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A limpet mine is a type of naval mine attached to a target by magnets; they are so named because of their superficial similarity to the limpet, a type of mollusk.

A swimmer or diver may attach the mine, which is usually designed with hollow compartments to give the mine a slight negative buoyancy, making it easier to handle underwater. Normally they are directly attached, but the warhead of the human torpedo was linked to the magnets by wires about 1-foot (30 cm) long.

Usually limpet mines are set off by a time fuse. They may also have an anti-handling device, making the mine explode if removed from the hull by enemy divers or by explosions. Sometimes the limpet mine was fitted with a small propeller which would detonate the mine after the ship had sailed a certain distance, so that it was likely to sink in navigable channels or deep water out of reach of easy salvage and making it harder to determine the cause of the sinking.

History

Following an approach by Major Millis Jefferis, a British limpet mine was developed in 1939 by Stuart Macrae, the editor of Armchair Science magazine, and Major C.V. Clarke.[1][2] The "limpets" used by the British during the Second World War contained only 4 kilograms (8.8 lb) of explosive, but placed 2 metres (6.6 ft) below the water line they caused a 1-metre (3.3 ft) wide hole in an unarmoured ship.

A smaller version "Clam" was developed from the British limpet for use on land.

Examples of use

An example of the use of limpet mines by British special forces was in Operation Frankton which had the objective of disabling and sinking merchant shipping moored at Bordeaux, France in 1942. The operation was the subject of the film The Cockleshell Heroes.

Limpet mines were also used by the Norwegian Independent Company 1 in 1944 to sink the SS Monte Rosa. On January 16, 1945, 10 limpet mines were placed along the port side of the SS Donau approximately 50 centimetres (20 in) beneath the waterline. These bombs were to detonate once the Donau cleared Oslofjord and reached open sea, however, the departure time was delayed and the explosion occurred before the Donau reached Drøbak.

In 1980 a limpet mine was used to sink the Sierra, a whaling vessel which docked in Portugal after a confrontation with the Sea Shepherd.[3] Later that year, about half the legal Spanish whaling fleet was sunk in a similar fashion.[4]

Another notorious use was the sinking of Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior by French DGSE agents in Auckland harbour, New Zealand, on July 10, 1985,[5] called "a major criminal act" by New Zealand Prime Minister David Lange.[6]

References

  1. ^ "WW2 People's War (BBC)". Aniseed Balls and the Limpet Mine. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/53/a4376153.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-24.  
  2. ^ Macrae, Stuart (1971). Winston Churchill's Toyshop. Roundwood Press. ISBN 0900093226.  
  3. ^ "Paul Watson: Sea Shepherd eco-warrior fighting to stop whaling and seal hunts". Telegraph.co.uk. 2009-04-17. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/5166346/Paul-Watson-Sea-Shepherd-eco-warrior-fighting-to-stop-whaling-and-seal-hunts.html. Retrieved 2009-07-15.  
  4. ^ "The Sea Shepherd". The Sierra Campaign. http://www.seashepherd.org/who-we-are/the-sea-shepherd.html.  
  5. ^ Bremner, Charles (July 11, 2005). "Mitterrand ordered bombing of Rainbow Warrior, spy chief says". Times Online (Times Newspapers). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article542620.ece. Retrieved 15 December 2009.  
  6. ^ "Rainbow Warrior sinks after explosion". On This Day (British Broadcasting Corporation). 10 July 1985. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/10/newsid_2499000/2499283.stm. Retrieved 2009-11-11.  
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A limpet mine is a type of naval mine attached to a target by magnets; they are so named because of their superficial similarity to the limpet, a type of mollusk. Early versions of this may have included casks of explosive material anchored through the use of adhesives or spikes hammered into the wooden hull of an enemy vessel.

A swimmer or diver may attach the mine, which is usually designed with hollow compartments to give the mine a slight negative buoyancy, making it easier to handle underwater.

