The Full Wiki

Life on Mars: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...

More interesting facts on Life on Mars

Include this on your site/blog:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An artist's impression of what Mars' surface and atmosphere may look like if Mars were terraformed.

Scientists have long speculated about the possibility of life on Mars owing to the planet's proximity and similarity to Earth. Although fictional Martians have been a recurring feature of popular entertainment, it remains an open question whether life currently exists on Mars, or has existed there in the past.


Early speculation

Historical map of Mars from Giovanni Schiaparelli.
Mars canals, as seen by astronomer P. Lowell, 1898.

Mars' polar ice caps were observed as early as the mid-17th century, and they were first proven to grow and shrink alternately, in the summer and winter of each hemisphere, by William Herschel in the latter part of the 18th century. By the mid-19th century, astronomers knew that Mars had certain other similarities to Earth, for example that the length of a day on Mars was almost the same as a day on Earth. They also knew that its axial tilt was similar to Earth's, which meant it experienced seasons just as Earth does - but of nearly double the length owing to its much longer year. These observations led to the increase in speculation that the darker albedo features were water, and brighter ones were land. It was therefore natural to suppose that Mars may be inhabited by some form of life.

In 1854, William Whewell, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who popularized the word scientist, theorized that Mars had seas, land and possibly life forms. Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals — which were however soon found to be optical illusions. Despite this, in 1895, American astronomer Percival Lowell published his book Mars, followed by Mars and its Canals in 1906, proposing that the canals were the work of a long-gone civilization.[1] This idea led British writer H. G. Wells to write The War of the Worlds in 1897, telling of an invasion by aliens from Mars who were fleeing the planet’s desiccation.

Spectroscopic analysis of Mars' atmosphere began in earnest in 1894, when U.S. astronomer William Wallace Campbell showed that neither water nor oxygen were present in the Martian atmosphere.[2] By 1909 better telescopes and the best perihelic opposition of Mars since 1877 conclusively put an end to the canal theory.


Mariner 4

Mariner Crater, as seen by Mariner 4 in 1965. Pictures like this suggested that Mars is too dry for any kind of life.
Streamlined Islands seen by Viking orbiter showed that large floods occurred on Mars. Image is located in Lunae Palus quadrangle.

Mariner 4 probe performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface in 1965. The photographs showed an arid Mars without rivers, oceans or any signs of life. Further, it revealed that the surface (at least the parts that it photographed) was covered in craters, indicating a lack of plate tectonics and weathering of any kind for the last 4 billion years. The probe also found that Mars has no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic rays. The probe was also able to calculate the atmospheric pressure on the planet to be about 0.6 kPa (compared to Earth's 101.3 kPa), meaning that liquid water could not exist on the planet's surface.[2] After Mariner 4, the search for life on Mars changed to a search for bacteria-like living organisms rather than for multicellular organisms, as the environment was clearly too harsh for these.

Viking orbiters

Liquid water is necessary for life and metabolism, so if water was present on Mars, the chances of it having supported life may have been determinant. The Viking orbiters found evidence of possible river valleys in many areas, erosion and, in the southern hemisphere, branched streams.[3][4][5]

Viking experiments

Carl Sagan poses next to a replica of the Viking landers.

The primary mission of the Viking probes of the mid-1970s was to carry out experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil. The tests were formulated to look for life similar to that found on Earth. Of the four experiments, only the Labeled Release experiment returned a positive result, showing increased 14CO2 production on first exposure of soil to water and nutrients. All scientists agree on two points from the Viking missions: that radiolabeled 14CO2 was evolved in the Labeled Release experiment, and that the GC-MS detected no organic molecules. However, there are vastly different interpretations of what those results imply.

One of the designers of the LR experiment, Gilbert Levin, believes his results are a definitive diagnostic for life on Mars.[2] However, this result is disputed by many scientists, who argue that superoxidant chemicals in the soil could have produced this effect without life being present. An almost general consensus discarded the Labeled Release data as evidence of life, because the gas chromatograph & mass spectrometer, designed to identify natural organic matter, did not detect organic molecules.[6] The results of the Viking mission concerning life are considered by the general expert community, at best, as inconclusive.[2][7]

Since Mars lost most of its magnetic field about 4 billion years ago, the Martian ionosphere is unable to stop the solar wind or radiation, and it interacts directly with exposed soil, making life, as we know it, impossible to exist. Also, liquid water, necessary for life and for metabolism, cannot exist on the surface of Mars with its present low atmospheric pressure and temperature, except at the lowest shaded elevations for short periods[8][9] and liquid water never appears at the surface itself.[10]

In 2007, during a Seminar of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution (Washington, D.C., USA), Gilbert Levin's investigation was assessed once more.[6] Levin maintains that his original data were correct, as the positive and negative control experiments were in order.

Ronald Paepe, an edaphologist (soil scientist), communicated to the European Geosciences Union Congress that the discovery of the recent detection of phyllosilicate clays on Mars may indicate pedogenesis, or soil development processes, extended over the entire surface of Mars.[11] Paepe's interpretation views most of Mars surface as active soil, colored red by eons of widespread wearing by water, vegetation and microbial activity.[11]

A research team from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies headed by Rafael Navarro-González, concluded that the equipment used (TV-GC-MS) by the Viking program to search for organic molecules, may not be sensitive enough to detect low levels of organics.[12] Because of the simplicity of sample handling, TV–GC–MS is still considered the standard method for organic detection on future Mars missions, Navarro-González suggests that the design of future organic instruments for Mars should include other methods of detection.

Gillevinia straata

Newly proposed taxonomic system.

The claim for life on Mars, in the form of Gillevinia straata, is based on old data reinterpreted as sufficient evidence of life, mainly by professors Gilbert Levin,[6] Rafael Navarro-González[12] and Ronalds Paepe.[11] The evidence supporting the existence of Gillevinia straata microorganisms relies on the data collected by the two Mars Viking landers that searched for biosignatures of life, but the analytical results were, officially, inconclusive.[2]

In 2006, Mario Crocco, a neurobiologist at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital Borda in Buenos Aires, Argentina, proposed the creation of a new nomenclatural rank that classified these results as 'metabolic' and therefore belonging to a form of life. Crocco proposed to create new biological ranking categories (taxa), in the new kingdom system of life, in order to be able to accommodate the genus of Martian microorganisms. Crocco proposed the following taxonomical entry:[13]

  • Organic life system: Solaria
  • Biosphere: Marciana
  • Kingdom: Jakobia (named after neurobiologist Christfried Jakob)
  • Genus et species: Gillevinia straata

As a result, the Gillevinia straata would not be a bacterium (which rather is a terrestrial taxon) but a member of the kingdom 'Jakobia' in the biosphere 'Marciana' of the 'Solaria' system. The intended effect of the new nomenclature was to reverse the burden of proof concerning the life issue, but the taxonomy proposed by Crocco has not been accepted by the scientific community and is considered a single nomen nudum. Further, no Mars mission has found traces of biomolecules.

Phoenix lander, 2008

An artist's concept of the Phoenix spacecraft.

The Phoenix mission landed a telerobot in the polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008 and it operated until November 10, 2008. One of the mission's two primary objectives was to search for a 'habitable zone' in the Martian regolith where microbial life could exist, the other main goal being to study the geological history of water on Mars. The lander has a 2.5 meter robotic arm that is capable of digging a 0.5 meter trench in the regolith. There is an electrochemistry experiment which analysed the ions in the regolith and the amount and type of antioxidants on Mars. The Viking program data indicates that oxidants on Mars may vary with latitude, noting that Viking 2 saw fewer oxidants than Viking 1 in its more northerly position. Phoenix landed further north still.[14] Phoenix's preliminary data revealed that Mars soil contains perchlorate, and thus may not be as life-friendly as thought earlier.[15][16][17] The pH and salinity level were viewed as benign from the standpoint of biology. The analysers also indicated the presence of bound water and CO2.[18]

Future missions

  • Mars Science Laboratory, a NASA project planned for launch in late 2011, will contain instruments and experiments designed to look for past or present conditions relevant to biological activity.
  • ExoMars is a European-led multi-spacecraft programme currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for launch in 2016 and 2018.[19] Its primary scientific mission will be to search for possible biosignatures on Mars, past or present. Two rovers with a 2 m core drill each will be used to sample various depths beneath the surface where, liquid water may be found and where microorganisms might survive cosmic radiation.[20]
  • Mars Sample Return Mission — The best life detection experiment proposed is the examination on Earth of a soil sample from Mars. However, the difficulty of providing and maintaining life support over the months of transit from Mars to Earth remains to be solved. Providing for still unknown environmental and nutritional requirements is daunting. Should dead organisms be found in a sample, it would be difficult to conclude that those organisms were alive when obtained.


