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.Life expectancy is the expected (in the statistical sense) number of years of life remaining at a given age.^ Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .It is denoted by ex, which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A NYC transit worker who reaches retirement age (55) has only 5 more years left to live on average, just to 60.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(In technical literature, this symbol means the average number of complete years of life remaining, ie excluding fractions of a year.^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ferrari continues: " Australians are living longer, with the average life expectancy for men rising from 51 years at the beginning of the century to 75 years in the 1990's ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the past few hundred years, the average length of life (life expectancy) in modern societies has steadily increased, but the maximum duration of life (life span) has not.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The corresponding statistic including fractions of a year, ie the normal meaning of life expectancy, has a symbol with a small circle over the e.^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The best comparator for the US with regard to life expectancy is Canada, because while we have many similarities, we (Canadians) live several years longer than you (Americans.
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

) .The life expectancy of a group of individuals is heavily dependent on the criteria used to select the group.^ Here we use the corrected (for underreporting of deaths in infancy and older ages) values of life expectancy at birth for Russia (Shkolnikov, Meslé, Vallin, 1994).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Life expectancy and infant mortality are used quite often to compare the relative health of different countries.
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The commonly employed technique of using reductions in infant deaths to claim a general increase in life expectancy and longevity has been most illuminating.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Life expectancy is usually calculated separately for males and females.^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.In countries with high infant mortality rates, the life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life.^ And America has the highest infant mortality rate — 6.9 deaths per 1000 live births, [...

^ That makes their life expectancy and infant mortality statistics look better.

^ Between 1965 and 1980, their life expectancy at birth decreased by 0.7 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another measure such as life expectancy at age 5 (e5) can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood.^ That makes their life expectancy and infant mortality statistics look better.

^ Another common criticism is that the US has high infant mortality rates.
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.The term life expectancy is most often used in the context of human populations, but is also used in plant or animal ecology[2]; it is calculated by the analysis of life tables (also known as actuarial tables).^ "The component method in life expectancy analysis"].
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yeah, the title of the thread is a bit misleading: life expectancy is still increasing in the US, but it's declining for poorer populations.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dramatic Mortality Increase in 1992-1993 In 1992-1993, life expectancy at birth for the Russian population took an unprecedented fall.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects[3] although the related term shelf life is used for consumer products and the term "mean time to breakdown" (MTTB) is used in engineering literature.^ This is not related to increased life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Suter also claims that genetic engineering may even result in " the next generation to be born " having a life expectancy of " 110 or 120 years ", it seems that the reverse may be true since genetic engineering has been reported to cause accelerated ageing and premature death ( click here for more info).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, we apply a simple extrapolation of trends in ASDRs (assuming cohort effects on mortality to be negligible) in order to clarify what part of the 1993 life expectancy decrease may be associated with long-term mortality tendencies, which will be considered later.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Humans

.Humans live on average 39.5 years in Swaziland[4] and 81 years in Japan (2008 est.^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A NYC transit worker who reaches retirement age (55) has only 5 more years left to live on average, just to 60.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ferrari continues: " Australians are living longer, with the average life expectancy for men rising from 51 years at the beginning of the century to 75 years in the 1990's ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), although .Japan's recorded life expectancy may have been very slightly increased by counting many infant deaths as stillborn.^ This is not related to increased life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To deliberately mislead or deceive the public by misuse of life expectancy and causes of death data is totally unacceptable and reflects very poorly upon the integrity and reliability of anyone who indulges in such practices.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] .The oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years (see Jeanne Calment), though some people are reported to have lived longer.^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best comparator for the US with regard to life expectancy is Canada, because while we have many similarities, we (Canadians) live several years longer than you (Americans.
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any suggestion that people are living longer merely because fewer infants are dying is merely statistical nonsense.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is referred to as the "maximum life span", which is the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived.^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best comparator for the US with regard to life expectancy is Canada, because while we have many similarities, we (Canadians) live several years longer than you (Americans.
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Lifespan variation over time

.The following information is derived from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1961 and other sources, and unless otherwise stated represents estimates of the life expectancies of the population as a whole.^ The total difference in male life expectancy between the United States and Russia was 7.7 years in 1989.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With improved data availability, it has become possible to evaluate the principal components of the change in life expectancy for the Russian population over time.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The deviations of observed life expectancies from their expected values are likely to be valid indicators of the real strength of the recent deterioration in the health of the Russian population.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.In many instances life expectancy varied considerably according to class and gender.^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, according to Duke University ( 58 ), this study indicates there is " no natural limit to life expectancy ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best comparator for the US with regard to life expectancy is Canada, because while we have many similarities, we (Canadians) live several years longer than you (Americans.
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes, mainly in the past, life expectancy increased during the years of childhood, as the individual survived the high mortality rates then associated with childhood.^ This is not related to increased life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The life expectancies at birth listed below take account of infant mortality but not pre-natal mortality (miscarriage or abortion).^ Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this were true it would be good news indeed, but another explanation is possible since life expectancy at birth statistics are often misinterpreted .
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Humans by Era Average Lifespan at Birth
(years)
Comment
Upper Paleolithic 33 At age 15: 39 (to age 54)[7][8]
Neolithic 20  
Bronze Age[9] 18  
Bronze age, Sweden[citation needed] 40-60  
Classical Greece[10] 28  
Classical Rome[10] 28  
Pre-Columbian North America[11] 25-30  
Medieval Islamic Caliphate[12] 50-80 The average lifespans of the elite class were 59–84.3 years in the Middle East.[13][14] and 69–75 in Islamic Spain.[15] .However these are likely to refer to modal age at death rather than life expectancy.^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The percentage of deaths due to other and unspecified conditions is higher in the United States than in Russia, while the percentage due to degenerative diseases in older ages is higher in Russia than in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as we have seen, the impact of this process, as well as its influence on the overall life expectancy trend, is relatively small.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

Medieval Britain[16][17] 20-30  
Early 20th Century[18][19] 30-45  
Current world average[20] 67.2 2010 est.
.The average life expectancy in Colonial America was under 25 years in the Virginia colony,[21] and in New England about 40% of children failed to reach adulthood.^ As far as life expectancy is concerned for instance, these workers fail to mention in their media release that the life expectancy of 65 year old Australians has only increased by 1.9 years ( men ) and 1.5 years ( women ) during the period 1989 -1999 ( 48 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[22] .During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.^ This is not related to increased life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As far as life expectancy is concerned for instance, these workers fail to mention in their media release that the life expectancy of 65 year old Australians has only increased by 1.9 years ( men ) and 1.5 years ( women ) during the period 1989 -1999 ( 48 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, the difference in life expectancy by sex increased to 13 years, versus 6.7 years in the United States or Japan.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] The percentage of children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730-1749 to 31.8% in 1810-1829.[24][25]
.Public health measures are credited with much of the recent increase in life expectancy.^ This is not related to increased life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, the difference in life expectancy by sex increased to 13 years, versus 6.7 years in the United States or Japan.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.During the 20th century, the average lifespan in the United States increased by more than 30 years, of which 25 years can be attributed to advances in public health.^ Not only has this level always been higher in Russia, but it has been increasing, whereas trends in circulatory diseases have been improving in the EC and the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The percentage of deaths due to other and unspecified conditions is higher in the United States than in Russia, while the percentage due to degenerative diseases in older ages is higher in Russia than in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, the difference in life expectancy by sex increased to 13 years, versus 6.7 years in the United States or Japan.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[26]
.In order to assess the quality of these additional years of life, 'healthy life expectancies' have been calculated for the last 30 years.^ As far as life expectancy is concerned for instance, these workers fail to mention in their media release that the life expectancy of 65 year old Australians has only increased by 1.9 years ( men ) and 1.5 years ( women ) during the period 1989 -1999 ( 48 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since 2001, the World Health Organization publishes statistics called Healthy life expectancy (HALE), defined as the average number of years that a person can expect to live in "full health", excluding the years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury.^ In 1991, life expectancy for Russia was higher by 0.4 years than that for Hungary.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life expectancy and health trends in modern society: are we becoming healthier and living longer or are we suffering more from heart or cardiovascular disease and an increasing number of chronic illnesses or disabilities?
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 2004, Eurostat publishes annual statistics called Healthy Life Years (HLY) based on reported activity limitations.^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this were true it would be good news indeed, but another explanation is possible since life expectancy at birth statistics are often misinterpreted .
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of the limitations of life expectancy statistics it is interesting to observe the ways in which these figures are utilised by health authorities and media outlets.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States of America uses similar indicators in the framework of their nationwide health promotion and disease prevention plan "Healthy People 2010". An increasing number of countries are using health expectancy indicators to monitor the health of their population.^ Life expectancy and health trends in modern society: are we becoming healthier and living longer or are we suffering more from heart or cardiovascular disease and an increasing number of chronic illnesses or disabilities?
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So there is an agonisingly slow recognition that the tools of modern medicine, namely drugs and surgery, have been a dismal failure when it comes to prevention, optimum health, and chronic diseases.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In another publication however, the AIHW draws attention to the fact that hospital admissions for cardiac disease are actually increasing (as we become healthier!
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regional variations

