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Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى
Al-Jamāhīriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah al-Lībiyyah aš-Šaʿbiyyah al-Ištirākiyyah al-ʿUẓmā   (Arabic)
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAllahu Akbar
God is the Greatest
Capital
(and largest city)
Tripoli
32°52′N 13°11′E / 32.867°N 13.183°E / 32.867; 13.183
Official language(s) Arabic1
Demonym Libyan
Government Jamahiriya
 -  Leader and Guide of the Revolution Muammar al-Gaddafi
 -  Secretary General of the General People's Congress Mohamed Abdul Quasim al-Zwai
 -  Prime Minister Baghdadi Mahmudi
Independence
 -  Relinquished by Italy 10 February 1947 
 -  From United Kingdom & France under United Nations Trusteeship
24 December 1951 
Area
 -  Total 1,759,541 km2 (17th)
679,359 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 6,420,000[1] (105th)
 -  2006 census 5,670,6881 
 -  Density 3.6/km2 (218th)
9.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $91.078 billion[2] (68th)
 -  Per capita $14,381[2] (53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $60.609 billion[2] (59th)
 -  Per capita $9,570[2] (52nd)
HDI (2007) 0.847[3] (high) (55th)
Currency Dinar (LYD)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ly
Calling code 218
1 Arabic (de jure), Libyan Arabic (de facto)
Libya (Arabic: ليبياLībiyā About this sound pronunciation ; Libyan vernacular: Lībya About this sound pronunciation ; Amazigh: ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ), officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab JamahiriyaArabic: الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمىAl-Jamāhīriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah al-Lībiyyah aš-Šaʿbiyyah al-Ištirākiyyah al-ʿUẓmā About this sound pronunciation , also translated as Socialist People's Libyan Arab Great Jamahiriya), is a country located in North Africa. Bordering the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Libya lies between Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
With an area of almost 1,800,000 square kilometres (694,984 sq mi), Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa by area, and the 17th largest in the world.[4] The capital, Tripoli, is home to 1.7 million of Libya's 5.7 million people. The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica. Libya has the highest HDI in Africa and the fourth highest GDP (PPP) per capita in Africa as of 2009, behind Seychelles, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. These are largely due to its large petroleum reserves and low population.[5][6]
The flag of Libya consists of a green field with no other characteristics. It is the only national flag in the world with just one color and no design, insignia, or other details.[7]

Contents

Name

In Greek, the tribesmen were called Libues, Latinised to Libyes (with Greek u transcribed as y in Latin). Their country became Libuā (or in Classical Attic Libýē with the standard Attic sound change ā > ē), Latinised Libya. .But in ancient Greece the term had a broader meaning, encompassing all of North Africa west of Egypt (see Ancient Libya).^ Parts or all of today’s Libya were conquered by Phoenicia, Carthage, Ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire before Arabs moved into the region in the seventh century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Libya, located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, is the continent’s fourth largest country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Later on, at the time of Ibn Khaldun, the same big tribe was known as Lawata.[8]
.The word jamahiriya (Arabic جماهيرية, strict transliteration jamāhīriyya), which appears in the full title of the country, is an Arabic term generally translated as "state of the masses". It is a neologism, coined by Muammar al-Gaddafi, similar to people's republic.^ In 1969, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi led a military coup that ended the monarchy and proclaimed the Libyan Arab Republic.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1977 the country’s official name changed to Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (state of the masses).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

History

Ancient Libya

Archaeological evidence indicates that from as early as 8,000 BC, the coastal plain of Ancient Libya was inhabited by a Neolithic people, the Berbers, who were skilled in the domestication of cattle and the cultivation of crops.[9]
1890 portrayal of a Berber family crossing a ford – H. B. Scammel
Later, the area known in modern times as Libya also was occupied by a series of other peoples, with the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Persian Empire, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Turks and Byzantines ruling all or part of the area.
Although the Greeks and Romans left ruins at Cyrene, Leptis Magna, and Sabratha, little other evidence remains of these ancient cultures.[10] Some cultural and religious exchanges occurred with the Ancient Egyptians, especially in the northern portion containing the delta of the Nile, that is called Lower Egypt. The prehistoric evidence is fragmentary, but historical records later document continued influences.
.Pockets of Berber population remain in modern Libya, but dispersal of Berbers north as far as Ireland and Scandinavia is documented in genetic markers studied by physical anthropologists and dispersal in Africa from the Atlantic coast to the Siwa oasis in Egypt, seems to have followed climatic changes causing increasing desertification.^ Demographic data for Libya is scarce, but around 90 per cent of the population belong to the Arabic-speaking majority of mixed Arab–Berber ancestry.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Libya, located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, is the continent’s fourth largest country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Now the greatest number of Berbers in Africa is in Morocco (about 42% of the population) and in Algeria (about 27% of the population), as well as Tunisia and Libya, but exact statistics are not available;[11] see Berber languages.

Phoenicians

The Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya, when the merchants of Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) developed commercial relations with the Berber tribes and made treaties with them to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials.[12][13] By the fifth century BC the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, Carthage, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea (Tripoli), Libdah (Leptis Magna) and Sabratha. .All these were in an area that later was called Tripolis, or "Three Cities". Libya's current-day capital Tripoli takes its name from this.^ Best calling card to call Libya for these calling needs: .
  • Libya Calling Cards - Calling Cards To Libya - Calling Cards For Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC libya.callingcards.com [Source type: News]

^ With our calling cards to Libya, you enjoy clear calls at any time of the day.
  • Libya Calling Cards - Calling Cards To Libya - Calling Cards For Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC libya.callingcards.com [Source type: News]

Greeks

The Greeks conquered Eastern Libya when, according to tradition, emigrants from the crowded island of Thera were commanded by the oracle at Delphi to seek a new home in North Africa. In 630 BC, they founded the city of Cyrene.[14] Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area: Barce (Al Marj); Euhesperides (later Berenice, present-day Benghazi); Teuchira (later Arsinoe, present-day Tukrah); and Apollonia (Susah), the port of Cyrene. Together with Cyrene, they were known as the Pentapolis (Five Cities).

Romans

Arch of Roman emperor Lucius Septimius Severus (AD 146–211) in Leptis Magna.
The Romans unified all three regions of Libya. Tripolitania and Cyrenaica became prosperous Roman provinces and remained so for more than six hundred years.[15] Roman ruins, such as those of Leptis Magna, attest to the vitality of the region during the Roman occupation.
At the time, populous cities and even small towns enjoyed the amenities of urban life consistent with those in Rome. Merchants and artisans from many parts of the Roman world established themselves in North Africa, but the character of the cities of Tripolitania remained decidedly Punic and, in Cyrenaica, Greek.

Under Islam

History of Libya
Coat of Arms of Libya
This article is part of a series
Ancient Libya Herodotus world map-en.svg (before 642 AD)
Islamic Tripolitania and Cyrenaica Ottoman Provinces Of Present day Libyapng.png (642-1551)
Ottoman Libya Ottoman flag alternative 2.svg (1551-1912)
Italian colony Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg (1912-1939)
Incorporated Italian Libya (1939-1942)
Allied occupation (1942-1951) Tehran Conference, 1943.jpg
Kingdom of Libya Flag of Libya (1951).svg (1951-1969)
Modern Libya Flag of Libya.svg (1969-Today)

Libya Portal
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Libya was conquered by Uqba ibn Nafi in 644 and fully conquered in 655, forming part of the Ummayad Caliphate. This was superseded by the Abbasids in 750, but in practice Libya enjoyed considerable local autonomy under the Aghlabid dynasty. Arab soldiers, spreading their new religion of Islam, entered Cyrenaica in 642 and occupied Tripoli in 643. A succession of Arab and Berber dynasties then controlled what is now Libya. The culture of northwestern Libya developed along with the political units just west of it, while development in the east was strongly influenced by neighboring Egypt.[16]

Ottoman Turks

16th Century Women's dress in Tripoli, when Libya was part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Turks conquered the country in the mid-16th century, and the three States or "Wilayat" of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan (which make up Libya) remained part of their empire with the exception of the virtual autonomy of the Karamanlis. The Karamanlis ruled from 1711 until 1835 mainly in Tripolitania, but had influence in Cyrenaica and Fezzan as well by the mid 18th century. This constituted a first glimpse in recent history of the united and independent Libya that was to re-emerge two centuries later. Reunification came about through the unlikely route of an invasion (Italo-Turkish War, 1911–1912) and occupation starting from 1911 when Italy simultaneously turned the three regions into colonies.[17]

Italian colony

From 1912 to 1927, the territory of Libya was known as Italian North Africa. From 1927 to 1934, the territory was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania, run by Italian governors. During the Italian colonial period, between 20% and 50% of the Libyan population died in the struggle for independence, and mainly in prison camps.[citation needed] Some 150,000 Italians settled in Libya, constituting roughly one-fifth of the total population.[18]
In 1934, Italy adopted the name "Libya" (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the official name of the colony (made up of the three provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan). King Idris I, Emir of Cyrenaica, led Libyan resistance to Italian occupation between the two world wars. Between 1928 and 1932 the Italian military "killed half the Bedouin population (directly or through starvation in camps)."[19] From 1943 to 1951, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were under British administration, while the French controlled Fezzan. In 1944, Idris returned from exile in Cairo but declined to resume permanent residence in Cyrenaica until the removal of some aspects of foreign control in 1947. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.[20]
Omar Mukhtar (1858–1931) was the leader of the Libyan uprising against Italian occupation.

