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Vancouver's public library in Canada
Bangalore Central Library is designated as the State Central Reference Library and is open to public only for consultation of documents within its premises.
A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. It can mean the collection, the building or room that houses such a collection, or both. The term "library" has itself acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use," and in this sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics, statistics, electronics and biology.
.Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research.^ The Library is dedicated to maintaining an excellence of service in providing information and resource materials to support the information needs of AU Library users.

In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs, such as books on drugs.
.However, with the sets and collection of media and of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints, or other documents and various storage media such as microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, and video games.^ Hoyt—includes fiction and non-fiction cassette tapes and CDs .
  • DPL: Locations & Hours - Central Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC denverlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hoyt - includes fiction and non-fiction cassette tapes and CDs .
  • DPL: Locations & Hours - Central Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC denverlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ BOOKS ON TAPE or CD .
  • DPL: Locations & Hours - Central Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC denverlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

.Libraries may also provide public facilities to access subscription databases and the Internet.^ The library is situated on four floors, with wireless internet access throughout.
  • Robert Crown Law Library | Stanford Law School 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.law.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Law Library—plus the Stanford University Libraries generally—provides access to hundreds of online research tools.
  • Robert Crown Law Library | Stanford Law School 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.law.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Internet Public Library Online Texts Collection .

Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are understood as extending beyond the physical walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of knowledge with a variety of digital tools.

Contents

Early history

Antiquity

The first two libraries were composed for the most part, of published records, a particular type of library called archives. Archaeological findings from the ancient city-states of Sumer have revealed temple rooms full of clay tablets in cuneiform script. These archives were made up almost completely of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, with only a few documents touching theological matters, historical records or legends. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt.
The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit; besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 B.C. and those at Nineveh about 700 B.C. showing a library classification system.[1]
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh,[2] providing archaeologists with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish , also known as the Epic of Creation,[3] which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation, the Epic of Gilgamesh,[4] a large selection of “omen texts” including Enuma Anu Enlil which “contained omens dealing with the moon, its visibility, eclipses, and conjunction with planets and fixed stars, the sun, its corona, spots, and eclipses, the weather, namely lightning, thunder, and clouds, and the planets and their visibility, appearance, and stations.”[5], and astronomic/astrological texts, as well as standard lists used by scribes and scholars such as word lists, bilingual vocabularies, lists of signs and synonyms, and lists of medical diagnoses.

Libraries in the Hellenic world and Rome

Private or personal libraries made up of non-fiction and fiction books (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity were listed in the late second century in Deipnosophistae:[6]
Polycrates of Samos and Pisistratus who was tyrant of Athens, and Euclides who was himself also an Athenian[7] and Nicorrates of Samos and even the kings of Pergamos, and Euripides the poet and Aristotle the philosopher, and Nelius his librarian; from whom they say our countryman[8] Ptolemæus, surnamed Philadelphus, bought them all, and transported them, with all those which he had collected at Athens and at Rhodes to his own beautiful Alexandria.[9]
All these libraries were Greek; the cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. By the time of Augustus there were public libraries near the forums of Rome: there were libraries in the Porticus Octaviae near the Theatre of Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo Palatinus, and in the Biblioteca Ulpiana in the Forum of Trajan. The state archives were kept in a structure on the slope between the Roman Forum and the Capitoline Hill.
Private libraries appeared during the late republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by non-reading owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases (armaria) of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: "by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a library is got up as standard equipment for a fine house (domus).[10] Libraries were amenities suited to a villa, such as Cicero's at Tusculum, Maecenas's several villas, or Livy the Younger's, all described in surving letters. At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the villa of Caesar's father-in-law, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site.
In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features. As a rule Roman public libraries were bilingual: they had a Latin room and a Greek room. Most of the large Roman baths were also cultural centers, built from the start with a library, with the usual two room arrangement for Greek and Latin texts.
Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Library of Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: export of prepared writing materials was a staple of commerce. .There were a few institutional or royal libraries which were open to an educated public (like the Library of Alexandria, once the largest library in the ancient world), but on the whole collections were private.^ Internet Public Library Online Texts Collection .

In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks. In all recorded cases the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway.
In the sixth century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. Cassiodorus, minister to Theodoric, established a monastery at Vivarium in the heel of Italy with a library where he attempted to bring Greek learning to Latin readers and preserve texts both sacred and secular for future generations. As its unofficial librarian, Cassiodorus not only collected as many manuscripts as he could, he also wrote treatises aimed at instructing his monks in the proper uses of reading and methods for copying texts accurately. In the end, however, the library at Vivarium was dispersed and lost within a century.
Through Origen and especially the scholarly presbyter Pamphilus of Caesarea, an avid collector of books of Scripture, the theological school of Caesarea won a reputation for having the most extensive ecclesiastical library of the time, containing more than 30,000 manuscripts: Gregory Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Jerome and others came to study there.
With education firmly in Christian hands, however, many of the works of classical antiquity were no longer considered useful.[citation needed] Old texts were washed off the valuable parchment and papyrus, which were reused, forming palimpsests. As scrolls gave way to the new book-form, the codex, which was universally used for Christian literature, old manuscript scrolls were cut apart and used to stiffen leather bindings.[citation needed]

Ancient Chinese libraries

Little is known about early Chinese libraries[citation needed], save what is written about the imperial library which began with the Qin Dynasty. One of the curators of the imperial library in the Han Dynasty is believed to have been the first to establish a library classification system and the first book notation system. At this time the library catalog was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags.

Islamic libraries

Upon the spread of Islam, libraries in newly Islamic lands knew a brief period of expansion in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Spain. Like the Christian libraries, they mostly contained books which were made of paper, and took a codex or modern form instead of scrolls; they could be found in mosques, private homes, and universities, from Timbuktu to Afghanistan. In Aleppo, for example, the largest and probably the oldest mosque library, the Sufiya, located at the city's Grand Umayyad Mosque, contained a large book collection of which 10,000 volumes were reportedly bequeathed by the city's most famous ruler, Prince Sayf al-Dawla.[11] Some mosques sponsored public libraries. Ibn al-Nadim's bibliography Fihrist demonstrates the devotion of medieval Muslim scholars to books and reliable sources; it contains a description of thousands of books circulating in the Islamic world circa 1000, including an entire section for books about the doctrines of other religions. Unfortunately, modern Islamic libraries for the most part do not hold these antique books; many were lost, destroyed by Mongols, or removed to European libraries and museums during the colonial period.[12]
By the 8th century first Iranians and then Arabs had imported the craft of papermaking from China, with a paper mill already at work in Baghdad in 794. By the 9th century completely public libraries started to appear in many Islamic cities. They were called "halls of Science" or dar al-'ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. The 9th century Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil of Iraq, even ordered the construction of a ‘zawiyat qurra literally an enclosure for readers which was `lavishly furnished and equipped.' In Shiraz Adhud al-Daula (d. 983) set up a library, described by the medieval historian, al-Muqaddasi, as`a complex of buildings surrounded by gardens with lakes and waterways. The buildings were topped with domes, and comprised an upper and a lower story with a total, according to the chief official, of 360 rooms.... In each department, catalogues were placed on a shelf... the rooms were furnished with carpets...'.[13] The libraries often employed translators and copyists in large numbers, in order to render into Arabic the bulk of the available Persian, Greek, Roman and Sanskrit non-fiction and the classics of literature. This flowering of Islamic learning ceased centuries later when learning began declining in the Islamic world, after many of these libraries were destroyed by Mongol invasions. Others were victim of wars and religious strife in the Islamic world. However, a few examples of these medieval libraries, such as the libraries of Chinguetti in West Africa, remain intact and relatively unchanged even today. Another ancient library from this period which is still operational and expanding is the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in the Iranian city of Mashhad, which has been operating for more than six centuries.
.A number of distinct features of the modern library were introduced in the Islamic world, where libraries not only served as a collection of manuscripts as was the case in ancient libraries, but also as a public library and lending library, a centre for the instruction and spread of sciences and ideas, a place for meetings and discussions, and sometimes as a lodging for scholars or boarding school for pupils.^ InfoTrac Information Sciences & Library Issues Collection .

