Like a Virgin (song): Wikis

  
  

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"Like a Virgin"
A young brunette standing on a bridge. A channel of water is visible behind her. The girl wears a light green see-through top with a black bustier underneath it and a black pant. She has a number of necklaces and bangles on her hand. Her coiffeured hair is tied back and she looks to the right. On the image, grey colored star like symbols are pasted, one of which has the word "Madonna" and "Like a Virgin" written in small letters.
Single by Madonna
from the album Like a Virgin
B-side "Stay"
Released November 6, 1984
Format 7", 12", CD
Recorded April 1984
Genre Pop, dance
Length 3:38
Label Sire, Warner Bros.
Writer(s) Billy Steinberg, Tom Kelly
Producer Nile Rodgers
Madonna singles chronology
"Borderline"
(1984)
"Like a Virgin"
(1984)
"Material Girl"
(1985)

"Like a Virgin" is a song by American recording artist Madonna from her second album of the same name. It was released on November 6, 1984 by Sire Records, as the first single from the album. The song appears on the greatest hits compilation albums The Immaculate Collection (1990) and Celebration (2009). It was written by Billy Steinberg and Tom Kelly and produced by Nile Rodgers; Steinberg said that the song was inspired by his personal experiences of romance. It was chosen for Madonna by Michael Ostin of Warner Bros. Records after listening to a demo sung by Kelly. However, Rodgers initially felt that the song did not have a good enough hook and was not suitable for Madonna, but subsequently changed his opinion after the hook was stuck in his mind.

Musically "Like a Virgin" is a dance-oriented song, composed of two hooks. Madonna's voice is heard in a high register while a continuous arrangement of drums are heard along the bassline. The lyrics of the song is ambiguous and consists of hidden innuendo. In sexual terms, the lyrics can be interpreted in different ways for different people. "Like a Virgin" received positive reviews from contemporary as well as old critics, who frequently called it as one of the defining songs for Madonna. It became her first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100, while reaching the top of the charts in Australia, Canada and Japan and the top-ten of the other countries.

The music video portrayed Madonna sailing down the riverways of Venice in a gondola, as well as roaming around a palace wearing a white wedding dress. With the video, scholars noted Madonna's portrayal of a sexually independent woman, the symbolism of the appearance of a man with lion's mask to that of Saint Mark, and compared the eroticism of the video to the vitality of the city of Venice. Madonna has performed the song in five of her concert tours, most recent being the Confessions Tour in 2006. Majority of the time, her performances of "Like a Virgin" has been associated with strong reaction and uproar from the media.

"Like a Virgin" has been covered by a number of artists and has appeared in feature films such as Reservoir Dogs, Moulin Rouge! and Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason. The song is noted for being the first song to have a profound effect on society. Family groups sought to ban it as they believed that the song promoted sex without marriage. On the other hand, Madonna's public persona of an indomitable, sexually unashamed, supremely confident woman was widely accepted by the younger generation who emulated her style and fashion. Scholars have credited "Like a Virgin" as the song, which cemented her place in the pop music scene.

Contents

Background

"Like a Virgin" was written by Billy Steinberg and Tom Kelly. In an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Steinberg explained that the song was not only not written for Madonna, it was not even written for a female singer but was inspired by his personal experiences.[1]

"I wasn't just trying to get that racy word virgin in a lyric. I was saying ... that I may not really be a virgin — I've been battered romantically and emotionally like many people — but I'm starting a new relationship and it just feels so good, it's healing all the wounds and making me feel like I've never done this before, because it's so much deeper and more profound than anything I've ever felt."[1]

