year to investigate the condition of the country.^ Before you travel, it's always a good practice to investigate the local conditions, laws, political landscape, and culture of the country.
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^ At the same time, British and French colonial expansionists encroached upon Liberia, taking over much of its territory.
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^ During the year the president appointed nine commissioners to the government's Independent National Commission on Human Rights, which was established in 2004.
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.As a result of the commissioners' report negotiations were set on foot for the adjustment of the Liberian debt and the placing of United States officials in charge of the Liberian customs.^ The style of government and constitution was fashioned on that of the United States, and the Americo-Liberian elite monopolized political power and restricted the voting rights of the indigenous population.
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^ The United States, which officially recognized Liberia in 1862, shared particularly close relations with Liberia during the Cold War.
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^ In 2008 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) conducted public hearings in Monrovia, all Liberian counties, and the United States of America.

.In July 1910 it was announced that the American government, acting in general agreement with Great Britain, France and Germany, would take charge of the finances, military organization, agriculture and boundary questions of the re public.^ All organizations, including religious groups, were required to register with the government; however, indigenous religious groups were not required to register and generally did not do so.
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^ On September 12, after public outcry, the government announced that municipal and chieftaincy elections would be held in 2008.
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^ The government generally cooperated with the UNHCR and other humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees and asylum seekers.
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A loan for £400,000 was also arranged. .Meantime the attempts of the Liberian government to control the Kru coast led to various troubles, such as the fining or firing upon foreign steamships for alleged contraventions of regulations.^ Arcelor Mittal Steel has negotiated an agreement to invest over $1.5 billion in the mining sector, and the Liberian Government is engaged in negotiations with several other large foreign investors.
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During 1910 the natives in the Cape Palmas district were at open warfare with the Liberian authorities.
.One of the most notable of the Liberian presidents was J. J. Roberts, who was nearly white, with only a small proportion of negro blood in his veins.^ William Tolbert, who had patiently served under Tubman as his Vice-President for nearly twenty years, rose to the highest public position.

^ (Children fascinated by the 2 white ladies who were hanging out on the Liberian side of the border.

^ Although the law prohibits ethnic discrimination, racial discrimination is enshrined in the constitution, which provides that only "persons who are Negroes or of Negro descent" may be citizens or own land.
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.But perhaps the ablest statesman that this American-Negro republic has as yet produced is a pureblooded negro - President Arthur Barclay, a native of Barbados in the West Indies, who came to Liberia with his parents in the middle of the 19th century, and received all his education there.^ The above is "Team Liberia" from the Baptist Compound (6 Harvard Interns + 1 adoptee, Jeff, a law student from Columbia who is interning with the American Bar Association and living with us).

^ An African-American who married a Liberian and lived in Liberia for 20 years.

^ In fact, there are just two small MFIs serving all of Liberia, with a tiny client base.

President Barclay was of unmixed negro descent, but came of a Dahomey stock of superior type.' .Until the accession to power of President Barclay in 1904 (he was re-elected in 1907), the AmericoLiberian government on the coast had very uncertain relations with the indigenous population, which is well armed and tenacious of local independence.^ The style of government and constitution was fashioned on that of the United States, and the Americo-Liberian elite monopolized political power and restricted the voting rights of the indigenous population.
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^ The government permitted the independent monitoring of prison conditions by local human rights groups, the media, and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
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^ Edwin Barclay of the True Whig Party (TWP) was re-elected unopposed.

But of late Liberian influence has been extending, more especially in the counties of Maryland and Montserrado.
.The president is now elected for a term of four years.^ Warlords like Prince Johnson – known for his capture, torture and killing of President Samuel Doe and now an elected Senator (!

^ Elections in Liberia Political Profile Political System: Democracy President: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (UP) [since 16 January 2006; elected 2005] The president is elected by direct popular vote for a 6-year term.

^ Senior senators were elected for nine-year terms.
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.There is a legislature of eight senators and thirteen representatives.^ There were five female ministers, 12 female deputy ministers, five women in the Senate, eight women in the House of Representatives, and five female county superintendents.
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^ GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS Liberia has a bicameral legislature consisting of 64 representatives and 30 senators.
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.The type of the constitution is very like that of the United States.^ The style of government and constitution was fashioned on that of the United States, and the Americo-Liberian elite monopolized political power and restricted the voting rights of the indigenous population.
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^ Independence Day to Liberia is somewhat like the 4th of July, Thanksgiving and Christmas are to the United States.