.
CIA World Factbook 2008 Estimates for Life Expectancy at birth (years).
^ Between 1965 and 1980, their life expectancy at birth decreased by 0.7 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Login or register to reply Women’s Life Expectancy Declining In Tue, 04/22/2008 - 10:51 — ysbaddaden (not verified) Women’s Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. .
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

     over 80      77.5-80      75-77.5      72.5-75      70-72.5      67.5-70      65-67.5      60-65      55-60      50-55      45-50      40-45      under 40      not available
.There are great variations in life expectancy between different parts of the world, mostly caused by differences in public health, medical care and diet.^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To deliberately mislead or deceive the public by misuse of life expectancy and causes of death data is totally unacceptable and reflects very poorly upon the integrity and reliability of anyone who indulges in such practices.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, according to Duke University ( 58 ), this study indicates there is " no natural limit to life expectancy ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of the excess mortality (higher death rates) in poorer nations is due to war, starvation, and diseases (AIDS, Malaria, etc.^ Heart disease and cancer death rates have increased by more than 200% - 300% in the past 100 years and the incidence of heart disease is still increasing.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Already, it has been reported that there are higher death rates at "for profit" hospitals as medical services may be restructured to suit the healthy rather than the sick ( 56 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, causes of death statistics commonly seem to be given a much higher and more public profile than disease incidence rates, especially when the latter figures may not be so positive.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .Over the past 200 years, countries with Black or African populations have generally not had the same improvements in mortality rates that have been enjoyed by populations of European origin.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Heart disease and cancer death rates have increased by more than 200% - 300% in the past 100 years and the incidence of heart disease is still increasing.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even in countries with a majority of White people, such as USA, Britain, Ireland and France, Black people tend to have shorter life expectancies than their White counterparts (although often the statistics are not analysed by race).^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1970s, improvements in life expectancy resumed in Western countries, but in Eastern European countries the epidemiological crisis continues until now.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in the U.S. White Americans are expected to live until age 78, but African Americans only until age 71.[6].^ A NYC transit worker who reaches retirement age (55) has only 5 more years left to live on average, just to 60.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest people in the world in recent times normally live until around 114 - 122 years of age ( 118 , 119 , 120 , 121 , 122 , 123 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, of the predicted years of life expectancy of Australians " only 57.5 ( 76% - males ) and 63.3 ( 78% -females ) of these years" "are expected to be disability free " ( 49 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate may also have an effect, and the way data is collected may also influence the figures. .According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Andorra has the world's longest life expectancy of 83.5 years.^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, according to Duke University ( 58 ), this study indicates there is " no natural limit to life expectancy ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are also significant differences in life expectancy between men and women in most countries, with women typically outliving men by around five years.^ Between 1965 and 1980, their life expectancy at birth decreased by 0.7 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During that period, life expectancy increased by 10 years in men and 13 years in women.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Between the 1920s and the 1970s, the difference in life expectancy by gender increased from 5.5 to 10 years in Russia, from 2.5 to 7.4 years in the United States and from 1.8 to 5.4 years in Japan, with the difference always larger in Russia than in other countries.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

Economic circumstances also affect life expectancy. .For example, in the United Kingdom, life expectancy in the wealthiest areas is several years longer than in the poorest areas.^ Quite clearly, the number of years of healthy life of Australians is declining very dramatically whereas any increases in statistical life expectancy are extremely small.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a well known fact that most of this 25 year increase in life expectancy has, as I have previously indicated, resulted from a reduction in infant mortality and NOT because we are living longer into old age.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If so, women's life expectancy could decline broadly across the United States in coming years, ending a nearly unbroken rise that dates to the mid-1800s.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may reflect factors such as diet and lifestyle as well as access to medical care.^ Rapid growth in transportation prices and, in many cases, the necessity to pay for medical treatment leads to restricted access to advanced medical care for provincial residents.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.It may also reflect a selective effect: people with chronic life-threatening illnesses are less likely to become wealthy or to reside in affluent areas.^ Health surveys reveal that an increasing number of people are suffering from one or more chronic illnesses.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The WaPo story makes it easy to blame poor folks for poor choices (smoking, fatty foods), but ignores the realities of where many of these people live: home areas where the torture of the planet has a direct, deadly effect on the residents' lives.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do so many experts prefer to publicise life expectancy at birth figures and ignore statistics which reveal spiralling increases in the incidence of chronic illnesses and disabilities?
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .In Glasgow the disparity is among the highest in the world with life expectancy for males in the heavily deprived Calton standing at 54 – 28 years less than in the affluent area of Lenzie, which is only eight kilometres away.^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1991, life expectancy for Russia was higher by 0.4 years than that for Hungary.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as life expectancy is concerned for instance, these workers fail to mention in their media release that the life expectancy of 65 year old Australians has only increased by 1.9 years ( men ) and 1.5 years ( women ) during the period 1989 -1999 ( 48 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28][29]
.Life expectancy is also likely to be affected by exposure to high levels of highway air pollution or industrial air pollution.^ When it comes to predicting life expectancy changes in the future it is generally acknowledged that reductions in infant mortality will level off and this will also cause a corresponding levelling off of life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The deviations of observed life expectancies from their expected values are likely to be valid indicators of the real strength of the recent deterioration in the health of the Russian population.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was about 15 years below the life expectancy levels for France, England and Wales, or the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This is one way that occupation can have a major effect on life expectancy.^ The doctor orders it, no one will pay for it, patients cannot afford it and hence the life expectancy just went down dramatically.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia has one of the best health systems in the world, and one of the highest life expectancies.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would have an astonishing effect upon life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Well-educated professionals working in offices have a high life expectancy, while coal miners (and in prior generations, asbestos cutters) do not.^ However, as we have seen, the impact of this process, as well as its influence on the overall life expectancy trend, is relatively small.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, the high ranking of adjusted life expectancy mainly reflects high US GDP per capita, not the effects of unusually high death rates from accident and injury."
  • Slashdot Science Story | US Life Expectancy May Have Peaked 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC science.slashdot.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The influences of different causes of death on the general trend of Russian life expectancy have changed substantially.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other factors affecting an individual's life expectancy are genetic disorders, obesity, access to health care, diet, exercise, tobacco smoking, drug use and excessive alcohol use.^ In other words, life expectancy, which has been artificially elevated by reductions in infant mortality, will increase much more slowly, if at all.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia has one of the best health systems in the world, and one of the highest life expectancies.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quite clearly, Oeppen and Vaupel's life expectancy predictions also see the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes as correlating with continuing increases in life expectancy.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gender differences