^ Internet Public Library Online Texts Collection .

The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories.[14]
The contents of these Islamic libraries were copied by Christian monks in Muslim/Christian border areas, particularly Spain and Sicily. From there they eventually made their way into other parts of Christian Europe. These copies joined works that had been preserved directly by Christian monks from Greek and Roman originals, as well as copies Western Christian monks made of Byzantine works. The resulting conglomerate libraries are the basis of every modern library today.

Medieval Christian libraries

The Malatestiana Library (Italian: Biblioteca Malatestiana), in Cesena, is the first European civic library.[15]
With the retrenchment of literacy in the Roman west during the fourth and fifth centuries, fewer private libraries were maintained, and those in unfortified villas proved to be among their most combustible contents.
In the Early Middle Ages, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and before the rise of the large Western Christian monastery libraries beginning at Montecassino, libraries were found in scattered places in the Christian Middle East.
Medieval library design reflected the fact that these manuscripts —created via the labor-intensive process of hand copying— were valuable possessions. Library architecture developed in response to the need for security. Librarians often chained books to lecterns, armaria (wooden chests), or shelves, in well-lit rooms. Despite this protectiveness, many libraries were willing to lend their books if provided with security deposits (usually money or a book of equal value). Monastic libraries lent and borrowed books from each other frequently and lending policy was often theologically grounded. For example, the Franciscan monasteries loaned books to each other without a security deposit since according to their vow of poverty only the entire order could own property. In 1212 the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books, reminding them that lending is "one of the chief works of mercy."[16]
Lending meant more than just having another work to read to librarians; while the work was in their possession, it could be copied, thus enriching the library's own collection. The book lent as a counter effort was often copied in the same way, so both libraries ended up having an additional title.
The early libraries located in monastic cloisters and associated with scriptoria were collections of lecterns with books chained to them. Shelves built above and between back-to-back lecterns were the beginning of bookpresses. The chain was attached at the fore-edge of a book rather than to its spine. Book presses came to be arranged in carrels (perpendicular to the walls and therefore to the windows) in order to maximize lighting, with low bookcases in front of the windows. This stall system (fixed bookcases perpendicular to exterior walls pierced by closely spaced windows) was characteristic of English institutional libraries. In Continental libraries, bookcases were arranged parallel to and against the walls. This wall system was first introduced on a large scale in Spain's El Escorial.

Southeast Asian libraries

Buddhist scriptures, educational materials, and histories were stored in libraries in pre-modern Southeast Asia. In Burma, a royal library called the Pitaka Taik was legendarily founded by King Anawrahta;[17] in the 1700s, British envoy Michael Symes, upon visiting this library, wrote that "it is not improbable that his Birman majesty may possess a more numerous library than any potentate, from the banks of the Danube to the borders of China". In Thailand libraries called ho trai were built throughout the country, usually on stilts above a pond to prevent bugs from eating at the books.

Early modern libraries

Johannes Gutenberg's movable type innovation in the 1400s revolutionized bookmaking. From the 15th century in central and northern Italy, the assiduously assembled libraries of humanists and their enlightened patrons provided a nucleus around which an "academy" of scholars congregated in each Italian city of consequence. Cosimo de Medici in Florence established his own collection, which formed the basis of the Laurentian Library.[18] In Rome, the papal collections were brought together by Pope Nicholas V, in separate Greek and Latin libraries, and housed by Pope Sixtus IV, who consigned the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana to the care of his librarian, the humanist Bartolomeo Platina in February 1475.[19] In the 16th century Sixtus V bisected Bramante's Cortile del Belvedere with a cross-wing to house the Apostolic Library in suitable magnificence. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw other privately-endowed libraries assembled in Rome: the Vallicelliana, formed from the books of Saint Filippo Neri, with other distinguished libraries such as that of Cesare Baronio, the Biblioteca Angelica founded by the Augustinian Angelo Rocca, which was the only truly public library in Counter-Reformation Rome; the Biblioteca Alessandrina with which Pope Alexander VII endowed the University of Rome; the Biblioteca Casanatense of the Cardinal Girolamo Casanate; and finally the Biblioteca Corsiniana founded by the bibliophile Clement XII Corsini and his nephew Cardinal Neri Corsini, still housed in Palazzo Corsini in via della Lungara.
A lot of factors combined to create a "golden age of libraries" between 1600 and 1700: The quantity of books had gone up, as the cost had gone down, there was a renewal in the interest of classical literature and culture, nationalism was encouraging nations to build great libraries, universities were playing a more prominent role in education, and renaissance thinkers and writers were producing great works. Some of the more important libraries include the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the Library of the British Museum, the Mazarine Library in Paris, and the National Central Library in Italy, the Prussian State Library, the M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library of St. Petersburg, and many more.[20]

Types of libraries

The William and Anita Newman Library, the library of Baruch College features multiple floors with Wi-Fi access and "studypods" (personal seating and an AC outlet for laptops, all for studying). Located in Manhattan, New York City, United States.
Smaller libraries can sometimes be found in private homes.
Libraries can be divided into categories by several methods:
by the entity (institution, municipality, or corporate body) that supports or perpetuates them
by the type of documents or materials they hold
by the subject matter of documents they hold
by the users they serve
by traditional professional divisions
School library.
    • Academic libraries — These libraries are located on the campuses of colleges and universities and serve primarily the students and faculty of that and other academic institutions. Some academic libraries, especially those at public institutions, are accessible to members of the general public in whole or in part.
    • Public libraries or public lending libraries — These libraries provide service to the general public and make at least some of their books available for borrowing, so that readers may use them at home over a period of days or weeks. Typically, libraries issue library cards to community members wishing to borrow books. Many public libraries also serve as community organizations that provide free services and events to the public, such as reading groups and toddler story time.
    • Research libraries — These libraries are intended for supporting scholarly research, and therefore maintain permanent collections and attempt to provide access to all necessary material. Research libraries are most often academic libraries or national libraries, but many large special libraries have research libraries within their special field and a very few of the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries.
    • School libraries — Most public and private primary and secondary schools have libraries designed to support the school's curriculum.
    • Special libraries — All other libraries fall into this category. Many private businesses and public organizations, including hospitals, museums, research laboratories, law firms, and many government departments and agencies, maintain their own libraries for the use of their employees in doing specialized research related to their work. Special libraries may or may not be accessible to some identified part of the general public. Branches of a large academic or research libraries dealing with particular subjects are also usually called "special libraries": they are generally associated with one or more academic departments. Special libraries are distinguished from special collections, which are branches or parts of a library intended for rare books, manuscripts, and similar material.
Many institutions make a distinction between circulating libraries (where materials are expected and intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other libraries) and collecting libraries (where the materials are selected on a basis of their natures or subject matter). Many modern libraries are a mixture of both, as they contain a general collection for circulation, and a reference collection which is often more specialized, as well as restricted to the library premises.