NASA maintains a catalog of 34 Mars meteorites.[22] These assets are highly valuable since they are the only physical samples available of Mars. Studies conducted by NASA's Johnson Space Center show that at least three of the meteorites contain potential evidence of past life on Mars, in the form of microscopic structures resembling fossilized bacteria (so-called biomorphs). Although the scientific evidence collected is reliable, its interpretation varies. To date, none of the original lines of scientific evidence for the hypothesis that the biomorphs are of exobiological origin (the so-called biogenic hypothesis) have been either discredited or positively ascribed to non-biological explanations.[23]

Over the past few decades, seven criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. Those criteria are:[23]

  1. Is the geologic context of the sample compatible with past life?
  2. Is the age of the sample and its stratigraphic location compatible with possible life?
  3. Does the sample contain evidence of cellular morphology and colonies?
  4. Is there any evidence of biominerals showing chemical or mineral disequilibria?
  5. Is there any evidence of stable isotope patterns unique to biology?
  6. Are there any organic biomarkers present?
  7. Are the features indigenous to the sample?

For general acceptance of past life in a geologic sample, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. All seven criteria have not yet been met for any of the Martian samples, but continued investigations are in progress.[23]

As of 2010, reexaminations of the biomorphs found in the three Martian meteorites are underway with more advanced analytical instruments than previously available. The scientists at Johnson Space Center conducting the study, believe that they will find definitive evidence for past life on Mars in the meteorites, before the end of the year.[24]

ALH84001 meteorite

An electron microscope reveals bacteria-like structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001

The ALH84001 meteorite was found on December 1984 on Antarctica by members of the ANSMET project; the meteorite weighs 1.93 kg.[25] The sample was ejected from Mars about 17 million years ago and spent 11,000 years in or on the Antarctic ice sheets. Composition analysis by NASA revealed a kind of magnetite that on Earth, is only found in association with certain microorganisms;[23] Then, in August 2002, another NASA team led by Thomas-Keptra published a study indicating that 25% of the magnetite in ALH 84001 occurs as small, uniform-sized crystals that, on Earth, is associated only with biologic activity, and that the remainder of the material appears to be normal inorganic magnetite. The extraction technique did not permit determination as to whether the possibly biological magnetite was organized into chains as would be expected. The meteorite displays indication of relatively low temperature secondary mineralization by water and show evidence of preterrestrial aqueous alteration. Evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified with the levels increasing away from the surface.

Some structures resembling the mineralized casts of terrestrial bacteria and their appendages (fibrils) or by-products (extracellular polymeric substances) occur in the rims of carbonate globules and preterrestrial aqueous alteration regions.[26][27] The size and shape of the objects is consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria, but the existence of nanobacteria itself is controversial.

In November 2009, NASA scientists said that a recent, more detailed analysis showed that the meteorite "contains strong evidence that life may have existed on ancient Mars".[28]

Nakhla Meteorite

Nakhla meteorite

The Nakhla meteorite fell on Earth on June 28, 1911 on the locality of Nakhla, Alexandria, Egypt.[29][30]

In 1998, a team from NASA's Johnson Space Center obtained a small sample for analysis. Researchers found preterrestrial aqueous alteration phases and objects[31] of the size and shape consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria, but the existence of nanobacteria itself is controversial. Analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studied its high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2000, and NASA scientists concluded that as much as 75% of the organic matter in Nakhla "may not be recent terrestrial contamination".[23][32]

This caused additional interest in this meteorite, so on 2006, NASA managed to obtain an additional and larger sample from the London Natural History Museum. On this second sample, a large dendritic carbon content was observed. When the results and evidence were published on 2006, some independent researchers claimed that the carbon deposits are of biologic origin. However, it was remarked that since carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe, finding it in curious patterns is not indicative or suggestive of biological origin.[33][34]

Shergotty meteorite

The Shergotty meteorite, a 4 kg martian meteorite, fell on Earth on Shergotty, India on August 25, 1865 and was retrieved by witnesses almost immediately.[35] This meteorite is relatively young, calculated to have been formed in Mars only 165 million years ago from volcanic origin. It is composed mostly of pyroxene and thought to have undergone preterrestrial aqueous alteration for several centuries. Certain features in its interior suggest to be remnants of biofilm and their associated microbial communities.[23] Work is in progress on searching for magnetites within alteration phases.

Liquid water

A series of artist's conceptions of hypothetical past water coverage on Mars.

No Mars probe since Viking has tested the Martian regolith specifically for metabolism which is the ultimate sign of current life. NASA's recent missions have focused on another question: whether Mars held lakes or oceans of liquid water on its surface in the ancient past. Scientists have found hematite, a mineral that forms in the presence of water. Many scientists have long held this to be almost self-evident based on various geological landforms on the planet, but others have proposed different explanations—wind erosion, oxygen oceans,[citation needed] etc. Thus, the mission of the Mars Exploration Rovers of 2004 was not to look for present or past life, but for evidence of liquid water on the surface of Mars in the planet's ancient past.

In June 2000, evidence for water currently under the surface of Mars was discovered in the form of flood-like gullies.[36] Deep subsurface water deposits near the planet's liquid core might form a present-day habitat for life. However, in March 2006, astronomers announced the discovery of similar gullies on the Moon,[37] which is believed never to have had liquid water on its surface. The astronomers suggest that the gullies could be the result of micrometeorite impacts.

In March 2004, NASA announced that its rover Opportunity had discovered evidence that Mars was, in the ancient past, a wet planet.[38] This had raised hopes that evidence of past life might be found on the planet today. ESA confirmed that the Mars Express orbiter had directly detected huge reserves of water ice at Mars' south pole in January 2004.[39].

On 28 July 2005, ESA announced that they had recorded photographic evidence of surface water ice near Mars' North pole[40].

In December 2006, NASA showed images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor that suggested that water occasionally flows on the surface of Mars. The images did not actually show flowing water. Rather, they showed changes in craters and sediment deposits, providing the strongest evidence yet that water coursed through them as recently as several years ago, and is perhaps doing so even now. Some researchers were skeptical that liquid water was responsible for the surface feature changes seen by the spacecraft. They said other materials such as sand or dust can flow like a liquid and produce similar results.[41]

Recent analysis of Martian sandstones, using data obtained from orbital spectrometry, suggests that the waters that previously existed on the surface of Mars would have had too high a salinity to support most Earth-like life. Tosca et al. found that the Martian water in the locations they studied all had water activity, aw ≤ 0.78 to 0.86—a level fatal to most Terrestrial life.[42] Haloarchaea, however, are able to live in hypersaline solutions, up to the saturation point.

The Phoenix Mars lander from NASA, which landed in the Mars Arctic plain in May 2008, confirmed the presence of frozen water near the surface. This was confirmed when bright material, exposed by the digging arm of the lander, was found to have vaporized and disappeared in 3 to 4 days. This has been attributed to sub-surface ice, exposed by the digging and sublimated on exposure to the atmosphere.[43]


Trace amounts of methane in the atmosphere of Mars were discovered in 2003 and verified in 2004.[44][45][46][47][48][49] The presence of methane on Mars is very intriguing, since as an unstable gas, it indicates that there must be an active source on the planet in order to keep such levels in the atmosphere. It is estimated that Mars must produce 270 ton/year of methane,[50][51] but asteroid impacts account for only 0.8% of the total methane production. Although geologic sources of methane such as serpentinization are possible, the lack of current volcanism, hydrothermal activity or hotspots are not favorable for geologic methane. It has been suggested that the methane was produced by chemical reactions in meteorites, driven by the intense heat during entry through the atmosphere. However, research published in December 2009, ruled out this possibility.[52][53]

The existence of life in the form of microorganisms such as methanogens are among possible, but as yet unproven sources. If microscopic Martian life is producing the methane, it likely resides far below the surface, where it is still warm enough for liquid water to exist.[54]

Since the 2003 discovery of methane in the atmosphere, some scientists have been designing models and in vitro experiments testing growth of methanogenic bacteria on simulated Martian soil, where all four methanogen strains tested produced substantial levels of methane, even in the presence of 1.0wt% perchlorate salt.[55] The results reported indicate that the perchlorates discovered by the Phoenix Lander would not rule out the possible presence of methanogens on Mars.[55][56]

A team led by Levin suggested that both phenomena —methane production and degradation— could be accounted for by an ecology of methane-producing and methane-consuming microorganisms.[56][57]


In February 2005, it was announced that the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter, detected traces of formaldehyde in the atmosphere of Mars. Vittorio Formisano, the director of the PFS, has speculated that the formaldehyde could be the byproduct of the oxidation of methane, and according to him, would provide evidence that Mars is either extremely geologically active, or harbouring colonies of microbial life.[58][59] NASA scientists consider the preliminary findings are well worth a follow-up, but have also rejected the claims of life.[60][61]


In May 2007, the Spirit rover disturbed a patch of ground with its inoperative wheel, uncovering an area extremely rich in silica (90%).[62] The feature is reminiscent of the effect of hot spring water or steam coming into contact with volcanic rocks. Scientists consider this as evidence of a past environment that may have been favorable for microbial life, and theorize that one possible origin for the silica may have been produced by the interaction of soil with acid vapors produced by volcanic activity in the presence of water. Another possible origin could have been from water in a hot spring environment.[63]

Geysers on Mars

Artist concept showing sand-laden jets erupt from geysers on Mars. (Published by NASA); artist: Ron Miller.
Close up of dark dune spots, likely created by cold geyser-like eruptions.