United Kingdom of Libya

On November 21, 1949, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952. Idris represented Libya in the subsequent UN negotiations. .On December 24, 1951, Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, a constitutional and hereditary monarchy under King Idris.^ After centuries of continued foreign rule by Ottoman Turks beginning in 1551, followed by Italy, France and Britain, Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Kingdom of Libya.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled one of the world's poorest nations to establish an extremely wealthy state. Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, popular resentment began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of King Idris and the national elite. This discontent continued to mount with the rise of Nasserism and Arab nationalism throughout North Africa and the Middle East.

Modern Libya

Revolution of Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi

On September 1, 1969, a small group of military officers led by then 27-year-old army officer Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi staged a coup d’état against King Idris.[10] At the time, Idris was in Turkey for medical treatment. His nephew, Crown Prince Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi, became King. It was clear that the revolutionary officers who had announced the deposition of King Idris did not want to appoint him over the instruments of state as King. Gaddafi was at the time only a captain and his co-conspirators were all junior officers. Nevertheless the small group seized Libyan military headquarters (due to the sympathies of the stationed men) and the radio broadcasting station with 48 rounds of revolver ammunition.[21] Before the end of September 1, Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida had been formally deposed by the revolutionary army officers and put under house arrest. Meanwhile, revolutionary officers abolished the monarchy, and proclaimed the new Libyan Arab Republic. Gaddafi was, and is to this day, referred to as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official press.[22]

Politics

The General People's Committee building in Benghazi.
Libya is a dictatorship run by Colonel Muammar Al-Gaddafi. [1] In theory, there are two branches of government in Libya. The "revolutionary sector" comprises Revolutionary Leader Gaddafi, the Revolutionary Committees and the remaining members of the 12-person Revolutionary Command Council, which was established in 1969.[23] The historical revolutionary leadership is not elected and cannot be voted out of office; they are in power by virtue of their involvement in the revolution.
Constituting the legislative branch of government, this sector comprises Local People's Congresses in each of the 1,500 urban wards, 32 Sha'biyat People's Congresses for the regions, and the National General People's Congress. These legislative bodies are represented by corresponding executive bodies (Local People's Committees, Sha'biyat People's Committees and the National General People's Committee/Cabinet).
Every four years, the membership of the Local People's Congresses elects their own leaders and the secretaries for the People's Committees, sometimes after many debates and a critical vote. The leadership of the Local People's Congress represents the local congress at the People's Congress of the next level. The members of the National General People's Congress elect the members of the National General People's Committee (the Cabinet) at their annual meeting.
The government controls both state-run and semi-autonomous media. In cases involving a violation of "certain taboos", the private press, like The Tripoli Post, has been censored,[24] although articles that are critical of policies have been requested and intentionally published by the revolutionary leadership itself as a means of initiating reforms.
Political parties were banned by the 1972 Prohibition of Party Politics Act Number 71.[25] According to the Association Act of 1971, the establishment of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is allowed. However, because they are required to conform to the goals of the revolution, their numbers are small in comparison with those in neighbouring countries. Trade unions do not exist,[26] but numerous professional associations are integrated into the state structure as a third pillar, along with the People's Congresses and Committees. These associations do not have the right to strike. Professional associations send delegates to the General People's Congress, where they have a representative mandate.

Foreign relations

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with Libyan National Security Adviser Mutassim Qadhafi.
Libya's foreign policies have undergone much fluctuation and change since the state was proclaimed on December 24, 1951. As a Kingdom, Libya maintained a definitively pro-Western stance, yet was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States (the present-day Arab League), of which it became a member in 1953.[27] The government was in close alliance with Britain and the United States; both countries maintained military base rights in Libya. Libya also forged close ties with France, Italy, Greece, and established full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1955.
Although the government supported Arab causes, including the Moroccan and Algerian independence movements, it took little active part in the Arab-Israeli dispute or the tumultuous inter-Arab politics of the 1950s and early 1960s. The Kingdom was noted for its close association with the West, while it steered an essentially conservative course at home.[28]
After the 1969 coup, Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partially nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya. He also played a key role in promoting oil embargoes as a political weapon for challenging the West, hoping that an oil price rise and embargo in 1973 would persuade the West, especially the United States, to end support for Israel. Gaddafi rejected both Eastern (Soviet) communism and Western (United States) capitalism and claimed he was charting a middle course for his government.[29]
.In the 1980s, Libya increasingly distanced itself from the United States, based on the principle of non-alignment and the adoption of a middle path between capitalism and communism referred to as "the Third Theory".[30] The animosity was deepened due to Gaddafi’s support for groups like the Palestine Liberation Organization, which were considered terrorist by the USA, and his flirtation with the Soviet Union, which at the time represented the sole challenger to the US. Secretary of State Alexander Haig considered Libya as “a Soviet satellite” and a “Soviet-run terrorist training network". When Libya intervened in Chad in 1980 it was perceived by the American authorities as the Soviet Union’s attempt to spread control in Africa.^ Libya’s support of international terrorism in the 1980s led to confrontation with the United States.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Widely spread throughout Libyan society, Islamic opposition is neither cohesive nor necessarily part of a wider movement with origins outside Libya itself.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ The US bombed Libya in 1986 in response to alleged Libyan involvement in a terrorist attack in Germany that killed US soldiers.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

In addition to this, Gaddafi’s opposition to Israel, a United States ally and considered by them to be the only democratic state in the region, were enough reasons to have Libya considered an American enemy. Consequently, the Reagan administration began its campaign of assisting Libya’s neighbors militarily to be able to respond to any Libyan attempt to invade them. Tunisia was given some fifty-four M60 tanks plus $15 million in military credits, while other countries like Egypt and Sudan were given an increase in military credits and training with a full-fledged promise of support in face of Libyan threats. These strategies aimed at isolating Libya and pressure it to reconsider its policies towards the US.[31]
The first confrontation with the United States was when Gaddafi had declared two hundred miles of the Gulf of Sidra to be restricted of any international usage; having defied such declaration Libyan air force fired a missile at a US Boeing EC-135 flight. The attack did not cause any damages to the aircraft, and Jimmy Carter, the U.S. President at the time, did not respond militarily. Allegedly, Gaddafi had secretly ordered the burning down of the US embassy in Tripoli as his fight against the United States. In response U.S. President Ronald Reagan had the "Libyan People's Bureau" closed, and oil imports banned from North African States. Reagan also contested the restricted area defined by Gaddafi based on a 1958 convention that stated that countries were allowed to claim twenty four miles of width from their coasts.[32] On August 19, 1981[33] the navy was sent close to Libya's coast which resulted in a confrontation where two of the SU-22 fighters supplied to Libya by the Soviet Union were shot down.[34] Following this, Libya was implicated in committing mass acts of state-sponsored terrorism. .When CIA allegedly intercepted two messages implying Libyan complicity in the Berlin discothèque terrorist bombing that killed two American servicemen, the United States found this a good enough reason to launch an aerial bombing attack against targets near Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986.[35] The attack, Operation El Dorado Canyon, was not sanctioned by France and Spain, who refused to allow US F-111 bombers to fly over their territories, and resulted in death of several civilians, including Gaddafi's two-year old adopted daughter.^ The US bombed Libya in 1986 in response to alleged Libyan involvement in a terrorist attack in Germany that killed US soldiers.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Gaddafi capped the year by renouncing Libyan programmes to develop nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1999 Gaddafi handed over two suspects in the Lockerbie bombing.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[36]
In 1991, two Libyan intelligence agents were indicted by federal prosecutors in the United States and the United Kingdom for their involvement in the December 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103. Six other Libyans were put on trial in absentia for the 1989 bombing of UTA Flight 772 over Chad and Niger. The UN Security Council demanded that Libya surrender the suspects, cooperate with the Pan Am 103 and UTA 772 investigations, pay compensation to the victims' families, and cease all support for terrorism. Libya's refusal to comply led to the approval of Security Council Resolution 748 on March 31, 1992, imposing sanctions on the state designed to bring about Libyan compliance. Continued Libyan defiance led to further sanctions by the UN against Libya in November 1993.[37]
.In 1999, less than a decade after the sanctions were put in place, Libya began to make dramatic policy changes in regard to the Western world, including turning over the Lockerbie suspects for trial.^ In 1992, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Libya over its involvement in the downing of PanAm Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1999 Gaddafi handed over two suspects in the Lockerbie bombing.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

This diplomatic breakthrough followed years of negotiation, including a visit by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to Libya in December 1998, and personal appeals by Nelson Mandela. Eventually UK Foreign Secretary Robin Cook persuaded the Americans to accept a trial of the suspects in the Netherlands under Scottish law, with the UN Security Council agreeing to suspend sanctions as soon as the suspects arrived in the Netherlands for trial.[10]
.In response to 9/11 attacks Gaddafi condemned the attacks as an act of terrorism and urged Libyans to donate blood for the US victims.^ The US bombed Libya in 1986 in response to alleged Libyan involvement in a terrorist attack in Germany that killed US soldiers.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

However, the United States were still not willing to remove the sanctions of Libya yet. .After the invasion of Iraq based on allegations that it had WMD programs violating non-proliferation treaty, and the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003, the Libyan government announced its decision to abandon its weapons of mass destruction programmes and pay almost 3 billion US dollars in compensation to the families of Pan Am flight 103 as well as UTA Flight 772.[38] According to some sources Gaddafi had privately phoned Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi expressing his fear that his regime would meet the same fate if he did not take such steps.^ Gaddafi capped the year by renouncing Libyan programmes to develop nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[39] The decision was welcomed by many western nations and was seen as an important step for Libya toward rejoining the international community.[40] .Since 2003 the country has made efforts to normalize its ties with the European Union and the United States and has even coined the catchphrase, 'The Libya Model', an example intended to show the world what can be achieved through negotiation rather than force when there is goodwill on both sides.^ Libya makes no effort to determine whether those being deported to their home countries face dangers there.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Libya’s support of international terrorism in the 1980s led to confrontation with the United States.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ More recently, Libya has mended fences with the United States and Europe, which covet access to Libya’s oil reserves.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