Usually limpet mines are set off by a time fuze. They may also have an anti-handling device, making the mine explode if removed from the hull by enemy divers or by explosions. Sometimes the limpet mine was fitted with a small propeller which would detonate the mine after the ship had sailed a certain distance, so that it was likely to sink in navigable channels or deep water out of reach of easy salvage and making it harder to determine the cause of the sinking.

Contents

History

In December 1938, a new unit was created that soon became known as Military Intelligence (Research) – usually abbreviated as MI(R) or occasionally as MIR. MI(R) absorbed a technical section that was at first known as MI(R)c. In April 1939, Joe Holland, the head of MIR, recruited his old friend Major Millis Rowland Jefferis (1899-1963[1]) as director of the technical section and under his leadership the team would go on to developed a wide range of innovative weapons.[2][3]

One of Jefferis earliest ideas was for a type of mine that could be towed behind a rowboat, but which would attach itself to the hull of a ship that it passed. Getting a heavy bomb to stick to a ship reliably was a problem; the obvious answer was to use magnets which should be as powerful as possible.

In July 1939, Jefferis read an issue of the popular magazine Armchair Science. In that month’s issue he could learn about the wonders of electronic television or consider the dangers of drinking too much tea; he was, perhaps, able to overlook the casual racism of Flashlight Photography for Scotsmen and thereby discover how to take pictures in poor light by taking advantage of the flashlights of other photographers. What he certainly did not miss was a small article on magnets:

World’s Most Powerful Magnet
  •  The most powerful permanent magnet in the world – for its size – has been developed in the research laboratories of the General Electric Company in New York.
Only half the size of the eraser on a lead pencil, it will lift a flat-iron weighing 5lb. Its magnetic attraction is several times as strong as that of any previous magnet. The strongly magnetic alloy forming the magnet can be used, too, in electrical equipment to replace electro-magnets that require current.[4]

That could be just what he was looking for. On 17 July 1939, he contacted the editor of the magazine for more information.

The editor of Armchair Science was Stuart Macrae. During the First World War, Macrae had briefly worked on a device for dropping hand grenades from aircraft and he longed for a return to working on such challenges. When Jefferis call came, he grabbed at the opportunity; he promptly undertook to perform experiments and to produce prototypes. Macrae contacted Cecil Vandepeer Clarke (1897-) then managing director of the Low Loading Trailer Company – Macrae had been editor of a caravan and trailer magazine; he had been impressed by Clarke’s work on caravans a couple of years previously and he needed his expertise and the use of his workshops.[5][6] Macrae and Clarke soon agreed to cooperate on the design of a new weapon, but they quickly abandoned any thought of a towed mine as impractical; instead they worked on a bomb that could be carried by a diver and attached directly to a ship.[7] The new weapon would become known as a limpet mine.

The first versions were put together in a matter of weeks; the innovative design included a ring of small strong magnets for adhesion and the detonator used slowly dissolving aniseed ball sweets to provide the necessary time to get away.[8]

Just before war was declared, Macrae's name was put forward to Holland who arranged to meet him. Holland considered that Macrae would make a good second in command for Jefferis – he saw Macrae as a capable administrator who could keep his geniuses in order. Macrae joined the War Office as a civilian and Holland saw to it that Macrae got a commission in October 1939 (backdated to 1 September).[9]

Clarke joined the top secret Cultivator No. 6 project as a civilian and later joined the army. He served in the SOE with Colin Gubbins and would later be appointed Commandant of one of the Secret Intelligence Service’s schools.[10] He eventually rejoined Macrae when he was transferred to MD1 in 1942.

The "limpets" used by the British during the Second World War contained only 4 kilograms (8.8 lb) of explosive, but placed 2 metres (6.6 ft) below the water line they caused a 1-metre (3.3 ft) wide hole in an unarmoured ship.[citation needed]

A smaller version "Clam" was developed from the British limpet for use on land.