The seasonal frosting and defrosting of the southern ice cap results in the formation of spider-like radial channels carved on 1 meter thick ice by sunlight. Then, sublimed CO2 -and probably water- increase pressure in their interior producing geyser-like eruptions of cold fluids often mixed with dark basaltic sand or mud.[64][65][66][67] This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a growth rate rather unusual in geology - especially for Mars.

A team of Hungarian scientists propose that the geysers' most visible features, dark dune spots and spider channels, may be colonies of photosynthetic Martian microorganisms, which over-winter beneath the ice cap, and as the sunlight returns to the pole during early spring, light penetrates the ice, the microorganisms photosynthesise and heat their immediate surroundings. A pocket of liquid water, which would normally evaporate instantly in the thin Martian atmosphere, is trapped around them by the overlying ice. As this ice layer thins, the microorganisms show through grey. When it has completely melted, they rapidly desiccate and turn black surrounded by a grey aureole.[68][69][70][71] The Hungarian scientists believe that even a complex sublimation process is insufficient to explain the formation and evolution of the dark dune spots in space and time.[72][73] Since their discovery, fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke promoted these formations as deserving of study from an astrobiological perspective.[74]

A multinational European team suggests that if liquid water is present in the spiders' channels during their annual defrost cycle, they might provide a niche where certain microscopic life forms could have retreated and adapted while sheltered from solar radiation.[75] A British team also considers the possibility that organic matter, microbes, or even simple plants might co-exist with these inorganic formations, especially if the mechanism includes liquid water and a geothermal energy source.[76] However, they also remark that the majority of geological structures may be accounted for without invoking any organic "life on Mars" hypothesis.[76]

Cosmic radiation

In 1965, the Mariner 4 probe discovered that Mars had no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic radiation and solar radiation; observations made in the late 1990s by the Mars Global Surveyor confirmed this discovery.[77] Scientists speculate that the lack of magnetic shielding helped the solar wind blow away much of Mars's atmosphere over the course of several billion years.

In 2007, it was calculated that DNA and RNA damage by cosmic radiation was limiting life on Mars to depths below 7.5 metres.[20] Therefore, the best hopes for a story of life on Mars are at environments that haven't been studied yet, subsurface.[78]