.Women tend to have a lower mortality rate at every age.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, during two postwar decades, Russian women gained significantly more than Russian men due to the more favorable mortality trends at adult ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At ages 1-4 and 5-9 the relative difference in mortality is even higher, with Russian death rates about 15 times higher than those in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the womb, male fetuses have a higher mortality rate (babies are conceived in a ratio of about 124 males to 100 females, but the ratio of those surviving to birth is only 105 males to 100 females).^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At ages 1-4 and 5-9 the relative difference in mortality is even higher, with Russian death rates about 15 times higher than those in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1985-1987 survival probabilities increased by 0.04 for males (0.01 for females), but by 1992 they had returned to the 1984 level.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Among the smallest premature babies (those under 2 pounds or 900 g) females again have a higher survival rate.^ At ages 1-4 and 5-9 the relative difference in mortality is even higher, with Russian death rates about 15 times higher than those in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.At the other extreme, about 90% of individuals aged 110 are female.^ At the beginning of the 20th century, life expectancy for the Russian population was extremely low (30 years for males and about 32 years for females in 1896-1897).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For females aged 15 to 44, these ratios were about 1.2 in 1991, 1.35 in 1992, and 1.6 in 1993.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the past, mortality rates for females in child-bearing age groups were higher than for males at the same age.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is obvious, however, that the 75 percent in the 1980s was much higher in real terms than the 75 percent in the 1990s, given the sharp reduction in the overall average real wage rate.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is no longer the case, and female human life expectancy is considerably higher than those of men.^ In 1991, life expectancy for Russia was higher by 0.4 years than that for Hungary.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, in the history of medicine and science, men and women had roughly equivalent life expectancies.
  • Women's Life Expectancy Declining In The U.S. | Crooks and Liars 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1991 and 1992, Russian males lost 1.5 years in life expectancy and females lost 0.5 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

The reasons for this are not entirely certain. .Traditional arguments tend to favor socio-environmental factors: historically, men have generally consumed more tobacco, alcohol and drugs than females in most societies, and are more likely to die from many associated diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis and cirrhosis of the liver.^ Reduced mortality from external causes played the most important role in reducing total active-age mortality during the anti-alcohol campaign, although many other causes of death such as ischaemic heart disease, respiratory diseases, and liver cirrhosis contributed to the rapid changes in mortality since 1985.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The drop was much more substantial for males than for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, during two postwar decades, Russian women gained significantly more than Russian men due to the more favorable mortality trends at adult ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[30] Men are also more likely to die from injuries, whether unintentional (such as car accidents) or intentional (suicide, violence, war).[30] .Men are also more likely to die from most of the leading causes of death (some already stated above) than women.^ The percentage of deaths due to other and unspecified conditions is higher in the United States than in Russia, while the percentage due to degenerative diseases in older ages is higher in Russia than in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, during two postwar decades, Russian women gained significantly more than Russian men due to the more favorable mortality trends at adult ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 80 percent of these increases are due to circulatory diseases and external causes of death.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some of these in the United States include: cancer of the respiratory system, motor vehicle accidents, suicide, cirrhosis of the liver, emphysema, and coronary heart disease [6].^ On the other hand, Russia has lost its former advantages over the United States in mortality due to some cancers, liver cirrhosis, and traffic accidents.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, the ratio of Russian SDRs in 1993 to that in the United States in 1989 are: 3.2 for ischaemic heart disease, 7.6 for cerebrovascular disorders, 1.6 for lung cancer, 20.1 for accidental poisoning, 3.8 for suicide, and 3.7 for homicide.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Not only has this level always been higher in Russia, but it has been increasing, whereas trends in circulatory diseases have been improving in the EC and the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

These far outweigh the female mortality rate from breast cancer and cervical cancer etc.
.However, such arguments are not entirely satisfactory and, even if the statistics are corrected for known socio-environmental effects on mortality, females still have longer life expectancy[citation needed].^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some argue that shorter male life expectancy is merely another manifestation of the general rule, seen in all mammal species, that larger individuals tend on average to have shorter lives.^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1993, male life expectancy was 59 years, female life expectancy was 72 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[31][32]. .This biological difference occurs because women have more resistance to infections and degenerative diseases [6].^ For women, the structure of the gap in life expectancy (4.2 years in 1989) is much more uniform, because it depends mostly on excess mortality from circulatory diseases at older ages (Figure 4.10).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

Influence of disabilities

.The main disabilities influencing life expectancy are physical disabilities, including congenital conditions and the results of accidents.^ As a result, the difference in life expectancy by sex increased to 13 years, versus 6.7 years in the United States or Japan.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as we have seen, the impact of this process, as well as its influence on the overall life expectancy trend, is relatively small.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the Western world, people with a serious mental illness die on average 25 years earlier than the rest of the population[citation needed], even though there is no objective test for mental illness[citation needed].^ Additionally, according to Suter ( 35 ), " one of the greatest changes in our era is that people are now living longer about 25 years longer than they were a century ago ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest people in the world in recent times normally live until around 114 - 122 years of age ( 118 , 119 , 120 , 121 , 122 , 123 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With cancer the situation is even worse since there is still no significant and sustained decline in cancer deaths.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mental illnesses include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. .Three out of five mentally ill die from mostly preventable physical diseases, such as Heart/Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Dyslipidaemia, Respiratory ailments, Pneumonia, Influenza.^ In further confirmation of the nutritional cause of heart disease is the observation that dietary fat intake is not necessarily related to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence has shown that lifestyle interventions can prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The medical profession's rejection of the importance of nutritional therapy and the processing of nutrients out of our foods has correlated with a constantly increasing incidence of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Stress also decreases life expectancy.^ Decrease in life expectancy .
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For males, the contribution of injuries and violence to the total decrease in life expectancy between 1992 and 1993 is still the highest (1.3 years).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They still claim, as infant mortality decreases and fictitious average life expectancy at birth increases, that we are all living longer and longer ( 1 , 2 ).
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The side effects of stress are: pain of any kind, heart disease, digestive problems, sleep problems, depression, obesity, autoimmune diseases, skin conditions, etc., all of which contribute to mental disorders, faster ageing, and other physical diseases.^ This is also true for "other heart disease" and homicide.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The percentage of deaths due to other and unspecified conditions is higher in the United States than in Russia, while the percentage due to degenerative diseases in older ages is higher in Russia than in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Declining mortality from infectious, respiratory, neoplasmic, digestive, and other diseases for most age groups under 15 partly compensates for the prevailing negative changes at older ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.