Examples of use

One of the most dramatic examples of their use was during Operation Jaywick, a special operation undertaken in World War II. In September 1943, 14 Allied commandos from the Z Special Unit raided Japanese shipping in Singapore Harbour, sinking seven ships. They paddled into the harbour and placed limpet mines on several Japanese ships before returning to their hiding spot. In the resulting explosions, the limpet mines sank or seriously damaged seven Japanese ships, comprising over 39,000 tons between them.[11]

An example of the use of limpet mines by British special forces was in Operation Frankton which had the objective of disabling and sinking merchant shipping moored at Bordeaux, France in 1942. The operation was the subject of the film The Cockleshell Heroes.

Limpet mines were also used by the Norwegian Independent Company 1 in 1944 to sink the SS Monte Rosa. On January 16, 1945, 10 limpet mines were placed along the port side of the SS Donau approximately 50 centimetres (20 in) beneath the waterline. These bombs were to detonate once the Donau cleared Oslofjord and reached open sea, however, the departure time was delayed and the explosion occurred before the Donau reached Drøbak.

In 1980 a limpet mine was used to sink the Sierra, a whaling vessel which docked in Portugal after a confrontation with the Sea Shepherd.[12] Later that year, about half the legal Spanish whaling fleet was sunk in a similar fashion.[13]

Another notorious use was the sinking of Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior by French DGSE agents in Auckland harbour, New Zealand, on July 10, 1985.[14][15]

References

Notes

  1. ^ Unattributed. Sir Millis Jefferis – New Weapons Of War (Obituary). The Times 7 September 1963 p. 10 column E.
  2. ^ National Archive. T 166 – Hearing 16 November 1953 – Macrae. Document 320
  3. ^ Warwicker 2002, p. pxxiv.
  4. ^ Unattributed. World’s Most Powerful Magnet. Armchair Science July 1939 p. 70.
  5. ^ Clarke, John Vandepeer. Wartime memories of my childhood in Bedford Part 1, People's War website (BBC).http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/34/a5961134.shtml
  6. ^ National Archive. T 166 – Hearing 16 November 1953 – Macrae. Document 328.
  7. ^ National Archive. T 166-21 Awards to Inventors - Macrae and others.
  8. ^ Unattributed. Limpet Bomb Claim By Inventors – Use Of Aniseed Balls. The Times 17 November 1953 p. 4 column F.
  9. ^ National Archive. T 166-21 Awards to Inventors - Macrae and others.
  10. ^ National Archive. HS 9/321/8 – SOE Personnel File: Cecil Vandepeer Clarke.
  11. ^ Operation Jaywick - 60th Anniversary
  12. ^ "Paul Watson: Sea Shepherd eco-warrior fighting to stop whaling and seal hunts". Telegraph.co.uk. 2009-04-17. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/5166346/Paul-Watson-Sea-Shepherd-eco-warrior-fighting-to-stop-whaling-and-seal-hunts.html. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  13. ^ "The Sea Shepherd". The Sierra Campaign. http://www.seashepherd.org/who-we-are/the-sea-shepherd.html. 
  14. ^ Bremner, Charles (July 11, 2005). "Mitterrand ordered bombing of Rainbow Warrior, spy chief says". Times Online (Times Newspapers). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article542620.ece. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  15. ^ "Rainbow Warrior sinks after explosion". On This Day (British Broadcasting Corporation). 10 July 1985. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/10/newsid_2499000/2499283.stm. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 

General references

  • Thomson, George; Farren, William (1958). Fredrick Alexander Lindemann, Viscount Cherwell. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4. Heinemann. 
  • Ismay, General Lord (1960). The Memoirs of Lord Ismay. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0837162805. 
  • MacKenzie, S. P. (1995). The Home Guard — A Military and Political History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820577-5. 
  • Macrae, Stuart (1971). Winston Churchill's Toyshop. Roundwood Press. ISBN 0900093226.  Reprinted 2010 by Amberley Publishing. ISBN 9781848687943.
  • Warwicker, John (2002). With Britain in Mortal Danger: Britain's Most Secret Army of WWII. Cerberus. ISBN 1-84145-112-6. 

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