Public libraries

The Public Library of Police County in Police, a town in Pomerania, Poland.
The earliest example in England of a library to be endowed for the benefit of users who were not members of an institution such as a cathedral or college was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham, Lincolnshire, established in 1598. The library still exists and can justifiably claim to be the forerunner of later public library systems. The beginning of the modern, free, open access libraries really got its start in the U.K. in 1847. Parliament appointed a committee, led by William Ewart, on Public Libraries to consider the necessity of establishing libraries through the nation: In 1849 their report noted the poor condition of library service, it recommended the establishment of free public libraries all over the country, and it led to the Public Libraries Act in 1850, which allowed all cities with populations exceeding 10,000 to levy taxes for the support of public libraries. Another important act was the 1870 Public School Law, which increased literacy, thereby the demand for libraries, so by 1877, more than 75 cities had established free libraries, and by 1900 the number had reached 300.[21] This finally marks the start of the public library as we know it. And these acts led to similar laws in other countries, most notably the U.S.
1876 is a well known year in the history of librarianship in the United States. The American Library Association was formed, as well as The American Library Journal, Melvil Dewey published his decimal based system of classification, and the United States Bureau of Education published its report, "Public libraries in the United States of America; their history, condition, and management." During the post-Civil War years, there was a rise in the establishment of public libraries, a movement led chiefly by newly formed women's clubs. They contributed their own collections of books, conducted lengthy fundraising campaigns for buildings, and lobbied within their communities for financial support for libraries, as well as with legislatures and the Carnegie Library Endowment founded in the 20th century.[22] They led the establishment of 75-80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country.[23] The American Library Association continues to play a major role in libraries to this day, and Dewey's classification system, although under heavy criticism of late, still remains the prevailing method of classifying used in the United States.
As the number of books in libraries increased, so did the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting, giving birth to the stack system, which involved keeping a library's collection of books in a space separate from the reading room. This arrangement arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty). The introduction of electrical lighting had a huge impact on how the library operated. The use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. As more space was needed, a method of moving shelves on tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space.
Library 2.0, a term coined in 2005, is the library's response to the challenge of Google and an attempt to meet the changing needs of users by using web 2.0 technology. Some of the aspects of Library 2.0 include, commenting, tagging, bookmarking, discussions, using social software, plug-ins, and widgets.[24] Inspired by web 2.0, it is an attempt to make the library a more user-driven institution.
Despite the importance of public libraries, they are routinely having their budget cut by state legislature. Funding has dwindled so bad that some smaller public libraries have been forced to cut their hours and release employees. While most donations made to public libraries are from private benefactors, they still receive very little in the way of state funding. One of the more recent efforts that have been made to aid public libraries is the Attorney.org Save-A-Library campaign in which they will profile public libraries from around the country in hopes of raising donations.

Organization

Libraries usually contain long aisles with rows of books.
Libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification system, so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request," which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks.
Larger libraries are often broken down into departments staffed by both paraprofessionals and professional librarians.
  • Circulation - Handles user accounts and the loaning/returning and shelving of materials.
  • Collection Development - Orders materials and maintains materials budgets.
  • Reference - Staffs a reference desk answering user questions (using structured reference interviews), instructing users, and developing library programming. Reference may be further broken down by user groups or materials; common collections are children's literature, young adult literature, and genealogy materials.
  • Technical Services - Works behind the scenes cataloguing and processing new materials and deaccessioning weeded materials.
  • Stacks Maintenance - Re-shelves materials that have been returned to the library after patron use and shelves materials that have been processed by Technical Services. Stacks Maintenance also shelf reads the material in the stacks to ensure that it is in the correct library classification order.

Management

Basic tasks in library management include the planning of acquisitions (which materials the library should acquire, by purchase or otherwise), library classification of acquired materials, preservation of materials (especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts), the deaccessioning of materials, patron borrowing of materials, and developing and administering library computer systems. More long-term issues include the planning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to existing ones, and the development and implementation of outreach services and reading-enhancement services (such as adult literacy and children's programming).

Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published several standards regarding the management of libraries through its Technical Committee 46 (TC46),[25] which is focused on "libraries, documentation and information centres, publishing, archives, records management, museum documentation, indexing and abstracting services, and information science". The following is a partial list of some of them:[26]
  • ISO 2789:2006 Information and documentation — International library statistics
  • ISO 11620:1998 Information and documentation — Library performance indicators
  • ISO 11799:2003 Information and documentation — Document storage requirements for archive and library materials
  • ISO 14416:2003 Information and documentation — Requirements for binding of books, periodicals, serials and other paper documents for archive and library use — Methods and materials
  • ISO/TR 20983:2003 Information and documentation — Performance indicators for electronic library services

Library use

The Vietnam Center and Archive, which contains the largest collection of Vietnam War-related holdings outside the U.S. federal government, catalogs much of its material on the Internet.
Patrons may not know how to fully use the library's resources. This can be due to some individuals' unease in approaching a staff member. Ways in which a library's content is displayed or accessed may have the most impact on use. An antiquated or clumsy search system, or staff unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons, will limit a library's usefulness. In United States public libraries, beginning in the 19th century, these problems drove the emergence of the library instruction movement, which advocated library user education. One of the early leaders was John Cotton Dana. The basic form of library instruction is generally known as information literacy.
Libraries inform their users of what materials are available in their collections and how to access that information. Before the computer age, this was accomplished by the card catalog — a cabinet containing many drawers filled with index cards that identified books and other materials. In a large library, the card catalog often filled a large room. The emergence of the Internet, however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalog databases (often referred to as "webcats" or as online public access catalogs, OPACs), which allow users to search the library's holdings from any location with Internet access. This style of catalog maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as older libraries that have been retrofitted. Electronic catalog databases are criticized by some who believe that the old card catalog system was both easier to navigate and allowed retention of information, by writing directly on the cards, that is lost in the electronic systems. This argument is analogous to the debate over paper books and e-books. While libraries have been accused of precipitously throwing out valuable information in card catalogs, most modern ones have nonetheless made the move to electronic catalog databases. Large libraries may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town, each having multiple floors, with multiple rooms housing the resources across a series of shelves. Once a user has located a resource within the catalog, they must then use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically; a process that may be assisted through signage, maps, GPS systems or RFID tagging.
Finland has the highest number of registered book borrowers per capita in the world. Over half of Finland's population are registered borrowers.[27] In the U.S., public library users have borrowed roughly 15 books per user per year from 1856 to 1978. From 1978 to 2004, book circulation per user declined approximately 50%. The growth of audiovisuals circulation, estimated at 25% of total circulation in 2004, accounts for about half of this decline.[28]