Kelly recorded the demo, and invited Michael Ostin of Warner Bros. Records' A&R department to his house to listen to it. Steinberg and Kelly played four or five tunes for Ostin, and further discussed "Like a Virgin" – they were not sure for which artist the song would be suitable.[1] Due to meet with Madonna the next day to discuss her sophomore album, Ostin intended on playing the demo to her, believing the lyrics and the groove of the song were perfect for Madonna. "When I played it for Madonna she went crazy, and knew instantly it was a song for her and that she could make a great record out of it," Ostin recalled.[1] In 2009, Rolling Stone interviewer Austin Scaggs asked Madonna what her first impressions were after listening to the demos of "Like a Virgin" and "Material Girl". Madonna replied:

"I liked them both because they were ironic and provocative at the same time but also unlike me. I am not a materialistic person, and I certainly wasn't a virgin, and, by the way, how can you be like a virgin? I liked the play on words, I thought they were clever. They're so geeky, they're cool. I never realised they would become my signature songs, especially the second one."[2]

Recording and production

In mid-1984, Madonna met up with producer Nile Rodgers at the then Power Station studios in New York.[3] Rodgers initially did not want Madonna to record "Like a Virgin", as he felt that the lyric 'like a virgin' was not a terrific hook, according to him it was not an all-time catch phrase.[1] Madonna did not care about the song either, after hearing the demo, she thought that it sounded "really stupid and retarded". Later, Madonna had second thoughts, "It's weird because I couldn't get it out of my head after I played it, even though I didn't really like it. It sounded really buble-gummy to me, but it grew on me. I really started to like it, [...] But, my first reaction to it was, 'This is really queer.'"[4]

Rodgers credits Madonna with recognizing the song's potential, he later said: "I handed my apology to Madonna and said, 'you know... if it's so catchy that it stayed in my head for four days, it must be something. So let's do it.'" Hence the song was finally recorded.[1][4] Steinberg reflected on the recording process and commented that:

"When Madonna recorded it, even as our demo faded out, on the fade you could hear Tom saying, 'When your heart beats, and you hold me, and you love me...' That was the last thing you heard as our demo faded. Madonna must have listened to it very, very carefully because her record ends with the exact same little ad-libs that our demo did. That rarely happens that someone studies your demo so carefully that they use all that stuff. We were sort of flattered how carefully she followed our demo on that."[1]
"It was the perfect union, I knew it from the first day in the studio. The thing between us, man, it was passionate, it was creative. [...] Madonna was sometimes temperamental during the recording, everyone told me she was a terrible ogre, but I thought she was great."[5]

Jason Corsaro, the record's audio engineer, persuaded Rodgers to use digital recording, a new technique at the time which Corsaro believed was going to be the future of recording because test pressings always sounded consistent.[3] To ensure this, Corsaro used a Sony 3324 24-track digital tape recorder and a Sony F1 two-track for the 12-bit mix. Madonna recorded the lead parts in a small, wooden, high-ceilinged piano room at the back of Studio C, also known as Power Station's "R&B room".[3]

Corsaro then placed gobos around her while using the top capsule of a stereo AKG C24 tube microphone, with a Schoeps microphone preamplifier and a Pultec equalizer. Once the track met with everybody's approval, Robert Sabino added the keyboard parts, playing mostly a Sequential Circuits Prophet 5, as well as some Rhodes piano and acoustic piano, while Rodgers also played a Synclavier. Madonna, although not required, was present every minute of the recording sessions and the mixing process, Corsaro commented: "Nile was there most of the time, but she was there all of the time. She never left".[3]

Composition

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Composed as a dance-oriented song, the intro of "Like a Virgin" consists of two hooks.[6] The song is set in common time, with a moderately dance-groove of 118 beats per minute. It is composed in the key of F major with Madonna's voice ranging from the tonal nodes of high-tone G3 to low-tone C5.[7] According to Rikky Rooksby, the bassline on the intro is a re-working of the three-note bass motif present in the Four Tops' 1965 song "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)", where Chuck Berry provided the chord arrangement. The bassline also has some similarity with Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" especially during the second verse. Madonna sings the song in her high register while drum arrangement by Tony Thompson is heard alongside the bassline, which is also supported by a synthesizer arrangement, giving it a circular progression through all the seven diatonic chords of I–IV–VIIo–III–VI–II–V–I.[6]