Centenarians

.The number of centenarians is increasing at 7% per year, which means doubling the centanarian population every decade, pushing it into the millions in the next few years.^ Between 1989 and 1993, the observed annual number of deaths increased by 546,000 (from 1.583 million to 2.129 million).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Increasing mortality from circulatory diseases caused a loss of 0.94 years, while an increased number of deaths from external causes corresponds to a loss of 0.5 years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] Japan has the highest ratio of centenarians. In Okinawa, there are 34.7 centenarians for every 100,000 inhabitants [6].
In the United States, the number of centenarians grew from 15,000 in 1980 to 77,000 in 2000.[citation needed]

Evolution and aging rate

It is interesting to consider why the various species of plants and animals, including humans, have different lifespans. There is a well-developed evolutionary theory of aging, and general consensus in the academic community of evolutionary theorists; however the theory doesn't work well in practice, and there are many unexplained exceptions. Evolutionary theory states that organisms that, by virtue of their defenses or lifestyle, live for long periods whilst avoiding accidents, disease, predation, etc., are likely to have genes that code for slow ageing - which often translates to good cellular repair. .This is theorized to be true because if predation or accidental deaths prevent most individuals from living to an old age, then there will be less natural selection to increase intrinsic life span[33].^ According to the old Soviet practice, children born before 28 weeks of gestation or whose weight is less than 1,000 grams or length is less than 35 centimeters were supposed not to be counted as either live births or infant deaths if they die before the end of their first week of life.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 4.5--Infant Mortality Rate in Russia: 1940-1993 Table 4.3 Components of Life Expectancy Increase in 1938-1939 to 1956, by Age .
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The leading role in the general increase in SDR for men aged 15 to 64 belongs to such causes of death as cerebrovascular disorders and ischaemic heart disease, lung cancer, accidental poisoning, suicide, and homicide.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

The finding was supported in a classic study of opossums by Austad [34], however the opposite relationship was found in an equally-prominent study of guppies by Reznick [35][36]
One prominent and very popular theory attributes aging to a tight budget for food energy[37]. The theory has difficulty with the caloric restriction effect, in which animals live longer the less food they eat.
In theory, reproduction is costly and takes energy away from the repair processes that extend life spans. .However, in actuality females of many species invest much more energy in reproduction than do their male counterparts, and live longer nevertheless.^ The drop was much more substantial for males than for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout the 1959-93 period, more than 60 percent of the difference between males and females is due to only two classes of causes of death: injury, poisoning, and violence; and circulatory diseases.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

In a broad survey of zoo animals, no relationship was found between the fertility of the animal and its life span.[38]
.One area in which theory seems to be well validated: Better-defended animals such as small birds and bats, that can fly away from danger, and naked mole rats that live underground, survive for decades, whereas mice, which cannot, die of old age in a year or two.^ Hence, during two postwar decades, Russian women gained significantly more than Russian men due to the more favorable mortality trends at adult ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In that event, why worry about how you are going to survive to an old age?"
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

Tortoises and turtles are very well defended and can live for over 100 years.

Calculating life expectancies

.The starting point for calculating life expectancies is the age-specific death rates of the population members.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally, the ratio of Russian to U.S. death rates declines from younger to older ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dramatic Mortality Increase in 1992-1993 In 1992-1993, life expectancy at birth for the Russian population took an unprecedented fall.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.A very simple model of age-specific mortality uses the Gompertz function, although these days more sophisticated methods are used.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, during two postwar decades, Russian women gained significantly more than Russian men due to the more favorable mortality trends at adult ages.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This function has an upper limit and therefore corresponds to mortality stabilization (in fact, a very slow increase) instead of an unlimited rise.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[39]
.In cases where the amount of data is relatively small, the most common methods are to fit the data to a mathematical formula, such as an extension of the Gompertz function, or to look at an established mortality table previously derived for a larger population and make a simple adjustment to it (eg multiply by a constant factor) to fit the data.^ Adjustment of these life tables for mortality underreporting at older ages leads to a modest correction in life expectancy at birth by -0.1 years for males and by -0.4 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ First of all, we shall look at the absolute increase in deaths to try to evaluate the pure effect of rising mortality on the natural decrease in the Russian population.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They were derived from a set of 192 life tables by sex recorded for actual populations.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.With a large amount of data, one looks at the mortality rates actually experienced at each age, and applies smoothing (eg by cubic splines) to iron out any apparently random statistical fluctuations from one year of age to the next.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At ages 1-4 and 5-9 the relative difference in mortality is even higher, with Russian death rates about 15 times higher than those in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.While the data required is easily identified in the case of humans, the computation of life expectancy of industrial products and wild animals involves more indirect techniques.^ With improved data availability, it has become possible to evaluate the principal components of the change in life expectancy for the Russian population over time.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

The life expectancy and demography of wild animals are often estimated by capturing, marking and recapturing them.[40] The life of a product, more often termed shelf life is also computed using similar methods. .In the case of long-lived components such as those used in critical applications, such as in aircraft methods such as accelerated aging are used to model the life expectancy of a component.^ "The component method in life expectancy analysis"].
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.The age-specific death rates are calculated separately for separate groups of data which are believed to have different mortality rates (eg males and females, and perhaps smokers and non-smokers if data is available separately for those groups) and are then used to calculate a life table, from which one can calculate the probability of surviving to each age.^ Figure 4.13--Male Death Rates for Different Ages: 1970-1993 Increase in infant mortality.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The ratios of Russian age-specific death rates (ASDR) in 1938-39 to those in the United States show that the major part of the 20-year difference in life expectancy between the two countries can be ascribed to extremely high levels of infant and child mortality in Russia (Figure 4.1).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 4.7--Ratios of Male Age-Specific Death Rates to Corresponding Death Rates from Coale-Demeny Model Life Tables (Families West and South) The method of component analysis [21] allows us to split the difference between life expectancy for the Russian population in 1965 and 1980 into its components, by age and cause of death (Table 4.4).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

In actuarial notation the probability of surviving from age x to age x+n is denoted \,_np_x\! and the probability of dying during age x (i.e. between ages x and x+1) is denoted q_x\!. .For example, if 10% of a group of people alive at their 90th birthday die before their 91st birthday, then the age-specific death probability at age 90 would be 10%.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Between 1990 and 1991, aging accounted for over 90 percent of the increase in the number of deaths.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, the majority of the increase in the annual deaths in 1989-93 is due to increases in age-specific mortality rates.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.The life expectancy at age x, denoted \,e_x\!^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Here we use the corrected (for underreporting of deaths in infancy and older ages) values of life expectancy at birth for Russia (Shkolnikov, Meslé, Vallin, 1994).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adjustment of these life tables for mortality underreporting at older ages leads to a modest correction in life expectancy at birth by -0.1 years for males and by -0.4 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/3/3/3/94620571265312234.png" />, is then calculated by adding up the probabilities to survive to every age. .This is the expected number of complete years lived (one may think of it as the number of birthdays they celebrate).^ According to Ferrari for instance ( 34 ), " babies born in the closing years of this century can expect to live almost twice as long as babies born 100 years ago ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, according to Suter ( 35 ), " one of the greatest changes in our era is that people are now living longer about 25 years longer than they were a century ago ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, the number of years a person will live is primarily a result of genetic and social factors, including lifestyle, environment, and education.

e_x =\sum_{t=1}^{\infty}\,_tp_x = \sum_{t=0}^{\infty}t \,_tp_x q_{x+t}
.Because age is rounded down to the last birthday, on average people live half a year beyond their final birthday, so half a year is added to the life expectancy to calculate the full life expectancy.^ Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, female jumping spiders generally have longer life expectancies than males, which also mature first. The maturation process typically spans one year.  .
  • Jumping Spider Life Expectancy 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: News]