See also


  1. ^ Is Mars habitable? A critical examination of Professor Percival Lowell's book "Mars and its canals.", an alternative explanation, by Alfred Russel Wallace, F.R.S., etc. London, Macmillan and co., 1907.
  2. ^ a b c d e Chambers, Paul (1999). Life on Mars; The Complete Story. London: Blandford. ISBN 0713727470. 
  3. ^ Strom, R.G., Steven K. Croft, and Nadine G. Barlow, "The Martian Impact Cratering Record," Mars, University of Arizona Press, ISBN 0-8165-1257-4, 1992.
  4. ^ Raeburn, P. 1998. Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet Mars. National Geographic Society. Washington D.C.
  5. ^ Moore, P. et al. 1990. The Atlas of the Solar System. Mitchell Beazley Publishers NY, NY.
  6. ^ a b c The Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory Seminar, "Analysis of evidence of Mars life" held 05/14/2007; Summary of the lecture given by Gilbert V. Levin, Ph.D., published by Electroneurobiología vol. 15 (2), pp. 39–47, 2007
  7. ^ KLEIN, HAROLD P.; GILBERT V. LEVIN (1976 - 10 - 01). "The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results". Science 194. (4260): 99–105. doi:10.1126/science.194.4260.99. PMID 17793090. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  8. ^ Heldmann et al., Jennifer L. (2005-05-07). "Formation of Martian gullies by the action of liquid water flowing under current Martian environmental conditions" ( – Scholar search). Journal of Geophysical Research 110: Eo5004. doi:10.1029/2004JE002261. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  9. ^ Kostama, V.-P.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W. (June 3, 2006). "Recent high-latitude icy mantle in the northern plains of Mars: Characteristics and ages of emplacement". Geophysical Research Letters 33: L11201. doi:10.1029/2006GL025946. Retrieved 2007-08-12.  'Martian high-latitude zones are covered with a smooth, layered ice-rich mantle'
  10. ^ Hecht, Michael H.; Ashwin R. Vasavada (2006 - 12 -14). "Transient liquid water near an artificial heat source on Mars" (PDF). Mars, the International Journal of Mars Science and Exploration 2: 83–96. 
  11. ^ a b c Paepe, Ronald (2007). "The Red Soil on Mars as a proof for water and vegetation" (PDP). Geophysical Research Abstracts 9 (01794). Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  12. ^ a b Navarro-González, R.; et al. (2006). "The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromato-graphy-MS and their implications for the Viking results". PNAS 103 (44): 16089–16094. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604210103. 
  13. ^ Crocco, Mario (2007 - 04 -14). "Los taxones mayores de la vida orgánica y la nomenclatura de la vida en Marte:". Electroneurobiología 15 ((2)): 1–34. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  14. ^ Piecing Together Life's Potential
  15. ^ "NASA Spacecraft Confirms Perchlorate on Mars". NASA (NASA). August 5, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  16. ^ Johnson, John (2008-08-06). "Perchlorate found in Martian soil". Los Angeles Times.,0,4986721.story. 
  17. ^ "Martian Life Or Not? NASA's Phoenix Team Analyzes Results". Science Daily. 2008-08-06. 
  18. ^ Lakdawalla, Emily (2008-06-26). "Phoenix sol 30 update: Alkaline soil, not very salty, "nothing extreme" about it!". The Planetary Society weblog. Planetary Society. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  19. ^ "ESA Proposes Two ExoMars Missions". Aviation Week. October 19, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  20. ^ a b Dartnell, L.R. et al., “Modelling the surface and subsurface Martian radiation environment: Implications for astrobiology,” Geophysical Research Letters 34, L02207, doi:10,1029/2006GL027494, 2007.
  21. ^ Astrobiology Field Laboratory
  22. ^ "Mars Meteorites". NASA. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f Evidence for ancient Martian life. E. K. Gibson Jr., F. Westall, D. S. McKay, K. Thomas-Keprta, S. Wentworth, and C. S. Romanek, Mail Code SN2, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston TX 77058, USA.
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Allan Hills 84001". The Meteorolitical Society. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  26. ^ Crenson, Matt (2006-08-06). "After 10 years, few believe life on Mars". Associated Press (on Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  27. ^ McKay, D.S., Gibson, E.K., ThomasKeprta, K.L., Vali, H., Romanek, C.S., Clemett, S.J., Chillier, X.D.F., Maechling, C.R., Zare, R.N. (1996). "Search for Past Life on Mars: Possible Relic Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH84001". Science 273 (5277): 924–930. doi:10.1126/science.273.5277.924. PMID 8688069. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ Baalke, Ron (1995). "The Nakhla Meteorite". Jet Propulsion Lab. NASA. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  30. ^ "Rotating image of a Nakhla meteorite fragment". London Natural History Museum. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  31. ^ Rincon, Paul (8 February 2006). "Space rock re-opens Mars debate". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  32. ^ Meyer, C. (2004). "Mars Meteorite Compendium" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  33. ^ Whitehouse, David (August 27, 1999). "Life on Mars - new claims". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  34. ^ Compilation of scientific research references on the Nakhla meteorite:
  35. ^ Shergoti Meteorite - JPL, NASA
  36. ^ Malin, Michael C., Edgett, Kenneth S., "Evidence for Recent Groundwater Seepage and Surface Runoff on Mars". Science (2000) Vol. 288. no. 5475, pp. 2330–2335.
  37. ^ "University of Arizona Press Release" March 16, 2006.
  38. ^ Opportunity Rover Finds Strong Evidence Meridiani Planum Was Wet" - March 2, 2004, NASA Press release. URL accessed March 19, 2006.
  39. ^ "Mars Express Confirms Presence of Water at Mars' South Pole". 
  40. ^
  41. ^ Kerr, Richard (2006 - 12 - 8). "Mars Orbiter's Swan Song: The Red Planet Is A-Changin'". Science 314 (5805): 1528–1529. doi:10.1126/science.314.5805.1528. PMID 17158298. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  42. ^ Tosca, N. J.; Knoll, AH; McLennan, SM (2008). "Water Activity and the Challenge for Life on Early Mars". Science 320 (5880): 1204–1207. doi:10.1126/science.1155432. PMID 18511686. 
  43. ^ Phoenix Mars Lander Confirms Frozen Water On Red Planet
  44. ^ Mumma, M. J.; Novak, R. E.; DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P., "A Sensitive Search for Methane on Mars" (abstract only). American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #35, #14.18.
  45. ^ Michael J. Mumma. "Mars Methane Boosts Chances for Life". Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  46. ^ V. Formisano, S. Atreya T. Encrenaz, N. Ignatiev, M. Giuranna (2004). "Detection of Methane in the Atmosphere of Mars". Science 306 (5702): 1758–1761. doi:10.1126/science.1101732. PMID 15514118. 
  47. ^ V. A. Krasnopolskya, J. P. Maillard, T. C. Owen (2004). "Detection of methane in the martian atmosphere: evidence for life?". Icarus 172 (2): 537–547. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.004. 
  48. ^ ESA Press release. "Mars Express confirms methane in the Martian atmosphere". ESA. Retrieved 2006-03-17. 
  49. ^ Moran, M., et al., “Desert methane: implications for life detection on Mars, Icarus, 178, 277-280, 2005.
  50. ^ Vladimir A. Krasnopolsky (February 2005). "Some problems related to the origin of methane on Mars". Icarus 180 (2): 359–367. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.10.015. 
  51. ^ Planetary Fourier Spectrometer website (ESA, Mars Express)
  52. ^
  53. ^ Court, R. and M. Sephton. 2009. Investigating the contribution of methane produced by ablating micrometeorites to the atmosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters
  54. ^ Steigerwald, Bill (January 15, 2009). "Martian Methane Reveals the Red Planet is not a Dead Planet". NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA). Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  55. ^ a b T. Goodhart, K.L. Howe and P. Gavin., T.A. Kral (2009). "CAN METHANOGENS GROW IN A PERCHLORATE ENVIRONMENT ON MARS?" (PDF). 72nd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting (2009). Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  56. ^ a b "METHANE PRODUCTION BY METHANOGENS IN PERCHLORATE-SUPPLEMENTED MEDIA." (PDF). 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2009). 
  57. ^ "Methane and life on Mars". Proc. SPIE 7441 (74410D): 74410D. 3 September 2009. doi:10.1117/12.829183. 
  58. ^ Peplow, Mark (Published online February 25, 2005). "Formaldehyde has been found in the Martian atmosphere" ( – Scholar search). Nature - News. doi:10.1038/news050221-15. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  59. ^ Hogan, Jenny (16 February 2005). "A whiff of life on the Red Planet". New Scientist magazine. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  60. ^ "Martian methane probe in trouble" - September 25, 2005 news story. URL accessed March 19, 2006.
  61. ^ "NASA Statement on False Claim of Evidence of Life on Mars". NASA News (NASA). February 18, 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  62. ^ "Mars Rover Spirit Unearths Surprise Evidence of Wetter Past". NASA Mission News (NASA). May 21, 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  63. ^ Webster, Guy (December 10, 2007). "Mars Rover Investigates Signs of Steamy Martian Past" (Web). Press Release. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  64. ^ "NASA Findings Suggest Jets Bursting From Martian Ice Cap". Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA). August 16, 2006. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  65. ^ Kieffer, H. H. (2000). "ANNUAL PUNCTUATED CO2 SLAB-ICE AND JETS ON MARS." (PDF). Mars Polar Science 2000. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  66. ^ "SIMULATIONS OF GEYSER-TYPE ERUPTIONS IN CRYPTIC REGION OF MARTIAN SOUTH" (PDF). Fourth Mars Polar Science Conference. 2006. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  67. ^ Kieffer, Hugh H.; Philip R. Christensen and Timothy N. Titus (30 May 2006). "CO2 jets formed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars' seasonal south polar ice cap". Nature 442 (7104): 793–796. doi:10.1038/nature04945. PMID 16915284. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  68. ^ Gánti, Tibor; András Horváth, Szaniszló Bérczi, Albert Gesztesi and Eörs Szathmáry (March 12-16, 2001). "Probable Evidences of Recent Biological Activity on Mars: Appearance and Growing of Dark Dune Spots in the South Polar Region" (PDF). 32nd Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, abstract no.1543. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  69. ^ Pócs, T., A. Horváth, T. Gánti, Sz. Bérczi , E. Szathmáry (2003). "POSSIBLE CRYPTO-BIOTIC-CRUST ON MARS?" (PDF). ESA SP-545. European Space Agency. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  70. ^ Gánti, Tibor; András Horváth, Szaniszló Bérczi, Albert Gesztesi and Eörs Szathmáry (October 31, 2003). "Dark Dune Spots: Possible Biomarkers on Mars?". Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 33 (4-5): 515–557. doi:10.1023/A:1025705828948. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  71. ^ A. Horváth, T. Gánti, Sz. Bérczi, E. Szathmáry, Pócs, T (October 27-29). "ARE THE DARK DUNE SPOTS REMNANTS OF THE CRYPTO-BIOTIC-CRUST OF MARS?". 38th Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium on Comparative Planetology. Moscow, Russia. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  72. ^ A. Horváth,T. Gánti, Sz. Bérczi, A. Gesztesi, E. Szathmáry, ed (2002). "MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DARK DUNE SPOTS ON MARS: NEW ASPECTS IN BIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION." (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  73. ^ András Sik, Ákos Kereszturi. "Dark Dune Spots - Could it be that it’s alive?". Monochrom. Retrieved 2009-09-04.  (Audio interview, MP3 6 min.)
  74. ^ Orme, Greg M.; Peter K. Ness (9 June 2003). "MARSBUGS". The Electronic Astrobiology Newsletter 10 (23): 5. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  75. ^ Manrubia, S. C.; O. Prieto Ballesteros1, C. González Kessler1, D. Fernández Remolar1, C. Córdoba-Jabonero1, F. Selsis1, S. Bérczi, T.Gánti, A. Horváth, A. Sik, and E. Szathmáry (2004). "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGICAL FEATURES AND SEASONAL PROCESSES IN INCA CITY AND PITYUSA PATERA REGIONS OF MARS". European Space Agency Publications (ESA SP): 545. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  76. ^ a b Ness, Peter K.; Greg M. Orme (2002). "Spider-Ravine Models and Plant-like Features on Mars - Possible Geophysical and Biogeophysical Modes of Origin". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) 55: 85–108. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  78. ^ NASA - Mars Rovers Sharpen Questions About Livable Conditions

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Life on Mars (TV series) article)

From Wikiquote

Life on Mars (2006-2007) is a British TV series which mixes time travel with police drama.

Written by Tony Jordan, Matthew Graham and Ashley Pharoah


Series 1

The Crash [1.1]

[To a murder suspect, regarding an entry in his diary]
Sam Tyler: From the diary, quote, "I killed her. She's been killed. I'm a killer, an ace killer." That particular entry is not awash with ambiguity.

Chris Skelton: Someone needs to take a look at you boss, you're as white as a ginger bird's arse!

[After Sam, disorientated and confused by his new surroundings, has challenged Gene's authority]
Gene Hunt: They reckon you've got concussion - I couldn't give a tart's furry cup if half your brains are falling out. Don't ever waltz into my kingdom acting king of the jungle.
Sam Tyler: Who the hell are you?
Gene Hunt: Gene Hunt. Your DCI. And it's 1973. Almost dinner time. I'm 'aving 'oops.

[Trying to call a mobile phone number]
Sam Tyler: I need you to connect me to a Virgin mobile number -
Operator: Don't you start that sexy business with me, young man. I can trace this call.

[Annie complies with Sam's request to hit him by punching him in the kidneys - when he wasn't expecting it]
Sam Tyler: Ow! Shit!
Annie Cartwright: I'm sorry, sir!
[Gene enters, seeing the two bent over]
Gene Hunt: Hey hey, good girl, prostate probe and no jelly!

Gene Hunt: [To Sam] Where are you today, then? Here, or Planet of the Clangers?

[Open University is on TV, presenter's geometry-exercising turns into medical diagnostics from 2006.]
Sam: [alerted and denying he'd be in a deep coma] Wait! I’m in BUPA! Get me out of here!
[means he's got a private health insurance -British United Provident Association-]

Gene Hunt: Right, we pulled a bird in, Dora Keanes. She was the last person to see the victim alive.
Sam Tyler: Is she a suspect?
Gene Hunt: Nope, just a pain in the arse.
Sam Tyler: Okay, alright, brief me in full. What do I need to know?
Gene Hunt: [Slightly nonplussed] She's a pain in the arse.
[They arrive outside the lost property office]
Sam Tyler: What, so you've handed her into lost property?
Chris Skelton: Well, we could use the canteen, but she's a right mouthy bird, this one.
Sam Tyler: Hang on, you're going to do the interview in there?
Gene Hunt: Thick walls.

