Lincoln, England: Wikis


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Coordinates: 53°13′58″N 0°32′16″W / 53.23272°N 0.537661°W / 53.23272; -0.537661

Lincoln - Castle Square.jpg
Castle Square
Lincoln is located in Lincolnshire

 Lincoln shown within Lincolnshire
Population 85,595 (2001)
OS grid reference SK9771
District Lincoln
Shire county Lincolnshire
Region East Midlands
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LINCOLN
Postcode district LN1-LN4
Police Lincolnshire
Fire Lincolnshire
Ambulance East Midlands
EU Parliament East Midlands
UK Parliament Lincoln
List of places: UK • England • Lincolnshire

Lincoln (pronounced /ˈlɪŋkən/) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England.

The non-metropolitan district of Lincoln has a population of 85,595;[1] the 2001 census gave the entire urban area of Lincoln a population of 120,779.[2] The council identifies a 'Greater Lincoln' catchment area covering surrounding villages and towns, which has a population of 250,000.[3]

It has several twin towns: Port Lincoln, South Australia; Radomsko, Poland; Tangshan, China; and Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany.




Earliest history: Lindon

The Brayford Pool

The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that have been dated to the 1st century BC[citation needed] This settlement was built by a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle) .

The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brythonic language of Iron Age Britain's Celtic inhabitants as Lindon "The Pool",[4] presumably referring to the Brayford Pool. It is not possible to know how big this original settlement was as its remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins, as well as the modern city of Lincoln.

Roman history: Lindum Colonia

The Romans conquered this part of Britain in AD 48 and shortly afterwards built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural lake formed by the widening of the River Witham (the modern day Brayford Pool) and at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road (A46). The Celtic name Lindon was subsequently Latinized to Lindum and given the title Colonia when it was converted into a settlement for army veterans. Lindum Colonia was shortened on the tongues of the later, English speakers, to become 'Lincoln'.

The conversion to a colonia was made when the legion moved on to York (Eboracum) in AD 71. Lindum colonia or more fully, Colonia Domitiana Lindensium, after its founder Domitian, was established within the walls of the hilltop fortress with the addition of an extension of about equal area, down the hillside to the waterside below.

It became a major flourishing settlement, accessible from the sea both through the River Trent and through the River Witham, and was even the provincial capital of Flavia Caesariensis when the province of Britannia Inferior was subdivided in the early 4th century, but then it and its waterways fell into decline. By the close of the 5th century the city was largely deserted, although some occupation continued under a Praefectus Civitatis, for Saint Paulinus visited a man of this office in Lincoln in AD 629.

AD 410–1066

The Norman West Front of Lincoln Cathedral

After the first destructive Viking raids the city once again rose to some importance. In Viking times Lincoln was a trading centre important enough to issue coins from its own mint[citation needed]. After the establishment of Dane Law in 886, Lincoln became one of The Five Boroughs in the East Midlands. Over the next few centuries, Lincoln once again rose to prominence. In 1068, two years after the Norman Conquest, William I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the former Roman settlement, for the same strategic reasons and using the same road.


Construction of the first Lincoln Cathedral, within its close or walled precinct facing the castle, began when the see was removed from Dorchester and completed in 1092; it was rebuilt after a fire but was destroyed by an unusual earthquake in 1185. The rebuilt Lincoln Minster, enlarged to the east at each rebuilding, was on a magnificent scale, its crossing tower crowned by a spire reputed to have been 160 m (525 ft) high, the highest in Europe. When completed the central of the three spires is widely accepted to have succeeded the Great Pyramids of Egypt as the tallest man-made structure in the world.

The bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England: Lincolnshire, the largest diocese, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by large estates outside the county.

When the Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. One of only four surviving originals is now preserved in Lincoln Castle.

The iconic view of Lincoln Cathedral

Among the most famous bishops of Lincoln were Robert Bloet, the magnificent justiciar to Henry I; Hugh of Avalon, the cathedral builder canonised as St Hugh of Lincoln; Robert Grosseteste, the 13th century intellectual; Henry, Cardinal Beaufort, a politician deeply involved in the Wars of the Roses; Philip Repyngdon, chaplain to Henry IV of England and defender of Wycliffe; Thomas Cardinal Wolsey.

The administrative centre was the Bishop's Palace, the third element in the central complex. When it was built in the late 12th century, the Bishop's Palace was one of the most important buildings in England. Built by the canonised bishop Hugh of Lincoln, the palace's East Hall range over a vaulted under-croft is the earliest surviving example of a roofed domestic hall. The chapel range and entrance tower were built by Bishop William of Alnwick, who modernised the palace in the 1430s. Both Henry VIII and James I were guests of bishops here; the palace was sacked by royalist troops during the Civil War in 1648.