By 2004 Bush had lifted the economic sanctions on Libya and official relations resumed between Libya and the United States. Libya then opened a Liaison office in Washington, DC and the United States opened an office in Tripoli. In January 2004, Congressman Tom Lantos led the first official Congressional delegation visit to Libya.[41]
An event considered pivotal by many in Libyan-Western relations is the HIV trials (1999–2007) of five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor. Their release is seen as marking a new stage in Libyan-Western relations.
On May 15, 2006 the United States State Department announced it would fully restore diplomatic relations with Libya if it dismantled its weapons programmes. .The State Department also removed Libya from their state sponsored terrorism list which it had been on for 27 years.^ Libya’s support of international terrorism in the 1980s led to confrontation with the United States.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

This move has also been attributed to the pressures of oil companies lobbying the Congress. In addition to that the fall of the Soviet power, the prominent role that Libya plays in the African Continent, and the assistance it could provide to the US in its war on terror are among the other considerations that were factored in.[42] In August 2008 a motion was introduced in the 110th Congress known as S 3370 or the “Libyan Claims Resolution Act” to exempt Libya from the infamous section 1083 clause of the National Defense Authorization Act. The motion passed both the House of Representatives and the Senate by unanimous consent, and is signed into law by President George W. Bush on 4 August. After Libya paid a final portion of $1.8 billion global settlement fund for American victims it became formally exempted from section 1083. Following that Libyan families received $300 million for casualties suffered due to the 1986 airstrikes led by the United States. In November the same year, the United States Senate confirmed Gene A. Cretz as the first US Ambassador to Libya in over 35 years. The final step in the process of rebuilding the relations between the two countries came in January 2009 when Ali Suleiman Aujali presented his letters of credentials to President George W. Bush as Ambassador Extraordinaire and Plenipotentiary of Libya to the United States of America, and Gene A. Cretz presents his letter of credentials before the General People’s Congress; currently both are serving as Ambassadors to their respective countries.[43]
On October 16, 2007, Libya was voted to serve on the United Nations Security Council for two years starting January 2008.[44]
In February 2009, Gaddafi was selected to be chairman of the African Union for one year.
As of October 25, 2009, Canadian visa requests are being denied and Canadian travellers have been told they're not welcome in Libya, in an apparent reprisal for Canada's near tongue-lashing of Moammar Gadhafi.[45] Meanwhile, Libya is still detaining two Swiss businessmen. Libyan-Swiss relations strongly suffered after the arrest of Hannibal Gadhafi for beating up his domestic servants in Geneva in 2008.This was an embarrassment for dictator Ghadafi who removed all his money held in Swiss banks and wanted the UN to vote to abolish Switzerland as a Soverign nation[46]

Cooperation with Italy

On August 30, 2008, Gaddafi and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi signed a historic cooperation treaty in Benghazi.[47][48][49] Under its terms, Italy will pay $5 billion to Libya as compensation for its former military occupation. In exchange, Libya will take measures to combat illegal immigration coming from its shores and boost investments in Italian companies.[48][50] The treaty was ratified by Italy on February 6, 2009,[47] and by Libya on March 2, during a visit to Tripoli by Berlusconi.[48][51] In June Gaddafi made his first visit to Rome, where he met Prime Minister Berlusconi, President Giorgio Napolitano, Senate President Renato Schifani, and Chamber President Gianfranco Fini, among others.[48] The Democratic Party and Italy of Values opposed the visit,[52][53] and many protests were staged throughout Italy by human rights organizations and the Radical Party.[54] Gaddafi also took part in the G8 summit in L'Aquila in July 2009 as Chairman of the African Union.[48]

Human rights

According to the U.S. Department of State’s annual human rights report for 2007, Libya’s authoritarian regime continued to have a poor record in the area of human rights.[55] Some of the numerous and serious abuses on the part of the government include poor prison conditions, arbitrary arrest and prisoners held incommunicado, and political prisoners held for many years without charge or trial. The judiciary is controlled by the government, and there is no right to a fair public trial. Libyans do not have the right to change their government. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, and religion are restricted. Independent human rights organizations are prohibited. Ethnic and tribal minorities suffer discrimination, and the state continues to restrict the labor rights of foreign jobs.
In 2005 Freedom House rated political rights in Libya as "7" (1 representing the most free and 7 the least free rating), civil liberties as "7" and gave it the freedom rating of "Not Free".[56]

Administrative divisions

Historically the area of Libya was considered three provinces (or states), Tripolitania in the northwest, Barka (Cyrenaica) in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. It was the conquest by Italy in the Italo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Under the Italians Libya, in 1934, was divided into four provinces and one territory (in the south): Tripoli, Misurata, Benghazi, Al Bayda, and the Territory of the Libyan Sahara.[57]
After independence, Libya was divided into three governorates (muhafazat)[58] and then in 1963 into ten governorates.[59][60] The governorates were legally abolished in February 1975, and nine "control bureaus" were set up to deal directly with the nine areas, respectively: education, health, housing, social services, labor, agricultural services, communications, financial services, and economy, each under their own ministry.[61] However, the courts and some other agencies continued to operate as if the governorate structure were still in place.[61] In 1983 Libya was split into forty-six districts (baladiyat), then in 1987 into twenty-five.[62][63][64] In 1995, Libya was divided into thirteen districts (shabiyah),[65] in 1998 into twenty-six districts, and in 2001 into thirty-two districts.[66] These were then further rearranged into twenty-two districts in 2007:
Arabic Latin transliteration
البطنان Al Butnan
درنة Darnah
الجبل الاخضر Al Jabal al Akhdar
المرج Al Marj
بنغازي Benghazi
الواحات Al Wahat
الكفرة Al Kufrah
سرت Sirte
مرزق Murzuq
سبها Sabha
وادي الحياة Wadi Al Hayaa
مصراتة Misurata
المرقب Al Murgub
طرابلس Tarabulus
الجفارة Al Jfara
الزاوية Az Zawiyah
النقاط الخمس An Nuqat al Khams
الجبل الغربي Al Jabal al Gharbi
نالوت Nalut
غات Ghat
الجفرة Al Jufrah
وادي الشاطئ Wadi Al Shatii
Libyan districts are further subdivided into Basic People's Congresses which act as townships or boroughs.

Geography

Map of Libya
The Jabal Al Akdhar near Benghazi is Libya's wettest region. Annual rainfall averages at between 400 and 600 millimetres (15–24 inches).[67]
Libya extends over 1,759,540 square kilometres (679,362 sq mi), making it the 17th largest nation in the world by size. Libya is somewhat smaller than Indonesia, and roughly the size of the US state of Alaska. It is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, the west by Tunisia and Algeria, the southwest by Niger, the south by Chad and Sudan and to the east by Egypt. .At 1,770 kilometres (1,100 mi), Libya's coastline is the longest of any African country bordering the Mediterranean.^ Libya, located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, is the continent’s fourth largest country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[68][69] .The portion of the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya is often called the Libyan Sea.^ Libya, located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, is the continent’s fourth largest country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

The climate is mostly dry and desertlike in nature. However, the northern regions enjoy a milder Mediterranean climate.
Natural hazards come in the form of hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco (known in Libya as the gibli). This is a southern wind blowing from one to four days in spring and autumn. There are also dust storms and sandstorms. Oases can also be found scattered throughout Libya, the most important of which are Ghadames and Kufra.

Libyan Desert

Moving sand dunes in Tadrart Acacus
Satellite image of Libya, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
The Libyan Desert, which covers much of Libya, is one of the most arid places on earth.[10] In places, decades may pass without rain, and even in the highlands rainfall seldom happens, once every 5–10 years. At Uweinat, as of 2006 the last recorded rainfall was in September 1998.[70] There is a large depression, the Qattara Depression, just to the south of the northernmost scarp, with Siwa oasis at its western extremity. The depression continues in a shallower form west, to the oases of Jaghbub and Jalo.
Likewise, the temperature in the Libyan desert can be extreme; in 1922, the town of Al 'Aziziyah, which is located Southwest of Tripoli, recorded an air temperature of 57.8 °C (136.0 °F), generally accepted as the highest recorded naturally occurring air temperature reached on Earth.[71]
There are a few scattered uninhabited small oases, usually linked to the major depressions, where water can be found by digging to a few feet in depth. In the west there is a widely dispersed group of oases in unconnected shallow depressions, the Kufra group, consisting of Tazerbo, Rebianae and Kufra.[70] Aside from the scarps, the general flatness is only interrupted by a series of plateaus and massifs near the centre of the Libyan Desert, around the convergence of the Egyptian-Sudanese-Libyan borders.
Slightly further to the south are the massifs of Arkenu, Uweinat and Kissu. These granite mountains are ancient, having formed long before the sandstones surrounding them. Arkenu and Western Uweinat are ring complexes very similar to those in the Aïr Mountains. Eastern Uweinat (the highest point in the Libyan Desert) is a raised sandstone plateau adjacent to the granite part further west.[70] The plain to the north of Uweinat is dotted with eroded volcanic features. With the discovery of oil in the 1950s also came the discovery of a massive aquifer underneath much of the country. The water in this aquifer pre-dates the last ice ages and the Sahara desert itself.[72] The country is also home to the Arkenu craters, double impact craters found in the desert.