[Gene Hunt violently pushes a table aside]
Gene Hunt: I'm done with this game. Let's play another. Let's play, eh, hopscotch or pin the tail on a donkey. You pick, Dora.
Dora Keens: I want a lawyer.
Gene Hunt: I wanna hump Britt Eklund, what are we gonna do?

Sam Tyler:I need a drink.
Gene Hunt: That's the first sensible thing you've said since you got here.

Sam Tyler:[To Nelson] And which part of my subconcious do you hail from?

Gene Hunt: I may be a sheriff, but I'm a deputy to the law.

Nelson: What can I get you, man, raise your spirits?
Sam Tyler: Diet Coke, please.
[Blank look on the landlord's face]
Sam Tyler: Just kidding, a pint of bitter.

Sam Tyler: Large whiskey please.
Nelson: [With heavy Jamaican accent] Drink ain't gonna fix things. What am I saying? I run a pub. Of course it will fix things!
Sam Tyler: I'm lost, Nelson. I'm really lost.
Nelson: [Suddenly switching to a Mancunian accent] You ain't lost, pal. You're where you are, and you have to make the best of it. It's all you can do.
[Sam looks surprised]
Nelson: Keep it to yourself, eh? Folks just seem happier with the other Nelson.

[Sam has asked Annie to contribute to the investigation - much to the jeers of the other male detectives]
Sam Tyler: Now the victim wasn't gagged. Why didn't he gag her Annie?
Annie Cartwright: Because he needed to, er, he needed to see her mouth, her lips. We have to see the things that we value.
Sam Tyler: Now put yourselves in the mind of this man. You're lonely. Every night you dream of this girl, and she's got big eyes and red ruby lips. So you go out and you find that girl, and you bring her home. But you don't gag her, cos you want to see those ruby lips, but you just can't bring yourself to kiss 'em.
Annie Cartwright: He'd get embarrassed, angry, he'd start to blame the girl. It's her fault, she's taunting him by just being there.
Sam Tyler: And then one day you just snap. Strangle her, using bootlace, and the cycle starts all over again with a different girl. And this time, you're positive that you're going to be brave enough to kiss her.
Annie Cartwright: Only you won't be.

[To a handful of kids, staring at his car]
Gene Hunt: Anything happens to this motor, I'll come 'round your houses and stamp on all your toys. Got it? Good kids.

[When Sam - disorientated - is standing on a building roof, intending to jump and 'wake up']
Annie Cartwright: We all feel like jumping sometimes, Sam. But we don't, you and me. Because we're not cowards.

[After taking Annie's hand]
Sam Tyler: What's that on your hand? Is that grit?
Annie Cartwright: Sand. When I was running up here, I tripped and I fell against the fire bucket.
Sam Tyler: [Tormented] See, why would I think of something like that? Why would I put that kind of detail in it?
Annie Cartwright: You wouldn't.

The New World [1.2]

[credits introduction to every episode apart from episode 1]
Sam Tyler: My name is Sam Tyler. I had an accident, and I woke up in 1973. Am I mad, in a coma, or back in time? Whatever's happened, it's like I've landed on a different planet. Now, maybe if I can work out the reason, I can get home.

[Sam Tyler asks Leonard, a witness, the registration number of the car that he saw]
Leonard: E...dunno.
Gene Hunt: Sorry, was that you saying the letter E and then you don't know the rest, or was that you saying "Ee, I dunno!"?

Sam Tyler: This place is like Guantanamo Bay.
Gene Hunt: Give over, it's nothing like Spain.

[To Phyllis Dobbs, custody sergeant, talking about a witness that he's just brought in]
Sam Tyler: He's a key witness. So could you treat him like a person, Phyllis. D'you remember "people"? You used to be one!

[Gene is looking at a poster for The Good, The Bad And The Ugly]
Sam Tyler: Which one are you?
Gene Hunt: All three.

Test Card Girl: Do you not like me with my clown? I can see I make you frown. When on Earth will all this end? I'm your friend, your only friend.

Gene Hunt: Tits in a jumper, maybe a result.

[Sam & Gene are questioning a suspect]
Gene Hunt: You know, if you were Pinocchio you'd have just poked my eye out!

[Sam and Annie are standing on the steps outside, Gene Hunt approaches with a witness 'Leonard' who Annie has just agreed to watch overnight]
Sam Tyler: Annie's going to sit with him tonight.
Gene Hunt: Hey, Leonard! Fanny in the flat! Nice work!

Sam Tyler: Look, I was thinking, guv. I know having me here is difficult for you. What if I went back?
Gene Hunt: To Hyde?
Sam Tyler: Is that possible?
Gene Hunt: I'll get on the blower.
[Gene picks up the phone]
Sam Tyler: You can do that? You can just send me back to where I came from?
Gene Hunt: [on phone] Hello, is that the Wizard of Oz? [to Sam] The Wizard'll sort it out. It's because of the wonderful things he does.

The Stabbing [1.3]

[Sam's coming down the one-way street with some food in both hands, about to step on the walkway when a cyclist from behind almost hits him]
Sam Tyler: Oi! [upset] Keep it on the road! [walks along some steps, adding semi-joking/sternly] Comin' 'round your house, stamp on your toys!"

[After hearing his mothers voice on the police radio, followed by that of Phyllis, the police receptionist]
Sam Tyler: Phyllis, is that you?
Phyllis: No, it's Jane Fonda on the hunt for men!

Chris Skelton: Bingo! I got one. Martin Ellis, lorry driver. Waiting for a fabrics pick-up at 2:30 this morning. Spotted a thickset man running of the loom hall.
Sam Tyler: Good, can I see it?
[Chris shows Sam a black and white picture with a head looking like a butternut squash with ears]
Sam Tyler: Chris, have you ever seen anybody that looks like that?
Chris Skelton: It's the best we could do.
Sam Tyler: It's a doddle, then. We're looking for someone with hamster's cheeks, a nose like Audrey Hepburn and a two-foot forehead.

Ted Bannister: You're not on your own. Nobody is! Not unless you want to be.

[To another police officer examining blood on the floor]
Gene Hunt: Oi! Hairy Mary, shift yourself. You're in the way.
Sam Tyler: Let him do his job.

Gene Hunt: Chief culprit is Ted Bannister. I want him in custody by teatime.
Sam Tyler: What, because he spoke first?
Gene Hunt: 'Cos he's guilty as sin, and he's a Commie bastard.
Sam Tyler: Sorry, that's bollocks. Total rubbish.
Gene Hunt: You're just itching to get your blood-spillage book out, aren't ya!
Sam Tyler: You're making him prime suspect based on what, a hunch?

Gene Hunt: Is my name 'Coco'?
Sam Tyler: What?
Gene Hunt: Why are you trying to make me look like a clown? Litton's gonna have a field day when he finds out you left four untraceable shooters out there.
Sam Tyler: This isn't about Litton. And don't blame me for this. You dumped it on me!
Gene Hunt: I thought you said you could multi... story... task... Whatever!

Gene Hunt: Say goodnight, Gracie, and sit down. I said sit down!
Ted Bannister: Look. You've gotta open the mill. We can't afford to lose this order.
Gene Hunt: The mill stays shut until our inquiry is over.
Ted Bannister: [shouting] For god's sakes!
Gene Hunt: [shouting] SIT DOWN, OR I'LL SIT YOU DOWN! NOW!

[To Sam about the tin of Party Seven beer]
Gene Hunt: Oi, Romeo. Are we gonna open this bog water or what?

Gene Hunt: [about Ted Bannister] Tenner says he did it.
Sam Tyler: This is-
Gene Hunt: Tenner and a tin of Party Seven.
Sam Tyler: If you think that I'm going to reduce a murder investigation to the level of a playground bet--
Gene Hunt: [to the accompaniment of chicken noises from Ray] Cowardy cowardy custard. Can't cut the mustard.

[Preparing guns before the shoot-out]
Ray Carling: Yeah, but can you hit anything?
Sam Tyler: You should see my Playstation scores.

Gene Hunt: Drop your weapons! You are surrounded by armed bastards!

Gene Hunt: What's your problem,Tyler?
Sam Tyler: My problem!?! My problem...would!

A Conflict of Interests [1.4]

Gene Hunt: Will someone please put some bog roll in the toilets! I've just had to wipe my arse on Francis Lee!