Following a recent break-in, some of the stained glass windows of the Cathedral have had to be replaced.

Medieval town

The arms of the City of Lincoln

By 1150, Lincoln was among the wealthiest towns in England. The basis of the economy was cloth and wool, exported to Flanders; Lincoln weavers had set up a guild in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the fine dyed 'scarlet' and 'green', the reputation of which was later enhanced by Robin Hood wearing woollens of Lincoln green. In the Guildhall that surmounts the city gate called the Stonebow, the ancient Council Chamber contains Lincoln's civic insignia, probably the finest collection of civic regalia outside London.

Outside the precincts of cathedral and castle, the old quarter clustered around the Bailgate, and down Steep Hill to the High Bridge, which bears half-timbered housing, with the upper storeys jutting out over the river, as London Bridge once had. There are three ancient churches: St Mary le Wigford and St Peter at Gowts are both 11th century in origin and St Mary Magdalene, built in the late 13th century, is an unusual English dedication to the saint whose cult was coming greatly into vogue on the European continent at that time.

Lincoln was home to one of the five most important Jewish communities in England, well established before it was officially noted in 1154. In 1190, anti-semitic riots that started in King's Lynn, Norfolk, spread to Lincoln; the Jewish community took refuge with royal officials, but their habitations were plundered. The so-called 'House of Aaron' has a two-storey street frontage that is essentially 12th century and a nearby Jew's House likewise bears witness to the Jewish population. In 1255, the affair called 'The Libel of Lincoln' in which prominent Jews of Lincoln, accused of the ritual murder of a Christian boy ('Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln' in medieval folklore) were sent to the Tower of London and 18 were executed. The Jews were expelled en masse in 1290.

During the 13th century, Lincoln was the third largest city in England and was a favourite of more than one king. It also became caught up in the strife between the king and the rebel barons who had allied with the French, which was an ongoing result on the baron rebellion against King John. It was here and at Dover that the French and Rebel army was defeated.

However, during the 14th century, the city's fortunes began to decline. The lower city was prone to flooding, becoming increasingly isolated, and plagues were common. In 1409, the city was made a county corporate.

16th century

16th century High Bridge

The Dissolution of the Monasteries further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, cutting off the main source of diocesan income and drying up the network of patronage controlled by the bishop, with no less than seven monasteries within the city alone closed down. This was accompanied by closure of a number of nearby parliamentary abbeys which led to a further diminishment of the region's political power. When the cathedral's great spire rotted and collapsed in 1549 and was not replaced, it was a significant symbol of Lincoln's economic and political decline. However, the comparative poverty of post-medieval Lincoln preserved pre-medieval structures that would probably have been lost in more prosperous contexts.

Civil War

The west front of Lincoln Cathedral viewed through the Exchequer Gate, one of a number of surviving gates in the Cathedral Close walls.

Between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces. Military control of the city therefore changed hands numerous times. Many buildings were badly damaged. Lincoln now had no major industry, no easy access to the sea and was poorly placed. As a consequence of this, while the rest of the country was beginning to prosper in the beginning of the 1700s, Lincoln suffered immensely, travellers often commenting on the state of what had essentially become a 'one street' town.

Georgian Age

By the Georgian era, Lincoln's fortunes began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agricultural Revolution. The re-opening of the Foss Dyke canal allowed coal and other raw materials vital to industry to be more easily brought into the city.

As well as the economic growth of Lincoln during this era, the city boundaries expanded to include the West Common. To this day, an annual 'Beat the Boundaries' walk takes place along the perimeter of the common.

Industrial Revolution

Coupled with the arrival of the railway links, Lincoln boomed again during the Industrial Revolution, and several world-famous companies arose, such as Ruston's, Clayton's, Proctor's, and William Foster's. Lincoln began to excel in heavy engineering, building diesel engine trains, steam shovels, and all manner of heavy machinery.

20th century

Lincoln was hit by a major typhoid epidemic between November 1904 and August 1905 caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the River Witham. Over 1,000 people contracted the disease and fatalities totalled 113, including the very man responsible for the city's water supply, Matthew Robinson of Baker Crescent. Westgate Water Tower was constructed to provide new water supplies to the city.

The first tanks were built in Lincoln

In the world wars, Lincoln switched to war production. The first ever tanks were invented, designed and built in Lincoln by William Foster & Co. Ltd during the First World War and population growth provided more workers for even greater expansion. The tanks were tested on land now covered by Tritton Road (in the south-west suburbs of the city). During the Second World War, Lincoln produced a vast array of war goods, from tanks, aircraft, munitions, and military vehicles.