Shift to digital libraries

In the past couple of years, more and more people are using the Internet to gather and retrieve data. The shift to digital libraries has greatly impacted the average person's use of physical libraries. Between 2002 and 2004, the average American academic library saw its overall number of transactions decline approximately 2.2%.[29] Libraries are trying to keep up with the digital world and the new generation of students that are used to having information just one click away. For example, The University of California Library System saw a 54% decline in circulation between 1991 to 2001 of 8,377,000 books to 3,832,000.[30]
These facts might be a consequence of the increased availability of e-resources. In 1999-2000, 105 ARL university libraries spent almost $100 million on electronic resources, which is an increase of nearly $23 million from the previous year.[31] A 2003 report by the Open E-book Forum found that close to a million e-books had been sold in 2002, generating nearly $8 million in revenue.[32] Another example of the shift to digital libraries can be seen in Cushing Academy’s decision to dispense with its library of printed books — more than 20,000 volumes in all — and switch over entirely to digital media resources.[33]
One claim to why there is a decrease in the usage of libraries stems from the observation of the research habits of undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and universities. There have been claims that college undergraduates have become more used to retrieving information from the Internet than a traditional library. As each generation becomes more in tune with the Internet, their desire to retrieve information as quickly and easily as possible has increased. There is no doubt that finding information by simply searching the Internet is much easier and faster than reading an entire book. In a survey conducted by NetLibrary, 93% of undergraduate students claimed that finding information online makes more sense to them then going to the library. Also, 75% of students surveyed claimed that they did not have enough time to go to the library and that they liked the convenience of the Internet. While the retrieving information from the Internet may be efficient and time saving than visiting a traditional library, research has shown that undergraduates are most likely searching only .03% of the entire web.[34] The information that they are finding might be easy to retrieve and more readily available, but may not be as in depth as information from other resources such as the books available at a physical library.

Lists of libraries

See also

References

  1. ^ The American International Encyclopedia, J.J. Little & Ives, New York 1954, Volume IX
  2. ^ Britishmuseum.org "Assurbanipal Library Phase 1", British Museum One
  3. ^ Epic of Creation in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989: pg.233-81
  4. ^ Epic of Gilgamesh in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989: pg.50-135
  5. ^ Van De Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 2007: pg. 263
  6. ^ Epitome of Book I
  7. ^ Not the familiar Euclid.
  8. ^ The writer was Alexandrian; the sophisticates in Deipnosophistae were at a banquet in Rome.
  9. ^ See Library of Alexandria.
  10. ^ Seneca, De tranquillitate animi ix.4-7.
  11. ^ Sibai M. (1987). Mosque libraries: An Historical Study. Mansell Publishing Limited. 
  12. ^ John L. Esposito (ed.) (1995). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506613-8. 
  13. ^ de Goeje(ed.) (1906). AL-Muqaddasi: Ahsan al-Taqasim. BGA, III. 
  14. ^ Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 988–991  in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0415124107 
  15. ^ "Stradavinisaporifc.it". Stradavinisaporifc.it. http://www.stradavinisaporifc.it/cesena.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  16. ^ Geo. Haven Putnam (1962). Books and Their Makers in the Middle Ages. Hillary. 
  17. ^ International dictionary of library histories, 29
  18. ^ Survivor: The History of the Library, history-magazine.com
  19. ^ This section on Roman Renaissance libraries follows Kenneth M. Setton, "From Medieval to Modern Library" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104.4, Dedication of the APS Library Hall, Autumn General Meeting, November, 1959 (August 1960:371-390) p372ff.
  20. ^ Stockwell, Foster (2000). A History of Information and Storage Retrieval. 
  21. ^ Harris, Michael H. (1984). The History of Libraries in the Western World. Scarecrow Press. 
  22. ^ Paula D. Watson, “Founding Mothers: The Contribution of Women’s Organizations to Public Library Development in the United States”, Library Quarterly, Vol. 64, Issue 3, 1994, p.236
  23. ^ Teva Scheer, “The “Praxis” Side of the Equation: Club Women and American Public Administration”, Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol. 24, Issue 3, 2002, p.525
  24. ^ Cohen, L.B. (2007). A Manifesto for our time. pp. 47–9. 
  25. ^ "ISO.org". ISO.org. http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees/list_of_iso_technical_committees/iso_technical_committee.htm?commid=48750. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  26. ^ "ISO.org". ISO.org. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_tc_browse.htm?commid=48750. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  27. ^ The humble Number One: Finland — Virtual Finland, Finland.fi
  28. ^ Statistics on Book Circulation Per User of U.S. Public Libraries Since 1856 from galbithink.org
  29. ^ Applegate, Rachel. "Whose Decline? Which Academic Libraries are "Deserted" in Terms of Reference Transactions?" Reference & User Services Quarterly 2nd ser. 48 (2008): 176-89. Print.
  30. ^ University of California Library Statistics 1990–91, University-wide Library Planning, University of California Office of the President (July 1991): 12; University of California Library Statistics July 2001, 7, Ucop.edu, accessed July 17, 2005; University of California Library Statistics July 2004, 7, Ucop.edu. Retrieved July 17, 2005.
  31. ^ "ARL Libraries Spend Nearly $100 Million on Electronic Resources," ARL Bimonthly Report 219, Association of Research Libraries (December 2001), ARL.org . Retrieved July 17, 2005.
  32. ^ Striphas, Ted. The Late Age of Print: Everday Book Culture From Consumerism to Control. New York City: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
  33. ^ Striphas, Ted. "Books: "An Outdated Technology?" Weblog post. The Late Age of Print. 4 September 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. Thelateageofprint.org
  34. ^ Troll, Denise A. "How and Why are Libraries Changing?" Digital Library Federation. Library Information Technology- Carnegie Melon, 9 January 2001. Web. 29 November 2009. Diglib.org

External links

Directories of libraries

Other resources


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Libraries article)

From Wikiquote

.A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual.^ Library collections and services made possible by: .

^ The library provides a variety of resources and services.

^ Information on making gifts to Library collections.
  • Library | American Philosophical Society 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.amphilsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the more traditional sense, it means a collection of books.^ With a Reader Advisor's help, choosing books is easy; patrons select from more than 100,000 titles and 1.2 million volumes accessible from the Library's collection.
  • Braille Library Services: Free Books in Braille and Audio | Braille Institute of America 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.brailleinstitute.org [Source type: General]

^ Library Plus Search USIP's Library print and digital collections for books, periodicals, audio-visual materials, digital files (documents, audio and video presentations), and more.
  • Jeannette Rankin Library Program | United States Institute of Peace 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.usip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collections stand at more than 7 million items--books, journals, technical reports, manuscripts, microfilms, photographs and images.