.Increasing attention is being given to education, to deal with which there are several colleges and a number of schools.^ School-related costs remained high, thereby making education unattainable for significant numbers of school‑age children.
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.The judicial functions are discharged by four grades of officials - the local magistrates, the courts of common pleas, the quarterly courts (five in number) and the supreme court.^ Liberia's court system is divided into four levels, including justices of the peace, courts of record (magistrate courts), courts of first instance (circuit and specialty courts), and the Supreme Court.
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^ The judiciary is divided into four levels, including justice of the peace courts, magistrate courts, circuit and specialty courts, and the Supreme Court.
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^ The Supreme Court appointed judges to counties outside of Montserrado County, but many judges and magistrates continued to abandon their posts, preferring to remain in Monrovia.
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.The customs service includes British customs officers lent to the Liberian service.^ The strategy includes the creation of the Senior Executive Service (SES) Programme for the recruitment of both local and internationally-based Liberian professionals.

A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government. .The language of government and trade is English, which is understood far and wide throughout Liberia.^ The official language of Liberia is English.
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^ Snowe Apologizes to Citizens for "Poor Outreach" GS_googleAddAdSenseService("ca-pub-2420009840005975"); GS_googleEnableAllServices(); GA_googleAddAttr("Language", "english"); GA_googleAddAttr("Countries", "liberia"); GA_googleAddAttr("Countries", "westafrica"); GA_googleAddSlot( "ca-pub-24200098400...

^ GS_googleAddAdSenseService("ca-pub-2420009840005975"); GS_googleEnableAllServices(); GA_googleAddAttr("Language", "english"); GA_googleAddAttr("Topics", "conflict"); GA_googleAddAttr("Topics", "legalaffai"); GA_googleAddAttr("Countries", "liberia"); GA_googleAddAttr("Count...

.As the origin of the Sierra Leonis and the Americo-Liberian settlers was very much the same, an increasing intimacy is growing up between the English-speaking populations of these adjoining countries.^ William TUBMAN, president from 1944-71, did much to promote foreign investment and to bridge the economic, social, and political gaps between the descendents of the original settlers and the inhabitants of the interior.
  • Jobs in Liberia Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ The style of government and constitution was fashioned on that of the United States, and the Americo-Liberian elite monopolized political power and restricted the voting rights of the indigenous population.
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^ It is from these homelands that the ruling Americo-Liberians looked to capture slaves for labor on their own plantations and sell abroad.

.Order is maintained in Liberia to some extent by a militia.^ If you would like to order some hand made cards that will help orphans in Liberia, please contact her.

.The population of Americo-Liberian origin in the coast regions is estimated at from 12,000 to 15,000. To these must be added about 40,000 civilized and Christianized negroes who make common cause with the Liberians in most matters, and have gradually been filling the position of Liberian citizens.^ Reported percentage of men aged 15-49 who had sexual intercourse with more than one partner in the last 12 months.

^ The style of government and constitution was fashioned on that of the United States, and the Americo-Liberian elite monopolized political power and restricted the voting rights of the indigenous population.
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^ The constitution enshrines discrimination on the basis of race; only persons who are "Negroes" or of "Negro descent" can become citizens or own land.
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.For administrative purposes the country is divided into four counties, Montserrado, Basa, Sino and Maryland, but Cape Mount in the far west and the district round it has almost the status of a fifth county.^ Liberia's court system is divided into four levels, including justices of the peace, courts of record (magistrate courts), courts of first instance (circuit and specialty courts), and the Supreme Court.
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^ In a related development, citizens of District #5in Montserrado County have voted for the full implementation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Report.

^ The judiciary is divided into four levels, including justice of the peace courts, magistrate courts, circuit and specialty courts, and the Supreme Court.
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.The approximate revenue for 1906 was £65,000, and the expenditure about £60,000, but some of the revenue was still collected in paper of uncertain value.^ A shipment valued at about $222,000 left Liberia last week, government spokesman Laurence Bropleh said.

^ By 2008 electricity generation had risen to about 12 MW from approximately 2.65 MW in 2006.

^ But the four GSM operators collectively have a subscriber base of over 750 000, representing about 22 mobile cellular subscribers per 100 inhabitants as of December 2008.