Ruston and Hornsby produced diesel engines for ships and locomotives, then by teaming up with former colleagues of Frank Whittle and Power Jets Ltd, in the early 1950s, R & H (which became RGT) opened the first ever production line to build gas turbine engines for land-based and sea-based energy production. Hugely successful, it has become the largest single employer in the city, providing over 5,000 jobs in its factory and research facilities, making it a rich takeover target for industrial conglomerates. It was taken over by GEC in the late 1960s with diesel engine production being transferred to the Ruston Diesels division in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire of GEC at the former Vulcan Foundry, which was eventually bought by the German MAN B&W Diesel in June 2000.

Siemens Pelham Works

It merged with Alstom of France in the late 1980s, then in 2003 was bought out by Siemens AG of Germany, now being called Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery. This also includes what is left of Napier Turbochargers. Plans were announced early in 2008 for the construction of a new plant just outside the city boundary at Teal Park, North Hykeham [5]

In the post-war years after 1945, new suburbs were built, but heavy industry declined towards the end of the 20th century, mimicking the wider economic profile of the United Kingdom. More people are nevertheless still employed today in Lincoln building gas turbines than anything else.


Lincoln's economy is based mainly on public administration, commerce, arable farming and tourism, with industrial relics like Rustons (now Siemens) still in existence. However, many of Lincoln's industrial giants have long ceased production in the city, leaving large empty industrial warehouse-like buildings. More recently, these buildings have become multi-occupant units, with the likes of Lincs FM radio station (in the Titanic Works) and LA Fitness gym taking up space.

Like many other cities in Britain, Lincoln has developed a growing IT economy, with many e-commerce mail order companies setting up in or around the place. A plethora of other, more conventional small industrial businesses are located in and around Lincoln. One of the reasons for building the University was to increase inward investment and act as a springboard for small companies. The University's presence has also drawn many more licensed premises to the town centre around the Brayford Pool. A new small business unit next door to a University accommodation building, the Think Tank, opened in June 2009.[6]

County council building on Newland

The Extra motorway services company is based on Castle Hill, with most new UK service areas being built by Swayfields who are the parent company. There are two main electronics companies in the town: Chelmsford-based e2V (formerly Associated Electrical Industries before 1961) is situated between Carholme Road (A57) and the Foss Dyke next-door to Carholme Golf Club;[7] and Dynex Semiconductor (formerly Marconi Electronic Devices) is on Doddington Road (B1190) near the A46 bypass just inside the borough boundary, and near North Hykeham.

Retail parks

The Collection

Over the last few years, Lincoln has also seen rapid development in its retail sector, in an attempt to keep people shopping in the city and to compete with the neighbouring cities of Nottingham and Sheffield. Around the Tritton Road (B1003) trading estate, many new businesses have begun trading from large units with car parking. Lincoln has a choice of five large national supermarkets. The recently developed St Mark's Square complex has Debenhams as the flagship store and has an accompanying trading estate with well known chain stores such as Bhs.

Another development is also expected to be completed by 2011/12 called Lindongate which includes plans for a new department store, shops, hotel, apartments and new transport facilities. The viability of proposed developments such as this may, however, now be called into question by the sudden economic downturn starting late in 2007. The scheme depends on a continuing demand for retail space, and a continuation of a strong housing market, but by mid-2008 both of these factors had become conspicuously absent.


A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate.

The city is a tourist centre and those who come do so to visit the numerous historic buildings including the Cathedral, the Castle, the Medieval Bishop's Palace and the specialist shops of Steep Hill and Bailgate.

The Collection, of which the Usher Gallery is now a part, is an important attraction. Housed partly in a recently opened, purpose-built venue, it currently contains over 2,000,000 objects, and was one of the four finalists for the 2006 Gulbenkian Prize. Any material from official archaeological excavations in Lincolnshire is eventually deposited at in The Collection so it is growing all the time.

Waterside Empowerment 2002 sculpture

Other attractions include the Museum of Lincolnshire Life and The Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory at The Lawn, adjacent to Lincoln Castle. Tranquil destinations close by include Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Park, while noisier entertainment can be found at Waddington airfield, Scampton airfield (base of the RAF's Red Arrows jet aerobatic team), the County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit near Louth.

Because of its climate, Lincoln attracts many of its tourists in summer, but also during the second weekend of December when the Bailgate area of the city holds its annual Christmas Market in and around the Castle grounds. The market is based upon the traditional German-style Weihnachtsmarkt as found in several German cities, including Lincoln's 'twin town' Neustadt an der Weinstrasse.