Regarding the lyrics, Madonna had commented: "I like innuendo, I like irony, I like the way things can be taken on different levels." This statement highlighted the ambiguity of the lyrics of the song, which is hung on the word 'like'.[6] Rooksby interpreted the meaning of the song in different ways to different people. He said that for women who were really virgins, the song encouraged them to hold their compose before they engaged in their very first sexual act. For sexually experienced girls, the song meant that they would be able to re-live the feelings of their first sexual encounter all over again.[6] For the boys, the song presented a narcissistic image of them making the girl forget her past encounters and enjoy the sexual act as if for the first time.[6]

Critical reception

Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic said that "Like a Virgin" was a definitive statement. He added that the song, and "Material Girl" from the same album, made Madonna an icon. He added that both overshadowed the rest of the record, "because they are a perfect match of theme and sound."[8] Debbie Miller from Rolling Stone commented that Madonna's voice "doesn't have the power or range of, say, Cyndi Lauper, but she knows what works on the dance floor."[9] Dave Karger from Entertainment Weekly, while reviewing the album in 1995, felt that the song came off a bit repetitious and immature when compared to the present context.[10] Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly felt that the song raised the "madonna-whore" ante.[11] Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine called the song a classic.[12] Tony Power from Blender listed the song as a standout track from the album.[13] Alfred Soto from Stylus Magazine felt that the song was chic in its style.[14] Katie Henderson from The Guardian commented that the song was saucy in nature.[15] Michael Paoletta from Billboard commented that the song sustained a "fevered dance-rock momentum."[16]

In 2000, "Like a Virgin", was honored by Rolling Stone and MTV, as the fourth song on their list of the "100 Greatest Pop Songs".[17] It was voted ten on VH1's 100 Best Songs of the Past 25 Years.[18] The song was listed at ninety-five on Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Songs.[19] In 2003, Madonna fans were asked to vote for their 'Top 20 Madonna singles of all-time', by Q magazine. "Like a Virgin" was allocated the fifth spot on the list.[20]

Chart performance

"Like a Virgin" became Madonna's first of 12 number-one hits on the Billboard Hot 100, where it debuted at number forty-eight on the issue dated November 17, 1984.[21] After five weeks, it reached the top of the chart and remained there for six weeks.[22] The song was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on January 10, 1985, for shipping a million copies across United States – the requirement for a gold single prior to 1989.[23][24] The song also reached number-one on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart, and was her first top-ten entry on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart at position nine.[25] In Canada, the song debuted on the RPM Singles Chart at seventy-one on the RPM issue dated November 24, 1984,[26] and reached the top of the chart on January 19, 1985.[27] It was present on the chart for a total of twenty-three weeks[28] and ranked thirty-five on the RPM Year-end chart for 1985.[29]

The song debuted on the UK Singles Chart on November 17, 1984 at number 51 and peaked at number three on January 12, 1985; it spent a total of 18 weeks in the chart,[30] and was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) for shipment of 400,000 copies across United Kingdom.[31] Across Europe, the song peaked within the top-ten of the charts of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland.[32][33][34][35][36] "Like a Virgin" became Madonna's first number-one song on the Australian Kent Music Report chart[37] and on the Japanese International Singles Chart.[38] It peaked at number-two on the New Zealand Singles Chart, fifteen on the Swedish charts and peaked the Eurochart Hot 100 Singles.[32][39]

Music video

A blond woman with both her hands up in the air. The backdrop shows a number of houses with interconnecting channels. The woman wears a black top with a number of garlands around her neck, and a large chain-like belt. Her blond hair is curled and unkempt.
Madonna in the "Like a Virgin" video, riding on a gondola, wearing a number of garlands around her neck.

