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Licinius
Emperor of the Roman Empire
132 Licinius.jpg
Coin featuring Licinius
Reign 11 November 308 - 311 (as Augustus in the west, with Galerius in the east);
311 - 313 (joint Augustus with Maximinus)
313 - 324 (Augustus in the east, with Constantine in the west - in 314 and 324 in competition with him);
Full name Valerius
Licinianus Licinius
Born c. 263[1] or c. 265[2]
Birthplace Moesia Superior, near Zaječar in modern-day Serbia.
Died Spring of 325 (aged 57-60)
Place of death Thessalonica
Predecessor Severus
Successor Constantine I
Wife Flavia Julia Constantia
Offspring Licinius II
Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse).
For other Romans of this name, see Licinius (gens).

Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 263 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian[3][4] (Thracian) peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the Emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the eastern empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan); they had a son, Licinius the Younger, in 315. Their marriage was the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations and allowed Christianity to be professed in the empire.

In the following month, on April 30, Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at the Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. Then, Licinius established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine prevailed at the Battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314) and again two years later, when Licinius named Valerius Valens co-emperor, in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius had his co-emperor Valens killed.

Licinius' fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine I's fleet in 323. In 324, Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army of 170,000 men at the Battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius in the Battle of the Hellespont by Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son and Caesar, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in Licinius' final submission. While Licinius' co-emperor Sextus Martinianus was killed, Licinius himself was spared due to the pleas of his wife, Constantine's sister, and interned at Thessalonica. The next year, Constantine had him killed, accusing him of conspiring to raise troops among the barbarians.

Contents

Serbian tradition

For unknown reasons, Licinius was traditionally for centuries throughout the entire Serbian historiography considered as a Serb and as a forefather of the House of Nemanjić. This only changed with historical accounts of Slavic migrations by 19th century historians.

See also

References

  1. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to life in ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 31. ISBN 0-19-512332-8.  
  2. ^ Meijer, Fik (2004). Emperors don't die in bed. London: Routledge. pp. 120. ISBN 0-415-31201-9.  
  3. ^ Everett Ferguson (ed.), Encyclopedia of early Christianity, New York: Garland Publishing, 1997, p.681 [1]
  4. ^ Licinius. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

External links

Licinius
Born: 250 Died: 325
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Flavius Valerius Severus
Roman Emperor
308-324
Served alongside: Galerius, Constantine I, Maximinus Daia, Valerius Valens and Martinianus
Succeeded by
Constantine I
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LICINIUS [FLAVIUS GALERIUS VALERIUS LICINIANUSI, Roman emperor, A.D. 307-3 24, of Illyrian peasant origin, was born probably about 250. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus he was elevated to the rank of Augustus by Galerius, his former friend and companion in arms, on the 11th of November 307, receiving as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum. On the death of Galerius, in May 311, he shared the entire empire with Maximinus, the Hellespont and the Thracian Bosporus being the dividing line. In March 313 he married Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (Milan), in the following month inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Heraclea Pontica, and established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise on the part of Bassianus against Constantine. When his perfidy became known a civil war ensued, in which he was twice severely defeated - first near Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8th, 314), and next in the plain of Mardia in Thrace; the outward reconciliation, which was effected in the following December, left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but added numerous provinces to the Western empire. In 323 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at Adrianople (3rd of July 323), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine's eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (18th of September), finally resulted in his submission. He was interned at Thessalonica and executed in the following year on a charge of treasonable correspondence with the barbarians.

See Zosimus ii. 7-28; Zonaras xiii. 1; Victor, Caes. 40, 41; Eutropius x. 3; Orosius vii. 28.


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Simple English

Licinius
Augustus in the East
Reign 11 November 308 - 311 (as Augustus in the west, with Galerius in the east);
311 - 313 (joint Augustus with Maximinus)
313 - 324 (Augustus in the east, with Constantine in the west - in 314 and 324 in competition with him);
Full name Flavius Galerius Valerius
Licinianus Licinius
Born c. 250
Birthplace Moesia Superior
Died 325
Place of death Thessalonica
Predecessor Severus
Successor Constantine I
Wife Flavia Julia Constantia
Offspring Licinius

Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Licinius went with his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius declared Licinius emperor honorific in the West in 308.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia. The Hellespont and the Bosporus were the dividing line.

In 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan). Together with Constantine he issued the "Edict of Milan" that allowed Christianity to be professed in the empire. On April 30, Licinius won against Maximinus at the Battle of Tzirallum. So he became master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was master in the West.

In 314, a civil war began between Licinius and Constantine. Constantine won at Cibalae in Pannonia and again 2 years later in Thrace. Then followed a period during which they worked together. But in 324 Constantine attacked him again and Licinius had to give up. Because his wife, Constantine's sister, asked for his survival he was not killed immediately. In 325 Constantine accused him of starting a conspiration with the barbarians and had him killed.

References

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