^ Life Expectancy at Birth — The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
  • Germany Life Expectancy at Birth by Country 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.countryreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(This is \,e_x\! with a circle over the e.)
.Life expectancy is by definition an arithmetic mean.^ Find out the truth about life expectancy and illness morbidity statistics as a means of evaluating trends in public health.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Institute continues to try and mislead the Australian public by inferring this reduction in infant deaths and increase in average statistical life expectancy means we are living longer.
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics ( ABS ) in this regard ( 29 ), " life expectancy at birth is often wrongly interpreted to mean that most people die at that age ."
  • Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.holistichealthtopics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can also be calculated by integrating the survival curve from ages 0 to positive infinity (the maximum lifespan, sometimes called 'omega'). .For an extinct cohort (all people born in year 1850, for example), of course, it can simply be calculated by averaging the ages at death.^ Finally, it is important to point out that, in 1993, mortality from all causes of death combined brought significant losses in life expectancy, even at ages under 15 (0.1 years for males and 0.2 years for females).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To extract a pure effect of mortality rates, we calculate the expected numbers of deaths for each year 1989-1993 period, applying age-specific death rates for the year under consideration to the population figures by age from the 1989 census ("expected deaths" in Table 4.8).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These standardized death rates, or SDRs, are weighted averages of age-specific death rates.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.For cohorts with some survivors it is estimated by using mortality experience in recent years.^ Perhaps these are some early signs of the increase in adult male mortality that has characterized Russia in recent decades.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For women the gap in violent mortality is much smaller, but again the Russian excess mortality is obvious, especially in recent years.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is important to note that this statistic is usually based on past mortality experience, and assumes that the same age-specific mortality rates will continue into the future.^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At ages 1-4 and 5-9 the relative difference in mortality is even higher, with Russian death rates about 15 times higher than those in the United States.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 4.13--Male Death Rates for Different Ages: 1970-1993 Increase in infant mortality.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus such life expectancy figures are not generally appropriate for calculating how long any given individual of a particular age is expected to live.^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The above analysis shows that the general lowering of Russian life expectancy at birth during the last three decades is mostly explained by a long-term increase in premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases and mortality from injuries and violence at ages 15-64.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

But they are a useful statistic to summarize the current health status of a population.
.However for some purposes, such as pensions calculations, it is usual to adjust the life table used, thus assuming that age-specific death rates will continue to decrease over the years, as they have done in the past.^ NOTE: Standardized death rate-age-adjusted death rate.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Table 4.9 Components of Life Expectancy Decrease in 1992-1993, by Age and Cause of Death .
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Changes in the absolute number of deaths can be decomposed into two components: changes in age-specific death rates (the force of mortality) and changes in population size and age structure (aging).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is often done by simply extrapolating past trends; however some models do exist to account for the evolution of mortality (e.g., the Lee-Carter model[41]).^ However, some principal features remained hidden due to the traditional lack of Soviet mortality data.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in contrast to the 1930s, infant mortality is lower than corresponding model values.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in 1992 some new and alarming tendencies, not related to alcohol abuse, appeared in the Russian mortality pattern.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.As discussed above, on an individual basis, there are a number of factors that have been shown to correlate with a longer life.^ There are also official life tables for 1938-1939, based on 1939 numbers relative to the 1939 census population.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Factors that are associated with variations in life expectancy include family history, marital status, economic status, physique, exercise, diet, drug use including smoking and alcohol consumption, disposition, education, environment, sleep, climate, and health care.^ Here we use the corrected (for underreporting of deaths in infancy and older ages) values of life expectancy at birth for Russia (Shkolnikov, Meslé, Vallin, 1994).
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was a period of successive efforts by the Soviet centralized health care system against infectious diseases using new antibiotics and mass vaccinations.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The deviations of observed life expectancies from their expected values are likely to be valid indicators of the real strength of the recent deterioration in the health of the Russian population.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]

Life Expectancy Index

.The Life Expectancy Index is a statistical measure used to determine the average lifespan of the population of a certain nation or area.^ With improved data availability, it has become possible to evaluate the principal components of the change in life expectancy for the Russian population over time.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dramatic Mortality Increase in 1992-1993 In 1992-1993, life expectancy at birth for the Russian population took an unprecedented fall.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Table 4.7 Changes in Life Expectancy of Russian Population by Cause of Death: 1980-1987 and 1987-1992, by Gender .
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

.Life expectancy is one of the factors in measuring the Human Development Index (HDI) of each nation, along with adult literacy, education, and standard of living.^ In many countries, where living standards are much worse than in Russia--even in some developing countries--male life expectancy is significantly higher.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of mortality decline at adult ages on overall life expectancy improvements was much smaller and unequal by sex: 7.8 years for males and 10.3 years for females.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Once again, increasing mortality at adult ages reveals itself as the main factor reducing life expectancy.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

[42]
.Life expectancy is also a factor in finding the physical quality of life of an area.^ Once again, increasing mortality at adult ages reveals itself as the main factor reducing life expectancy.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even infectious diseases, which had never before been a factor of worsening in postwar times, induced a loss of 0.1 years in male life expectancy at birth.
  • The Russian Epidemiological Crisis 11 January 2010 4:20 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Academic]

