Licentiate: Wikis

  
  

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Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a licence. The term may derive from the Latin licentia docendi, meaning permission to teach. The term may also derive from the Latin licentia ad practicandum, which signified someone who held a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title, but they may represent different educational levels. In some universities it's a degree between that of bachelor and master or doctor.[1]

Contents

Regional variations

Argentina

In Argentina, the Licentiate degree (Spanish: Licenciatura) is a four to five year degree.[2] This may become six years in some cases, under the accomplishment of the licentia doctorandi thesis dissertation, generally equivalent to an M.Sc. or M.A. in North American universities, or Master in any country of Europe given by the Bologna Process. Occasionally, the achievement of the Licentiate degree does not require the formal writing of a thesis, although almost always, some amount of research is required.

Australia

Currently the only institution in Australia to grant licentiates, apart from theological colleges, is the Australian Music Examinations Board, which confers licentiate diplomas, including the Licentiate in Music, Australia (LMusA).

Belgium

In Belgian universities, a person titled Licentiate (or Licentiaat in Dutch or Licencié in French) holds the equivalent education of a Master's degree. In the past, students received a license after 4 to five years of successful study. The first two years were known as kandidatuur (candidacy), meaning students were qualifying themselves for study at the licential level. This candidate-licentiate system is now being replaced by an American-style bachelor-master system. The Belgian licentiate was also equivalent to the doctorandus in the Netherlands.

Bolivia

In Bolivia, a Licenciatura is a professional degree distinct from the Anglo-Saxon Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor in Science, as it requires that the student take more credits for the completion of a professional curricula than those needed in the Anglo-Saxon system. The Licenciatura allows the holder to practice his or her profession in all of Bolivia, with the exception of those holding a Law degree. The durational requirements to obtain a Licenciatura vary depending on the profession studied, however, most universities require the completion of the curricula within five to six years. Aside from the durational requirements, Bolivian universities also require that all candidates, at the completion of the curricula, complement their studies by writing a thesis or by sitting for an oral examination in which State and University representatives take part by testing the student’s professional knowledge and skills.

Brazil

In Brazil, the licenciate is a degree between three and four years of study. The licenciate is different from a Bachelor's degree, in that the licenciate includes subjects related to education and therefore also qualifies the degree holder to teach in primary and secondary education. However, in most cases, the core of the courses are very similar, and the option for the Licentiateship or the Bachelor's Degree is made at the end of the course.

Canada

While the term licentiate is not generally used by Canadian academic institutions, a Licentiate in Laws (LL.L.) is offered by some Canadian universities for the completion of studies equivalent to a Bachelor of Civil Law.

Costa Rica

In Costa Rica, the title is awarded to students after four to five years of study (usually between two and four more semesters with courses after the completion of the bachelor's degree). Students are also required to write a thesis in some universities, attend a graduation seminar, or develop a project in order to graduate, while some degrees involve almost the same credits are a master's degree, the level of difficulty is not the same as graduate level work. The Consejo Nacional de Rectores (Council of Rectors) defines a licentiate as lower than a master's degree but in some instances slightly higher than a bachelor's degree.

Private universities require the same number credits as an American bachelor's to award a licentiate.

Further evidence of the difference between a master's degree and a licentiate is that the two major public universities, the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica and the Universidad de Costa Rica is facing out faculty members with licentiate in favor of those who hold graduate degrees. Thus, in summary, a Costa Rican licentiate is higher than the Costa Rican version of a bachelor's degree but equivalent to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's degree and thus it is lower than a master's degree.

A Licenciatura typically requires from four to six years of University courses, and has a typical credit workload of 300 to 400 credits. The Licenciatura academic degree is academically equivalent to the Ingeniero or Arquitecto degrees. A Licenciatura degree also provides direct access to professional practice or membership in professional associations such as Bar Associations for Lawyers (Colegio de Abogados), medicine (Colegio de Medicos), engineering (Colegio Federado de Ingenieros y Arquitectos), and other regulated professions.

Note, however, that the label "undergraduate" may be misleading to an anglo audience, since while a Spanish System Diplomatura may be likened to an American undergraduate Bachelor's degree, a Spanish System Licenciatura is comparable in scope to an American postgraduate Master's degree, as the anglophone distinction between "undergraduate" and "postgraduate" degrees does not properly apply to the traditional Spanish higher-education system. Many Spanish System licenciados, when translating their CVs into English, use the formula BA+MA (or BSc+MSc) to indicate that a Licenciatura is equivalent to a Master's degree. Depending on the degree and study plan, some Spanish universities require a small thesis or research project to be submitted in the last year before the student can finally claim his or her degree.

Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, a Licenciatura is awarded to students after four years of study. Students are required to write a thesis in order to graduate. The Licenciatura is one of the major University degree previous to doctoral studies.

France

In French universities, a licenciate (licencié(e)) is the holder of a licence, which is a three-year degree, roughly equivalent to a Bachelor's degree. There are two kinds of licence: general and professional.

Finland and Sweden

In Swedish and Finnish universities, a Licentiate's degree, recognised as a pre-doctoral degree, is equal to completion of the coursework required for a doctorate and a dissertation which is formally equivalent to half of a doctoral dissertation. In Finland, the extent of Licentiate Degree is 120 ECTS equivalent and it requires two to three years of full time research. Its prerequisite is a completed academic Master's degree. Licentiate degree holders are officially eligible for independent scientific research in Universities, and entitled to the the right to supervise Master's and Licentiate degree theses.

Until the early 1970s, the degree in Sweden was equivalent to the U.S. Ph.D. requiring four to seven years of study after the Bachelor´s (or Master´s) degree, and a publicly defended thesis. It was gradually substituted with the "Doctor's exam" in 1969 and was re-instituted as an intermediate level in research training in the 1980s, now requiring only two years of study. The licentiate is particularly popular with students already involved in the working life, for the reason that completing a full doctor's dissertation while working would be too difficult. The Licentiate's degree is called a filosofie licentiat in Swedish and filosofian lisensiaatti in Finnish (Licentiate of Philosophy), teologie licentiat and teologian lisensiaatti (Licentiate of Theology) etc, depending on the faculty. Furthermore, the requisite degree for a physician's license is licentiat/lisensiaatti; there is no Master's degree. (The degree lääketieteen tohtori, medicine doktor, "Doctor of Medicine" is a traditional professor's degree, or a research doctorate, with Licentiate as a prerequisite.)

The Licentiate of Engineering is an intermediate postgraduate degree used only in a few countries, among them Sweden and Finland, and can be seen as an academic step halfway between a Master's and a PhD. In Swedish, it is called Teknologie Licentiat, usually abbreviated as Tekn. Lic., and in Finnish, tekniikan lisensiaatti.

The Licentiate of Engineering corresponds to 120 ECTS credits (80 workweeks (old credits)), or nominally two years of full-time work, whereas a PhD amounts to 240 ECTS credits (160 workweeks (old credits)), or a nominal period of four years of full-time work (one old credit equals one week of full-time studies). However, as a result of the differences in requirements and individual performance, the time to complete a Licentiate of Engineering degree varies.

The program for a Licentiate degree is equivalent to a total of two years of full-time study for those who are awarded a doctoral position. A person who has a doctoral position normally teaches on the undergraduate programs, equivalent to a maximum of 20% of the working time. It is then usually possible for a Licentiate degree to be taken within two and a half years.[3]

Germany

In Germany, a person titled Lizentiat holds the equivalent education of a Master's degree or Diplom. Until the 1990s, the degree was offered as a law degree at the Saarland University as a single university degree (Lic.iur.) with a duration varying between five to eight years. For political reasons, this degree was discontinued, mainly because the Staatsexamen (Law degree) became the predominant representation of the mainstream education of a lawyer. The Lizentiat is largely equivalent to the 1. Staatsexamen but, unlike the latter, is assessed by the university, not the state administration. It also allowed specialisation in areas of the law which were either not covered by other legal qualifications, e.g. ecclesiastical law etc., or not covered to the same extent. Other disciplines, such as theology or journalism (FU Berlin), used to offer a Lizentiat qualification instead of a PhD.

India

In India, the Licentiate is a vocational qualification offered by the special vocational boards or professional bodies. These are offered after completion of school education and are somewhat less extensive than a full-fledged university degree. Issuers of the Licentiate degree include but are not limited to the Insurance Institute of India,[4] the Association of Mutual Funds of India, and the Diploma Examination Board of the government of Andhra Pradesh.