The music video, directed by Mary Lambert, was shot in Venice, Italy and partly in New York City in July 1984. Madonna was portrayed as a knowing virgin, a figment of the pornographic mind, as she walked through marble rooms, wearing a wedding gown. It alternated with scenes of a slutty-looking Madonna on-aboard a gondola.[40] The video started with Madonna boarding on a boat from the Brooklyn Bridge and travels to Venice. As she steps down into the city, she moved like a stripper and undulated sinuously. She wore a black dress and blue pants with a number of Christian symbol embedded jewellery around her neck.[41] She sang the song at full volume as she watches a lion walking between the columns of the Piazza San Marco of Venice and along the statute of Saint Mark.[41] A number of game-playing involving carnival masks, men, lions, werelions were portrayed with allusions to eighteenth-century practices and Saint Mark.[42] Sheila Whiteley, author of Women and popular music: sexuality, identity, and subjectivity, felt that Madonna's image signified a denial of sexual knowledge, but also portrayed her in simulated writhing on a gondola, thus underpinning the simulation of deceit. The intrusion of a male lion, confirmed the underlying bestial discourse of both mythological fairytale and pornographic sex. Whiteley observed that in the video, Madonna's lover wears the lion's mask and while cavorting with him, Madonna sheds the veneer of innocence and showed her propensity for wild animal passions. Having instilled desire, metaphorically she turned her lover into a Beast.[43]

With the video, scholars noted the expression of Venetian vitality in it. Margaret Plant (2002) commented: "With the lion of Saint Mark and the virginal city to the forefront, old sacrosanct Venice was propelled into a pop world of high-energy gyration, and endless circulation."[44] She also noted that Saint Mark was a symbol of a time when sexual crime was punished severely in Venice and acts of rape, homosexuality and fornication incurred the loss of a nose, a hand or sometimes life itself. Madonna appeared to challenge such brutality and stretch the boundaries of tolerance in the video. As the lion-man carried Madonna to the Venetian palace, it symbolized an instance of the Saint taking the simulated Virgin, where Madonna became a symbol for La Serenissima, the Republic itself.[45] Plant also noted that Madonna, in the video, restored the energy and eroticism of Venice, which had its name taken from Venus in familiar elision. As she exchanged her blue top for a black one during the video, Madonna demonstrated her mastery and bravery of the city, which had a reputation of turning out its visitors as victims.[41] Carol Clerk (2002) commented that with the video, "Madonna's days as a cheap and cheerful video star were over. She was moving into serious spectacle."[5]

In 1985, a live music video of "Like a Virgin" from The Virgin Tour filmed in Detroit, was used to promote Live - The Virgin Tour video release. This version was nominated for Best Choreography at the 1985 MTV Video Music Awards.[46] The live performance of "Like a Virgin" from the Blond Ambition World Tour in Paris, France was released as a music video on May 9, 1991 to promote the documentary film Truth or Dare. This version was nominated for two awards at the 1991 MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Female Video and Best Choreography.[47] This video was ranked at position sixty-one on VH1's 100 Greatest Videos.[48]

Live performances

Faraway image of a stage and a woman hunched on a carousel horse which is attached around a pole. The woman wears a tight black dress with her hair in knots. Near the ground a long line of rods are visible, behind which the audience member are visible
Madonna performing "Like a Virgin" on the Confessions Tour, riding on the carousel S&M horse.

Madonna performed "Like a Virgin" at the first MTV Video Music Awards in 1984, where Madonna appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake dressed in a wedding dress, adorned with the infamous "Boy Toy" belt buckle, and veil. The climax of her risqué performance found her humping and rolling around on the stage. Still today, the performance is noted as one of the iconic and biggest performance in MTV's history.[5][49] The song has also been included in five of Madonna's eight concert tours. For 1985's The Virgin Tour, Madonna again donned wedding attire and performed a straight version of the song featuring a quotation from Michael Jackson's similar-sounding Motown-style single, "Billie Jean". Balloons floated out towards the audience as she rolled around the stage, carrying a wedding bouquet in her hand.[5] The performance was included in the VHS release Live – The Virgin Tour recorded in Detroit, Michigan.[50] In the 1987's Who's That Girl World Tour, the song was given a lighthearted comedic theme and included quotations from The Four Tops' "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)". Madonna took off her outfit piece by piece, until she was standing in a black corset, and ended the performance while flirting with an young male dancer who played her bridegroom.[51] Two different performances of the song on this tour can be found on the videos: Who's That Girl – Live in Japan, filmed in Tokyo, Japan, on June 22, 1987,[52] and Ciao, Italia! – Live from Italy, filmed in Turin, Italy, on September 4, 1987.[53]