Economy

The infrastructure of Libya's capital Tripoli has benefited from the country's oil wealth.
Tripoli's Old City (El-Madina El-Kadima), situated in the city centre, is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean and an important tourist attraction.
The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which constitute practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of gross domestic product (GDP). The World Bank defines Libya as an 'Upper Middle Income Economy', along with only seven other African countries.[73] In the early 1980s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GNP per capita was higher than that of countries such as Italy, Singapore, South Korea, Spain and New Zealand.[74]
Today, high oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest GDPs per person in Africa and have allowed the Libyan state to provide an extensive level of social security, particularly in the fields of housing and education.[75] Many problems still beset Libya's economy however; unemployment is the highest in the region at 21% according to the latest census figures.[76]
Compared to its neighbours, Libya enjoys a low level of both absolute and relative poverty. Libyan officials in the past six years have carried out economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the global capitalist economy.[77] This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003, and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programmes to build weapons of mass destruction.[78]
Libya has begun some market-oriented reforms. Initial steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organization, reducing subsidies, and announcing plans for privatisation.[79] Authorities have privatised more than 100 government owned companies since 2003 in industries including oil refining, tourism and real estate, of which 29 are 100% foreign owned.[80] The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel and aluminium.
Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food.[77] Water is also a problem, with some 28% of the population not having access to safe drinking water in 2000.[81] The Great Manmade River project is tapping into vast underground aquifers of fresh water discovered during the quest for oil, and is intended to improve the country's agricultural output.
Under the previous Prime Minister, Shukri Ghanem, and current prime minister Baghdadi Mahmudi, Libya is undergoing a business boom. Many government-run industries are being privatised. Many international oil companies have returned to the country, including oil giants Shell and ExxonMobil.[82]
Tourism is on the rise, bringing increased demand for hotel accommodation and for capacity at airports such as Tripoli International. A multi-million dollar renovation of Libyan airports has recently been approved by the government to help meet such demands.[83] At present 130,000 people visit the country annually; the Libyan government hopes to increase this figure to 10,000,000 tourists.[84] Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, the oldest son of Muammar al-Gaddafi, is involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which seeks to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area.[85]

Demographics

A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya.
Libya has a small population residing in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per km² (80/sq. mi.) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² (1.6/sq. mi.) elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast. About 88% of the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi. 50% of the population is estimated to be under age 15.
Native Libyans are primarily Arabs (mainly tribal desert Arabs "Bedouins"), Berbers and arabized Berbers, Tuareg. Small Hausa, and Tebu tribal groups in southern Libya are nomadic or seminomadic. Among foreign residents, the largest groups are citizens of other African nations, including North Africans (primarily Egyptians), and Sub-Saharan Africans.[86] Libya is home to a large illegal population which numbers more than one million.[87] Libya has a small Italian minority. Previously, there was a visible presence of Italian settlers, but many left after independence in 1947 and many more left after the rule of Muammar al-Gaddafi in 1970.[88]
The main language spoken in Libya is Arabic by 80% of the Libyans, and which is also the official language; the Tamazight spoken by 20% (i.e. Berber and Tuareg languages), which do not have official status, are spoken by Libyan Berbers and Tuaregs in the south beside Arabic language.[89] Berber speakers live above all in the Jebel Nafusa region (Tripolitania), the town of Zuwarah on the coast, and the city-oases of Ghadames, Ghat and Awjila. In addition, Tuaregs speak Tamahaq, the only known Northern Tamasheq language, also Toubou language is spoken by Toubou in some pockets in Qatroun village and Koffra city. Italian and English are sometimes spoken in the big cities, although Italian speakers are mainly among the older generation.
Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth. Although the Libyan Arabs traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities.[90] Because of this, their old ways of life are gradually fading out. An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries. Most of the population has occupations in industry and services, and a small percentage is in agriculture.
According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Libya hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 16,000 in 2007. Of this group, approximately 9,000 persons were from the Former Palestine, 3,200 from Sudan, 2,500 from Somalia and 1,100 from Iraq.[91] Libya reportedly deported thousands of illegal entrants in 2007 without giving them the opportunity to apply for asylum. .Refugees faced discrimination from Libyan officials when moving in the country and seeking employment.^ In 1977 the country’s official name changed to Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (state of the masses).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[91]

Education

The Benghazi campus of the former University of Libya (Al-Jami'a al-Libiya), Libya's first university.
Libya's population includes 1.7 million students, over 270,000 of whom study at the tertiary level.[92] Education in Libya is free for all citizens,[93] and compulsory up until secondary level. The literacy rate is the highest in North Africa; over 82% of the population can read and write.[94]
After Libya's independence in 1951, its first university, the University of Libya, was established in Benghazi.[95] In academic year 1975/76 the number of university students was estimated to be 13,418. As of 2004, this number has increased to more than 200,000, with an extra 70,000 enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector.[92] The rapid increase in the number of students in the higher education sector has been mirrored by an increase in the number of institutions of higher education.
Since 1975 the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in 1980, the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 (with 12 public universities).[92] Libya's higher education is financed by the public budget. In 1998 the budget allocated for education represented 38.2% of the national budget.[95]
The main universities in Libya are:

Religion

Religion in Libya
religion percent
Islam
  
97%
Christianity
  
2%
All Others
  
1%
[96] By far the predominant religion in Libya is Islam with 97% of the population associating with the faith.[97] The vast majority of Libyan Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam, which provides both a spiritual guide for individuals and a keystone for government policy, but a minority (between 5 and 10%) adhere to Ibadism (a branch of Kharijism), above all in the Jebel Nefusa and the town of Zuwarah, west of Tripoli.
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border. About 97% of Libyans are followers of Islam.
Before the 1930s, the Senussi Movement was the primary Islamic movement in Libya. This was a religious revival adapted to desert life. Its zawaaya (lodges) were found in Tripolitania and Fezzan, but Senussi influence was strongest in Cyrenaica. Rescuing the region from unrest and anarchy, the Senussi movement gave the Cyrenaican tribal people a religious attachment and feelings of unity and purpose.[98]
This Islamic movement, which was eventually destroyed by both Italian invasion and later the Gaddafi government,[99] was very conservative and somewhat different from the Islam that exists in Libya today. Gaddafi asserts that he is a devout Muslim, and his government is taking a role in supporting Islamic institutions and in worldwide proselytizing on behalf of Islam.[100] A Libyan form of Sufism is also common in parts of the country.[101]
Other than the overwhelming majority of Sunni Muslims, there are also small foreign communities of Christians. Coptic Orthodox Christianity, which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya. There are over 60,000 Egyptian Copts in Libya, as they comprise over 1% of the population.[102][103] There are an estimated 40,000 Roman Catholics in Libya who are served by two Bishops, one in Tripoli (serving the Italian community) and one in Benghazi (serving the Maltese community). There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt.
Libya was until recent times the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BC.[104] In the 1st century, the Jewish historian for the Roman empire, Joseph Flavius, noted that 500,000 Jews lived in Libya.
In 1942, under Fascist Italian orders, the Libyan Muslims instituted several forced labour camps south of Tripoli for the Jews, including Giado (about 3,000 Jews) and Gharyan, Jeren, and Tigrinna. In Giado some 500 Jews died of weakness, hunger, and disease. Summer-Fall of 1942, Jews who were not in the concentration camps were heavily restricted in their economic activity. All Jewish males, 18 to 45 years, were drafted for forced labour. In August 1942, the concentration camp Sidi Azaz interned Jews from the Tripolitania region. In October 350 Jews were deported to the Tobruk area.
Libya was liberated from the Italians on January 23, 1943. The Muslims of Libya responded with a three-day pogrom (Nov 5–7, 1945) against the Jews. More than 140 Jews were murdered, hundreds more were wounded. This series of pogroms beginning in November 1945 lasted for almost three years, drastically reducing Libya's Jewish population.[105] In 1948, about 38,000 Jews remained in the country. Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated. (See History of the Jews in Libya.)

Culture

The Libyan flag decorates a street in the Tripoli Medina; September 1, (Revolution Day) sees an increase in Libyan flags and ceremonial lights to celebrate the national holiday
Coastline of Benghazi, Libya's second largest city. With the longest Mediterranean coastline among African nations, Libya's mostly unspoilt beaches are a social gathering place.
Libya is culturally similar to its neighboring Maghrebian states. Libyans consider themselves very much a part of a wider Arab community. The Libyan state tends to strengthen this feeling by considering Arabic as the only official language, and forbidding the teaching and even the use of the Berber language. Libyan Arabs have a heritage in the traditions of the nomadic Bedouin and associate themselves with a particular Bedouin tribe.
As with some other countries in the Arab world, Libya boasts few theatres or art galleries.[106][107] For many years there have been no public theatres, and only a few cinemas showing foreign films. The tradition of folk culture is still alive and well, with troupes performing music and dance at frequent festivals, both in Libya and abroad.
The main output of Libyan television is devoted to showing various styles of traditional Libyan music. Tuareg music and dance are popular in Ghadames and the south. Libyan television programmes are mostly in Arabic with a 30-minute news broadcast each evening in English and French. The government maintains strict control over all media outlets. A new analysis by the Committee to Protect Journalists has found Libya’s media the most tightly controlled in the Arab world.[24] To combat this, the government plans to introduce private media, an initiative intended to bring the country's media in from the cold.[108]
Many Libyans frequent the country's beaches. They also visit Libya's beautifully preserved archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna, which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world.[109]
The nation's capital, Tripoli, boasts many good museums and archives; these include the Government Library, the Ethnographic Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the National Archives, the Epigraphy Museum and the Islamic Museum. The Jamahiriya Museum, built in consultation with UNESCO, may be the country's most famous. It houses one of the finest collections of classical art in the Mediterranean.[110]

Contemporary travel

The most common form of public transport between cities is the bus, but many people do travel by automobile.[111] There are no railway services in Libya.[111]