[To the woman who - on orders from a local gangster - set him up for a 'honey trap']
Sam Tyler: You're a loser, Joni... or whatever your name is. Because you live in fear. And that's not really living at all, is it? See, I don't live in fear. I'm alive.

[Bursting in on Stephen Warren, who is performing an act of oral sex on another man]
Gene Hunt: I'm not a Catholic me'self Mr Warren, but isn't there something in the Bible about "Thou shalt not suck off rent boys"?
Warren: How dare you come in here!
Gene Hunt: You could have said that to the boy.

Gene Hunt: You think you know everything, don't you?
Sam Tyler: I know the stench of rotten apples.
Gene Hunt: Yeah? And I know your slag is lying through her teeth and do you wanna know why?
Sam Tyler: Yeah, why?
Gene Hunt: Steven Warren is a bum bandit. Do you understand? A poof! A fairy! A queer! A queen! Fudge packer! Uphill Gardener! Fruit picking sodomite!
Sam Tyler: He's gay?
Gene Hunt: As a bloody Christmas Tree! Mind you, he is a little touchy on the subject, being a twisted Catholic with an elderly mother and all, so I wouldn't go mentioning it to him... You challenged his authority so he stitched you up like a kipper. Pretty girl appealed to your vanity as the only decent sheriff in Dodge City. Slipped you a Mickey, tied you up and bounced on your ding-a-ling.
Sam Tyler: Why?
Gene Hunt: I suspect the answer will lie in the post. Photos, you idiot.

[Tyler and Hunt have forced one of Warren's men to strip to his underwear in his cold store, to encourage him to answer their questions]
Gene Hunt: My friend is going to ask you some questions. Personally I hope you don't answer them because I want you to die in here and end up inside a pork pie.

Sweet is playing loudly in a club]
Gene Hunt: Do you like this music?
Sam Tyler: Yeah, I do, don't you?
Gene Hunt: It's just a lot a noise, really. Me and the wife like, eh, Roger Whittaker. Well, lot more her than me. D'ya know him?
Sam Tyler: Not intimately.
Gene Hunt: Keep it to yourself. We all have our dirty little secrets
Sam Tyler: Indeed we do.

The Footie [1.5]

[Gene and Sam need to get a pub landlord out of the way so that they can go undercover]
Gene Hunt: Ray! Go and arrest the landlord of the Trafford Arms
Ray Carling:What for?
Gene Hunt: Think of something on the way
Gene Hunt: In a bizarre twist of fate the landlord was arrested this afternoon.... on suspicion of Cattle Rustling
[Ray takes a bow and receives a round of applause]

Sam Tyler: We havent got any plates.
Gene Hunt:Improvise!

[a little while later]

Men in the Trafford Arms: What's this?
Sam Tyler: It's a basket.

Ray Carling: I'm arresting you for the theft of a motor vehicle, resisting arrest... and driving like a div.

Ray Carling: Chris, yer a div. Get in.

Sam Tyler: If it was to do with football, he'd have serious injuries.
Gene Hunt: He's dead. That's quite serious.

Gene Hunt: There will never be a woman prime minister as long as I have a hole in my arse.

Gene Hunt: Oi! Referee! Has anyone ever told you you need glasses, you dozy git? Next time, I run you over!

Ray Carling: I think it was a heart attack.
Gene Hunt: Then it must've exploded out of his arse, there's blood all down his back.

Gene Hunt: Time to liven things up a bit. Hard to keep your stories straight when you're pissed. You ask my missus.
Sam Tyler: I'm not sure that's ethical.
Gene Hunt: It's not. It's vodka.

Test Card Girl: Why did you promise him, Sam? Daddies always let you down, don't they?

Gene Hunt: Juries love all that. Makes 'em feel like Columbo.

[To Peter Bond, a football fan who has beat Colin Clay, a fellow supporter, to death in order to provoke a riot between opposing supporters]
Sam Tyler: You know nothing about football! [Punches Bond, winding him] I used to go to football with my dad. United and City fans used to walk to the match together. Our next door neighbour, he had a City flag up in his window. Kids used to play together in the street - red and blue. But then people like you came along and you took it away from us.
Peter Bond: A good punch up's all part of the game! It's about pride. Pride in your team. Being the best!
Sam Tyler: No it isn't! This is how it starts and then it escalates. It gets on the telly and in the press, and then other fans from other clubs start trying to out do each other. And then it becomes about hate! And then it's nothing to do with football any more! It's about gangs and scumbags like you roaming the country seeing who can cause the most trouble. And then we overreact, and we have to put up perimeter fences and we treat the fans like animals! Forty, fifty thousand people herded into pens! And then how long before something happens, eh? How long before something terrible happens and we are dragging bodies out?

[Snatching Bond's ticket for the match away from him]
Peter Bond: That's mine!
Sam Tyler: This doesn't belong to you. This belongs to decent people, who work hard all week and take their kids to the match on a Saturday! People like Colin Clay!

[After the case has been resolved, proving both Gene and Sam equally correct about the crime]
Gene Hunt: I'm ready anytime.
Sam Tyler: [Bewildered] For what?
Gene Hunt: An apology. Was this or was this not about football?
Sam Tyler: Was the killer drinking with him in the Trafford Arms?
Gene Hunt: Don't make excuses; I'm right, you're wrong, admit it. Was this about about football?
Sam Tyler: Not in the way you thought.
Gene Hunt: Still about football!
Sam Tyler: The only reason we caught him was because I persuaded you to go undercover! All you were doing before that was dragging hooligans in!
Gene Hunt: Still about football!
Sam Tyler: [Frustrated] You just will not be proved wrong, will you?! You know, that's very childish!
Gene Hunt: No it is not.
Sam Tyler: [Childishly] Is!
Gene Hunt: [Equally childishly] Isn't!

[Ray walks into shot, wearing a Manchester United scarf and freezes once he sees Sam and Gene]
Sam Tyler: I thought he had flu?
Gene Hunt: Sergeant!
[Ray makes a run for it]
Gene Hunt: [chasing] Come back 'ere you skiving little git!

The Deadline [1.6]

Gene Hunt: I reckon we can take him, I'll jump on him, you take his gun and Cartwright can jump up and down on his knackers.

Sam Tyler: We need an inner cordon as well as this one. Think of it as two circles, one inside the other. The area in the centre is out of limits to everybody but us.
Gene Hunt: Fair enough.
Sam Tyler: Call it the doughnut.
Gene Hunt: Jam or custard?
Sam Tyler: Now you're just being silly.
Gene Hunt: I'm not the one calling it a doughnut

Hugo Barton: [runs towards the team] Excuse me!
Sam Tyler: Excuse me sir, can you go back behind the cordon, please.
Hugo Barton: Hugo Barton. I'm a reporter from the Gazette.
Gene Hunt: Oh, terrific. [shouts at the hostage taker] Oi! We've got another one for you!
Sam Tyler: Guv.
Hugo Barton: He walked in about 40 minutes ago; he was just ahead of me. He pulled a gun; he means business.
Gene Hunt: Y'know, I'd listen to the snot in my hankie before I'd listen to you.

Sam Tyler: I'M ALIVE!

Sam Tyler: His only way of talking to the outside world will be through-
Gene Hunt: Us
Sam Tyler: Me. I'm the negotiator.
Gene Hunt: I'll make you a hat.

Gene Hunt: Always trust the Gene Genie!

Wrongful Death [1.7]

Gene Hunt: Now is not the time to have a one night stand with your conscience.

Gene Hunt: You so much as belch out of line and I'll have your scrotum on a barbed wire plate.

Nelson: I set the rules here.

[just caught by DCI Hunt]
Billy Kemble: Oh, bollocks.
Gene Hunt: My thoughts exactly.

[to Sam]
Gene Hunt: You're never happy unless you're making my life complicated, are ya.

Andrea Kemble: He your boss? What would I get for smacking him one?
Sam Tyler: A round of applause from half our station.

Sam Tyler: If we can't police ourselves, how are the public supposed to trust us?
Gene Hunt: The public don't give a damn what we do, as long as we get results.
Sam Tyler: You're wrong.

Sam Tyler: [yelling] GET ME OUT OF HERE!

Gene Hunt: I don't know... [pause] ... who the biggest dickhead is round here. [to Ray Carling] You, for what happened... [to Sam] You, for your holier than thou act... or me, for having any of you on my team.

The Good Father [1.8]

[Reading a title of a pornographic film]
Gene Hunt: Once Upon A Time In Her Vest? [disgusted] You dare to pollute the glorious genre of the American Western?

[To Annie, touching her cheek]
Sam Tyler: Just so that you know. I don't hate everything about this place.

Gene Hunt: I think you've forgotten who you're talking to.
Sam Tyler: An overweight, over-the-hill, nicotine-stained, borderline-alcoholic homophobe with a superiority complex and an unhealthy obsession with male bonding?
Gene Hunt: You make that sound like a bad thing.