For the 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour, the song was re-invented with a middle-eastern arrangement and risqué choreography which found Madonna wearing a gold corset, while simulating masturbation on a red silk bed, accompanied by two male dancers who wore the infamous cone bras designed by Jean-Paul Gaultier. The performance garnered a lot of attention, particularly when police in Toronto, Canada, threatened to arrest Madonna and charge her with indecency unless she altered the performance. Madonna refused and she was never arrested, as the show went on unaltered.[54] Two different performances were taped and released on video, the Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90, taped in Yokohama, Japan, on April 27, 1990,[55] and the Live! – Blond Ambition World Tour 90, taped in Nice, France, on August 5, 1990.[56] During The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993, Madonna wore a tuxedo and adopted a Marlene Dietrich-like persona, singing the song with a thick German accent. She sang the word 'virgin' as '(w)irgin', while including a quotation from Dietrich's signature tune, "Falling in Love Again (Can't Help It)". The overplayed accent and three-quarter time signature gave the performance a sense of parody. Dietrich's look in the 1930 film Morocco inspired the whole performance.[57] The performance was included on The Girlie Show – Live Down Under home video release, recorded on November 19, 1993 at Sydney, Australia.[58]

In April 2003, while promoting her ninth studio album American Life, an impromptu acoustic performance of the song was done by Madonna at New York's Tower Records.[59] Madonna's performance of "Hollywood" at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards recreated the 1984 performance of "Like a Virgin". The performance started with Britney Spears emerging from a giant cake singing the first few lines. She was joined by Christina Aguilera and both of them writhed on the stage. Madonna appeared on the cake dressed as a groom and sang "Hollywood" with them ultimately kissing them both on the mouth.[60] The performance was met with strong reaction from media.[61]

During the Confessions Tour in 2006, the song was given a horse riding theme.[62] Madonna wore a tight, black body suit, and performed the song atop a studded leather S&M carousel horse while X-rays of her broken bones, the result of a horse-riding accident on her forty-seventh birthday, flashed on the screens behind her.[63][64] The performance was included on The Confessions Tour live album, released in 2007.[65] In 2008's Sticky & Sweet Tour, Madonna sang the song in Rome and dedicated the song to Pope Benedict XVI, commenting "I'd like to dedicate this song to the Pope, I know he loves me" and saying that she is a child of God. She asked the audience to sing with her.[66]

Cover versions

In 1985 The Lords of the New Church recorded "Like a Virgin" for their compilation album Killer Lords. Gary Hill from Allmusic called the composition as "very funny and obnoxious".[67] The same year, "Weird Al" Yankovic parodied the song with his single "Like a Surgeon" from the album Dare to Be Stupid. Eugene Chadbourne from Allmusic commented: "Turning the tacky Madonna hit inside out and upside down, Yankovic comes up with a hilarious satire of the medical profession."[68] In 1991 Glaswegian band Teenage Fanclub covered "Like a Virgin" on their debut album, The King.[69] The song also appears on the soundtrack of the 2001 film Moulin Rouge! and is sung by the characters Harold Zidler, played by Jim Broadbent, and The Duke of Monroth, played by Richard Roxburgh.[70]