Libyan cuisine

Libyan cuisine is generally simple, and is very similar to Sahara cuisine.[112] In many undeveloped areas and small towns, restaurants may be nonexistent, and food stores may be the only source to obtain food products.[112] Some common Libyan foods include couscous, bazeen, which is a type of unsweetened cake, and shurba, which is soup.[112] Libyan restaurants may serve international cuisine, or may serve simpler fare such as lamb, chicken, vegetable stew, potatoes and macaroni.[112] Alcohol consumption is illegal in the entire country, and this law is enforced in Libya.[113]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [2] Global Peace Index[114] 46 out of 144
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal 2009 Index of Economic Freedom 171 out of 179
The Economist Quality-of-Life Index 70 out of 111
Energy Information Administration Greatest Oil Reserves by Country, 2006 9 out of 20
Reporters Without Borders 2009 Press Freedom Index 156 out of 175
Transparency International 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index 126 out of 180
United Nations Development Programme 2007 Human Development Index 55 out of 182

See also

References

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  60. ^ Nyrop, Richard F. (1973) "Table 10: Governorates and Districts of Libya 1972" "Area Handbook for Libya" (2nd ed.) United States Department of the Army, Washington, DC, p. 159 OCLC 713653
  61. ^ a b Zeidan, Shawky S. (1988) "Chapter 4 - Government and Politics: Internal Politics: Subnational Government and Administration: The Cultural Revolution and People's Committees" A Country Study: Libya from Federal Research Division, Library of Congress
  62. ^ See map of 25 baladiyat in Districts of Libya
  63. ^ 1993 CIA Political Map of Libya from Perry-Castañeda Library, University of Texas at Austin, accessed 14 February 2009
  64. ^ Lahmeyer, Jan, (November 26, 2004), "Historical demographical data of the administrative division", University Library, Universiteit Utrecht, from WebArchive, dated 27 June 2003
  65. ^ "Municipalities of Libya"
  66. ^ Jamahiriya News Agency, (July 19, 2004), "Masses of the Basic People's Congresses select their Secretariats and People's Committees" Mathaba News, accessed July 19, 2006
  67. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, (1987), "Climate & Hydrology of Libya", U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed July 15, 2006
  68. ^ (2005), "Demographics of Libya", Education Libya, Accessed June 29, 2006
  69. ^ (July 20, 2006), "Field Listings - Coastlines", CIA World Factbook, Accessed July 23, 2006
  70. ^ a b c Zboray, András, "Flora and Fauna of the Libyan Desert", Fliegel Jezerniczky Expeditions, Accessed July 14, 2006
  71. ^ Hottest Place, "El Azizia Libya, 'How Hot is Hot?'", Extreme Science, Accessed July 14, 2006
  72. ^ ""Fossil Water" in Libya", NASA, Accessed March 24, 2007
  73. ^ World Bank, Upper Middle Income Economies, World Bank, Accessed November 25, 2009
  74. ^ Philips' Modern School Atlas, 1987, 1983 GNP per capita figures are quoted in a list.
  75. ^ United Nations Economic & Social Council, (February 16, 1996), "Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Report", Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Accessed July 14, 2006.
  76. ^ (March 2, 2009), Libya's Jobless Rate at 20.7 Percent, Reuters Africa. Accessed March 2, 2009.
  77. ^ a b The World Factbook, (2006), "Economy - Libya", CIA World Factbook. Accessed July 14, 2006.
  78. ^ W.M.D., (2003), "Libya Special Weapons News", Global Security Report. Accessed July 14, 2006.
  79. ^ Reuters, (July 28, 2004), "Libya to start WTO membership talks", Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa, Accessed July 16, 2006
  80. ^ (July 24, 2009) Libya expects nearly $2 bln in new FDI Reuters Africa, Accessed July 27, 2009
  81. ^ (2001), "Safe Drinking Water", WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Accessed October 8, 2006.
  82. ^ Volume: 23, No. 27, (2006), "Shell returns to Libya with gas exploration pact", Oil & Gas Worldwide News. Accessed July 14, 2006.
  83. ^ Jawad, Rana, (May 31, 2006), "Libyan aviation ready for take-off", BBC News. Accessed July 22, 2006.
  84. ^ Bangs, Richard; Ammar Mabrouk Eltaye. "Libya sees thriving tourism industry ahead". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5210117. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  85. ^ A Green Resort Is Planned to Preserve Ruins and Coastal Waters, The New York Times.
  86. ^ African immigrants flee Libya. AllBusiness.com. November 1, 2000.
  87. ^ Marching orders for migrants in Libya?. BBC News. January 23, 2008.
  88. ^ Libya – Italian colonization. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  89. ^ Anderson, Lisa, (2006), "'Libya', III. People, B. Religion & Language", MSN Encarta, Accessed July 17, 2006. Archived 2009-10-31.
  90. ^ Al-Hawaat, Dr. Ali, (1994), "The Family and the work of women, A study in the Libyan Society" National Center for Research and Scientific Studies of Libya, Accessed July 19, 2006
  91. ^ a b "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 2008-06-19. http://www.refugees.org/survey. 
  92. ^ a b c Clark, Nick, (July 2004), "Education in Libya", World Education News and Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 4, Accessed July 22, 2006
  93. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, (1987), "Education of Libya", U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed July 22, 2006
  94. ^ "About Libya". Office of the Middle East Partnership Initiative. United States Department of State. 2003. http://www.medregion.mepi.state.gov/libya.html. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  95. ^ a b El-Hawat, Ali, (2000), "Country Higher Education Profiles - Libya", International Network for Higher Education in Africa", Accessed July 22, 2006
  96. ^ CIA The World Fact Book
  97. ^ Religious adherents by location, "'42,000 religious geography and religion statistics', Libya" Adherents.com, Accessed July 15, 2006
  98. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, (1989), "The Sanusis", U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed July 22, 2006
  99. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, (1989), "The Sanusis", U.S. Library of Congress, Accessed July 22, 2006
  100. ^ Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, (1989), "Islam in Revolutionary Libya", US Library of Congress, Accessed July 19, 2006
  101. ^ Libya - Religion, (July 8, 2006), "Sufi Movement to be involved in Libya" Arabic News, Accessed July 19, 2006
  102. ^ Looklex Encyclopedia: 1% of Libya's population (6.1 million) adhere to the Coptic Orthodox faith
  103. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report: Libya" Jewish Virtual Library, Accessed July 19, 2006
  104. ^ The World Jewish Congress, "History of the Jewish Community in Libya", University of California at Berkeley, Accessed July 16, 2006
  105. ^ Harris, David A. (2001), "In the Trenches: Selected Speeches and Writings of an American Jewish Activist", 1979–1999, pp. 149–150
  106. ^ News and Trends: Africa, (September 17, 1999), "Libya looking at economic diversification" Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections, Accessed July 19, 2006.
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  108. ^ (January 30, 2006), "Libya to allow independent media", Middle East Times, Accessed July 21, 2006
  109. ^ Donkin, Mike, (July 23, 2005), "Libya's tourist treasures", BBC News, Accessed July 19, 2006
  110. ^ Bouchenaki, Mounir, (1989), "The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Museum: a first in the Arab world", UNESCO, Museum Architecture: beyond the <<temple>> and ... beyond, Accessed July 19, 2006
  111. ^ a b Looklex.com. Libya - Getting there. Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
  112. ^ a b c d Looklex.com. "Libya - Eat and Sleep" Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
  113. ^ Looklex.com. "Libya Facts" Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
  114. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  • Libya, Anthony Ham, Lonely Planet Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-86442-699-2
  • Libya Handbook, Jamez Azema, Footprint Handbooks, 2001, ISBN 1-900949-77-6
  • Harris, David A. (2001). In the Trenches: Selected Speeches and Writings of an American Jewish Activist, 1979–1999. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 0-88125-693-5
  • Wright, Muhannad B. Nations of the Modern World: Libya, Ernest Benn Ltd, 1969
 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ly-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Tripoli
Government Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, a military dictatorship in practice
Currency Libyan dinar (LYD)
Area 1,759,540 km2
Population 5,900,754, incl. 166,510 non-nationals (July 2006 est.)
Language Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Religion Sunni Muslim 97%, Christian and other 3%
Electricity 127V/50Hz or 230V/50Hz
Calling Code +218
Internet TLD .ly
Time Zone UTC +2
.Libya [1] is a country in North Africa.^ The landmass of 679,500 square miles (1,760,000 square kilometers) makes Libya the fourth largest country in Africa.
  • Culture of Libya - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, tribe, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She works primarily on security issues in North Africa with a particular focus on Libya.
  • freedomhouse.org: Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The oil industry brought large Libya numbers of European and North American workers to the country.
  • Culture of Libya - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, tribe, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the north it has a Mediterranean Sea coast, with Egypt to the east and Tunisia to the west.^ Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smaller towns, some similar in commerce, trade, and political aspiration to Tripoli, occupied the shores of the Mediterranean to the west and east.
  • Culture of Libya - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, tribe, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geography Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also has land borders with Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Sudan.^ Land border crossings from Niger are prohibited.
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ It began with five African capital cities: Khartoum, Sudan; N'djamena, Chad; Niamey, Niger; Bamako, Mali; and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Geography Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert.^ Al Qatrun, little more than a desert village with one filling station and a Niger consulate is your last stop on your way to Niger or to Chad.
  • Libya Travel, Travel to Libya, Travel in Libya, Travel Agents Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.mvmtravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Seeing any water at all in this desert—let alone a large lake and a verdant spread of grasses—is more than I could have asked for.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's the only country on the continent with more cell phones than people, and one of the few places on Earth not significantly affected by the global financial crisis.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Get in