.This collection and services are used by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research.^ Access to the IAEA Library is available to staff of government organizations, nuclear research institutes and laboratories, nuclear information centres and libraries in Agency Member States, and private individuals, needing the use on topics covered by the collections.

^ Location (map) Magazines New books Research collections Reserves Services Suggest a title for purchase (form) Videos .
  • Architecture Studies Library (UNLV) - information on architects landscape buildings interior design codes construction urban planning and Las Vegas 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.nevada.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to space limitations, the Rare Book Collection and Image Collections & Fieldwork Archives require appointments to be made in advance of every use.
  • Library | Dumbarton Oaks 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • And the smell of the library was always the same - the musty odour of old clothes mixed with the keener scent of unwashed bodies, creating what the chief librarian had once described as 'the steam of the social soup.'^ Just inside the Library are the circulation and reference desks where librarians are always on duty to provide services to students and other members of the Marist community.
    • James A. Cannavino Library: Marist College 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.marist.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Your Profile Once logged into the CQ Press Electronic Library, you can create your own profile.
    • CQ Press Electronic Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.cqpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • You receive this writing that you may know how to preserve the books which I shall deliver to you; and you shall set these in order and anoint them with oil of cedar and put them away in earthen vessels…
    • Apocrypha 1:17-18, "The Assumption of Moses", Aliyat Moshe
  • As regards anything besides these, my son, take a warning: To the making of many books there is no end, and much devotion to them is wearisome to the flesh.^ (This may come in handy when you write your own book!

    ^ To help you get into the holiday spirit, OCLC has kindly put together a list of their favorite books, videos, CDs and more for the holidays....
    • NJIT: Library: Library @ NJIT 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.njit.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Understanding it and the ramifications to your network Five Critical Questions Regarding 802.11n Deployments 802.11n: It's Already in Your Network - You Just Don't Know It!
    • Xirrus: Switching Without Wires - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.xirrus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • A good library at home is a giant empire inside the house.^ News Law library featured in international calendar Calendar provides photos of beautiful old libraries around the world.
    • Welcome to the State Library of Iowa — State Library of Iowa 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.statelibraryofiowa.org [Source type: News]

    ^ World first for UniSA - Press release Suggest resources for the Library to purchase Looking for recent news from countries around the world?

    ^ UQ Home Contacts Study Maps News Events Library my.UQ Search Entry UQ Library About UQ Library Contact us Employment Library blogs and feedback .
    • The University of Queensland Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.library.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

    .
  • What is more important in a library than anything else – than everything else – is the fact that it exists.^ The library has more than scholarly materials.
    • Ithaca College Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.ithaca.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With more than 400,000 volumes in print and microforms, Taggart is the second largest private law school library in Ohio.

    ^ Last year library users printed out more than one million pages.
    • Stetson University: duPont-Ball Library | About the Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www2.stetson.edu [Source type: General]

    .
  • While on the subject of burning books, I want to congratulate librarians, not famous for their physical strength, who, all over this country, have staunchly resisted anti-democratic bullies who have tried to remove certain books from their shelves, and destroyed records rather than have to reveal to thought police the names of persons who have checked out those titles.^ Check out books, music, and DVDs.
    • The Seattle Public Library: Seattle Public Library Home Page 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.spl.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Books are to remain on Garden grounds in possession of the person who borrowed them; they are to be available for recall at all times.
    • MBG: Library Home 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Manages Multiple Media All types of media may be filed, searched, and printed: Books, Tapes, Videos, Records, CDs, and DVDs .
    • School Library Software / Library Management Software 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.rediker.com [Source type: General]


    So the America I loved still exists, if not in the White House, the Supreme Court, the Senate, the House of Representatives, or the media. .The America I loved still exists at the front desks of our public libraries.^ OCLC ILL is a lending service that connects our library to premier Academic and Public libraries throughout the United States.
    • Library AJULA American Jewish University formerly University of Judaism 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.ajula.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our January 28 lecture is "Adolph Sutro's Life Before America, 1830-1850."  For details and directions, visit Sutro Library Program Series .
    • California State Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.library.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Assistance in locating print materials during the outage will be available from library staff working the service desks, through our Ask a Librarian service, or by calling the library.
    • Cowles Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.drake.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • A great public library, in its catalogue and its physical disposition of its books on shelves, is the monument of literary genres.^ Primo Catalogue Databases Scholars Portal Your account Book a Library space RACER (ILL) RefWorks .
    • Laurier Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.wlu.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Library Catalog The online catalog lists books, videos, music, books on CD, journals, government publications, and other materials the library owns or that you may access.
    • Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.library.unr.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In partnership with Channel 4, Lansing Public Library presents Hardcover Feedback, a program about books.
    • Lansing Public Library Home Page -- Lansing, Illinois 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.lansing.lib.il.us [Source type: General]

    • Robert Melancon, quoted in World Literature Today, Spring 1982, p.231.

Unsourced

  • But although technology is vastly changing their roles, librarians are still seen as "trusted agents" and their role as navigators of the Internet will be critical to everyday life and the future economy.
    • Stephen Abram
  • I find that a great part of the information I have was acquired by looking something up and finding something else on the way. .
    • Franklin P. Adams
  • There are times when I think that the ideal library is composed solely of reference books.^ To request retrieval of a book, you can ask at the reference desk or fill out the form at http://library.law.columbia.edu/bookreq.htm in this website.
    • Columbia University - Arthur W. Diamond Law Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.law.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you have books, pamphlets, maps, or other printed material that you think The Filson might be interested in, please contact the library at (502) 636-0471.

    ^ Search the library catalog   Find course reserve materials   Locate a book on the shelves Borrow materials with I-Share & ILLiad   Online reference sources .
    • The Knox College Library | Knox College 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.knox.edu [Source type: General]

    .They are like understanding friends; always ready to meet your mood, always ready to change the subject when you have had enough of this or that.^ Popular themes on the new READ DVD Genres & Subjects are sure to inspire creativity in your school or library as you promote literacy and engage the community.
    • ALA | Home - American Library Association 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.ala.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Just provide one AAA battery, your own set of head phones and you're ready to listen!

    ^ You may change your selections at any time.
    • Library - Nolo 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.nolo.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • J. Donald Adams, New York Times, 1 April 1956
  • Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people.^ New York Times (1851-2004) .

    ^ Read the following article from the New York times, then visit The Future Generation Art Prize website January 18 through April 18 to submit your work.
    • PNCA Fine Art Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.pnca.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ His book, How We Die , was on the New York Times best-seller list for 34 weeks and won the National Book Award.