Licentiate Medical Practitioner was a recognized medical qualification in India before 1946, when the Bhore Committee effectively made the MBBS the sole entry point into the medical profession in India. [5]

Mexico

The Licenciatura applies to all fields of study at the university-level in Mexico: a telecommunications engineer, for example, is technically and legally a telecommunications engineering licenciado. Holding a Licenciatura degree does not, however, ensure the right to practice in all fields. Disciplines such a Nursing, Medicine and Law require passing a national exam. Most universities do not require a thesis to graduate. For a number of years, presenting a thesis was the only method by which any undergraduate student could obtain an undergraduate degree. Nowadays, some universities, like the National Autonomous University of Mexico, (UNAM) may still require the thesis; other universities like the ITESO forgo the thesis in exchange for a year of professional practice.

Conversions of the title range from B.A. to something as advanced as a M.S., though most recipients would qualify for a Master's degree in their respective field (as is the case for science, engineering, medicine, and disciplines in the social sciences). Due to the Bologna process, virtually any Licenciado has the equivalent to a Masters 1, (M1), or sometimes even a Masters 2, (M2) in any country of Europe within the European educational space. In Mexico, undergraduate courses of study or Licenciatura last from four to five years. Students may apply for entry into a Doctorado, (Ph.D) degree immediately after completing the Licenciatura, in which case doctoral work can last up to five years.

Peru

In Peru, the Licenciatura is not an academic degree, but rather a "Professional Title" within a specific profession. The difference between the two is that academic degrees allow you to further your career studies at universities, while Professional Titles allow you to work in positions outside academia or perform as an independent professional in the Republic of Peru. Certain professions require the Licenciatura or "Professional Title" and the mandatory professional association (Colegio Profesional) registration.

The Bachelor's degree is the first academic degree and allows one to take part in a Master's degree program. The Master's degree is the next degree and it allows you to get a Doctor's degree (equivalent to a PhD). The Licenciatura is awarded to university graduates after they have completed a Bachelor's degree in their specific field (i.e. Bachiller en: Economía, Ingeniería, etc.) This usually requires five years of professional studies at a university in the Professional Department or Faculty to obtain the Professional Title.

To obtain a Licenciatura or "Título Profesional" the student is required to write a thesis, which in most cases includes developing a research project. Alternatively, it is possible a written exam and then an oral examination in front of a group of professors (who are registered in the Professional College of that specific profession). With this last option, it is usually required to have at least one year of professional experience in the relevant field of studies.

The Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science in the Anglo-Saxon universities are not equivalent degrees to a Licentiate because they are completed within the first four semesters of the five years of studies. For some professions which used to be called carreras largas or long careers (dentistry, law, psychology and medicine), the university student requires more than five years of studies or ten semesters to complete their professional education.

Nowadays, some universities do not use the word Licenciado or Licenciada as a prefix before the professional title, e.g. Licenciado/a en Farmacia y Bioquímica (Licentiate in Pharmacy and Biochemistry) in their certificates. Instead they use Químico Farmacéutico, the same happens in with the other professions (i.e. Enfermero, Ingeniero, Psicólogo.) In such cases, both written titles are equivalent. The Professional Titles in Peru are equivalent to the first professional degrees in the Anglo-Saxon countries, therefore if a person obtained a Master in Counselling degree in the US will need to complete the university studies in Peru in order to obtain the Licenciate or Title of Psychologist and then the Licensure at the Colegio de Psicólogos del Perú. In Perú the Professional Title of Psicólogo is similar to the Psy.D. in the Anglo-Saxon degree.

Poland

A licencjat is a degree that introduced in Poland by the tertiary education reforms that followed the fall of Communism. The purpose of these reforms was to bring the Polish university system roughly into line with European norms. It is typically a three or four year degree, equivalent to the Bachelor's degree in Anglo-Saxon countries. Students completing a licencjat often go on to complete a magister's degree.

Portugal

Due to the new developments introduced by the Bologna Process in the mid-2000s, in Portugal the licenciate's degree (Licenciatura) may refer to both the old Licenciaturas, which were awarded before the Bologna's reforms (ranging from four to six year degrees, equivalent to the Master's degree), or the new Licenciaturas, which have been awarded since then in Portugal and almost all Europe with varying local designations as the three year degrees.

After 2006, in the Portuguese higher education system, Licenciatura is the first degree awarded by institutions of higher education. It is the first degree used in the European Higher Education Area, and is equivalent to the Bachelor's degree used in other countries. The Master's degree entails a two year program of study, in which students would normally enroll after completing a licentiate's degree, and provides higher qualification for employment or prepares a student for their doctoral studies.