.Passports and visas are required for entry into Libya for all nationalities except nationals of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey.^ Parts or all of today’s Libya were conquered by Phoenicia, Carthage, Ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire before Arabs moved into the region in the seventh century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ As of March 25, 2009, the Consular Section processes all non-immigrant U.S. visa applications for residents of Libya.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason: an abrupt decree in early 2007 that all non-Arab visitors must now have their passports translated into Arabic in order to obtain a Libyan visa.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.Those who have passports indicating travel to Israel will not be allowed to enter.^ ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS It is the sole prerogative of each country or region to determine who is allowed to enter .
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.It is now legal for Americans to travel to Libya; however, it is difficult for US citizens to obtain visas.^ It is extremely difficult for a Canadian woman, even if she is a Muslim, to obtain custody of her children through a court decision, unless she decides to stay in Libya.
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Libya visa for citizens of United States is required for more information please contact the nearest Libya embassy .
  • Libya Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Libyan Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC libya.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourist visa required Business visa required Libya tourist visa is required for citizens of United States.
  • Libya Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Libyan Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC libya.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Libyan Embassy in Washington DC now accepts visa applications, but you will need a letter of invitation from a Libyan sponsor who applies for you in Libya.^ As of March 25, 2009, the Consular Section processes all non-immigrant U.S. visa applications for residents of Libya.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Libya needs to be a bit more transparent when it comes to the issuance of visas.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ In May 1981, the U.S. Government closed the Libyan "people's bureau" (embassy) in Washington, DC, and expelled the Libyan staff in response to a general pattern of conduct by the people's bureau contrary to internationally accepted standards of diplomatic behavior.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tourist visas are often rejected at all embassies without being a part of a tour or applied for on behalf of a Libyan tour operator.^ Tourist visas are not usually available to individual Canadians unless they are part of an organized tour group travelling under the auspices of an accredited travel agent in Libya .
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Tourist Visa: Required Business Visa: Required Student Visa: Required Visitor visas are issued at any Libyan Embassy, except in New York .
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ All other five-star properties in the capital is the near-impossibility of obtaining tourist visas to the as well as in Benghazi are government-owned and North African country.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Check with the Libyan Embassy in DC for more info you are American http://www.libyanbureaudc.org/
Libyan immigration requirements frequently change without warning. .According to the U.S. State Department, a requirement of a certified Arabic translation of the biological data page of your passport is mandatory for obtaining a visa and entering the country.^ The Libyan authorities require an Arabic translation of the ID page (diplomatic passports are exempt) .
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ An Arabic stamp has to be obtained from Passport Canada prior to the translation.
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The reason: an abrupt decree in early 2007 that all non-Arab visitors must now have their passports translated into Arabic in order to obtain a Libyan visa.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.Canadians are currently unable to obtain visas for entry into Libya.^ It is extremely difficult for a Canadian woman, even if she is a Muslim, to obtain custody of her children through a court decision, unless she decides to stay in Libya.
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Tourist visas are not usually available to individual Canadians unless they are part of an organized tour group travelling under the auspices of an accredited travel agent in Libya .
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Canadians have had difficulties obtaining a visa without a six-month validity period remaining in their passports.
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

According to the Libyan Embassy in DC, a traveler will need $400US (as bare minimum) in a convertible currency, with the following exceptions:
  1. Tourists arriving as a group, as part of a package organized by travel and tourist bureaus, agencies or companies, which cover their living expenses during their stay.
  2. Those in possession of entry visas on official missions
  3. Those in possession of student entry visas with expenses paid by the Libyan Government.
  4. Those wishing to join a resident of Libya on condition that such a resident provides a grantee to cover the expenses of the guest stay and medical treatment and other requirement
Map of Libya
Map of Libya
.Tripoli is served by most major European and Arab airlines [2] and of course by Libyan Airlines [3] which uses the airport as its main hub.^ So is Libya's other major airline, Libyan Airlines.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Airlines Continued from Page 15 To that end, the Libyan government will spend one billion euro ($1.4 billion) on a new airport for Tripoli that would be able to welcome 20 million passengers a year -- up from the current 3 million.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ The Libyan airline is holding 2 Airbus A320 aircraft in Tripoli, each worth around $30-40m, while Egyptair holds an A300, worth $20m.
  • Libya: News and Views 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.libyanet.com [Source type: News]

Essentially one may expect daily flights to/from most major European international airports such as Heathrow, Paris CDG, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Rome and multiple weekly flights to/from Milan, Manchester, Vienna, Alexandria, etc.
.A new private Libyan airline, Afriqiyah [4], provides daily services to many European (mainly Brussels, Paris CDG, Amsterdam Schipol and London Heathrow, according to their website) and African cities with Tripoli as a hub.^ Airlines Continued from Page 15 To that end, the Libyan government will spend one billion euro ($1.4 billion) on a new airport for Tripoli that would be able to welcome 20 million passengers a year -- up from the current 3 million.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ U.S.-LIBYAN RELATIONS The United States supported the UN resolution providing for Libyan independence in 1951 and raised the status of its office at Tripoli from a consulate general to a legation.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ettir declined to comment on persistent rumors that Afriqiyah and Libyan Airlines may be merged.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.It uses new Airbus 320 aircraft and seems to be expanding its 2007 route map rapidly.^ Also, we are now using our own aircraft, which were delivered in 2007 and 2008.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.Another new private Libyan airline, Buraq Air, provides domestic services as well as some flights to several international destinations including Istanbul, Ribat and Aleppo.^ Women and girls suspected of violating moral codes reportedly were detained indefinitely in "social rehabilitation" homes, which provided social services, including education and healthcare.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Credit cards can be used to purchase an airline ticket as well as in some large hotels (check before you leave).
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ STAT-USA/Internet , a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, provides authoritative economic, business, and international trade information from the Federal government.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buraq Air has been cited several times as a great success story in Libya's effort to privatize its economy and break away from state-driven economic policies.^ Subsequently, the United States maintained its trade and travel embargoes and brought diplomatic and economic pressure to bear against Libya.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite efforts to diversify the economy and encourage private sector participation, extensive controls of prices, credit, trade, and foreign exchange constrain growth.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These measures were adopted at a time when the world price for oil dropped severely, thus ushering in a decade of austerity in Libya.
  • Culture of Libya - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, tribe, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also some international routes between Libya's second city Benghazi to destinations such as Alexandria and Cairo (according to the LAA website London and Casablanca are planned from Benghazi).^ The law does not specifically prohibit trafficking in persons; however, there were reports that persons were trafficked to the country, some en route to final destinations in Europe.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In retaliation Reagan bombed Libya’s two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi, which only upped the animosity between the two countries.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Energy City Libya is a joint venture between one of ESDF's subsidiaries and Gulf Finance House, an investment house headquartered in Bahrain.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.These tend to be more seasonal and one should check schedules ahead of time.^ Failure of the rains in one territory may lead to an invitation by more fortunate kin to visit and graze and water one's animals on their territory for the season.
  • Culture of Libya - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, tribe, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of course there are many direct flights from places such as Amsterdam to small oasis towns in the middle of the Sahara but these are operated by the oil companies for private purposes (i.e. to ferry the foreign oil workers directly to the oil fields).

By train

.Libya has no international train connections and no significant domestic train infrastructure.^ Terrorism Libya has taken significant steps to mend its international image and formally renounced terrorism in a letter to the UN Security Council in August 2003.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By car

.One may travel to Libya overland.^ Overland travellers may face long delays at the border with Tunisia due to heavy traffic at Ras Djedir.
  • Libya Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.There are bus and "shared taxi" (accommodating 6 people in a station wagon) services from such places as Tunis, Alexandria, Cairo, Djerba, etc.^ There were no official places of worship for some minority religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and the Baha'i Faith.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Downstream, there is great interest in petrochemicals, refineries and service stations.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

There are many online blogs showing people having done the trip in their own 4x4s or using their own dirt bikes, campervans, etc. .There are very few borderposts open to travel into the country with a foreign car: Ras Jdayr (from Tunesia) and Bay of As Sallum (from Egypt).^ Authorities routinely held the passports of foreigners married to citizens upon their entry into the country.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourism Infrastructure Telecommunications Page 10 Page 12 Page 14 The Libyan government is opening its doors to give foreigners a taste of the country's treasures.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

At the border, one has to buy a temporary licence including a number plate for Euro 300 (March 2008).

By bus

There are bus services to Tunisia and Egypt .

Get around

By plane

.Libyan Airlines [5] has many domestic air routes and they are relatively inexpensive.^ The U.S. since has freed Libyan assets that had been frozen, renewed airline connections and revoked many sanctions.

The same goes for the new private Buraq airlines (see "Get in").

By train

.Libya has had no train system since 1965. There are various plans to rebuild some lines.^ Even so, there's no question Libya is on the verge of a telecom explosion.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ The paper quoted some of the returnees as saying that they spent two weeks in various detention centres in Libya before they were flown home.
  • Libya: News and Views 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.libyanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Sunday, 18 September, 2005: "There are no more Jews in Libya today, not even one.

By road

There are many weblogs showing people having done the trip in their own 4x4s or using their own dirt bikes, campervans, etc. It would seem that they encounter considerable hospitality once in the country. .In fact it is not uncommon to see SUVs with Texas plates on them in Tripoli (most likely US oil workers of which approx 5-10,000 live in Libya).^ Tuesday, 10 October, 2000: Hundreds more black African migrant workers have fled Libya following weeks of violent attacks.
  • Libya: News and Views 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.libyanet.com [Source type: News]

^ The capital of Libya, Tripoli, is an oasis on the Tripolitanian coast and its inhabitants rely on aquifers to meet most of their water requirements.
  • Culture of Libya - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, tribe, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Swearing at him and calling him racist names, they told him they did not like black Africans living in Libya, he told AFP in an interview.
  • Libya: News and Views 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.libyanet.com [Source type: News]

It is also not uncommon to see convoys of European campervans on Libya's highways. .One German citizen recently back from a dirt bike tour of the desert explained how it was nearly impossible to get gas station attendants to accept payment for gas fill-ups since he was quite the novelty.^ The ultimate desert machines, camels can drink nearly 25 gallons at one fill—more than twice what it takes to top off the tank of my Toyota back home—lasting them, in the cooler winter season, several weeks without a refill.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

.In fact gasoline in Libya is typically cheaper than bottled water, currently 150 dirham, or about 10 cents, a liter.^ Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in the Tommo region of Niger in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So in fact, the cost of our tap water today is 28 cents per cubic meter, while desalinated water wouldn't cost less than 85 cents.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Some self-drive car rental services are available in the large cities but the rates are typically high and the cars unreliable. This does appear to be changing as Avis and Europcar offer new cars now in their fleets. Around the major cities, driving can be an "education".
The recommended route of transport for tourists around major towns is taxis. .There are also many shared taxis and buses (but they are amongst the worst drivers on the road, although I concede in two years of driving around Tripoli I have never seen a serious crash involving one of them!^ Links between UWE and Libya began around eight years ago, and since then two MSc graduates from Al-Fateh University in Tripoli came to UWE to do their PhDs.