  • To furnish the means of acquiring knowledge is the greatest benefit that can be conferred upon mankind. It prolongs life itself and enlarges the sphere of existence. .
  • You go into the restaurants of a town and you see people with hungry stomachs, but you go into the library of the same town and you will see hungry brains feasting upon their favorites.^ See what the library saves you!
    • Providence Public Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.provlib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ We hope to see you in the library!
    • OU College of Law - Law Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC jay.law.ou.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Firefox users may see an error message when trying to log into their library account or electronic resources.
    • University of Arkansas Library Catalog 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.uark.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .There are all too few libraries, and far too many restaurants.^ Recommended Reading and Video List Below are a few of the many books and videos that reefkeepers might think of having in their library.
    • Reefs.org: Where Reefkeeping Begins on the Internet - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.reefs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Proceeds from all book sales fund many of our library events .
    • Home Page - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Library System – City of Albuquerque 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: General]

    ^ International Books : There are books from around the world in many languages available in The Library’s holdings.
    • Explore — Los Angeles County Arboretum & Botanic Garden 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.arboretum.org [Source type: General]

    People should eat less and think more. .
    • Matthew Adams
  • The richest minds need not large libraries.^ Designed with librarians needs in mind, Concourse's rich features and ease-of-use make school library management a breeze!
    • School Library Software / Library Management Software 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.rediker.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Amos Bronson Alcott, Table Talk, Book I
  • Libraries are the key to ensuring that the divide between information rich and poor is kept as narrow as possible.^ Libraries remain the ultimate depot of user-friendly information, and Nolo books provide plain-English translations of the law and straightforward, do-it-yourself legal solutions.
    • Library - Nolo 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.nolo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ BLKENT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ANNOUNCEMENTS ELSEVIER E-BOOKS This Elsevier E-books purchase includes books published pre-2007 as well as between 2007 and 2010 More...

    ^ The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) has begun issuing digital talking books.
    • Braille Library Services: Free Books in Braille and Audio | Braille Institute of America 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.brailleinstitute.org [Source type: General]

    • Senator Lyn Allison
  • The computer is only a fast idiot, it has no imagination; it cannot originate action. It is, and will remain, only a tool to man. .
    • American Library Association on Univac computer exhibited at the 1964 New York World's Fair
  • ...A library is also a place where love begins.^ The Library of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York is a nationally recognized research facility and the single largest member supported law library in the United States.
    • The Association of the Bar of the City of New York - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.abcny.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A new exhibit at the Dana Medical Library, H1N1 Flu: 1918-19 & 2009 , traces the epidemiological and historical aspects of this virus in two different centuries.
    • UVM Libraries - Bailey/Howe Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.uvm.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Summer Associate Passes The New York City Bar is happy to offer, once again, summer associate passes at no charge to students who are employed by a member of the Association during the summer recess.
    • The Association of the Bar of the City of New York - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.abcny.org [Source type: General]

    • Rudolfo Anaya
  • Library
    Here is where people,
    One frequently finds,
    Lower their voices
    And raise their minds.^ And of course, visit us right here on our library website where you will find information on programs being held at WPL and more!

    ^ You are here: Library Home New Library 2010 » You said it » Lachlan Macquarie Bicentenary » Find .
    • Library - Macquarie University 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.lib.mq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

    .
    • Richard Armour Light Armour, McGraw-Hill, 1954
  • Throughout my formal education I spent many, many hours in public and school libraries.^ OCLC ILL is a lending service that connects our library to premier Academic and Public libraries throughout the United States.
    • Library AJULA American Jewish University formerly University of Judaism 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.ajula.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hours for the Research Library Beginning Thursday, April 2nd, the Oregon Historical Society’s Research Library will be open to the public each week according to the following schedule: .
    • Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC ohs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Concourse is the most advanced school library management software system available to educators today.
    • School Library Software / Library Management Software 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.rediker.com [Source type: General]

    Libraries became courts of last resort, as it were. .The current definitive answer to almost any question can be found within the four walls of most libraries.^ Please check these FAQs for answers to your questions or visit any library branch .
    • Library - Public Library - Fairfax County Public Library - FCPL 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.fairfaxcounty.gov [Source type: General]

    ^ If you have questions not answered in our Library you may contact us .
    • Library - B&W 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.babcock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Library Services Provided: Answers to ready reference questions are easily located in encyclopedias, almanacs, directories, dictionaries, etc.
    • Upper Iowa University - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.uiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • I received the fundamentals of my education in school, but that was not enough. .My real education, the superstructure, the details, the true architecture, I got out of the public library.^ Library launches new e-mail service The Sterling Heights Public Library has launched a service that allows patrons to sign up for e-mails that detail everything new we get!
    • Sterling Heights Public Library's online source of information 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.shpl.net [Source type: General]

    ^ District of Columbia Public Library - Check it out!
    • District of Columbia Public Library - Check it out! 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.dclibrary.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Last week, Karen Martines, Public Administration Library Manager, was awarded one of the 2009 “I Love My Librarian” awards!
    • Cleveland Public Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.cpl.org [Source type: General]

    .For an impoverished child whose family could not afford to buy books, the library was the over door to wonder and achievement, and I can never be sufficiently grateful that I had the wit to charge through that door and make the most of it.^ The Library houses books on many of the most common families.
    • Explore — Los Angeles County Arboretum & Botanic Garden 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.arboretum.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Through this grant, the Mahomet Public Library received a set of 19 classic books, including Spanish translations of three of the titles.

    ^ Or, you can start right now by searching for books, articles and other resources through the library Web pages.
    • Susquehanna University - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.susqu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .
  • Now, when I read constantly about the way in which library funds are being cut and cut, I can only think that the door is closing and that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.^ Read them now Close .
    • Ithaca College Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.ithaca.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If you are considering a degree in library and information science, or if you know a student or library worker who might help shape the future of library services, the time is now to learn more about the ALA Scholarship Program.
    • ALA | Home - American Library Association 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.ala.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Last year library users printed out more than one million pages.
    • Stetson University: duPont-Ball Library | About the Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www2.stetson.edu [Source type: General]

  • A library is but the soul's burial-ground. It is the land of shadows.
  • People can lose their lives in libraries. They ought to be warned. .
  • If your library is not unsafe, it probably isn't doing its job.^ Start your job search at the library.

    ^ The Wichita Public Library has many job and career resources to assist you in your search.

    ^ The Tacoma Public Library has what you need to kick your job search into high gear.

    .
    • John Berry, III
  • There's no use going to school unless your final destination is the library.^ Berry College Memorial Library Your browser does not support CSS. If images appear below, please disregard them.
    • Berry College Memorial Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.berry.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Students below high school age must have a parent sign a permission form at the library to assure safe and responsible use.
    • LeClaire Community Library in historic Le Claire Iowa at the Mississippi River and Interstate 80 with 6 public access computers and wireless Internet 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC leclairelibrary.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Online Card Catalog See what the library owns, access your account using your last name and library card number, place a hold on library materials.