Romania

In Romania, before the Bologna process, a license (Rom. licenţă) was an academic degree awarded after four to six years of study, finalised by a thesis. It was a degree higher that the graduate diploma obtained after three years of study, which was mostly used in pedagogical institutes that trained secondary education teachers, and was considered inferiour to the doctorate. A Romanian license was the equivalent of a French maîtrise or a German Diplom. There are some Romanian licenses (obtained before the Bologna process was of application) which have been recognized as mr. and drs.[6] in the Netherlands, i.e. at the LLM and MA level.[7] Now, after the Bologna process, is the Romanian license similar to a Bachelor's degree.[8]

Spain

In Spain the Licenciatura degree is one of the major higher-education degrees previous to doctoral studies. A Licenciatura typically requires from four to six years of University courses, and has a typical credit workload of 300 to 400 credits. The Licenciatura academic degree is academically equivalent to the Ingeniero or Arquitecto degrees. A Licenciatura degree also provides direct access to professional practice or membership in professional associations such as Bar Associations for Lawyers (Colegio de Abogados), medicine, economics, and other regulated professions. This system is in the process of being progressively changed to the 'Grado' (Bachelor) and 'Master' system due to the Bologna Declaration on the European higher education area.

Nowadays Licenciatura consists of four or five years of study, or 6 years in Medicine, and allows direct transition into Doctoral studies. Currently, both "second-cycle" or "superior" degrees (like Licenciatura, Ingeniería and Arquitecto, which are four to five years), and "first-cycle" or "intermediate" degrees (Diplomatura, Ingeniería Técnica (technical engineering) and Arquitecto técnico degrees which are three years) are the undergraduate diplomas in Spain.

Note, however, that the label "undergraduate" may be misleading to an anglophone audience, since while a Spanish Diplomatura may be likened to an American undergraduate Bachelor's degree, a Spanish Licenciatura is comparable in scope to an American postgraduate Master's degree, as the anglophone distinction between "undergraduate" and "postgraduate" degrees does not properly apply to the traditional higher-education system of Spain. Many Spanish licenciados, when translating their CVs into English, use the formula BA+MA (or BSc+MSc) to indicate that a Licenciatura is equivalent to a Master's degree. Depending on the degree and study plan, some Spanish universities require a small thesis or research project to be submitted in the last year before the student can finally claim his or her degree.

After the Bologna process, all official university degrees will fall into one of these three categories: Grado (Bachelor), Master or Doctor. Most Grados will consist of four years (240 ECTS credits), unless it is otherwise ruled by a EU Directive (like Pharmacy, five years, or Medicine, six years). All university students completing these four years will get a Grado and may then go on with Master's studies (one to two years, 60-120 ECTS credits). Doctorate studies will in most cases require a research-oriented Master's degree and may or may not include specific courses.

Grados will take one year more than the old Diplomatura or Ingeniería Técnica degrees, and graduates from the old system may have to study additional courses to transform their degree into a Grado. Nevertheless, in most aspects, Grados will be the equivalent of the old intermediate degrees: Grado engineers will have the responsibilities of former Ingenieros técnicos. Lawyers will need a Master's degree, not a Grado. And in public service, Grado holders will by default be in the A2 level (the second highest), while A1 (the highest) will be for Grado holders with additional requirements (such as a Master's or a Doctorate, or an special Grado such as Medicine that is in many aspects equivalent to a Master).

It should be noted that, prior to the Bologna process, the Master's degree was not considered an official academic degree in Spain, as the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate studies could only be done directly from a Licenciatura to doctoral studies.

Switzerland

At Swiss universities, until the adoption of the Bologna Convention, the Lizentiat/licence was the equivalent of a Master's degree (there being no prior degrees) and qualified the holder for doctoral studies. The degree names are followed by the field of study (e.g. lic. phil., lic. ès lettres, lic. oec., etc). In line with the Bologna Process, the degree has now been replaced by Master degrees (with Bachelor degrees being newly introduced).
According to the Swiss University Conference, the joint organization of the cantons and the Confederation for university politics, and the Rectors' Conference of the Swiss Universities, the old Lizentiat/licence is considered equivalent to the current Master degree. [9]

United Kingdom

The University of Wales, Lampeter offers Licences in Latin and Greek. They are postgraduate diplomas - meaning that the student would normally have completed a (typically three-year) Bachelor's degree first - and can be completed in either two years or three.