Topography: 'Uphill' and 'Downhill'

The city of Lincoln is built at the point where there is a gap in the Lincoln Cliff (a limestone escarpment running north-south and rising to 200 ft/60 m in height, also sometimes called the 'Lincoln(shire) Edge' or 'Lincoln Heath'). The River Witham flows through this gap. Lincoln is thus divided informally into two zones, known locally as uphill and downhill.

Uphill Lincoln

The uphill area comprises the northern part of the city, on top of the Lincoln Cliff (to the north of the gap). This area includes the historical quarter, including the Cathedral, Lincoln castle and the Medieval Bishop's Palace, known locally as The Bail (although described in tourist promotional literature as 'The Cathedral Quarter'). It also includes residential suburbs to the north and north-east. The downhill area comprises the city centre (located in the gap) and the suburbs to the south and south-west. The aptly named street Steep Hill connects the two (although it is too steep for vehicular traffic, which must take a more circuitous route).

This divide marks out Lincoln from other historic cities in England and elsewhere in Europe. Whereas in most such cities, the chief historical buildings (cathedrals and castles) tend to be centrally located and intermingled with the present-day city centre, in Lincoln they are separate.

Downhill Lincoln and the cathedral

The divide was also once an important class distinction, with 'uphill' more affluent and 'downhill' less so. This distinction dates from the time of the Norman Conquest, when the religious and military elite occupied the hilltop. The construction and expansion of suburbs in both parts of the city since the mid-nineteenth century has diluted this distinction, nevertheless 'uphill' residential property continues to fetch a premium, and is almost invariably referred to as such in literature emanating from local estate agents. Membership of noted uphill organisations such as the Lincoln Astronomical Society, the Lincoln Backgammon Club, the Lincoln Uphill Gardeners' Club and the Lincoln Waits is seen as a mark of local success, and much prized.

In the UK government scale of economic deprivation for district councils which varies 1 to 5, Lincoln and Boston have been graded as 4. However, this is an average figure, with 'uphill' Lincoln being more likely to be around 2.



Lincoln Central

The station has five platforms and has a steady flow of trains and passengers passing through. Trains run to a range of destinations including Newark-on-Trent, Grimsby, Nottingham, Leicester, Sheffield and Peterborough. Unfortunately the electrification of the East Coast Mainline (ECML) in the late 1980s saw the demise of direct services from Lincoln into London King's Cross, forcing a change at Newark or Peterborough for services via the ECML to London King's Cross or changing at Nottingham for services via the Midland Main Line (MML) to London St Pancras.

In December 2008, a direct return service to London began again, operated by East Midlands Trains, running direct from Lincoln Central to London St Pancras via Nottingham and Leicester railway stations. The Midland Main Line route takes three hours, significantly longer than changing at Newark North Gate, or driving down the A1 road.

From late 2009, East Coast is scheduled to provide a two-hourly direct service to London Kings Cross.

Level crossings

The railway crossing on the High Street.

Electrification of the East Coast Main Line prompted an increase in traffic that has led to many of the goods trains running between Doncaster and Peterborough being diverted through Lincoln. This coupled with goods traffic between the Midlands and the ports and oil refineries in the Grimsby, Immingham and Killingholme area and local passenger services operating in and out of Lincoln Central railway station, has led to the High Street level crossing (which cuts the central shopping area in two) being closed for up to 22 minutes out of every hour.[8] Improvements in the station area in 2008 may have sped up the goods traffic through Lincoln.[9]

The city's MP and the Chamber of Commerce have suggested that this may be deterring inward investment by new employers.[10] This has been an issue in Lincoln since the 1860s according to Hansard records.

Up until 1986 a second level crossing crossed on the High Street outside the (now closed) Lincoln St. Marks railway station.


The A46 was upgraded to Lincoln in 2003

The £19-million A46 bypass opened December 1985. It is currently exceeding its designed capacity from the North Hykeham roundabout (A1434) to the B1378 Skellingthorpe Road roundabout, especially in the summer on weekends. For many decades Lincoln was barely connected to the UK trunk road network until the A46 to Newark was remodelled as dual carriageway in July 2003 at a cost of £28M, which has made the city more accessible for business. This was largely due to lobbying from Gillian Merron: Boston's much needed bypass has had less conspicuous government support. Lincoln has its own bypass problems however as funding for the A15 eastern bypass was reviewed in 2006 by the East Midlands Regional Assembly and the bypass was postponed several years with it unlikely to be built before 2016.


