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Coordinates: 34°56′N 76°46′E / 34.933°N 76.767°E / 34.933; 76.767

The areas shown in green are the two Pakistani-controlled areas—the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) in the north and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) in the south. The area shown in orange is the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir, and the diagonally-hatched area to the east is the Chinese-controlled area known as Aksai Chin.
United Nations map of the Line of Control. The LOC is not defined near Siachen Glacier.

The term Line of Control (LOC) refers to the military control line between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which, to this day, does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary but is the de-facto border. Originally known as the "Cease-fire Line", it was redesignated as the "Line of Control" following the Simla Agreement, which was signed on July 3, 1972. The part of the former princely state that is under Indian control is known as the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The two parts of the former princely state that are under Pakistani control are known as the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Its northern most point is known as the NJ9842.

However, since July 2008, troops from both sides of the Line of Control have started routinely violating the ceasefire by exchanging fire with each other.[1]

Another cease-fire line, one that separates the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir from the Chinese-controlled area known as Aksai Chin, lies further to the east and is known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

Indian Kashmir barrier fencing

The Indian Kashmir barrier is a 550 km (340 mi) separation barrier along the 740 km (460 mi) disputed 1972 Line of Control (or ceasefire line). The fence, constructed by India, is well inside territory on the Indian-controlled side. Its stated purpose is to exclude arms smuggling and infiltration by Pakistani-based separatist militants.[2]

The barrier itself consists of double-row of fencing and concertina wire eight to twelve feet (2.4–3.7 m) in height, and is electrified and connected to a network of motion sensors, thermal imaging devices and alarms in stretches where power supply is available. The small stretch of land between the rows of fencing is mined.

The construction of the barrier was begun in the 1990s, but slowed in the early 2000s as hostilities between India and Pakistan increased. After a November 2003 ceasefire agreement, building resumed and was completed in late 2004. LoC fencing was completed in Kashmir Valley and Jammu region was completed on September 30, 2004.[3] According to Indian military sources, the fence has reduced by 80% the numbers of militants who routinely cross into the Indian side of the disputed state to attack soldiers.[4]

Pakistan has objected to the construction of the barrier, saying it violates both bilateral accords and relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions on the region.[5] In Pakistan's view the border between Jammu and Kashmir is undemarcated, and border fencing is not allowed.

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