Vic Tyler: I've got a young lad named Sam.
Gene Hunt: I've got a pain in the arse called Sam!

Gene Hunt: [disgusted] Looks like they've been thinking up [porn movie] titles.. Listen to this: "On Her Majesty's Secret Cervix".

[Last lines of the first series]
Ray Carling: So, what do you want to do now, Guv?
Gene Hunt: [thinks for a moment] Pub!
Ray Carling: [smirks] Pub.
Chris Skelton: [grins] Pub.
Sam Tyler: [looks at the other three men in turn, slowly smiles] Pub.
[All get in car and drive off]

Series 2

Helpless [2.1]

[Regarding Gene Hunt]
Superintendent Harry Wolfe: You're a lucky man, Tyler. You've got the best here.
Sam Tyler: [Heavy sarcasm] I weep with happiness every morning, sir.

Superintendent Harry Wolfe: I'm saying it to all divisions; city needs to feel safe, Gene. Point is, this is under the glare, so let's make it clean and let's make it count, yes?
Sam Tyler: Would that be... 'by the book', sir?
Superintendent Harry Wolfe: Yes, that's it - by the jolly old book.
Sam Tyler: [To Gene, smugly] Let's get this party started.

Sam Tyler: Oh, you're gonna bang heads? Let joy be unconfined.

[to Ray Carling whom he had demoted a few months ago]
Gene Hunt: Good work, Raymondo. I'm bumping you back up to DS... only this time make it stand for Detective Sergeant and not Dog Shit!

Sam Tyler: We pull him in, we put the squeeze on him. Why is that so hard for you to agree to?
Gene Hunt: Because I am policing in the full glare of the public bloody eye, and the Chief Super is taking a personal interest and we also have no flipping evidence! And I can't believe I just said that!

Chris Skelton: Boss? Bloody hell, you look like something out of the Addam's Family.
Sam Tyler: Up all night.
Chris Skelton: Oh aye. What was her name?
Sam Tyler: Migraine.
Chris Skelton: German bird?

Gene Hunt: We need to nail this fast.
Sam Tyler: So, we preserve the scene. We dust for prints
Gene: [Interrupting] You've seen it out there, Sam. People are scared. Pull in someone from the "we don't like you" list. We put their prints on the hammer, charge 'em, whip it past the beak. There's loads of scum out there deserve another spell inside.

Gene Hunt: Tell 'em to bring a big-
Sam Tyler: (Correcting him) Bastard-big
Gene Hunt: -Bastard-big sedative.

[Approaching a prison]

Chris Skelton: I'd hate to end up in prison.
Sam Tyler: Not very likely, is it Chris?
Chris: What if I was wrongly accused of killing my wife like David Janssen in The Fugitive?
Sam: You mean Harrison Ford.
Chris: No I don't.

Chris: Dickie's famous for getting caught in Alicante.
Ray: Flagrante, Chris, in flagrante

Superintendent Harry Wolfe: He would be my nemesis, if he could spell it!

DCI Gene Hunt: A villain farts in this city, our snouts should be able to name the arse responsible.

The Safe-Cracker [2.2]

Gene Hunt: Chris, round up everyone you can get your hands on. Ray, wake up and get a van. Cartwright, stick some lipstick on. There's a blag on at Raxton Street Post Office in an hour. I want the lot of you in there and undercover! We're gonna catch these bastards with their fingers in the till!

Gene Hunt: [to Sam] You always do this to me - I run in certain and walk out confused!

Gene Hunt: [to Sam] Y'know, If I was as worried as you, I'd never fart for fear of shitting myself

[Before an undercover sting operation, Annie is equipped with a gun]
Annie Cartwright: I haven't received any firearms training. That's not right...
Gene Hunt: [Exasperated] Y'see, this is why birds and CID don't mix. Give a bloke a gun, it's a dream come true. Give a girl one, and she moans it doesn't go with her dress! Now start behaving like a detective and show some balls.
Annie Cartwright: Thanks for being so sympathetic, sir. Let's hope you don't end up in my firing line. [Annie storms out]
Gene Hunt: [Slightly alarmed] Did she just threaten to shoot me?!
Superintendent Harry Wolfe: Got a very bright future ahead of her, that lass.

[Gene has locked Sam in the boot of his car after Sam has investigated alleged corruption charges against Gene's mentor]
Gene Hunt: The rules go like this; you're my officer, you do as I say!
Sam Tyler: I was following my instincts...
Gene Hunt: Well, I should charge your instincts with wasting police time!

Glen Fletcher: Don't take this the wrong way, DI Tyler, but you're a mental case.

The Bombing [2.3]

Sam Tyler: Look, you know when I said I wasn't wrong? Well, I was. But, I was right about this not being the IRA. I was right to follow my instincts. Just like you always say, "go with your gut feeling". Just taking your lead.
Gene Hunt: So I'm right?
Sam Tyler: We both are.
Gene Hunt: Right.
Sam Tyler: Right.
Gene Hunt: Just as long as I'm more right than you.

Gene Hunt: What is it you think I'm doing here, Tyler?

[Sarcastically under his breath]

Sam Tyler: Building a Death Star?
Gene Hunt: What?
Sam Tyler: Nothing.

Gene Hunt: If you think I'm gonna let you walk away from this investigation, than you're in for an even bigger disappointment than when we found out the plonk Doris Bangs was a name and not a promise!

Suburban Swingers [2.4]

Chris Skelton: Woman in her twenties, dead.
Gene Hunt: Well I didn't think she was sunbathing, did I?!

DS Ray Carling [To DC Chris Skelton] Take my advice, get a pint of Pernod'n'Black down her then do what you what you like.

DCI Gene Hunt: I once punched a bloke for speaking French.

[Ordering the hunt for a murderer]
Gene Hunt: This is my city. And it will be a safe place for my wife and my mum to walk around in. Is that understood?
Detectives: Yes, guv.
Gene Hunt: [Sternly] Right. Find out who the dead woman was, find out who killed her. Do it now.
[He checks his watch]
Gene Hunt: Hold up, hold up. Do it tomorrow morning, first thing. [Brightly] Beer o'clock, gentlemen.

Gene Hunt: So? He pushed a bird out a car. That doesn't make him a bad bloke.
[Sam gives him a look]
Gene Hunt: Oh alright, pull him in! I'll dance the fandango on his head!

Sam Tyler: Roger Twilling, 44 years old, successful businessman, very popular in the business community, gives a lot to charity.
Gene Hunt: I hate people who give to charity.

Gene Hunt: Murderers do not play tennis!
Sam Tyler: Well, this one does.

Sam Tyler: It's called surveillance.
Gene Hunt: Doesn't sound very manly.

[Breaking into Twilling's car showroom]
Chris Skelton: It's freezing out here.
Gene Hunt: I don't like this. Gene Hunt smashes doors down, he does not pick girlie locks!
Sam Tyler: We can't just pull him in. He's too clever for that. At least this way we get hard evidence.
Gene Hunt: I'm gonna be the laughing stock of the Lancashire Constabulary Dinner and Dance, me.
Sam Tyler: Believe it or not, guv, one day soon, something like this will bring down Richard Nixon.
Gene Hunt: Hard to believe.
Sam Tyler: True. This is serious.
Ray Carling: So where do you want this transmitter?
Sam Tyler: Up here
Gene Hunt: Chris, bend down.
Chris Skelton: What for?
Gene Hunt: Just do it
[Chris bends over to give Gene a step up]
Sam Tyler: Right, look...
[A police car with sirens on shoots past outside]
Gene Hunt: [alarmed] The law, the law, get down you divs!

[Everyone ducks down, before Sam reappears when the car has gone]

Sam Tyler: We are the law, you bloody clowns! God help us!

Annie Cartwright: Darling, meet Roger and Carol.
Sam Tyler: [shaking hands] Hi, Tony Blair.

(Gene Hunt barges into Tyler's sting operation, with a woman in tow)
Roger Twilling: Tony, who is this man?
Sam Tyler: This is... This is my friend, Gordon. Gordon Brown. And his wife... Uh...

Gene Hunt: You know that guy in the Bible who tried to get a camel through the eye of a needle?
Sam Tyler: That would be ... Jesus.
Gene Hunt: Well, had nothing on Mrs Luckhurst.

Ray Carling: So how'd your date go?
Chris Skelton: Oh...I-I won't be seeing her again.
Ray Carling: Don't tell me. Upstairs outside and you got a slap!

Sam Tyler: [about Gene's 'wife' at the wife-swapping party] Where'd she come from?
Gene Hunt: Suki? Let her off an arrest last week for lewd behaviour. She owed me.
Sam Tyler: She's a prostitute?
Suki: I am here, you know!
Gene Hunt: Well, you didn't think I was gonna fetch me own wife here, did you?!