Higher education

Lincoln has two higher education institutions, the older being Bishop Grosseteste University College, which started life as a teacher training college linked to the Anglican Church in 1862. During the 1990s, the college branched out into new subject areas with a focus on the arts and drama. Bishop Grosseteste College as it was became a University College in 2006 when it was awarded taught degree powers, meaning that students graduate with degrees from BGUC and not the University of Leicester previous. A granduation celebration takes place every year in Lincoln Cathedral. Bishop Grosseteste University College has no links with the University of Lincoln.

The larger University of Lincoln started life as the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside in 1996, when the University of Humberside opened a Lincoln campus next to Brayford Pool, attracting additional students to the city. Lincoln Art College (which was Lincolnshire's main outlet for higher education) and Riseholme Agricultural College, which had previously been part of De Montfort University in Leicester, were absorbed into the University in 2001, and subsequently the Lincoln campus took priority over the Hull campus.

Most buildings were built after 2001.[citation needed] The university changed its name to the University of Lincoln in September 2002. In the 2005/6 academic year, 8,292 full time undergraduates were studying at the university.[11] Around 2002 there was considerable local annoyance with students' residences in the West End area. This subsided with vast numbers of student flats being built next to the Foss Dyke and Brayford Way B1273 bridge. Student life has resulted in the building of the Engine Shed theatre complex on Brayford Wharf East.

Further education

Further education courses in Lincoln are provided by Lincoln College, which is the largest education institution in Lincolnshire, with 18,500 students, of whom 2,300 are full time.[12] Also, Lincoln has an Access To Music branch, situated above Pulse and Ritzy, on Flaxengate.


The school system in Lincoln is anomalous within Lincolnshire despite being part of the same Local Education Authority, as most the rest of Lincolnshire retained the grammar school system. Other areas near Lincoln, such as North Hykeham, Branston and Cherry Willingham, also have comprehensive schools. Lincoln itself had three grammar schools until September 1974. In 1994, the Lincolnshire County Council proposed to convert the City School (on Skellingthorpe Road) into a grammar school, but some protesting (pro-comprehensive) parents caused a change of heart.

Former Lincoln Christ's Hospital Girls' High School

Since 1992, Lincoln has had a newly-built secondary school, the The Priory Lincolnshire School of Science and Technology, which although a comprehensive, gets A level results better than five Lincolnshire grammar schools. Many Lincoln comprehensive schools have been underperforming, particularly the Joseph Ruston School in Boultham. Another school in Lincoln is Saint Peter and Saint Paul Catholic High School.


The local newspaper is the Lincolnshire Echo, and the local radio stations are BBC Radio Lincolnshire on 94.9FM and its commercial rival Lincs FM on 102.2FM. The newest addition to the local airwaves is Siren FM, which broadcasts on 107.3FM from the University of Lincoln. BBC Look North have a bureau in Lincoln as an integral part of their coverage of Lincolnshire and East Yorkshire. There are three TV reporters based in Lincoln serving both BBC Look North and East Midlands Today.


Lincoln has a professional football team, Lincoln City F.C., nicknamed 'The Imps', which plays at the Sincil Bank stadium on the southern edge of the city. The collapse of ITV Digital, which owed Lincoln City FC more than £100,000, in 2002 saw the team faced with bankruptcy but it was saved after a massive fund-raising venture by the fans that returned ownership of the club to them where it has remained since. The club was famously the first team to be relegated from the English Football League, when automatic relegation to the Football Conference was introduced from the 1986-87 season. Lincoln City regained its league place at the first attempt and has held onto it since.

Lincoln City were notably the first club managed by Graham Taylor, who managed the English national football team from 1990 to 1993. He was at Lincoln City from 1972 to 1977, during which time the club won promotion from the Fourth Division.

The club's apex arguably came in 1982, when they finished fourth in the Third Division and narrowly missed out on promotion to the Second Division.

Lincoln City has a female counterpart, Lincoln City L.F.C. ('The Lady Imps')

Lincoln is also home to Lincoln United F.C, Lincoln Moorlands Railway F.C. and Lincoln Griffins Ladies F.C..

Famous citizens

Restaurant and former car showrooms designed by Sam Scorer
Tennyson's statue outside the cathedral

Twin towns

See also





Further reading

  • Francis Hill, 1948. Medieval Lincoln (Cambridge: University Press)

External links



Tourism and pictures


Local business and trade

Local music and art

Local organisations

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Lincoln article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

="">See Lincoln (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Lincoln.

LINCOLN, a city and county of a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, and the county town of Lincolnshire, England. Pop. (1901) 48,784. It is picturesquely situated on the summit and south slope of the limestone ridge of the Cliff range of hills, which rises from the north bank of the river Witham, at its confluence with the Foss Dyke, to an altitude of 200 ft. above the river. The cathedral rises majestically from the crown of the hill, and is a landmark for many miles. Lincoln is 130 m. N. by W. from London by the Great Northern railway; it is also served by branches of the Great Eastern, Great Central and Midland railways.