See also

Increasing life expectancy

References

  1. ^ Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 473. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. http://www.pearsonschool.com/index.cfm?locator=PSZ3R9&PMDbSiteId=2781&PMDbSolutionId=6724&PMDbCategoryId=&PMDbProgramId=12881&level=4. 
  2. ^ John S. Millar and Richard M. Zammuto (1983). "Life Histories of Mammals: An Analysis of Life Tables". Ecology 64 (4): 631–635. doi:10.2307/1937181. 
  3. ^ a b Eliahu Zahavi,Vladimir Torbilo & Solomon Press (1996) Fatigue Design: Life Expectancy of Machine Parts. CRC Press. ISBN 0849389704
  4. ^ news.bbc.co.uk, BBC Country Profile: Swaziland (referencing UN data)
  5. ^ Ansley J. Coale; Judith Banister (December 1996). "Five decades of missing females in China". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140 (4): 421–450. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X%28199612%29140%3A4%3C421%3AFDOMFI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O. Retrieved 2007-05-26. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Santrock, John (2007). Life Expectancy. A Topical Approach to: Life-Span Development(pp. 128-132). New York, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  7. ^ Hillard Kaplan, Kim Hill, Jane Lancaster, and A. Magdalena Hurtado "A Theory of Human Life History Evolution: Diet, Intelligence and Longevity" (Evolutionary Anthropology, 2000, p. 156-185) - http://www.unm.edu/~hkaplan/KaplanHillLancasterHurtado_2000_LHEvolution.pdf
  8. ^ Caspari & Lee 'Older age becomes common late in human evolution' (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2004, p. 10895-10900
  9. ^ James Trefil, "Can We Live Forever?" 101 Things You Don't Know About Science and No One Else Does Either (1996)
  10. ^ a b Mortality (Britannica.com)
  11. ^ Pre-European Exploration, Prehistory through 1540
  12. ^ Conrad, Lawrence I. (2006). The Western Medical Tradition. Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0521475643. 
  13. ^ Ahmad, Ahmad Atif (2007). "Authority, Conflict, and the Transmission of Diversity in Medieval Islamic Law by R. Kevin Jaques". Journal of Islamic Studies 18=issue=2: 246–248 [246]. doi:10.1093/jis/etm005. 
  14. ^ Bulliet, Richard W. (1983). "The Age Structure of Medieval Islamic Education". Studia Islamica 57: 105–117 [111]. 
  15. ^ Shatzmiller, Maya (1994). Labour in the Medieval bonner World. Brill Publishers. p. 66. ISBN 9004098968. 
  16. ^ Time traveller's guide to Medieval Britain
  17. ^ A millennium of health improvement
  18. ^ World Health Organization
  19. ^ Our Special Place in History
  20. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - Life expectancy at birth
  21. ^ "Medicine & Health", Stratfordhall.org.
  22. ^ "Death in Early America". Digital History.
  23. ^ "Modernization - Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  24. ^ Mabel C. Buer, Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, London: George Routledge & Sons, 1926, page 30 ISBN 0-415-38218-1
  25. ^ BBC - History - The Foundling Hospital. Published: 2001-05-01.
  26. ^ CDC (1999). "Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900–1999". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48 (12): 241–3. PMID 10220250. http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm.  Reprinted in: "From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten great public health achievements--United States, 1900-1999.". JAMA 281 (16): 1481. 1999. doi:10.1001/jama.281.16.1481. PMID 10227303. 
  27. ^ Department of Health -Tackling health inequalities: Status report on the Programme for Action
  28. ^ "Social factors key to ill health". BBC News. 2008-08-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7584056.stm#Life%20expectancy. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  29. ^ "GP explains life expectancy gap". BBC News. 2008-08-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/7584450.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  30. ^ a b World Health Organization (2004). "Annex Table 2: Deaths by cause, sex and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2002" (pdf). The world health report 2004 - changing history. http://www.who.int/entity/whr/2004/annex/topic/en/annex_2_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  31. ^ http://jerrymondo.tripod.com/lgev/id1.html
  32. ^ Samaras, Thomas T. und Heigh, Gregory H.: How human size affects longevity and mortality from degenerative diseases. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 159: 78-85, 133-139
  33. ^ Williams G (1957). "Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence". Evolution 11: 398–411. doi:10.2307/2406060. 
  34. ^ Austad SN (1993). "Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums". J. Zool. London 229: 695–708. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb02665.x. 
  35. ^ Reznick DN, Bryant MJ, Roff D, Ghalambor CK, Ghalambor DE (2004). "Effect of extrinsic mortality on the evolution of senescence in guppies". Nature 431 (7012): 1095–1099. doi:10.1038/nature02936. PMID 15510147. 
  36. ^ Mitteldorf J, Pepper J (2007). "How can evolutionary theory accommodate recent empirical results on organismal senescence?". Theory in Biosciences 126 (1): 3–8. doi:10.1007/s12064-007-0001-0. PMID 18087751. 
  37. ^ Kirkwood TE (1977). "Evolution of aging". Nature 270 (5635): 301–304. doi:10.1038/270301a0. PMID 593350. 
  38. ^ Ricklefs RE, Cadena CD (2007). "Lifespan is unrelated to investment in reproduction in populations of mammals and birds in captivity". Ecol. Lett. 10 (10): 867–872. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01085.x. PMID 17845285. 
  39. ^ Anderson, Robert N. (1999) Method for constructing complete annual U.S. life tables. Vital and health statistics. Series 2, Data evaluation and methods research ; no. 129 (DHHS publication ; no. (PHS) 99-1329) PDF
  40. ^ Linda J Young; Jerry H Young (1998) Statistical ecology : a population perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 310
  41. ^ Ronald D. Lee and Lawrence Carter. 1992. "Modeling and Forecasting the Time Series of U.S. Mortality," Journal of the American Statistical Association 87 (September): 659-671.
  42. ^ http://hdrstats.undp.org/indicators/6.html

Further reading

  • Leonid A. Gavrilov & Natalia S. Gavrilova (1991), The Biology of Life Span: A Quantitative Approach. New York: Harwood Academic Publisher, ISBN 3-7186-4983-7

External links


Life expectancy is the expected (in the statistical sense) number of years of life remaining at a given age.[1] It is denoted by ex, which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience. (In technical literature, this symbol means the average number of complete years of life remaining, excluding fractions of a year. The corresponding statistic including fractions of a year, the normal meaning of life expectancy, has a symbol with a small circle over the e.) The life expectancy of a group of individuals is heavily dependent on the criteria used to select the group. Life expectancy is usually calculated separately for males and females. Females live longer than males in countries with modern obstetric care.

The term that is known as life expectancy is most often used in the context of human populations, but is also used in plant or animal ecology[2]; it is calculated by the analysis of life tables (also known as actuarial tables). The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects[3] although the related term shelf life is used for consumer products and the terms "mean time to breakdown" (MTTB) and "mean time before failures" (MTBF) are used in engineering literature.

A common misunderstanding is that life expectancy means average life span. This is untrue since, for example, life expectancy takes into account infant mortality and hence while in some age life expectancy may had been low, several people may had had long lives.

Contents

Interpretation of life expectancy

In countries with high infant mortality rates, the life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, simple life expectancy at age zero can be subject to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low overall life expectancy will necessarily have a small proportion of older people. For example, in a hypothetical stationary population in which half the population dies before the age of five, but everybody else dies exactly at 70 years old, the life expectancy at age zero will be about 35 years, while about 25% of the population will be between the ages of 50 and 70. Another measure such as life expectancy at age 5 (e5) can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood—in the hypothetical population above, life expectancy at age 5 would be 70 years. Aggregate population measures such as the proportion of the population in various age classes should also be used alongside individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics.

One example of this common misinterpretation can be seen in the In Search of... episode "The Man Who Would Not Die" (About Count of St. Germain) where it is stated "Evidence recently discovered in the British Museum indicates that St. Germain may have well been the long lost third son of Rákóczi born in Transylvania in 1694. If he died in Germany in 1784, he lived 90 years. The average life expectancy in the 18th century was 35 years. Fifty was a ripe old age. Ninety... was forever." This ignores the fact that life expectancy changes depending on age and the one often presented is the "at birth" number. For example, a Roman Life Expectancy table at the University of Texas shows that at birth the life expectancy was 25 but if one lived to the age of 5 one's life expectancy jumped to 48. Similar papers such as Plymouth Plantation; "Dead at Forty" and Life Expectancy by Age, 1850–2004 show dramatic increases in life expectancy after childhood.

Human life expectancy patterns

Humans live on average 39.5 years in Swaziland[4] and 81 years in Japan (2008 est.), although Japan's recorded life expectancy may have been very slightly increased by counting many infant deaths as stillborn.[5] The oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years (see Jeanne Calment). This is referred to as the "maximum life span", which is the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived.[6]

Life expectancy variation over time

The following information is derived from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1961 and other sources, and unless otherwise stated represents estimates of the life expectancies of the population as a whole. In many instances life expectancy varied considerably according to class and gender.

Sometimes, mainly in the past, life expectancy increased during the years of childhood, as the individual survived the high mortality rates then associated with childhood. The life expectancies at birth listed below take account of infant mortality but not pre-natal mortality (miscarriage or abortion).

Humans by Era Average Lifespan at Birth
(years)
Comment
Upper Paleolithic 33 At age 15: 39 (to age 54)[7][8]
Neolithic[9] 20  
Bronze Age and Iron Age[10] 35+  
Classical Greece[11] 28  
Classical Rome[11] 28  
Pre-Columbian North America[12] 25-30  
Medieval Islamic Caliphate[13] 35+
Medieval Britain[14][15] 30  
Early Modern Britain[10] 40+  
Early 20th Century[16][17] 30-45  
Current world average[18] 67.2 2010 est.