Chris Skelton: What's a vol-au-vent?
Ray Carling: It's puff pastry shell filled with a savoury meat mixture.
Chris Skelton: So its a pie then.

The Kidnapping [2.5]

[The show opens with the introduction to Camberwick Green]
Camberwick Green Narrator: This is a box. A magical box, playing a magical tune. But inside this box, there lies a surprise. Do you know who's in it today? [A toy version of Sam appears] It's Sam Tyler! Hello, Sam.
[Toy Sam waves]
Camberwick Green Narrator: How are you today?
[Toy Sam puts his head in his hands]
Camberwick Green Narrator: Oh dear. Not very happy. Is it Gene Hunt?
[Toy Sam nods]
Camberwick Green Narrator: Is he kicking in a nonce?
[Toy Sam points - cut to a toy version of Gene Hunt, beating up another toy in a dark alley. Toy Gene and the nonce wave to the camera, then Gene hits the other toy repeatedly with a dustbin lid]

[To a person threatening to hang themselves]
Chris Skelton: C'mon, Mr. Lamb. I always say there's a time to take off the noose, and put on the kettle.

Annie Cartwright: We were hoping you could be a voice of reason...
Sam Tyler: [Feverishly intense] I came out of a musical box.
Annie Cartwright:... a stabilizing influence...

Sam Tyler: I can just about handle you, driving like a pissed up crackhead and treating women like beanbags. But I'm going to say this once, and once only, Gene. Stay out of Camberwick Green!

Gene Hunt: Chris, what are you writing down?
Chris Skelton: Her statement.
Gene Hunt: Right, add this. Your son Mrs. Bathurst, was a cold-hearted killer and if there's a hell, he's going there to be poked up the arse with sharp fiery sticks, forever and ever, Amen.
Chris Skelton: There's an e in fiery, isn't there?

Sam Tyler: And with time slipping away, do we really want to put all our eggs in the same basket. If the kidnapper's still at large we might be able to lure him out.
Gene Hunt: How?
Sam Tyler: That note was a cry for justice.
Gene Hunt: And I ask again, only slightly louder, HOW?!!!

Gene Hunt: Right, Scotland Yard are sending up some sort of kleptomaniac.
Sam Tyler: Cryptographer!
Gene Hunt: Whatever.

Annie Cartwright: Sam's still out cold, Doc says he may need to go to hospital for blood tests.
Gene Hunt: I know what blood group he is, A-Rhesus-Smug.

A Deadly Drug [2.6]

Chris Skelton: I wonder what killed him?.
Gene Hunt: That would be the bloody enormous hole in his chest where the bullet went in!

Annie Cartwright: Boss, there's a viscous yellow liquid in his ear....
Gene Hunt: No, that's the drip from my fried egg butty, love. Well done Miss Marple, that's why we need women detectives...

Gene Hunt: Blardy, blardy, history bloody blardy. It doesn't take a degree in applied bollocks to know what's going on!
Sam Tyler: Go on then, amaze me with your insubstantial GUESSWORK!

Gene Hunt: Now. Yesterday's shooting. The dealers are all so scared we're more likely to get Helen Keller to talk. The Paki in a coma's about as lively as Liberace's dick when he's looking at a naked woman, all in all this investigation's going at the speed of a spastic in a magnet factory.

Sam Tyler, aghast, drops the radio he is holding.

Gene Hunt: What?
Sam Tyler: Think you might have missed out the Jews
Gene Hunt: What?
Sam Tyler: I think we need to explore whether this attempted murder was a hate crime.
Gene Hunt: What as opposed to one of those I-really-really-like-you sort of murders?

Sam Tyler: Maybe the NF shot him, left the heroin there, to make him look bad.
Gene Hunt: The NF are too stupid for that. They could stick a shotgun up my arse and pull the trigger, they'd still miss
Sam Tyler: I'd still like to explore the racially motivated line of enquiry.
Gene Hunt: And I'd like my boot to explore your jacksie, come on Tyler, where's the evidence you're so fond of?

Sam Tyler: Because I loved her!
Gene Hunt: You great... soft... sissy... girlie... nancy... French... bender... Man United supporting POOF!!

Sam Tyler: I think she's telling the truth.
Gene Hunt: I think she's as fake as a tranny's fanny.

Sam Tyler: I still think we need to entertain the possibility that this could be a racial killing..
Gene Hunt: Oh, well let's entertain it, let's take it out for a prawn cocktail, a steak and a bottle of Liebfraumilch, then let's kick it into the gutter where it belongs!

Gene Hunt: Drugs eh? What's the point. They make you forget, make you talk funny, make you see things that aren't there. My old grandma got all of that for free when she had a stroke.

[Speaking to a White Supremacist after he claims himself superior]

Sam Tyler: Superior?! You're not superior to an amoeba with special needs..

[Interviewing Layla at the station]

Layla: About 8:30, straight after I left Sam's flat, he was still alive.
Gene Hunt: Straight after you left Sam's flat?
Sam Tyler: She needed protection.
Gene Hunt: Well I hope you used some!

[Interviewing Layla at the station]

Layla: He's really freaking me out, can we get him out of here?
Gene Hunt: I'd love nothing better, piss off Tyler!

Gene Hunt: He's got fingers in more pies than a leper on a cookery course.

Gene Hunt: She's as nervous as a very small nun at a penguin shoot.

[The rest of the team break in to find Sam lying tied up with an iron on his chest]

Sam Tyler: There was a power cut.
Gene Hunt: Thank God for OPEC, eh?

Sam Tyler: Gene...not to come over all 'Dorothy', but I could help you. Everyone's traceable, even in this day and age. I could help you find your brother.
Gene Hunt: I already did, Sam. Just not in time.

[Catching White Supremacist after throwing brick through a window]

White Supremacist: What you doing, mate? You're one of us.
Sam Tyler: What, a dyslexic, racist moron?

[After finding out that Annie was kidnapped]

Gene Hunt: If Annie dies, then it will be on your sodding record!

[Finding Annie]

Sam Tyler: You all right? did they hurt you?
Annie Cartwright: I'm still here aren't I?

The Shooting [2.7]

Gene Hunt: Listen, you're not the one who's going to have to knit himself a new arse after 25 years of aggressive male affection in prison showers, I'm coming with you!.

[Sam startles Gene by waking screaming from a nightmare]

Sam Tyler: I was just dreaming.
Gene Hunt: What I call a dream involves Diana Dors and a bottle of chip oil! That's what you call a guilty conscience, my friend.
Sam Tyler: What?
Gene Hunt: The root of nightmares.
Sam Tyler: My conscience is clear, thank you very much.
Gene Hunt: Yeah, well, as for me, I slept like a baby! [Flops back down onto the bed]
Sam Tyler: Yeah, a twenty stone baby. Burps, snores and farts.
Gene Hunt: [sitting bolt upright] I do NOT snore!

Undercover [2.8]

[Sam and Gene are having another discussion about police work]
Sam Tyler: Our definitions of policing may vary marginally.
Gene Hunt: And yours is?
Sam Tyler: Serve the public trust, protect the innocent, uphold the law.
Gene Hunt: Training college?
Sam Tyler: Robocop. [Pause] You can't uphold the law by breaking it.

[Sam has just revealed that he is betraying Gene]
Annie Cartwright: That's why you're leaving, isn't it? I bet sometimes you can't look at yourself in the mirror.
[Starts to cry]
Annie Cartwright: I listened to all your problems and worries, and I can't believe I felt sorry for you.
[Slaps Sam]
Annie Cartwright: Hurts, doesn't it? That's because it's real !

Ray Carling: I met a bird, medical bird.
Sam Tyler: Called nurses.
Ray Carling: Big tits, arse like two cox's pippins in a bag.
Sam Tyler: She sounds enigmatic.
Ray Carling: No, boss, she was from Barnsley.

Sam Tyler: Tell me...
Annie Cartwright: Tell you what, Sam?
Sam Tyler: Tell me what I should do, Annie.
Annie Cartwright: [Emotionally] Stay. Here. Forever.
Sam Tyler: Okay, then. I will.
[They kiss]

[Gene pulls up in the car]
Sam Tyler: You shouldn't be driving with that leg.
Gene Hunt: Well, I am.
Sam Tyler: You were shot.
Gene Hunt: Yeah, and so will you be in a minute if you don't get in!

Gene Hunt: Shut up, you noncey-arsed fairy boy.
Sam Tyler: Such elegant banter.

Sam Tyler You're not above the law, you know!
Gene Hunt What're you on about? I AM THE LAW!


  • Back in the nick of time
  • Two cops in the same town at the same time... 33 years apart


External links

Wikipedia has an article about:

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address