  • Being a writer in a library is rather like being a eunuch in a harem. .
  • The closest we will ever come to an orderly universe is a good library.^ The Arthur Friedheim Library is the music library of the Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University and serves the faculty and students of the Peabody Conservatory of Music, the Peabody Preparatory Division and all other divisions of The Johns Hopkins University.
    • Peabody Institute - Arthur Friedheim Library: Arthur Friedheim Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.peabody.jhu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Peabody Institute - Arthur Friedheim Library: Arthur Friedheim Library The Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University .
    • Peabody Institute - Arthur Friedheim Library: Arthur Friedheim Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.peabody.jhu.edu [Source type: General]

    .
    • Ashleigh Brilliant
  • There is not such a cradle of democracy upon the earth as the Free Public Library, this republic of letters, where neither rank nor office, nor weight receives the slightest consideration.^ Library Journal has teamed up with BuyerZone to bring you free price quotes on hundreds of products, including security systems and paperless office solutions.
    • Library Journal: Library News, Reviews, and Views 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.libraryjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Wellesley Free Library is the public library of the Town of Wellesley, MA and is the contracting Interlibrary Loan Center for the Metrowest Massachusetts Regional Library System .

    ^ The library houses a federal government documents depository providing free access to government publications.
    • Upper Iowa University - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.uiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .
  • If you have a garden and a library, you have everything you need.^ You will need your Torrington Library patron barcode number found on the back of your library card to enter the site.

    ^ Whether you need volunteer hours for honor society, a class project, or just to give back to the community - the library wants you!

    ^ The Arboretum Library also has a subscription to Garden, Landscape & Horticulture Literature Index to help you find the articles you want.
    • Explore — Los Angeles County Arboretum & Botanic Garden 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.arboretum.org [Source type: General]

    .
    • Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero)
  • Whatever the costs of our libraries, the price is cheap compared to that of an ignorant nation.^ We offer a mix of local, national and traveling exhibits in our display cases in the library’s foyer outside of the entrance to the Civic Auditorium.

  • The great consulting-room of a wise man is a library.
    • Rev. George Dawson
  • A great library contains the diary of the human race.
    • Rev. George Dawson
  • Th' first thing to have in a libry is a shelf. Fr'm time to time this can be decorated with lithrachure. But th' shelf is th' main thing.
  • Consider what you have in the smallest chosen library. A company of the wisest and wittiest men that could be picked out of all civil countries, in a thousand years, have set in best order the results of their learning and wisdom. The men themselves were hid and inaccessible, solitary, impatient of interruption, fenced by etiquette; but the thought which they did not uncover to their bosom friend is here written out in transparent words to us, the strangers of another age.
  • An intelligent person is not necessarily one who knows the answers but rather knows where to find them.
    • John Ellison
  • A university is a group of buildings gathered around a library. .
    • Shelby Foote
    • Variant: A university is just a group of buildings gathered around a library.
  • The richest person in the world – in fact all the riches in the world – couldn't provide you with anything like the endless, incredible loot available at your local library.^ Then explore all of the things you can do online @ your library.
    • Broward County - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.broward.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The TWU Libraries provide global information services, education, and resources for teaching, learning and research at all levels to prepare students for success in their professional and personal lives.
    • TWU - TWU Libraries Home 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.twu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ You will need your Torrington Library patron barcode number found on the back of your library card to enter the site.

    .
  • The challenge now is for public libraries – particularly in low-income communities – to stay connected.^ The Sterling Heights Public Library has embarked upon a challenge that will improve upon the already stellar service provided for the area's youth - a Children's Art Garden.
    • Sterling Heights Public Library's online source of information 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.shpl.net [Source type: General]

    ^ All public libraries in Pinellas County now operate the same catalog.
    • City of Dunedin Florida 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.dunedingov.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Friends Of The Library The Friends of the Library is a community based, non-profit organization dedicated to supporting the financial needs of the Collingswood Public Library and encouraging education and cultural development within the community.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    .Libraries need support to maintain quality technology services so they can effectively serve the millions who count on them for their only access to computers and the internet.^ Libraries Come Through for Their Communities in These Tough Times Did you know that 73% of public libraries report they provide the only free access to the Internet in their communities?
    • City of Dunedin Florida 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.dunedingov.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The new library has 16 free internet computers for members as well as a coffee area for relaxing with a good book.

    ^ The Library supports the user’s right to privacy for Internet sessions, as with all resources and services provided by the Library, but because security is technically difficult to achieve, users are advised that electronic communications and files could become public.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

  • A truly great library contains something in it to offend everyone.^ Welcome to Your Library Your Broward County Library offers something for everyone.
    • Broward County - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.broward.org [Source type: General]

    .
    • Jo Godwin
  • He that revels in a well-chosen library has innumerable dishes, and all of admirable flavor.^ The Library collects materials in all areas of biomedicine and health care, as well as works on biomedical aspects of technology, the humanities, and the physical, life, and social sciences.

    .
  • I have always believed that libraries are the most civilized places in our world, the most generous and democratic, the least judgmental, belonging to no one and everyone, doing the noble work of at once preserving and circulating the ideas and expressions of mankind.^ Throughout the day, library research staff are available online to chat about your research needs and help you get the most out of our library resources.
    • James P. Boyce Centennial Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.sbts.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Videocassettes and DVDs circulate for one week with no renewals.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Library as a Place: Tradition and Evolution by William Miller .

    • Jhumpa Lahiri
  • No possession can surpass, or even equal, a good library to the lover of books. Here are treasured up for his daily use and delectation, riches which increase by being consumed, and pleasures which never cloy.
    • John Alfred Langford
  • He has his Rome, his Florence, his whole glowing Italy, within the four walls of his library. He has in his books the ruins of an antique world, and the glories of a modern one. .
  • How little our libraries cost us as compared with our liquor cellars.^ Help us keep our costs down by limiting your number of requests per month.

    .
  • We may sit in our library and yet be in all quarters of the earth.^ Dunedin Public Library's butterfly garden, which is maintained by the Dunedin Garden Club, was awared 1st Place by the Area Beautification Council in May 2008.
    • City of Dunedin Florida 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.dunedingov.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Proceeds from all book sales fund many of our library events .
    • Home Page - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Library System – City of Albuquerque 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.cabq.gov [Source type: General]

    .
  • A house without books is like a room without windows.^ The third floor houses the circulating book collection, the Information Literacy Instruction Lab, and the Curriculum Resource Room of Teacher Education materials and children's books.
    • Neumann University - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.neumann.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Curriculum Resource Room houses an excellent collection of children's books including the winners of the Frances and Wesley Bock Book Award for Children's Literature.
    • Neumann University - Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.neumann.edu [Source type: Academic]

    No man has a right to bring up children without surrounding them with books.... .Children learn to read being in the presence of books.^ Reading aloud to your children is the most effective way to create a lifelong love of reading and learning.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Heinrich Mann
  • Libraries are one of the only face-to-face services left where kids can come with no appointment and get professional services from someone with a master's degree who assigns no grades, makes no judgments.^ This service may take as few as one or two days or as long as several weeks depending upon the location of the lending library.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    It's the greatest democratic institution ever created. .
    • Patrick O'Brien
  • The library connects us with the insight and knowledge, painfully extracted from Nature, of the greatest minds that ever were, with the best teachers, drawn from the entire planet and all our history, to instruct us without tiring, and to inspire us to make our own contribution to the collective knowledge of the human species.^ Since much of this collection is fragile in nature it is shelved in a special area.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We invite you to be a part of our organization and give your support to make the Collingswood Public Library the finest in our region.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In addition, the Library has special collections of large print books for patrons who have difficulty reading conventional print.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