In the opening scene of the 1992 film Reservoir Dogs, Quentin Tarantino (as Mr. Brown) was shown talking about the song, and has an insight that "Like a Virgin" is a "metaphor for big dicks". When Madonna met Quentin Tarantino at a party, after the film was released, she gave him an autographed copy of her Erotica album, signing "Quentin: it's about love, not dick".[71] In the 2004 film Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason, the title character teaches the song to women in a Thai prison, after becoming annoyed that they are singing the song badly. She tells them, "Madonna is nothing if not a perfectionist!"[72] In one of the episodes of the TV show Grey's Anatomy, the character of Christina Yang hums the song during surgery to take the focus off herself. However, when her assisting surgery, Lexie Grey starts singing along, Christina looks venomously at her until she quiets down.[73]

Legacy

After the song and its video were released, "Like a Virgin" attracted the attention of family organizations who complained that the video and the song, promoted sex without marriage and undermined family values, offering an unsavoury image of Madonna as a whore.[74] Outraged moralists condemned her as a sex kitten and sought to ban the song and the video.[75] Conservatives were angered that Madonna dared to portray religious symbolism and the virginal wedding attire in a sexual context. Clerk noted the song attracted an unprecedented level of attention from social groups compared to any female singer's song. "The main problem was that most of them listened superficially to the lyric of the song, imagining that it detailed or called on an innocent's sexual initiation." While one section of the population were outraged at the scandal, other were taking joy at the very notion of a virginal Madonna, who retorted by saying,

"I was surprised by how people reacted to 'Like a Virgin' because when I did that song, to me, I was singing about how something made me feel a certain way – brand-new and fresh – and everyone interpreted it as I don't want to be a virgin anymore. Fuck my brains out! That's not what I sang at all. 'Like a Virgin' was always absolutely ambiguous."[6][5]

The song's influence was most profound on the younger generation. Madonna's public persona of an indomitable, sexually unashamed, supremely confident woman struck a chord with them. Biographer Andrew Morton noted that most of Madonna's admirers were females, who were born-and-brought-up with an image of old-fashioned stereotypes of women as virginal brides, or as whores, or with feminist values that rejected the use of a woman's looks for her self-advancement.[76] Author William McKeen of Rock and roll is here to stay: an anthology commented that with the song, Madonna became the last word in attitude and fashion for young girls of that time. He compared that image of Madonna with that of Barbie. McKeen explained that Madonna intermixed middle-class ideas of femininity with examples of what femininity meant to her, which was having equal opportunity. She offered an aggressive sexuality that implied it was acceptable for women not only to initiate relationships, but also enjoy them.[77] In addition, according to Morton, at a time when eighties fashions were promoting flat-chested, stick-thin women as ideals of beauty, the more curvaceous Madonna made average girls feel that it was fine to be in the shape they were. A new word called 'Madonna wannabe' was introduced to describe the thousands of girls who tried to emulate Madonna's style. At one point, Macy's allotted an entire floor area to the sale of Madonna-look clothing, including cut-off gloves, rubber bangles and lacy leggings. University professors, gender-studies experts and feminists earnestly started discussing her role as a post-modernist style and cultural icon. According to author Debbi Voller, "Like a Virgin" gave rise to the icon Madonna.[76]

Track listing

  • 7" Single
  1. "Like a Virgin" – 3:38
  2. "Stay" – 4:04
  • 12" Single
  1. "Like a Virgin" (Extended Dance Remix) – 6:04
  2. "Stay" – 4:04