.There are three custom-houses, or ports of entry on the Sierra Leone land frontier between the Moa river on the north and the Mano on the south, and nine ports of entry along the coast.^ There were no further reports of European settlements along the Grain Coast until the arrival of freed slaves in the early 1800s.
  • Liberia (01/10) 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Liberia Country Information 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Three areas --Mangrove swamps and beaches along the coast, wooded hills and semideciduous shrub lands along the immediate interior, and dense tropical forests and plateaus in the interior.
  • Liberia (01/10) 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Government of Liberia believes there may be sizable deposits of crude oil along its Atlantic Coast.
  • Liberia (01/10) 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At all of these Europeans are allowed to settle and trade, and with very slight restrictions they may now trade almost anywhere in Liberia.^ This illustrates that what once could kill is now turned to a cross of calvary where Liberia can find life eternal as they trust and look to Christ.

^ They are very excited that doing such a simple thing is going to make a difference in children's lives in Liberia!

^ The children had a wonderful time making these bookmarks and were very excited to hear that they were going to be used by people in America.

.The rubber trade is controlled by the Liberian Rubber Corporation, which holds a special concession from the Liberian government for a number of years, and is charged with the preservation of the forests.^ The Public Procurement and Concessions Commission renegotiated or cancelled a number of agreements entered into by the former government.
  • Liberia 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ For the next six years, the Taylor government did not improve the lives of Liberians.
  • Liberia (01/10) 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government has responded by proposing a number of specific tax cuts and a USD 2 million guarantee fund to assist Liberian entrepreneurs.

.Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.^ Meet with key governmental leaders to determine the opportunities to establish construction equipment, truck transportation and road building businesses through promotional opportunities with companies and investors within the United States in partnership with Liberians.

The trade is done almost entirely with Great Britain, Germany and Holland, but. friendly relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.
.The indigenous population must be considered one of the assets of Liberia.^ PEOPLE There are 16 ethnic groups that make up Liberia's indigenous population.
  • Liberia (01/10) 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberians, especially the new president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, consider Peace Corps one of the most effective development groups ever to work in Liberia.

^ Doe came from Liberia's indigenous population: a population that, despite comprising 99% of the country's populace, had historically been denied political voice and economic power.

.The native population - apart from the American element - is estimated at as much as 2,000,000; for 1 Amongst other remarkable negroes that Liberian education produced was Dr E. W. Blyden (b.^ According to Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates, 72 000 Liberian refugees still live in various countries in the West African sub-region and other countries.

1832), the author of many works dealing with negro questions.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also liberia

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Liberia
Plural
-
Liberia
.
  1. A country in Western Africa.^ Manufactured… See more » Geography of Gambia Gambia is a small country in western Africa.Gambia, or Republic of the Gambia, a country of western Africa.

    ^ Polio outbreaks were reported in several previously polio-free countries in Central, Eastern, and Western Africa beginning in 2003.
    • Health Information for Liberia | CDC Travelers' Health 13 January 2010 10:59 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A country that prides itself as the oldest independent republic in Africa chose to use western names instead of African names.

    Official name: Republic of Liberia.

Translations

See also


Dutch

Proper noun

Liberia n.
  1. Liberia

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Liberia
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Liberia
  1. Liberia

Declension

Derived terms

  • liberialainen

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Liberia
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Liberia n.
  1. Liberia

Derived terms


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Liberia
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Liberia f.
  1. Liberia

Derived terms

Anagrams


Norwegian

Proper noun

Liberia
  1. Liberia

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /liˈbɛrja/

Proper noun

Liberia f.
  1. Liberia (country)
  2. Liberia (city)

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Liberia
Genitive Liberii
Dative Liberii
Accusative Liberię
Instrumental Liberią
Locative Liberii
Vocative Liberio

Derived terms

  • (#1) Liberyjczyk m., Liberyjka f.
  • (#2) liberyjczyk m., liberyjka f.
  • adjective: liberyjski

Swedish

Proper noun

Liberia
  1. Liberia

Simple English

[[File:|right|]] The Republic of Liberia is a country in West Africa that has been gravely affected in recent years by two civil wars.

The name of the country is "Land of the Free" in Latin, because it was founded in the early 19th century by freed American slaves. It gained its independence on July 26, 1847. Its official language is English.

Liberia is home to more than three and a half million people. The capital of Liberia is Monrovia.

The country's constitution is similar to that of the United States. In the Autumn 2005 elections, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf became the first female elected head of state in African history. She was inaugurated on January 16, 2006. The President before Johnson-Sirleaf was Gyude Bryant.There are 3,283,000 in Liberia.People speak English there.

For ships, Liberia is a flag of convenience.

Other websites

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bjn:Liberiakrc:Либерия

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Liberia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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