Venezuela

A Licenciatura is awarded to students after five years of study. They are required to write a thesis or develop a research project in order to graduate.

Domain variations

Heraldry

In Canada, anyone who completes the Level III Heraldic Proficiency Courses is granted the right to use the post-nominal of LRHSC (Licentiate of the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada). This is awarded by the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada.

Medicine, surgery and obstetrics

Canada

A medical graduate must obtain the qualification of Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada from the Medical Council of Canada before they are eligible to apply for licensure in the province or territory concerned.

Britain & Ireland

These Conjoint diplomas were latterly awarded by the United Examining Board. The first two, and latterly the first three, were granted together in England, and the last three in Scotland, until 1999, after which approval to hold the examinations was withdrawn. The qualifications are still registrable with the General Medical Council, and allow the bearer to practice medicine in the United Kingdom, and used to be recognised by some state medical boards in the USA.

The Licentiate of Apothecaries' Hall (LAH) was a similar qualifying medical diploma awarded externally in Dublin until recognition was lost in 1968.

In Dublin, students at the School of Medicine of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland still qualify with licentiate diplomas from the two Irish Royal Colleges, coupled with a Licence in Midwifery from each, although in the past few years they have also been awarded the three medical bachelor's degrees of the National University of Ireland:

  • Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (LRCPI) or (L & LM, RCPI) and
  • Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (LRCSI) or (L & LM, RCSI).

Certain maternity hospitals in Dublin used to award a Licentiate in Midwifery or LM diploma, not to midwives but to qualified medical practitioners who had been examined there after a three month residential appointment. The Rotunda Hospital was the most recent to do so.

  • Licentiate Member of the Institute of Clerks of Works and Construction Inspectorate (post nominal LICWCI) is a professional grade of the Institute of Clerks of Works and Construction Inspectorate, the professional body that supports quality construction and complience of building standards through inspection.
  • Licentiate of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development is a part qualified professional grade of the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD). Prior to the Institute gaining its Royal Charter, members at this grade were able to use the post nominal Lic IPD after their names.

Theology and canon law

The degree Licentiate of Theology (LTh) is a theological qualification commonly awarded for ordinands and laymen studying theology in the United Kingdom, Malta, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A qualification similar to the LTh is the two-year postgraduate Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), available from many Roman Catholic schools of theology that possess the authority to grant Pontifical degree. This compares with, for example in North American institutions, the four year program for a B.A. at many universities, a two year program for an M.A., and the writing and successful defense of the doctoral dissertation for the Ph.D. or Th.D. (an additional two to three years). The degree Licentiate of Canon Law is similarly awarded like the license in Sacred Theology at pontifical universities. Other qualifications for canon law include an inter-denominational LL.M. program at at least one university (Cardiff), though this degree would not have canonical effects in the Roman Catholic Church.

Bologna convention

In 2003, the European Union organized the Bologna convention on higher education, more commonly known as the Bologna process, in order to create uniform standards across the European Union in that field. The resulting conclusions called for all European universities to change their degree programs to an undergraduate degree and a master's degree.

References

  1. ^ "Definition". Oxford Dictionary. http://www.askoxford.com/results/?view=dict&freesearch=Licentiate&branch=13842570&textsearchtype=exact. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  2. ^ "Coneau". Ministerio de Education Republica Argentina. http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?idioma=en%20CONEAU. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  3. ^ "Degree of Licentiate". Chalmers. http://www.chalmers.se/en/sections/education/current_students/joint_rules_and_dire/degree_system/licentiate_degree. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  4. ^ "Welcome to Insurance Institute of India". Insurance Institute of India. http://www.insuranceinstituteofindia.com/InsuranceInst/Home/ASPX/Index.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  5. ^ "BY THE OLD MOULMEIN PAGODA". Bharatiya Vayu Sena. http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/1940s/Philip01.html. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  6. ^ See Doctorandus.
  7. ^ As these Dutch titles were replaced with their corresponding international degrees, after the application of the Bologna process in the Netherlands.
  8. ^ Cf. Landenmodule Roemenie by Nuffic.
  9. ^ "Équivalence entre licence / diplôme et master". crus.ch. http://www.crus.ch/information-programmes/bologne-ects/equivalence.html?L=1. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 

See also








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