^ I’ve never seen them.” There is honesty in his voice.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some human rights organizations estimated there were approximately 2,000 political detainees, many held for years without trial.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

). .The small black and white taxis (or death pandas) tend to be safer (more cautious drivers) but learn the term "Shweyah-Shweyah", Libyan for slow-down, and ask them to keep off Al-Sareyah (the motorway from Souq-Al-Thataltha to Janzour)!^ "We tend to attract companies which have made a substantial and long-term commitment to the Libyan market."
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ The only one of our five male camels that was allowed to keep his testicles, he walks with a slow, proud strut as we head off into the desert.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As I go off to take a swim in Umm al-Maa, I’m beginning to fear what I’ve asked for.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

A taxi driver will routinely try it on with tourists. Will always try to charge 10 dinars (about $7) for a fare around town. .Negotiate the price first: Around most of inner Tripoli, you should not pay more than 5 dinars (bonus points if you can get them down to the local fare of 3 dinars!^ A local airline, Afriqiyah Airways, now offers the Corinthia's guests are on expense direct flights between Tripoli and more than a dozen accounts.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ And just one dinar (85 cents) more can buy you an ice-cold frothy glass of Tripoli Sunrise (orange juice, fresh carrots and grenadine syrup).
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ More than half the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .If you find a good taxi driver with a good car, it doesn't hurt to build up a relationship and get his mobile number.^ It doesn’t help trying to explain to him that only the Brits could have come up with something as good as a “Holidays in the Axis of Evil” TV show.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

Taxis from the airport can be more expensive as the airport is a long way from town. Note that the Corinthia Hotel also runs a shuttle from the airport to the hotel.
.There are many bus services between the major cities and it is certainly a cheap way to travel.^ While independent travel is certainly possible in Libya, the lack of public transportation to many of the country’s popular sites (many of which can only be reached with off-road vehicles) all but precludes this option for travelers-on-the-cheap.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

The larger bus companies use modern air conditioned touring buses which are relatively comfortable. This is important on the longer journeys (such as Tripoli to Benghazi which takes about 14hours by bus). The buses make stops for meals and the very important tea (shahee) breaks along the way. A faster method is to take the "shared taxis" but some of the drivers tend to be more reckless in order to cut the travel time.

Talk

.Arabic is the main language, though local languages, such as Berber and Touareg, are used in many small urban settings.^ The literacy rate is 85 percent and rising, though few Continued from Page 3 Libyans speak any language other than Arabic.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.English is somewhat widely understood in the major cities.^ Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities .
  • Libya Country Code 218 Country Code LY 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC countrycode.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English, French, and Italian are understood in major cities.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Libya's Italian colonial past and, as of 1980s, access to Italian television, make that language relatively well understood.^ From a tourism point of view, Libya is unique because of its relative isolation for the past three decades.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.However, the use of Italian is nowhere near the use level of, for example, French, in Tunisia or Morocco.^ We're back as owner, in an oversight role, but we're nowhere near as embedded in the operation as we used to be."
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Many Italian terms name modern conveniences, such as "semaforo" (traffic light) and "benzina" (gasoline).

Buy

Economy

.The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages.^ The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That, of course, is a consequence of Libya's oil and gas-driven economy, which produces 60 percent of Libya's public-sector wages and 98.7 percent of its export earnings.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Substantial revenues from the energy sector, coupled with a small population, give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society.^ Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, the government's mismanagement of the economy has led to high inflation and increased import prices.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flush with oil export revenue, Libya now boasts an annual per-capita GDP of $14,400, the highest in Africa.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.Libyan officials in the past four years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold.^ Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1977 the country’s official name changed to Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (state of the masses).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Libya : Libya Overview 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Libya remained part of their empire--although at times virtually autonomous--until Italy invaded in 1911 and, in the face of years of resistance, made Libya a colony.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction in December 2003. Almost all US unilateral sanctions against Libya were lifted in April 2004, helping Libya attract more foreign direct investment, mostly in the energy sector.^ This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN Sanctions against Libya were lifted in September 2003.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of lifting US unilateral sanctions began in the spring of 2004; all sanctions were removed by June 2006, helping Libya attract greater foreign direct investment, especially in the energy sector.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy.^ Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECONOMY The government dominates Libya's socialist-oriented economy through complete control of the country's oil resources, which account for approximately 97% of export earnings, 75% of government receipts, and 54% of the gross domestic product.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Libya shifts from a centralized, socialist economy to one increasingly driven by market forces, El-Houderi said investment opportunities will continue to multiply, for the benefit of all the country's citizens.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.The exchange rate in 2005 was about 1.30 Libyan dinars per US dollar.^ The Economic and Social Development Fund (ESDF) was created by the Libyan Leader in 2006 and manages 14 billion Libyan dinars (about $11.3 billion) in assets.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Libyan dinars per US dollar - 1.325 (2004), 1.2929 (2003), 1.2707 (2002), 0.6051 (2001), 0.4994 (2000) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eat

In Tripoli, it is surprisingly hard to find a traditional Libyan restaurant. Most serve western-style cuisine, with a few Moroccan and Lebanese restaurants thrown in. This is a shame, because there are some wonderful Libyan dishes you should taste in case you are fortunate enough to be invited to a Libyan dinner party or wedding (be prepared to be overfed!). A favorite cafe for the local expatriate community is the fish restaurant in the suuq (market). For a few dollars, you can enjoy a great seafood couscous. A local specialty is the stuffed calamari. Another good seafood place is the Hofra Market. On the beach road to Mateiga Airport, only about five kilometers along the beach from Green Square, this fish market is grimy looking but don't be fooled: The fish are fresh, and there is a huge variety of it. You can buy your fish (or seafood) and take it to the adjacent café, where it will be cooked to your order and served with huge amounts of bread and salad. .The tourist will pay more here than the locals (unless you are an experienced haggler!^ This region, known for its mountains, the Jibal Akakus, attracts more tourists than any other area in Libya.
  • Kira Salak: Rediscovering Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.kirasalak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A local airline, Afriqiyah Airways, now offers the Corinthia's guests are on expense direct flights between Tripoli and more than a dozen accounts.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

), but it is worth the $15 spent. Also recommend Al-Saraya: Food OK, but its attraction is its position, right in Green Square. Another good seafood restaurant is Al-Morgan, next to the Algiers Mosque, near 1st of September Street. .Don't miss Al-Sakhra restaurant, located on Gargaresh Road; excellent food, live entertainment, and a rustic atmosphere.^ The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy is located on the connection road between Al Serraj and Al Krimia in Al Serraj neighborhood (office tel.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The flashy looking big fast-food outlets are a relatively recent arrival in Tripoli. These are not quite the multinationals but a close copy of them! They are springing up in the Gargaresh Road area -- a big shopping strip in the western suburbs of Tripoli.

Drink

Tea is the most common drink in Libya. Green tea and "red" tea are served almost everywhere from small cups, usually sweetened. Mint is sometimes mixed in with the tea, especially after meals.
Coffee is traditionally served Turkish style: strong, from small cups, no cream. Most coffee shops in the larger cities have espresso machines that will make espresso, cappuccino, and such. Quality varies, so ask locals for the best one around.
.Alcohol is officially banned in Libya, though, according to some rumors, the government plans to introduce alcohol sales in some resorts reserved for mass western tourism.^ Libya is widely regarded as unexplored, though the Murzuq Basin alone is estimated to hold 10 billion barrels of undiscovered recoverable reserves.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ According to government figures, officials repatriated approximately 145,000 foreigners between 2003 and 2005.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ According to testimony by government officials before the UN, spousal rape occurred and was resolved by "social solutions."
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

because. In reality, alcohol is readily available through a local black market (anything from whiskey to beer to wine). It should be noted that penalties for unlawful purchase can be quite stiff. Travelers should always exercise appropriate common sense with respect to local laws and, more importantly, local sensitivities and traditions.

Sleep

Major cities have a range of accommodations available, from shabby hotels to four-star establishments. Prices vary accordingly.
.In Tripoli, the largest (and only international) hotel is Corinthia Hotel, next to the old city (The Medina or "Al Souq Al Qadeem").^ "Libya has a longstanding, robust infrastructure to get oil out of the ground and move it to market," Guidry said from his office at Tripoli's Corinthia Bab Africa Hotel.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ The largest of these is Energy City Libya, a groundbreaking $2 billion project located west of Tripoli, on the Mediterranean coast near the ancient Roman ruins of Sabratha.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ More than half the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other hotels are Bab-Al-Bahr, Al-Kabir, and El-Mahari. Several smaller hotels have opened around town, such as Zumit Hotel -- an old, beautifully-renovated hotel, next to the Old Roman Arch in Bab-Al-Bahr.
.Manara Hotel, a tidy 4-star hotel in Jabal Akhdir, east of Benghazi, is next to the ancient Greek ruins of Appolonia Port.^ Although the Greeks and Romans left impressive ruins at Cyrene, Leptis Magna, and Sabratha, little else remains today to testify to the presence of these ancient cultures.
  • Libya (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While it seems to be diminishing with the arrival of more tourists every year, Libyans have a strong tradition of taking travelers into their own homes and lavishing hospitality on them.^ Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya 25 September 2009 5:37 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If successful, the venture could mean billions more for the British company whose assets were nationalized 33 years earlier by the Libyan government.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

This is certainly true in smaller towns and villages. There are several good hotels in Tripoli (Dhahra area) near the church like Marhaba hotel.
Youth Hostels, associated with the IYH Federation (HI), are available. Please contact the Libyan Youth Hostel Association T.+218 21 4445171.

