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Simón Bolívar, one of the greatest libertadores (liberators) of Spanish America

Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") refers to the principle leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain.

They were largely bourgeois, criollos (local-born people of European, mostly of Spanish or Portuguese, ancestry) influenced by liberalism and in most cases with military training in the metropole (mother country).

The most prominent libertadores were José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, who had a famous meeting in Guayaquil in 1822, where they discussed their efforts of the past few years and the future of South America. They played a crucial part in the liberation and independence of most South American countries. Bolivar acted in the north liberating Venezuela, New Granada and Quito, and San Martín secured the independence of Argentina by liberating Chile and Peru.

Other prominent libertadores include José Gervasio Artigas (Uruguay), Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile), José Miguel Carrera (Chile), Manuel Belgrano (Argentina), Antonio José de Sucre (Venezuela) and José Joaquín de Olmedo (Ecuador), who played an important role in a more local fashion.

Others also referred to as libertadores in different contexts include Francisco de Miranda (usually called a precursor of independence), Manuel Rodríguez (Chile), and independence supporters and idealists such as José Bonifácio (Brazil), Eugenio Espejo, (Ecuador), Juan Pablo Duarte (Dominican Republic), and José Martí (Cuba).

Contents

Legacy

The flags of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador follow Francisco de Miranda's design of 1806. Also, Bolivia was named after Bolivar, who in turn was president of Colombia, Bolivia and twice of Venezuela. San Martín served as "President Protector" of Peru.

Liberators' names were used all over South America to name anything from towns and places to institutions and sports clubs. Also, the most prestigious international club football competition in South America is named the Copa Libertadores in their honour.

List of libertadores

Portrait Libertador Born Died Religion Contributed to the independence of
Smartin.JPG José de San Martín 25 February 1778(1778-02-25)
Yapeyú, Government of Misiones, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; (now Argentina)
August 17, 1850 (aged 72)
Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
Roman Catholic Argentina, Chile and Peru
Simón Bolívar 2.jpg Simón Bolívar July 24, 1783(1783-07-24)
Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela; (now Venezuela)
December 17, 1830 (aged 47)
Santa Marta, Gran Colombia; (now Colombia)
Roman Catholic Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia
Manuelbelgrano.jpg Manuel Belgrano June 3, 1770(1770-06-03)
Buenos Aires, Real Audiencia of Charcas, Viceroyalty of Peru; (now Argentina)
June 20, 1820 (aged 50)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Roman Catholic Argentina
Ohiggins.jpg Bernardo O'Higgins August 20, 1778(1778-08-20)
Chillán, Captaincy General of Chile, Viceroyalty of Peru; (now Chile)
October 24, 1842 (aged 64)
Lima, Peru
Roman Catholic Chile
Carrera.jpg José Miguel Carrera October 15, 1785(1785-10-15)
Santiago, Captaincy General of Chile, Viceroyalty of Peru; (now Chile)
September 4, 1821 (aged 35)
Mendoza, Argentina
Roman Catholic Chile
Juan Manuel Blanes - Artigas en la Ciudadela.jpg José Gervasio Artigas June 19, 1764(1764-06-19)
Montevideo, Real Audiencia of Charcas, Viceroyalty of Peru; (now Uruguay)
September 23, 1850 (aged 86)
Ibiray, Paraguay
Roman Catholic Uruguay
Gran marical de ayacucho.jpg Antonio José de Sucre February 3, 1795(1795-02-03)
Cumaná, Captaincy General of Venezuela; (now Venezuela)
June 4, 1830 (aged 35)
Berruecos, Gran Colombia; (now Colombia)
Roman Catholic Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla August 31, 1797(1797-08-31)
Tarapacá, Real Audiencia of Lima, Viceroyalty of Peru; (now Chile)
May 30, 1867 (aged 69)
Tarapacá, Peru; (now Chile)
Roman Catholic Peru
Jj olmedo foto2.jpg José Joaquín de Olmedo March 20, 1780(1780-03-20)
Guayaquil, Royal Audience of Quito, Viceroyalty of Peru; (now Ecuador)
February 19, 1847 (aged 66)
Guayaquil, Ecuador
Roman Catholic Ecuador

Bibliography

  • Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  • Marion Lansing. Liberators and Heroes of South America. Boston, L. C. Page & Co., 1940.
  • Irene Nicholson. The Liberators: A Study of Independence Movements in Spanish America. New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1968.

External links

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