Lincoln is one of the most interesting cities in England. The ancient British town occupied the crown of the hill beyond the Newport or North Gate. The Roman town consisted of two parallelograms of unequal length, the first extending west from the Newport gate to a point a little west of the castle keep. The second parallelogram, added as the town increased in size and importance, extended due south from this point down the hill towards the Witham as far as Newland, and thence in a direction due east as far as Broad Street. Returning thence due north, it joined the south-east corner of the first and oldest parallelogram in what was afterwards known as the Minster yard, and terminated its east side upon its unction with the north wall in a line with the Newport gate. This is the oldest part of the town, and is named "above hill." After the departure of the Romans, the city walls were extended still farther in a south direction across the Witham as far as the great bar gate, the south entrance to the High Street of the city; the junction of these walls with the later Roman one was effected immediately behind Broad Street. The "above hill" portion of the city consists of narrow irregular streets, some of which are too steep to admit of being ascended by carriages. The south portion, which is named "below hill," is much more commodious, and contains the principal business premises. Here also are the railway stations.

The glory of Lincoln is the noble cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary, commonly known as the Minster. As a study to the architect and antiquary this stands unrivalled, not only as embodying the earliest purely Gothic work extant, but as containing within its compass every variety of style from the simple massive Norman of the central west front, and the later and more ornate examples of that style in the west doorways and towers; onward through all the Gothic styles, of each of which both early and late examples appear. The building material is the oolite and calcareous stone of Lincoln Heath and Haydor, which has the peculiarity of becoming hardened on the surface when tooled. Formerly the cathedral had three spires, all of wood or leaded timber. The spire on the central tower, which would appear to have been the highest in the world, was blown down in 1 547. Those on the two western towers were removed in 1808.

The ground plan of the first church, adopted from that of Rouen, was laid by Bishop Remigius in 1086, and the church was consecrated three days after his death, on the 6th of May 1092. The west front consists of an Early English screen (c. 1225) thrown over the Norman front, the west towers rising behind it. The earliest Norman work is part of that of Remigius; the great portals and the west towers up to the third storey are Norman c. 1148. The upper parts of them date from 1365. Perpendicular windows (c. 1450) are inserted. The nave and aisles were completed c. 1220. The transepts mainly built between 1186 and 1235 have two fine rose windows, that in the N. is Early English, and that in the S. Decorated. The first has beautiful contemporary stained glass. These are called respectively the Dean's Eye and Bishop's Eye. A Galilee of rich Early English work forms the entrance of the S. transept. Of the choir the western portion known as St Hugh's (1186-1204) is the famous first example of pointed work; the eastern, called the Angel Choir, is a magnificently ornate work completed in 1280. Fine Perpendicular canopied stalls fill the western part. The great east window, 57 ft. in height, is an example of transition from Early English to Decorated c. 1288. Other noteworthy features of the interior are the Easter sepulchre (c. 1300), the foliage ornamentation of which is beautifully natural; and the organ screen of a somewhat earlier date. The great central tower is Early English as far as the first storey, the continuation dates from 1307. The total height is 271 ft.; and the tower contains the bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, weighing over 5 tons. The dimensions of the cathedral internally are - nave, 252 X 79.6 X 80 ft.; choir, 158 X 82 X72 ft.; angel choir, which includes presbytery and lady chapel, 166 X 44 X 72 ft.; main transept, 220 X 63 X 74 ft.; choir transept, 166 X 44 X 72 ft. The west towers are 206 ft. high.

The buildings of the close that call for notice are the chapterhouse of ten sides, 60 ft. diameter, 42 ft. high, with a fine vestibule of the same height, built c. 1225, and therefore the earliest of English polygonal chapter-houses, and the library, a building of 1675, which contains a small museum. The picturesque episcopal palace contains work of the date of St Hugh, and the great hall is mainly Early English. There is some Decorated work, and much Perpendicular, including the gateway. It fell into disuse after the Reformation, but by extensive restoration was brought back to its proper use at the end of the 19th century. Among the most famous bishops were St Hugh of Avalon (1186-1200); Robert Grosseteste (1235-1253); Richard Flemming (1420-1431), founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; William Smith (1495-1514), founder of Brasenose College, Oxford; William Wake (1705-1716); and Edmund Gibson (1716-1723). Every stall has produced a prelate or cardinal. The see covers almost the whole of the county, with very small portions of Norfolk and Yorkshire, and it included Nottinghamshire until the formation of the bishopric of Southwell in 1884. At its earliest formation, when Remigius, almoner of the abbey of Fecamp, removed the seat of the bishopric here from Dorchester in Oxfordshire shortly after the Conquest, it extended from the Humber to the Thames, eastward beyond Cambridge, and westward beyond Leicester. It was reduced, however, by the formation of the sees of Ely, Peterborough and Oxford, and by the rearrangement of diocesan boundaries in 1837.