While different sample attributes and sizes, methodologies, and theoretical assumptions produce sometimes notable variations, in general, interpretations of the available data indicate that the occurrence of older age became more common late in human evolution.[8][19] This increased longevity is attributed by some writers to cultural adaptations rather than phylogenetic change,[20] although some research indicates that during the Neolithic Revolution there was a selection effect of extrinsic mortality risk upon genotypic expressions favouring increased longevity in subsequent populations.[9] Nevertheless, all researchers acknowledge the effect of cultural adaptations upon life expectancy.[19]

The average life expectancy in Colonial America was under 25 years in the Virginia colony,[21] and in New England about 40% of children failed to reach adulthood.[22] During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.[23] The percentage of children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730-1749 to 31.8% in 1810-1829.[24][25]

Public health measures are credited with much of the recent increase in life expectancy. During the 20th century, the average lifespan in the United States increased by more than 30 years, of which 25 years can be attributed to advances in public health.[26]

In order to assess the quality of these additional years of life, 'healthy life expectancies' have been calculated for the last 30 years. Since 2001, the World Health Organization publishes statistics called Healthy life expectancy (HALE), defined as the average number of years that a person can expect to live in "full health", excluding the years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury. Since 2004, Eurostat publishes annual statistics called Healthy Life Years (HLY) based on reported activity limitations. The United States of America uses similar indicators in the framework of their nationwide health promotion and disease prevention plan "Healthy People 2010". An increasing number of countries are using health expectancy indicators to monitor the health of their population.

Regional variations

There are great variations in life expectancy between different parts of the world, mostly caused by differences in public health, medical care and diet. Much of the excess mortality (higher death rates) in poorer nations is due to war, starvation, and diseases (AIDS, Malaria, etc.). Over the past 200 years, countries with Black or African populations have generally not had the same improvements in mortality rates that have been enjoyed by populations of European origin. Even in countries with a majority of White people, such as USA, Britain, Ireland and France, Black people tend to have shorter life expectancies than their White counterparts (although often the statistics are not analysed by sexuality). For example, in the U.S. White Americans are expected to live until age 78, but black people only until age 71.[6]. Climate may also have an effect, and the way data is collected may also influence the figures. According to the CIA World Factbook, Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China has the world's longest life expectancy of 84.4 years.

There are also significant differences in life expectancy between men and women in most countries, with women typically outliving men by around five years. Economic circumstances also affect life expectancy. For example, in the United Kingdom, life expectancy in the wealthiest areas is several years longer than in the poorest areas. This may reflect factors such as diet and lifestyle as well as access to medical care. It may also reflect a selective effect: people with chronic life-threatening illnesses are less likely to become wealthy or to reside in affluent areas.[27] In Glasgow the disparity is among the highest in the world with life expectancy for males in the heavily deprived Calton standing at 54 – 28 years less than in the affluent area of Lenzie, which is only eight kilometres away.[28][29]

Life expectancy is also likely to be affected by exposure to high levels of highway air pollution or industrial air pollution.[citation needed] This is one way that occupation can have a major effect on life expectancy. Coal miners (and in prior generations, asbestos cutters) often have shorter than average life expancies. Other factors affecting an individual's life expectancy are genetic disorders, obesity, access to health care, diet, exercise, tobacco smoking, drug use and excessive alcohol use.

Sex differences

Women tend to have a lower mortality rate at every age. In the womb, male fetuses have a higher mortality rate (babies are conceived in a ratio of about 124 males to 100 females, but the ratio of those surviving to birth is only 105 males to 100 females). Among the smallest premature babies (those under 2 pounds or 900 g) females again have a higher survival rate. At the other extreme, about 90% of individuals aged 110 are female.

In the past, mortality rates for females in child-bearing age groups were higher than for males at the same age. This is no longer the case, and female human life expectancy is considerably higher than those of men. The reasons for this are not entirely certain. Traditional arguments tend to favor socio-environmental factors: historically, men have generally consumed more tobacco, alcohol and drugs than females in most societies, and are more likely to die from many associated diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis and cirrhosis of the liver.[30] Men are also more likely to die from injuries, whether unintentional (such as car accidents) or intentional (suicide, violence, war).[30] Men are also more likely to die from most of the leading causes of death (some already stated above) than women. Some of these in the United States include: cancer of the respiratory system, motor vehicle accidents, suicide, cirrhosis of the liver, emphysema, and coronary heart disease [6]. These far outweigh the female mortality rate from breast cancer and cervical cancer etc.[citation needed]

Some argue that shorter male life expectancy is merely another manifestation of the general rule, seen in all mammal species, that larger individuals tend on average to have shorter lives.[31][32] This biological difference occurs because women have more resistance to infections and degenerative diseases [6].

Influence of disabilities

The main disabilities influencing life expectancy are physical disabilities, including congenital conditions and the results of accidents.

In the Western world, people with a serious mental illness die on average 25 years earlier than the rest of the population[citation needed], even though there is no objective test for mental illness[citation needed]. Mental illnesses include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Three out of five mentally ill die from mostly preventable physical diseases, such as Heart/Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Dyslipidaemia, Respiratory ailments, Pneumonia, Influenza.[citation needed]

Stress also decreases life expectancy. The side effects of stress are: pain of any kind, heart disease, digestive problems, sleep problems, depression, obesity, autoimmune diseases, skin conditions, etc, all of which contribute to mental disorders, faster ageing, and other physical diseases.[citation needed]

Centenarians

The number of centenarians is increasing at 7% per year, which means doubling the centanarian population every decade, pushing it into the millions in the next few years.[33] Japan has the highest ratio of centenarians. In Okinawa, there are 34.7 centenarians for every 100,000 inhabitants [6].

In the United States, the number of centenarians grew from 15,000 in 1980 to 77,000 in 2000.[citation needed]

Evolution and aging rate

Various species of plants and animals, including humans, have different lifespans. There is a well-developed evolutionary theory of aging, and general consensus in the academic community of evolutionary theorists; however the theory doesn't work well in practice, and there are many unexplained exceptions. Evolutionary theory states that organisms that, by virtue of their defenses or lifestyle, live for long periods whilst avoiding accidents, disease, predation, etc., are likely to have genes that code for slow aging - which often translates to good cellular repair. This is theorized to be true because if predation or accidental deaths prevent most individuals from living to an old age, then there will be less natural selection to increase intrinsic life span.[34] The finding was supported in a classic study of opossums by Austad [35], however the opposite relationship was found in an equally-prominent study of guppies by Reznick.[36][37]

One prominent and very popular theory attributes aging to a tight budget for food energy.[38] The theory has difficulty with the caloric restriction effect observed in many animals, where tighter the calorific intake, lesser the rate of aging.

In theory, reproduction is costly and takes energy away from the repair processes that extend life spans. However, in actuality females of many species invest much more energy in reproduction than do their male counterparts, and live longer nevertheless. In a broad survey of zoo animals, no relationship was found between the fertility of the animal and its life span.[39]

Calculating life expectancies

The starting point for calculating life expectancies is the age-specific death rates of the population members. A very simple model of age-specific mortality uses the Gompertz function, although these days more sophisticated methods are used.[40]

In cases where the amount of data is relatively small, the most common methods are to fit the data to a mathematical formula, such as an extension of the Gompertz function, or to look at an established mortality table previously derived for a larger population and make a simple adjustment to it (e.g. multiply by a constant factor) to fit the data.

With a large amount of data, one looks at the mortality rates actually experienced at each age, and applies smoothing (e.g. by cubic splines) to iron out any apparently random statistical fluctuations from one year of age to the next.