Credits and personnel

Charts

Chart (1984/1985) Peak
Position
Australia Kent Music Report[37] 1
Austrian Singles Chart[32] 8
Belgian VRT Top 30[33] 2
Canadian RPM Singles Chart[27] 1
Dutch Top 40[32] 4
Eurochart Hot 100 Singles[39] 2
French Singles Chart[32] 8
German Singles Chart[34] 4
Irish Singles Chart[35] 4
Italian Singles Chart[36] 14
Japanese International Singles Chart[38] 1
New Zealand Singles Chart[32] 2
Norwegian Singles Chart[32] 8
Swedish Singles Chart[32] 15
Swiss Music Charts[32] 9
UK Singles Chart[30] 3
U.S. Billboard Hot 100[22] 1
Preceded by
"I Just Called to Say I Love You" by Stevie Wonder
Australian Kent Music Report number-one single
December 10, 1984 – January 7, 1985
Succeeded by
"Do They Know It's Christmas?" by Band Aid
Preceded by
"Big in Japan" by Alphaville
U.S. Billboard Hot Dance Club Play number-one single
December 15, 1984 – January 5, 1985
Succeeded by
"We Are the Young" by Dan Hartman
Preceded by
"Out of Touch" by Daryl Hall and John Oates
U.S. Billboard Hot 100 number-one single
December 22, 1984 – January 28, 1985
Succeeded by
"I Want to Know What Love Is" by Foreigner
Preceded by
"Do They Know It's Christmas?" by Band Aid
Canadian RPM Singles Chart number-one single
January 19, 1985
Succeeded by
"Careless Whisper" by Wham! featuring George Michael
Preceded by
"Overnight Success" by Teri DeSario
Japanese International Singles Chart
February 11, 1985 – February 25, 1985
Succeeded by
"Easy Lover" by Philip Bailey and Phil Collins

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Bronson 2003, p. 600
  2. ^ Scaggs, Austin (2009-10-29). "Madonna Looks Back: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone (San Francisco: Jann Wenner) (1090): 51. ISSN 0035-791X. 
  3. ^ a b c d Buskin, Richard (September-2007). "Classic Tracks: Madonna 'Like A Virgin'". Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/sep07/articles/classictracks_0907.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-18. 
  4. ^ a b Rosen 1996, p. 283
  5. ^ a b c d e Clerk 2002, p. 41
  6. ^ a b c d e f Rooksby 2004, p. 17
  7. ^ "Digital Sheet Music - Madonna - Like a Virgin". MusicNotes. Alfred Publishing. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=mn0056686. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  8. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002-09-13). "allmusic ((( Like a Virgin > Overview )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:h9fpxqq5ldje. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  9. ^ Miller, Debbie (1985-01-17). "Madonna: Like A Virgin : Music Reviews". Rolling Stone (Jann Wenner). http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/madonna/albums/album/246700/review/6210108/like_a_virgin. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  10. ^ Karger, Dave (1995-11-10). "Madonna - Like a What?". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,299445,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  11. ^ Farber, Jim (2001-07-20). "The Girl Material". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,168394,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  12. ^ Cinquemani, Sal (2001-09-09). "Madonna: Like a Virgin (Remaster)". Slant Magazine. http://www.slantmagazine.com/music/music_review.asp?ID=117. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  13. ^ Power, Tony (1985-01-01). "Like a Virgin - Review". Blender. Alpha Media Group. http://www.blender.com/guide/back-catalogue/54916/like-virgin.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  14. ^ Soto, Alfred (2007-10-23). "Madonna - Like a Virgin / The Immaculate Collection". Stylus Magazine. http://www.stylusmagazine.com/articles/diamond/madonna-like-a-virgin-the-immaculate-collection.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  15. ^ Henderson, Katie (2008-12-07). "Flashback: December 1984: Frankie Goes To Hollywood's Christmas No. 1". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2008/dec/07/frankie-goes-to-hollywood-flashback. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  16. ^ Paoletta, Michael (1984-11-24). "Album Reviews: Spotlight". Billboard (New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 96 (47). ISSN 0006-2510. http://books.google.co.in/books?lr=&id=nyQEAAAAMBAJ&q=madonna+video#v=snippet&q=madonna%20video&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  17. ^ "Rolling Stone & MTV: '100 Greatest Pop Songs': 1-50". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. 2001-01-07. http://www.rockonthenet.com/archive/2000/rsmtv100.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  18. ^ Reporter, Associated Press (2003-06-12). "VH1's '100 Greatest Songs of the Past 25 Years'". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/11/1055220650984.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
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References

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