    .I think the health of our civilization, the depth of our awareness about the underpinnings of our culture and our concern for the future can all be tested by how well we support our libraries.^ Libraries for the Future Supports library initiatives by mobilizing support.
    • LibrarySpot.com: Encyclopedias, maps, online libraries, quotations, dictionaries & more. 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.libraryspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We are managing, preserving, andenhancing our health in ways that include underlying causes of well-being andthe interrelated systems of our...
    • Library | Institute For The Future 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.iftf.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This invites us all to leave our isolation to make communication a priority action, both within the Movement as well as outside of it.
    • Library / Information & Events / Home - World Organization of the Scout Movement 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.scout.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Librarians have always been among the most thoughtful and helpful people. They are teachers without a classroom. No libraries, no progress. .
    • Willard Scott
  • The prestige of the library of the future will not be the size of the collection, but the number of clicks to its website.^ Enter your website login not your Library Card and PIN number .
    • Lexington Public Library | Lexington, Kentucky 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.lexpublib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Ask a Librarian Collection Highlights e-Research Downloadable Media Magazines & Newspapers Recommended Websites Resources For Readers Special Collections My Online Library .
    • Welcome to Jacksonville Public Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC jpl.coj.net [Source type: General]

    .
    • Thornton Tibbals
  • A keeper of books:
    I've traveled the world twice over,
    Met the famous; saints and sinners,
    Poets and artists, kings and queens,
    Old stars and hopeful beginners,
    I've been where no-one's been before,
    Learned secrets from writers and cooks.
  • To read a book for the first time is to make an acquaintance with a new friend; to read it for a second time is to meet an old one.^ (The gospel message in the stars) Science in a Broken Universe God and the "Quality" of Time How Old is the Universe?
    • Lambert's Library 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NPR Book Club The new NPR Book Club gives you a chance to read and discuss books by authors associated with National Public Radio and...
    • Lexington Public Library | Lexington, Kentucky 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.lexpublib.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Friends of the Library meet the second Monday of every month at 7 p.m.
    • Collingswood Public Library | Collingswood, New Jersey 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.collingswood.com [Source type: General]

  • He who lends a book is an idiot. He who returns the book is more of an idiot.

Unidentified author

  • Steal not this book, for fear or shame, For it is in the owner's name; And when you are dead, the Lord will say, "Where is that book you stole away?"
    • Book inscription
  • I feed your body, while you feed your mind.
    • Found in library cafe
  • I was the pride of the public library... until I discovered Smirnoff. .
    • 1965 advertising slogan
  • A new library is like finding a $100 bill on the sidewalk.^ If you would like to find out what else is available in the Library, please consult our library catalog, PALS , on the Web.
    • City of Dunedin Florida 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.dunedingov.com [Source type: General]

    • Anonymous library patron. as quoted in .PUBLIB message, 11 September 2000
  • All with one library ticket
    To the wonderful world of books.
  • When you absolutely positively have to know, ask a librarian.
  • Nobody graduated from a library
    Nobody graduated without one.
  • Libraries keep the records on behalf of all humanity....the unique and the absurd, the wise and [the] fragments of stupidity.
  • Don't write in a book unless it is your check book!
  • To maintain a public library intact, the librarian should buy three copies of each book: the first to show, the second to loan, and the third to read.
  • A person's library consists of all the books he has that no one wants to borrow.
  • The road to success is always under construction.
  • A library is a hospital for the mind.
  • By the time a man can read a woman like a book, he is too old to collect a library.
  • The worst level of service that Internet users will accept is the best level of service they have ever seen.
  • Information that cannot be found is not information, it is landfill.
  • Knowledge is free at the library.^ Borrow books from other CUNY libraries .

    ^ Borrow/renew books from the library .

    ^ Maybe your company, your website, your book, someone you know, something you want to buy...

    Just bring your own container.
  • Book lovers never go to bed alone.
  • On how many people's libraries, as on bottles from the drugstore, one might write: "For external use only."
  • A library is an arsenal of liberty.

Library inscriptions

  • The medicine chest of the soul.
    • Inscription over the door of the Library at Thebes
  • Books Set the Spirit Free. .
    • Carved over the door of the Lockport Public Library, Lockport, New York
  • Nutrimentum spiritus.^ The New York Public Library offers a more complete version of ARTFL texts online.
    • Mina Rees Library - CUNY Graduate Center 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.gc.cuny.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Health Sciences Library - New York Medical College .
    • Health Sciences Library - New York Medical College 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC library.nymc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Directory News Center Library Events Publications Contact & Maps Information for: .
    • Robert Crown Law Library | Stanford Law School 11 January 2010 6:11 UTC www.law.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    • Translation: Food for the soul.
    • Inscription on the Berlin Royal Library

See also

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
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Look up librarianship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Library article)

From Wikisource

The Library
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This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.

The Library may refer to:

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Very little is known concerning the methods employed by Jews in the collection and preservation of books. The Biblical writings are silent on this point. That there were royal archives in Jerusalem may be surmised with some show of reason, even though the terms "mazkir" (A. V. "recorder"; 2 Sam 8:16, xx. 24, and several other passages) and "sofer" (A. V. "scribe"; ib. viii. 17, and often elsewhere) do not necessarily point to the office of archivist. Nor does the place-name Kirjath-sepher (Josh 15:16; Jdg 1:11-12), which the Septuagint translates Πόλις Γραμμάτων (Vulgate, "Civitas Litterarum" = "Book Town"), afford any further evidence; though Quatremère in 1842 deduced from it the existence of a library there, and Sayce in 1895 called it "the literary center of the Canaanites in the south of Palestine" ("Patriarchal Palestine," p. 220; "Higher Criticism and the Monuments," p. 54).
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about LibraryRDF feed

Simple English

A library is a place where many books are kept. Most libraries are public and let people take the books to use in their home. Most libraries let people borrow books for several weeks. Some belong to institutions, for example, companies, churches, schools, and universities. Also a person's bookshelves at home can have many books and be a library. The people who work in libraries are librarians.

Other libraries keep famous or rare books. There are a few "Copyright libraries" which have a copy of every book which has been written in that country. Some libraries also have other things that people might like, such as magazines, music on CDs, or computers where people can use the Internet. In school they offer software to learn the alphabet and other details.

A library is not a bookstore (a store that sells books).

Public Libraries

File:Seacroft library (13th May 2010).jpg
A small public library in the Seacroft area of Leeds.

Many places have a public library, where anybody can join if they live in the area. With a library card, people can borrow books and take them home for several weeks. It does not cost money to get a library card at most public libraries.

Books, music, and movies are kept on shelves in a special order so they are easy to find. Public libraries have stories and books about lots of things. Many public libraries have books and CDs about learning English. Stories are kept in alphabetical order by the last name of the person who wrote them, the author. Books about other things are often given a special number, that refers to what they are about. They are then put on the shelf in number order. One number system used by many libraries is the Dewey decimal system.

Librarians

A librarian is a person who works in a library. Librarians help people find books and information. They can teach people how to find books and use the library.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Library, which are similar to those in the above article.








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