While the data required is easily identified in the case of humans, the computation of life expectancy of industrial products and wild animals involves more indirect techniques. The life expectancy and demography of wild animals are often estimated by capturing, marking and recapturing them.[41] The life of a product, more often termed shelf life is also computed using similar methods. In the case of long-lived components such as those used in critical applications, such as in aircraft methods such as accelerated aging are used to model the life expectancy of a component.[3]

The age-specific death rates are calculated separately for separate groups of data which are believed to have different mortality rates (e.g. males and females, and perhaps smokers and non-smokers if data is available separately for those groups) and are then used to calculate a life table, from which one can calculate the probability of surviving to each age. In actuarial notation the probability of surviving from age x to age x+n is denoted \,_np_x\! and the probability of dying during age x (i.e. between ages x and x+1) is denoted q_x\!. For example, if 10% of a group of people alive at their 90th birthday die before their 91st birthday, then the age-specific death probability at age 90 would be 10%.

The life expectancy at age x, denoted \,e_x\!, is then calculated by adding up the probabilities to survive to every age. This is the expected number of complete years lived (one may think of it as the number of birthdays they celebrate).

e_x =\sum_{t=1}^{\infty}\,_tp_x = \sum_{t=0}^{\infty}t \,_tp_x q_{x+t}

Because age is rounded down to the last birthday, on average people live half a year beyond their final birthday, so half a year is added to the life expectancy to calculate the full life expectancy. (This is denoted by \,e_x\! with a circle over the "e".)

Life expectancy is by definition an arithmetic mean. It can also be calculated by integrating the survival curve from ages 0 to positive infinity (the maximum lifespan, sometimes called 'omega'). For an extinct cohort (all people born in year 1850, for example), of course, it can simply be calculated by averaging the ages at death. For cohorts with some survivors it is estimated by using mortality experience in recent years.

It is important to note that this statistic is usually based on past mortality experience, and assumes that the same age-specific mortality rates will continue into the future. Thus such life expectancy figures are not generally appropriate for calculating how long any given individual of a particular age is expected to live. But they are a useful statistic to summarize the current health status of a population.

However for some purposes, such as pensions calculations, it is usual to adjust the life table used, thus assuming that age-specific death rates will continue to decrease over the years, as they have done in the past. This is often done by simply extrapolating past trends; however some models do exist to account for the evolution of mortality (e.g., the Lee-Carter model[42]).

As discussed above, on an individual basis, there are a number of factors that have been shown to correlate with a longer life. Factors that are associated with variations in life expectancy include family history, marital status, economic status, physique, exercise, diet, drug use including smoking and alcohol consumption, disposition, education, environment, sleep, climate, and health care.[6]

Life expectancy forecasting

Forecasting life expectancy and mortality forms an important subdivision of demography. Future trends in life expectancy have huge implications for old-age support programs like U.S. Social Security and pension systems, because the cash flow in these systems depends on the number of recipients still living (along with the rate of return on the investments or the tax rate in PAYGO systems). With longer life expectancies, these systems see increased cash outflow; if these systems underestimate increases in life-expectancies, they won't be prepared for the large payments that will inevitably occur as humans live longer and longer.

Life expectancy forecasting usually is based on two different approaches:

  • Forecasting the life expectancy directly, generally using ARIMA or other time series extrapolation procedures: This approach has the advantage of simplicity, but it cannot account for changes in mortality at specific ages, and the forecasted number cannot be used to derive other life table results. Analyses and forecasts using this approach can be done with any common statistical/ mathematical software package, like R, SAS, Matlab, or SPSS.
  • Forecasting age specific death rates and computing the life expectancy from the results with life table methods: This approach is usually more complex than simply forecasting life expectancy because the analyst must deal with correlated age specific mortality rates, but it seems to be more robust than simple one dimensional time series approaches. This approach also yields a set of age specific rates that be used to derive other measures, like survival curves or life expectancies at different ages. The most important approach within this group is the Lee Carter model[43], which uses the singular value decomposition on a set of transformed age-specific mortality rates to reduce their dimensionality to a single time series, forecasts that time series, and then recovers a full set of age-specific mortality rates from that forecasted value. Software for this approach include Prof. Hyndeman's R libraries and UC Berkeley's LCFIT system.

Policy uses of life expectancy

Life expectancy is one of the factors in measuring the Human Development Index (HDI) of each nation, along with adult literacy, education, and standard of living.[44]

Life expectancy is also used in describing the physical quality of life of an area.

Life expectancy vs. life span

Life expectancy is often confused with life span to the point that they are nearly synonyms; when people hear 'life expectancy was 35 years' they often interpret this as meaning that people of that time or place had short life spans. [45] One such example can be seen in the In Search of... episode "The Man Who Would Not Die" (About Count of St. Germain) where it is stated "Evidence recently discovered in the British Museum indicates that St. Germain may have well been the long lost third son of Rákóczi born in Transylvania in 1694. If he died in Germany in 1784, he lived 90 years. The average life expectancy in the 18th century was 35 years. Fifty was a ripe old age. Ninety... was forever."

This ignores the fact that the life expectancy generally quoted is the at birth number which is an average that includes all the babies that die before their first year of life as well people that die from disease and war. In fact, there are examples of people living way past the life expectancy of their time such as Socrates, Roman emperor Augustus, Saint Anthony, Michelangelo, and Ben Franklin.[46]

It can be argued that it is better to compare life expectancies of the period after adulthood to get a better handle on life span.[47] Even during childhood life expectancy can take a huge jump as seen in the Roman Life Expectancy table at the University of Texas where at birth the life expectancy was 25 but at the age of 5 it jumped to 48. Studies like Plymouth Plantation; "Dead at Forty" and Life Expectancy by Age, 1850–2004 similarly show a dramatic increase in life expectancy once adulthood was reached.

See also

Increasing life expectancy

References

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Further reading

  • Leonid A. Gavrilov & Natalia S. Gavrilova (1991), The Biology of Life Span: A Quantitative Approach. New York: Harwood Academic Publisher, ISBN 3-7186-4983-7

External links


Simple English

Life expectancy is how long a person is expected to live. It is based on many factors such as place of living (country), life style including (smoking habit, diet, exercise) etc.


There are great changes in life expectancy between different parts of the world, mostly caused by differences in public health, medical care and diet. Much of the excess mortality (higher death rates) in poorer nations is due to war, not enough food, and diseases (AIDS, Malaria, etc.).

Over the past 200 years, countries with Black or African populations have generally not had the same improvements in mortality rates that have been enjoyed by European people. Even in countries with a majority of White people, such as USA, Britain, Ireland and France, Black people tend to have shorter life expectancies than their White counterparts (although often the statistics are not analysed by race). For example, in the U.S. White Americans are expected to live until age 78, but African Americans only until age 71.

Climate may also have an effect, and the way data is collected may also influence the figures. According to the CIA World Factbook, Macau has the world's longest life expectancy of 84.4 years.

There are also significant differences in life expectancy between men and women in most countries, with women typically outliving men by around five years. Economic circumstances also affect life expectancy. For example, in the United Kingdom, life expectancy in the richest areas is several years longer than in the poorest areas. This may reflect factors such as diet and lifestyle as well as access to medical care. It may also reflect a selective effect: people with chronic life-threatening illnesses are less likely to become wealthy or to reside in rich areas.[1]

= References

=

  1. Department of Health -Tackling health inequalities: Status report on the Programme for Action


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

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