The remains of Roman Lincoln are of the highest interest. The Newport Arch or northern gate of Lindum is one of the most perfect specimens of Roman architecture in England. It consists of a great arch flanked by two smaller arches, of which one remains. The Roman Ermine Street runs through it, leading northward almost in a straight line to the Humber. Fragments of the town wall remain at various points; a large quantity of coins and other relics have been discovered; and remains of a burial-place and buildings unearthed. Of these last the most important is the series of column-bases, probably belonging to a Basilica, beneath a house in the street called Bail Gate, adjacent to the Newport Arch. A villa in Greetwell; a tesselated pavement, a milestone and other relics in the cloister; an altar unearthed at the church of St Swithin, are among many other discoveries. Among churches, apart from the minster, two of outstanding interest are those of St Mary-le-Wigford and St Peter-at-Gowts (i.e. sluice-gates), both in the lower part of High Street. Their towers, closely similar, are fine examples of perhaps very early Norman work, though they actually possess the characteristics of pre-Conquest workmanship. Bracebridge church shows similar early work; but as a whole the churches of Lincoln show plainly the results of the siege of 1644, and such buildings as St Botolph's, St Peter's-at-Arches and St Martin's are of the period 1720-1.740. Several churches are modern buildings on ancient sites. There were formerly three small priories, five friaries and four hospitals in or near Lincoln. The preponderance of friaries over priories of monks is explained by the fact that the cathedral was served by secular canons. Bishop Grosseteste was the devoted patron of the friars, particularly the Franciscans, who were always in their day the town missionaries. The Greyfriars, near St Swithin's church, is a picturesque twostoried building of the 13th century. Lincoln is rich in early domestic architecture. The building known as John of Gaunt's stables, actually St Mary's Guild Hall, is of two storeys, with rich Norman doorway and moulding. The Jews' House is another fine example of 12th-century building; and Norman remains appear in several other houses, such as Deloraine Court and the House of Aaron the Jew. Lincoln Castle, lying W. of the cathedral, was newly founded by William the Conqueror when Remigius decided to found his minster under its protection. The site, with its artificial mounds, is of much earlier, probably British, date. There are Norman remains in the Gateway Tower; parts of the walls are of this period, and the keep dates from the middle of the 12th century. Among medieval gateways, the Exchequer Gate, serving as the finance-office of the chapter, is a fine specimen of 13th-century work. Pottergate is of the 14th century, and Stonebow in High Street of the 15th, with the Guildhall above it. St Dunstan's Lock is the name, corrupted from Dunestall, now applied to the entrance to the street where a Jewish quarter was situated; here lived the Christian boy afterwards known as "little St Hugh," who was asserted to have been crucified by the Jews in 1255. His shrine remains in the S. choir aisle of the minster. Other antiquities are the Perpendicular conduit of St Mary in High Street and the High Bridge, carrying High Street over the Witham, which is almost unique in England as retaining some of the old houses upon it.

Among modern public buildings are the county hall, old and new corn exchanges and public library. Educational establishments include a grammar school, a girls' high school, a science and art school and a theological college. The arboretum in Monks Road is the principal pleasure-ground; and there is a race-course. The principal industry is the manufacture of agricultural machinery and implements; there are also iron foundries and maltings, and a large trade in corn and agricultural produce. The parliamentary borough, returning one member, falls between the Gainsborough division of the county on the N., and that of Sleaford on the S. Area, 3755 acres.