Learn

.Learn more about Libya's UNESCO World Heritage Sites[6].^ On a recent visit to Libya, it was not hard to find evidence of Libya's isolation from the outside world for more than two decades.
  • Libya Travel, Travel to Libya, Travel in Libya, Travel Agents Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.mvmtravel.com [Source type: News]

^ But it also boasts five UNESCO World Heritage Sites, spectacular desert landscapes, enchanting souqs (traditional Arab markets), and genuinely warm and hospitable people.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Stay safe

Night driving in rural areas is not at all recommended, due to the high risk of accidents on and off road. Rural roads are usually not marked at all, which makes it hard to stay in lane.
.In addition, many cars have non-standard headlights, making it very hard to see the road and oncoming traffic at the same time.^ What makes it easy to operate globally are common rules, and countries that are most integrated into the global economy operate by the same standards," Dittrich said.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Speeding is common (and the primary cause of death in Libya).
Camels cross at night on rural roads. Because of its height and mass, this animal can be very dangerous to passenger vehicles.
For an extra charge, some cars can now be rented or purchased with a "camel sensing" device. While not foolproof, this "camel radar" provides the warning that can make the difference.
It is difficult to navigate safely off road (especially in the dunes areas), due to the high horizon. The average speed for distances longer than 10 km is less than 15 km/h.

Stay healthy

.Not all bottled water is safe in Libya.^ All pipes used in the project are manufactured in Libya in accordance with American Water Works Association standards.
  • Libya Supplement 2009 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Do inquire about the safest brands available. You can purchase foreign brands when necessary.

Religion

97% of the population is Sunni Muslim.

Contact

.The United States reopened an embassy in Tripoli on May 31, 2006, and appointed a charge d'affaires, pending the appointment of an ambassador.^ On May 15, 2006 the United States State Department announced it would fully restore diplomatic relations with Libya if it dismantled its weapons programmes.
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to HRW, as of May 2006, the government had not brought formal charges against al-Jahmi and claimed the case was still under investigation.
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Allegedly, Gaddafi had secretly ordered the burning down of the US embassy in Tripoli as his fight against the United States.
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Go to [7] for contact information.
.Libya's Bureau (embassy) in Washington, DC, can be contacted online, but as with most official things in Libya this is somewhat confusing.^ Libya then opened a Liaison office in Washington, DC and the United States opened an office in Tripoli.
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • As of Feb2009 This website is correct, active and updated; [8].
  • Whereas this website is an old official one, no longer being maintained but never removed; [9].
The hyphen makes all the difference.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.LIBYA, the Greek name for the northern part of Africa, with which alone Greek and Roman history are concerned.^ The Great Man-Made River project An ambitious scheme to bring water from the southern part of Libya to irrigate northern agricultural areas .
  • Country briefing: Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: News]

^ On its part, by doing so, HP, will increase its footprint across Africa to nine subsidiaries, that is, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tunisia.
  • TechnoLibya - Libya Technology News Community 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.technolibya.com [Source type: General]

^ The area known in modern times as Libya was later occupied by a series of peoples, with the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans , Vandals and Byzantines ruling all or part of the area.

It is mentioned as a land of great fertility in Homer (Odyssey, iv. 85), but no indication of its extent is given. .It did not originally include Egypt, which was considered part of Asia, and first assigned to Africa by Ptolemy, who made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between the two continents.^ Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia .
  • Libya - General Information 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.mesteel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.hausabah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Map of Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.maps4free.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On its part, by doing so, HP, will increase its footprint across Africa to nine subsidiaries, that is, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tunisia.
  • TechnoLibya - Libya Technology News Community 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.technolibya.com [Source type: General]

^ Geography: Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia.
  • Libya - Country Profile 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name Africa came into general use through the Romans.^ Ironically, reunification came about through the unlikely route of an invasion and occupation starting from 1911 when Italy simultaneously turned the three regions into colonies.9 .

^ Women do have the right to own and use housing, but the tradition dictates that a woman's home is generally in the husband's name if she is married.
  • freedomhouse.org: Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the early empire, North Africa (excluding Egypt) was divided into Mauretania, Numidia, Africa Propria and Cyrenaica.^ In 1934, Italy adopted the name "Libya" (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the official name of the colony (made up of the three Provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan).

^ With Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco having already been popular tourist destinations for long, Libya is the latest find in North Africa.

^ Merchants and artisans from many parts of the Roman world established themselves in North Africa, but the character of the cities of Tripolitania remained decidedly Punic and, in Cyrenaica, Greek.

.The old name was reintroduced by Diocletian, by whom Cyrenaica (detached from Crete) was divided into Marmarica (Libya inferior) in the east, and Cyrenaica (Libya superior) in the west.^ Libya was divided into several governorates ( muhafazat ) before being split into 25 municipalities ( baladiyat ).

^ A Local Government Libya, previously divided into governorates, was reorganized in 1977 into 46 municipal and 186 basic people's congress administrative units.
  • Profile - Libya 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.inadev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ottomans gained control of most of N Africa in the 16th cent., dividing it into three regencies—Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripoli (which also included Cyrenaica).
  • Libya – FREE Libya information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Libya research 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A further distinction into Libya interior and exterior is also known. The former (n Evros) included the interior (known and unknown) of the continent, as contrasted with the N. and N.E. portion; the latter (17 g Ecw, called also simply Libya, or Libyae nomos), between Egypt and Marmarica, was so called as having once formed an Egyptian "nome." See Roman Africa.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Ancient Greek Λιβύη (Libuē)

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Libya
Plural
-
Libya
  1. A country in Northern Africa; Official name: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of abily
  • bialy

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Libya
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Libya
  1. Libya

Declension

Derived terms


Latin

Etymology

From Ancient Greek Λιβύη (Libyē)

Proper noun

Libya (genitive Libyae); f, first declension
  1. Libya
  2. (by extension) Africa

Inflection

nominative Libya
genitive Libyae
dative Libyae
accusative Libyam
ablative Libyā
vocative Libya
locative Libyae

Related terms

  • Libycus
  • Libys

Descendants


Norwegian

Proper noun

Libya
  1. Libya

Related terms


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

District in the north of Africa. .The name "Libya" was often used by the ancients, sometimes to designate the whole of northern Africa (with the exception of Egypt), sometimes to denote a single province west of Egypt.^ In 1934, Italy adopted the name "Libya" (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the official name of the colony (made up of the three provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan).
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to international phone calls to Libya , great prepaid AloArabs calling cards for calling within America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, can be found using AloArabs calling card select country above.
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The culture of northwestern Libya developed along with the political units just west of it, while development in the east was strongly influenced by neighboring Egypt.
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to Josephus ("Ant." i. 6, § 2), Libya was founded by Phut (comp. Gen 10:6), and the eponymous hero Libys was a son of Mesraios, i.e., of Egypt. Another old tradition says that Eofres (i.e., Epher; Gen. xxv. .4) conquered Libya and that the land was called "Africa" after him (Josephus, l.c. i.^ In addition to international phone calls to Libya , great prepaid AloArabs calling cards for calling within America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, can be found using AloArabs calling card select country above.
  • Libya calling cards and Libya International phone cards 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aloarabs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

15; comp. Eusebius, "Præparatio Evangelica," ix. 20, § 2; "Chronicon Paschale," i. 66; Suidas, s.v. Ἄφροι; "Yuḥasin," ed. London, p. 233).
The Biblical data are more historical. Shishak (Shoshank), whose name is claimed to be Libyan, had Libyans in his army (A. V. "Lubims," 2Chr 12:3); King Asa defeated a whole army of Cushites and Libyans (2Chr 16:8; comp. 2Chr 14:11); and the celebrated Egyptian Thebes also had Libyans in its pay (Nah 3:9). In all these passages the Septuagint has Λίβυες. In Dan 11:43, Egyptians, Libyans, and Cushites appear together.
In the Greco-Roman period Libya coincided approximately with Cyrene and the territory belonging to it. Jews lived there ("Ant." xvi. 6, § 1); and Augustus granted them certain privileges through Flavius, the governor of the province (ib. § 5). The Christian apostles also prepared themselves to extend their mission into Libya (Acts ii. 10). The great Jewish war of the year 70 had its aftermath in Libya; and the rebellious Jonathan was denounced to the governor of the Libyan Pentapolis (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 11, § 1). The Jews of Libya also took part in the rebellion under Trajan and Hadrian (see Cyrene).
Modern investigation is inclined to connect Lehabim (Gen 10:13; 1Chr 1:11) with the Libyans, as did the Jerusalem Targum in rendering it by the Greek Λιβυκοί. Many proselytes came from Libya (Yer. Shab. 7b; Yer. Kil. 31c); hence Judaism must have carried on its propaganda there. The Rabbis mention beans (Löw, "Aramäische Pflanzennamen," p. 234) and asses from Libya (Bek. 5b; Shab. 51b).
The once flourishing province corresponds to the present Barka, which, under Islamic dominion, has become a desert.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
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