The British Lindun, which, according to the geography of Claudius Ptolema,eus, was the chief town of the Coritani, was probably the nucleus of the Roman town of Lindum. This was at first a Roman legionary fortress, and on the removal of the troops northward was converted into a municipality with the title of colonia. Such important structural remains as have been described attest the rank and importance of the place, which, however, did not attain a very great size. Its bishop attended the council of Arles in 314, and Lincoln (Lindocolina, Lincolle, Nicole) is mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus written about 320. Although said to have been captured by Hengest in 475 and recovered by Ambrosius in the following year, the next authentic mention of the city is Bede's record that Paulinus preached in Lindsey in 628 and built a stone church at Lincoln in which he consecrated Honorius archbishop of Canterbury. During their inroads into Mercia, the Danes in 877 established themselves at Lincoln, which was one of the five boroughs recovered by King Edmund in 941. A mint established here in the reign of Alfred was maintained until the reign of Edward I. (Mint Street turning from High Street near the Stonebow recalls its existence.) At the time of the Domesday Survey Lincoln was governed by twelve Lawmen, relics of Danish rule, each with hereditable franchises of sac and soc. Whereas it had rendered £ 20 annually to King Edward, and £10 to the earl, it then rendered boo. There had been 1150 houses, but 240 had been destroyed since the time of King Edward. Of these 166 had suffered by the raising of the castle by William I. in 1068 partly on the site of the Roman camp. The strength of the position of the castle brought much fighting on Lincoln. In 1141 King Stephen regained both castle and city from the empress Maud, but was attacked and captured in the same year at the "Joust of Lincoln." In 1144 he besieged the castle, held by the earl of Chester, and recovered it as a pledge in 1146. In 1191 it was held by Gerard de Camville for Prince John and was besieged by William Longchamp, Richard's chancellor, in vain; in 1216 it stood a siege by the partisans of the French prince Louis, who were defeated at the battle called Lincoln Fair on the 19th of May 1217. Granted by Henry III. to William Longepee, earl of Salisbury, in 1224, the castle descended by the marriage of his descendant Alice to Thomas Plantagenet, and became part of the duchy of Lancaster.

In 1157 Henry II. gave the citizens their first charter, granting them the city at a fee-farm rent and all the liberties which they had had under William II., with their gild merchant for themselves and the men of the county as they had then. In 1200 the citizens obtained release from all but pleas of the Crown without the walls, and pleas of external tenure, and were given the pleas of the Crown within the city according to the customs of the city of London, on which those of Lincoln were modelled. The charter also gave them quittance of toll and lastage throughout the kingdom, and of certain other dues. In 1210 the citizens owed the exchequer boo for the privilege of having a mayor, but the office was abolished by Henry III. and by Edward I. in 1290, though restored by the charter of 1300. In 1275 the citizens claimed the return of writs, assize of bread and ale and other royal rights, and in 1301 Edward I., when confirming the previous charters, gave them quittance of murage, pannage, pontage and other dues. The mayor and citizens were given criminal jurisdiction in 1327, when the burghmanmot held weekly in the gildhall since 1272 by the mayor and bailiffs was ordered to hear all local pleas which led to friction with the judges of assize. The city became a separate county by charter of 1409, when it was decreed that the bailiffs should henceforth be sheriffs and the mayor the king's escheator, and the mayor and sheriffs with four others justices of the peace with defined jurisdiction. As the result of numerous complaints of inability to pay the fee-farm rent of £180 Edward IV. enlarged the bounds of the city in 1466, while Henry VIII. in 1546 gave the citizens four advowsons, and possibly also in consequence of declining trade the city markets were made free of tolls in 1 554. Incorporated by Charles I. in 1628 under a common council with 13 aldermen, 4 coroners and other officers, Lincoln surrendered its charters in 1684, but the first charter was restored after the Revolution, and was in force till 1834.

Parliaments were held at Lincoln in 1301, 1316 and 1327, and the city returned two burgesses from 1295 to 1885, when it lost one member. After the 13th century the chief interests of Lincoln were ecclesiastical and commercial. As early as 1103 Odericus declared that a rich citizen of Lincoln kept the treasure of King Magnus of Norway, supplying him with all he required, and there is other evidence of intercourse with Scandinavia. There was an important Jewish colony, Aaron of Lincoln being one of the most influential financiers in the kingdom between 1166 and 1186. It was probably jealousy of their wealth that brought the charge of the crucifixion of "little St Hugh" in 1255 upon the Jewish community. Made a staple of wool, leather and skins in 1291, famous for its scarlet cloth in the 13th century, Lincoln had a few years of great prosperity, but with the transference of the staple to Boston early in the reign of Edward III., its trade began to decrease. The craft gilds remained important until after the Reformation, a pageant still being held in 1566. The fair now held during the last whole week of April would seem to be identical with that granted by Charles II. in 1684. Edward III. authorized a fair from St Botolph's day to the feast of SS Peter and Paul in 1327, and William III. gave one for the first Wednesday in September in 1696, while the present November fair is, perhaps, a survival of that granted by Henry IV. in 1409 for fifteen days before the feast of the Deposition of St Hugh.

See Historical Manuscripts Commission, Report, xiv., appendix pt. 8; John Ross, Civitas Lincolina, from its municipal and other Records (London, 1870); J. G. Williams, "Lincoln Civic Insignia," Lincolnshire Notes and Queries, vols. vi.-viii. (Horncastle, 1901-1905); Victoria County History, Lincolnshire.

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